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ELECTRICAL MACHINES

LABORATORY MANUAL


(EEE F211 / INSTR F211)

(REVISED)


ELECTRIC MACHINES











Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and
Instrumentation
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, PILANI
K.K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS
Zuarinagar 403726
2014 - 2015



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PREFACE

This is a revised and updated version of the Laboratory Manual that was introduced in
August, 1993 at BITS-Pilani by Prof. I.J. Nagrath and Prof. M.R. Poonkuzhali. The revision has
taken into account the latest equipment procured in the laboratory, suggestions made by
instructors and students of earlier batches. Attention has been given to elimination of all errors
and standardization of circuit symbols in circuit diagrams. Additional questions which are
application oriented are included at the end of each Instruction Set.

The team will be happy to clarify any doubts on direct or related topics. We will certainly
acknowledge suggestions and/or comments leading to further improvement of the manual.


Instructors & Laboratory Staff
Electrical Machines Lab

August 2014












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CONTENTS
1. Introduction
1.1. Direct Current Machines 5
1.2. AC machines 5
1.3. Fractional machines 5
2. Major Equipment
2.1. Power Supply 7
2.2. Rheostats 7
2.3. Meters 9
2.4. Symbols 11
3. Instructions during the operation of Lab 12
4. A quick revision on electrical machines and transformers 19
5. Experiments
5.1. Cycle I
5.1.1. No load tests on a single-phase transformer 38
5.1.2. Load test on a dc shunt generator 45
5.1.3. No load tests on a synchronous machine 47
5.1.4. Three phase measurement
6. Report Submission













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1. INTRODUCTION
Electric machines convert electrical energy (power) to mechanical form and vice versa. This
conversion takes place via magnetic field and is reversible. Accordingly a machine can operate
as a generator or as a motor. For specific applications, a machine is designed and constructed to
operate either as a generator or motor with best operating performance.
Transformers modify voltage and current levels of electric power. They also use magnetic
fields for energy transfer and the flow can be in either direction.

1.1 Direct Current (DC) Machines

Generators: Separately excited, shunt, series and compound.
It is a common practice to obtain DC supply from AC mains by means of solid state rectifier.
The DC supply in our lab is obtained from an Induction Motorshunt DC Generator (MG) and
shunt DC motor-shunt / compound DC generator (MG) set.
Motors: Shunt
Series
Compound (differential and cumulative)
Remark: A DC motor has a versatile torquespeed characteristic which is easily controlled.
So this motor is commonly used for variablespeed applications.

1.2 Alternating Current (AC) Machines

Except for small applications, these are three-phase type.
Generator: Synchronous generator (commonly called alternator). Universally used for AC
power generation.
Motors: Synchronous (fixed speed, variable power factor application) and Induction (nearly
constant speed, shunt characteristic) are most widely used for industrial drives.

1.3 Fractional KW Motors


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AC Single-phase; induction and synchronous.
DC Series, permanent magnet type.
Complete acceptance tests for electric equipment are to be carried out as per appropriate ISI
specifications. These are elaborate, time consuming and are both electrical and mechanical in
nature.
The purpose of the Electric Machines Laboratory for the student is to conduct certain
standard performance (steadystate) tests on machines and transformers to acquire familiarity
with dynamic electrical machinery and transformers, measuring instruments, accessories and to
build the confidence of working in an electrical environment.























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2. Major Equipment
2.1 Laboratory Power Supply
1) AC: 230V, 50Hz, single-phase; 400V, 50Hz three-phase (with neutral) available at all
panels.
2) DC: 220V supply is available at all panels.
Variacs
These are auto-transformers in which the number of turns tapped on the secondary (output)
can be varied over a wide range. These are used to provide variable AC voltage supply from
singlephase and threephase variacs.

