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NTW501: Network Technologies &


Protocols
IP Addressing
Subnetting
Supernetting
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IP addresses
These are unique addresses.
No two machines can have same IP addresses.
IP address consists of 32 bits, and divided into 4 octets of
8 bits each (e.g. 10.14.1.12)
Identifies connection of an host to a network.
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Classes of IP addresses
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Finding the class of IP address
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IP addresses in decimal notations
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Range of IP address classes
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Number of hosts & networks
The number of hosts and networks that can be configured
for each class can be calculated as,
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Number of hosts for class A network
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Number of hosts for class B network
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Number of hosts for class C network
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Class A, B and C network addresses
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Two level Hierarchy of a network
Only one network (141.14.0.0)
No subnetwork for two level hierarchy
May get complicated if number of hosts are more
Two level hierarchy of a network
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Subnetwork (or subnet)
Why subnet ?
Ease of identifying the host
Easier to number the host
Easier to add/ delete new hosts without affecting
the numbering of other hosts
To optimize network performance
Router table entries can be minimized
What is subnetting ?
A bigger network is divided into various smaller networks
for internal use within an organization, while for external
world it is treated as a single network.
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Subnetwork (or subnet)
Three-level Hierarchy
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Addresses with and without subnetting
Bits from host part need to be borrowed to identify
the subnet
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Subnet mask
Subnet mask is required to get subnet address (from IP
address)
IP address ANDed (bit wise) with subnet mask gives
the subnet address
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Default subnet masks
Class In Binary
In Dotted-
Decimal
Using Slash
A 11111111 00000000 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
11111111 111111111 11111111 00000000
255.0.0.0 /8
B 255.255.0.0 /16
C 255.255.255.0 /24
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illustration to calculate subnet mask
If 3-bits are borrowed from host for a class B network,
the Subnet mask will be 255.255.224.0
No. of subnets = 2
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-2 = 6
No. of hosts per subnet = 2
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-2 = 8190
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Example
Example 1
Example 1
Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to
dotted-decimal notation.
a. 10000001 00001011 00001011 11101111
b. 11111001 10011011 11111011 00001111
Solution
Solution
We replace each group of 8 bits with its equivalent decimal
number (see Appendix B) and add dots for separation:
a. 129.11.11.239
b. 249.155.251.15
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Example
Example 2
Example 2
Find the class of each address:
a.
0
00000001 00001011 00001011 11101111
b.
1111
11110011 10011011 11111011 00001111
Solution
Solution
See the procedure in Figure 19.11.
a. The first bit is 0; this is a class A address.
b. The first 4 bits are 1s; this is a class E address.
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Example
Example 3
Example 3
Given the host address 132.6.17.85, find the corresponding
network address.
Solution
Solution
This is class B network. The first 2 bytes defines the net-id.
We can find the network address by replacing the host-id
bytes (17.85) with 0s. Therefore, the network address is
132.6.0.0.
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Example
Example 4
Example 4
Network address of a class-C network is 192.168.5.0.
Calculate subnet addresses if there are 5 subnets and
30 hosts per subnet.
Solution
Solution
Network IP address: 192.168.5.0000 0000
For creating 5 subnets, 3-bits must be borrowed from host-id
Hence,
No. of subnets = 2
3
-2 = 6
No. of hosts per subnet = 2
5
-2 = 30
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Example (continued.)
Subnet addresses would be:
(224).. Subnet mask 255.255.255. 1110 0000
(192).. Subnet-6 255.255.255. 1100 0000
(160).. Subnet-5 255.255.255. 1010 0000
(128).. Subnet-4 255.255.255. 1000 0000
(96).. Subnet-3 255.255.255. 0110 0000
(64).. Subnet-2 255.255.255. 0100 0000
(32).. Subnet-1 255.255.255. 0010 0000
(0).. invalid 255.255.255. 0000 0000
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Example (continued.)
Subnet
No.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Subnet
Address
192.168.
5.32
192.168.
5.64
192.168.
5.96
192.168.
5.128
192.168.
5.160
192.168.
5.192
IP of the
First host 5.33 5.65 5.97 5.129 5.161 5.193
IP of the
Last host 5.62 5.94 5.126 5.158 5.190 5.222
Broadcast
address
5.63 5.95 5.127 5.159 5.191 5.223
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Example
Example 5
Example 5
Host in a particular network has IP address of 172.16.10.65
and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.192
Find the subnet address and the broadcast address
corresponding to the above mentioned host.
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Example
Example 6
Example 6
Host in a particular network has IP address of 10.10.10.5
and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.252
Find the subnet address and the broadcast address
corresponding to the above mentioned host.
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Example
Example 7
Example 7
Network address of a class-B network is 172.16.0.0 and
the subnet mask is 255.255.240.0
Calculate subnet addresses, IP addresses of the first
and the last host and broadcast addresses for each subnet