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Maths problem set

- Physics Lab Experiment 2
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1. Train A leaves a station at time t = 0 with constant speed v along the x-axis. Train B leaves

a station (from rest) a distance l up the track a time t

0

later and travels towards A with

constant acceleration a.

(a) Sketch the paths of the trains on an x versus t diagram assuming v < l/t

0

.

(b) Find the time t

1

at which the trains will pass each other.

(c) What happens if v > l/t

0

?

2. A particle with an initial velocity v(0) = 0.3m/s and initial position x(0) = 0m is subject

to the discontinuous acceleration

a(t) =

0.15m/s

2

, 0 t 4s

0.10m/s

2

, t > 4s.

(a) Sketch a(t) for 0 < t < 10s.

(b) Calculate and sketch v(t) and x(t) for 0 < t < 10s.

(c) Determine the values of t at which v = 0.

3. Does the r(t) have to be a continuous function of time? Why, or why not? Hint: Think what

would happen physically if the position were discontinuous.

4. A lift ascends from ground with a uniform speed. At time t

1

, a person drops a one pound coin

through the oor. The coin falls with uniform acceleration g = 9.8m/s

2

, and hits the ground

t seconds later. Find the height, h, of the lift at time t

1

. (Hint: If t

1

= t = 4s, h = 39.2

m)

5. By relative velocity we mean velocity with respect to a specied coordinate system. (The

term velocity, alone, is understood to be relative to the observers coordinate system.)

(a) A point is observed to have a velocity v

A

relative to coordinate system A. Show that the

velocity relative to coordinate system B, which is displaced from system A by distance

R(t), is v

B

= v

A

dR/dt.

(b) Particle a and b move in opposite directions around a circle with angular speed . At

t = 0, r

a

(0) = r

b

(0) = l , where l is the radius of the circle. Find the velocity of a

relative to b.

6. The position of a car going around a race track is given by

r(t) = [a cos(t) k] + b sin(t) , (1)

where a, b and are positive constants, a b, and k =

a

2

b

2

.

(a) Sketch the shape of the track in the xy-plane.

1

M1A1 Problem Set 1 2

(b) Find the velocity, v(t), and acceleration, a(t).

(c) Find the maximum and minimum values of the speed and the positions at which they

occur.

7. A person standing at the peak of a hill which slopes downward at angle throws a stone with

speed v

0

at an angle from the horizontal.

(a) Show that the path of the particle is parabolic.

(b) For = 0, at what value of should the person throw the stone so that it travels the

greatest horizontal distance?

(c) What about for general values of ? Hint: If = /3, then = /12.

8. For vectors A, B, C R

3

and unit vector n R

3

show that

(a) |AB| = |A+B| if A is perpendicular to B

(b) A(BC) = B(A C) C(A B)

(c) A = (A n) n + ( n A) n

9. For vectors A(t) and B(t), show that

(a) d(A B)/dt = (dA/dt) B+A (dB/dt)

(b) d(AB)/dt = (dA/dt) B+A(dB/dt)

(c) If |A(t)| = c, where c is a positive constant, then A is perpendicular to dA/dt.

10. Suppose that the velocity of an object is given by v = r, where the angular velocity is

a constant vector. Show that a =

2

r, where = ||, if r is perpendicular to .

11. A particle moves outward from the origin along a spiral where the distance from the origin is

given by r = a, where a is a constant.

(a) For the case where (t) =

0

t with

0

constant, what is the tangential component of a?

(b) Now suppose that (t) = t

2

/2 with constant. Determine the r and

components of

v and a. Show that the radial acceleration is zero when = 1/

2 rad.

12. Consider again the position of the race car in Problem 6. If instead we were to write (1) as

r = r() (cos + sin ), what are the expressions for:

(a) r(t)

(b) r() Hint: Take a peek at your M1M1 Week 9 test.

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