2.2 Rheostats
These are resistors wire-wound on insulating porcelain barrels. Variable resistance is
available between one of the end terminals and sliding contact jockey. Current carrying capacity
is limited by wire size.
Uses
(1) As series regulating resistance in the (DC) field circuit. Could also be used in series with
armature circuit for starting a small DC motor.
(2) As a potential divider for DC circuits. To be used with care for low current application.
Loading effect causes the voltage to be nonlinearly distributed with respect to jockey
position: see Fig.3. Note that current carried by the rheostat part, other than the part that
supplies the load, is more than the load current i.e. I > I
L
.



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2.3 Starting of Motors
DC Motors: Three (or four)-point starter must be used to limit the starting current. Starter adds
series resistance in the armature circuit which is cut out in steps as the motor picks up speed.
To provide maximum starting torque (for quick acceleration), cutout all external resistance in
the shunt field circuit to circulate maximum field current.
The connection diagram of a manual three point starter of a DC shunt motor is shown in Fig.
4. The starter handle is shown in its ON positionstarting resistance is cut out, which gets
included in the field circuit. Two protections are incorporated in this starter.


Fig.4

(1) N.V.C. (No-Volt Coil): In case of failure of field current (due to accidental or otherwise
open circuiting), this coil releases the handle (held electromagnetically), which goes back to
the OFF-position under the spring action.
(2) O.L.C. (Over-Load release Coil): The contact of this relay, when armature current
increases above a certain value (overload), short circuits the NVC ends, again bringing the
handle to OFF-position.

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In a series motor, 3point starter is used to limit the starting current. Starter adds resistance in
series with armature and series field. At no-load the series field current is very small and will
result in high speeds. Therefore a series motor should not be started on noload.
Induction Motors: Star-Delta starter is used for squirrel-cage motor. A threephase variac could
be used in laboratory.
StarDelta Starter: For starting, A is switched on which connects the winding in Star. After
starting, B is switched on so as to connect the phases in Delta.



Fig.5

Slip-ring motor is started by rotor resistance starter. Small motors could be started on-line;
would draw 5-6 times the full-load current. The DC resistance as such can be used for
calculations as the power frequency is only 50 Hz. Particularly for motors no correction is
needed.
Synchronous Motors: These are nonself starting as such. Auxiliary drive is needed to start and
synchronize the motor to the mains. In laboratory, we would use a DC motor coupled to it for
this purpose.
In industry, inductionstart synchronous motors (called synduction motors) are employed.


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2.4 Measuring Instruments

Analog electromechanical instruments are still commonly used in electric machines laboratory as
these are:
(i) less expensive (ii) rugged and (iii) have the required accuracy for machine testing.
Various instruments are commonly employed in the circuits. They are as follows.
1) Ammeters
Moving Iron type: Very cramped scale, low accuracy, good for panel use when current to be
measured is 3/4
th
or so of the fullscale value. This is preferred for AC measurement.
Dynamometer type: Cramped scale, high accuracy, preferred for AC measurement in lab.
Moving Coil type: DC measurement only, uniform scale, high accuracy, more than one range of
measurement possible (by means of a suitable shunt).
2) Voltmeters: Moving iron type, dynamometer type, moving coil type. Same remarks, as in
ammeters apply to them.
3) AVO Meter/Multi-meter
Rectifier type instrument with moving coil type meter; scale uniform, reads rms value of AC;
can read volts, amperes and ohms; used as a general purpose test meter.
4) Wattmeter
A wattmeter measures the flow of AC/DC electric power in a circuit. It has two coils-the
current coil and voltage coil as shown in Fig.1. If the power flow in the circuit reverses, it can be
read by reversing the connections of the voltage coil.


Fig. 1 Single-phase wattmeter

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Wattmeters are of two types: (1) Dynamometer type and (2) Induction type
Dynamometer type wattmeter has a much higher accuracy.
Multiple ranges are provided in wattmeter by series/parallel connections of the current coil.
More than one rating is also provided for voltage coil in some wattmeters. Suitable multiplying
factors have to be used for such wattmeters to get actual power value from 11 scale reading.

2.5 Certain standard symbols

Note: - The standard symbols must be entered in the circuit diagram when the student submits
their instruction sets to their Lab. Instructor for correction.


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3 Instructions Regarding Operation of Lab Components

Safety is an import issue while performing the experiment in electrical machines lab.
The main reasons are listed below.
1. Some experiments will be conducted with 220 V DC supply and 3 phase, 440 V
AC supply.
2. Most of the experiments are involved with rotational parts.

Some Precautions and Safety Measures are listed here.

3.1 Safety Measures

1. Dress:
Boys: No loose clothes, shirt tucked inside the trousers.
Girls: Dress other than Sari. No skirts with large flares.
All students should wear full shoes with rubber sole.
2. Do not touch any live terminals or wires. For changing any connections you must switch-off
the supply.
3. Beware of the dynamic machinery and consciously keep a distance.
4. Before switching on the supplies, get your circuit connections approved by the instructors.
5. Be generally alert. That is true for working in any kind of laboratory.

3.2 Important Instructions
1. On the first day of the lab turn you will receive general instructions.
2. Go round the lab (take instructors help) and familiarize yourself with the LAB.
3. Note down the Name Plate Rating (NPR) of the set on which you have to conduct your next
experiment.
4. Thoroughly and critically read the Instruction Set (IS) and come prepared to conduct the
experiment.

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5. Connect the wires, meters etc. as per the CD. Get the circuit connections verified by the
instructor.
6. Start/switch-on the set (instructions are given in the IS).
7. Carry out the experiment as per the steps given in IS. Record the readings.
8. All computations are to be carried out in the laboratory itself. Attach graph sheet and any
additional sheet you need.
9. You are required to submit the complete lab report while leaving the lab. At the same time
you will receive back, checked by instructor, the lab report that you submitted at the previous
turn.
10. If you have any suggestion(s) to conduct the experiment differently from that recommended
in IS, meet your instructor before the lab turn and discuss with him/her. You may also
discuss with the instructor any bottlenecks you face in conducting your experiment etc.
11. If you miss any lab turn, you can conduct the make-up experiment with instructors
permission and in time slot to be allotted by him/her.
12. Each student of the batch will answer the question at the end of IS independently.
















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4. CONSTRUCTION FEATURES OF ELECTRIC MACHINES AND
TRANSFORMERS

Transformer


Fig. 1 (a) Core-type transformer, (b) Shell-type transformer

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Fig.2 AC machine-Synchronous type



Fig.4. Elementary generator (synchronous)-Salient-pole, 2-pole rotor

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Fig.6.Induction motor stator shown partiallywound doublelayer winding

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Fig .7 (a) Wound rotor for induction motor
(b) Squirrelcage rotor with cast aluminum bars end rings
4. A quick Revision on Electric Machines and Transformers

Magnetic Circuits
Medium for energy transfer/conversion devices is the magnetic field.
Electric field is used as medium for energy conversion in certain transducers and recently for
micro motors for use in nanotechnology.
Magnetic field has a far higher energy density per unit volume than electric field and so its
choice as an energy conversion medium.
Magnetic field is set up by passing current in a coil (exiting coil). For strong field in practical
devices ferromagnetic core is employed to conduct magnetic flux.
Permanent magnets act a source for magnetic field by virtue of residual magnetism and are
increasingly being used in small motors.

Magnetic flux =
m.m.f. (magneto-motive-force)

reluctance of magnetic circuit


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Units: Tesla
* m.m.f. = exciting current no. of coil turns
* Losses in a magnetic core = hysteresis loss ( f) + eddy current loss carrying alternating
flux ( f
2
)
* Eddycurrent loss is greatly reduced by laminating magnetic core parallel to flux lines and
varnishing laminations with insulating material.

Energy Conversion
* Faradays Law
dt
d
e

= ; N = = flux linkage.
The direction of e is as per Lenzs law. It will tend to pass current to oppose the action i.e.
the rate of change of flux linkages.


Production of e.m.f., force (Right hand and left hand rules) and Energy Conversion


* e (induced e.m.f.) opposes current flow e (induced e.m.f.) causes current flow
(Lenzs law); v > e (same direction); e > v

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Motoring actionelectrical energy is Generating actionmechanical energy is
converted to mechanical form. converted to electrical form.
Motion in direction of developed force Force produced opposes external force
(torque) which runs the load (mechanical). applied by prime mover (Lenzs law).
Motion in direction opposite to develop
force (torque). So force has to be provided
by prime mover.

The process of electromechanical energy conversion is reversible.
Expression for torque developed (circuit theory method) is
ou o f W T
f dev
= ; ( ) i W
f
, u = field coenergy
For liner case,
( ) i W
f
, u = energy stored in magnetic field
For a single coil,
( ) ( )
2
2
1
, i L i W
f
u u =
For two coupled coils,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 22 2 1 12
2
1 11 2 1
2
1
2
1
, , i L i i L i L i i W
f
u u u u + + =

Transformers


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Induced e.m.f. in a winding, fN E
max
2 H =
where
max
= maximum core flux; N = Number of turns
Ideal transformer
V
1
= E
1
; V
2
= E
2;

2
1
2
1
N
N
V
V
= ;
1
2
2
1
N
N
I
I
= (inverse of voltage ratio);
Practical transformer
'
2 0 1
I I I + = ;
2
1
2 '
2
I
N
N
I
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
I = magnetizing current + core-loss current =
i m
I I +
0
I = 25 % of full-load current
Winding impedance comprises of winding resistance and leakage reactance (Z
1
and Z
2
).
Impedance is transferred from one side of the transformer to the other in the square ratio of
turns. Thus
1
'
1
Z Z = (on side 2) =
1
2
1
2
Z
N
N
|
|
.
|

\
|

2
'
2
Z Z = (on side 1) =
2
2
2
1
Z
N
N
|
|
.
|

\
|

Simplified equivalent circuit, when referred to primary side is

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eq eq eq
jX R Z + =
( )
2
2
1
R a R R
eq
+ =
( )
2
2
1
X a X X
eq
+ =
where
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
N
N
a
Z
eq
= 0.050.08 PU (typical values)



Opencircuit (O.C.) test: Conducted at rated voltage on one side with other side open-
circuited. It determines:
(i) Core-loss
(ii) Magnetizing circuit parameters
(iii) G
i
and B
m

Shortcircuit (S.C.) test: One side is short-circuited; reduced voltage is applied to the other
side to circulate rated current. It determines:
(i) copper loss (f
1
)
(ii) Z
eq
, R
eq
and X
eq

Voltage-regulation = % change in secondary voltage when full-load (at specified pf) at rated
voltage is thrown off. This is given as

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( )
fl
fl
V
V V
2
2 20
100

Voltage-regulation is positive at lagging power factor, zero at certain leading power factor
and could become negative at large leading power factor.
Transformer losses: (i) copper loss ( square of load current)
(ii) core loss = almost constant at all loads
Transformer has high efficiency; well above 90%.
Transformers are employed to raise voltage levels for high voltage (HV) transmission and to
reduce it at the consumer end for low-voltage (LV) at the consumer end for utilization.
Transformers in transmission and distribution of power are three-phase connected as
(i) star/star (for high voltage transmission), (ii) star/delta (quite common), (iii) delta/delta
(rare for very high current levels) and (iv) delta/star (quite common).
A transformer has maximum efficiency at load current when copper loss (I
2
R) = core loss
(constant). Current/kVA load at which maximum efficiency occurs is designed by adjusting
the relative amount of copper and core loss in the transformer.
Power transformerdesigned for maximum efficiency near full-load. Used at transmission
and sub-transmission levels where the load variations are small.
Distribution transformerdesigned for maximum efficiency at about 70-75% full-load. Used
at distribution levels where the load variations are large.
A twowinding transformer can be connected as auto-transformer, considerably raising its
kVA rating, particularly for ratio of transformation near unity. Part of kVA is transferred
conductively. The auto-transformer with transformation ratio near unity is used for high
voltage transmission for connecting two transmission circuits at slightly different levels.


Electric Machines (General)
Electric machines are of two kinds:
(i) Alternating current
(a) Synchronous machine
(b) Induction (asynchronous) machine
(ii) Direct current machines

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Basic structure of electric machine
(i) Outer annular cylinder stator; end covers fitted on both sides
Inner cylindrical rotor with shaft placed in end covers
(ii) Material ferromagnetic thick laminations for component that carries constant flux;
thin lamination for component that carries alternating flux.
Synchronous and DC machines have exited poles. Exciting coils are concentrated type but in
synchronous machine these are distributed type for high-speed machines (turbo-generator).
Poles are on the stator for DC machines (always). These could be on stator or rotor in a
synchronous machine, but are usually on rotor (always for large machines).
Load current and power are handled by armature in synchronous and DC machines. Rotor is
always the armature of a DC machine. In synchronous machines, armature could be stator or
rotor, but for large machine it is always the stator.
Torque is developed in an electric machine by the interaction of:
(i) two magnetic fields which have the same number of poles; and
(ii) the fields are relatively stationary
The torque developed is proportional to sin , being the angle in elect. rad. Between the
axis of the two fields.
Winding factor,
p b w
K K K =
where K
b
= distribution factor, depends on slots/pole/phase; caused by the phase difference
between adjacent series connected coils.
K
p
= pitch factor; in case a coil-pitch is less than full-pitch (180 elect.) is used.
K
b
< 1 for distributed winding
K
p
< 1 for short-pitched winding
K
w
< 1 for distributed and/or short-pitched winding
In a distributed AC winding (usually double-layer, lap type), the induced e.m.f. is given as
fN K E
w a
H = 2
where = flux/pole; f = frequency in Hz; N = winding turns in series per phase.
A singlephase winding, when excited with alternating current produces a sinusoidally
varying field along with the phase axis in the stator, rotor and air-gap structure. This is
equivalent to two rotating fields rotating in opposite direction at a speed given by the formula

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|
.
|

\
|
=
P
f
n
s
120

where f = frequency of current in Hz; P = no. of poles of the winding; n
s
= speed in rpm
(synchronous speed).
A three-phase distributed winding is placed in the stator teeth with a space angle difference
of 120 elect. between the phase winding axes. When three-phase currents with 120 elect.
phase difference flow through the three-phase windings, in the air-gap of the stator-rotor
magnetic system, each phase winding creates two oppositely rotating fields at synchronous
speed. Three of these fields rotating in one direction lie at 120 elect. in space phase to each
other and so cancel themselves out. The remaining three fields rotate in the other direction
and are in space phase with each other resulting in a single sinusoidally distributed field
rotating at synchronous speed. This field rotates in the direction from leading to lagging
phase (current wise) at synchronous speed (n
s
).
In a synchronous machine, one field (on rotor) is DC excited and is made to run
mechanically at speed called synchronous speed. The other field is created by flow of three-
phase currents on the stator (armature). Both fields run at synchronous speed and are locked
with each other.
In an induction machine, one field is created by stator three-phase currents and the other by
the rotor currents induced by the stator created field. So there is no DC excitation. Though
the rotor can run at any speed (below or above synchronous), the two fields always run at
synchronous speed. The link is therefore asynchronous.
In a DC machine, the field poles on stator are DC excited. The current pattern induced on
rotor (armature) tapped by commuter remains stationary in space i.e., both fields are
stationary. The angle between the two fields is fixed at 90 elect.
Losses in an electric machine are categorized as:
(i) Copper loss (I
2
R)
(ii) Core loss (hysteresis and eddy current)
(iii)Mechanical loss (windage and friction loss)
(iv) Stray-load loss ( I
2
)
Electric machine has maximum efficiency at a load when variable loss is equal to constant
loss.

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D.C .Machines
Construction: Field poles with concentrated winding bolted on the inside of yoke forming the
stator. Armature is the rotor, wound lap/wave with coil ends connected to commutator
segments (as many segments as coils).
The commutator converts alternating current in the armature to direct current, tapped by
means of carbon brushes fixed to stator end ring (bolted to yoke on one side).
The poles are DC excited. So yokes and poles carry fixed flux which alternates in the
armature core (laminated) as it rotate in the air-gap flux. The commutator is constructed of
wedge shaped copper segments formed in cylindrical form. The brushes are made up of
carbon (which has much higher resistivity than copper).
As the given coil moves past the brushes, it moves under the influence of the next pole (poles
are of alternate polarity) and current in the coil must reverse (this need to be aided to counter
coils leakage inductance). This process of current reversal in the coils is called commutation.
This indeed is a mechanical rectification.
O.C.C. (open-circuit-characteristics)
e
a a
K E V = = ; e = speed in rad/s.
f f
I K = ;
For a given e, it is representative of magnetization characteristic i.e., ( I
f
) and would
exhibit saturation.
Voltage building takes place in a shunt generator starting with the induced e.m.f. caused by
residual magnetism.
Interpoles: Narrow poles located mid-way between main poles which are series excited. The
interpole air-gap flux causes dynamical e.m.f. to be induced in the commutating coils to
counter the reactive e.m.f. of the coil which opposes commutation.
Armature reaction: The ampereturns (AT) are produced by current flow in armature. Its axis
is at 90 to the main field axis (daxis) i.e., it is crossmagnetizing. This distorts airgap
flux; reduces (demagnetizes) airgap flux/pole, when the machine operates in saturation
region of magnetization.

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Compensating winding: These are located in pole shoes of adjacent pole pairs with axis along
the brush axis (daxis); connected in series with armature to cancel armature reaction.
Fundamental relationships are
Induced e.m.f., e
a a
K E = ;
|
.
|

\
|
H
=
A
ZP
K
a
2
;
e
|
.
|

\
|
H
=
A
ZP
E
a
2

|
.
|

\
|
=
A
ZnP
E
a
60


Torque developed,
|
.
|

\
|
= =
A
P
Z I I K T
a a a

t

2
1

where = flux/pole; I
a
= armature current (exchanged with external circuit);
e = armature speed in rad/s; n = armature speed in r.p.m.; P = no. of poles; and
A = no. of parallel paths in the armature circuit;
A = P (no. of poles) for lap winding;
A = 2 for wave winding;
Power balance:
a a
I E T = e
Liner magnetization assumption (fair because of presence of airgap in the magnetic circuit)
f f
I K = ; I
f
= field current
Armature circuit equation (KVL) is
a a a a
R I E V = ; sign for generating mode; current out of armature
+ sign for motoring mode; current into armature
where V
a
= armature terminal voltage
R
a
= armature resistance.
It follows:
V
a
> E
a
; machine motoring; E
a
, called back e.m.f. (opposes V
a
);
V
a
< E
a
; machine generating;

Excitation
(i) Separately excited

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(ii) Self excited
Shuntfield is connected across armature circuit
Seriesfield is connected in series with armature circuit
Compoundboth shunt and series fields are present
Cumulativeseries field aids shunt field
Differentialseries field counters shunt field
Speedtorque characteristics
(i) Shunt motor speed slightly drops with load torque on account of I
a
R
a
drops. Reduction
of flux due to AR counters it. Essentially it is a constant speed motor.
(ii) Series motor
a a
I K T = ; but
a f
I K = (series connection; linear magnetization)
2
a
I T or T I
a
--------------------------------- (1)
a
a a a
I
V V E

e --------------------------------- (2)
From equations (1) and (2), as load torque is increased, I
a
increases but e (speed)
decreases. At no-load, I
a
0, so e . Series motor must therefore not be allowed to
run at no-load even accidentally.
(iii)Compound motor suitable adjustment of strength of shunt and series excitations allows
any desired speedtorque characteristic to be obtained.
Speed Control

e
a a
V E ~

DC motor is most suitable for speed control; two independent ways to control speed are
possible.
(i) Field control speed increases as field is weakened. As I
a
cannot be allowed to exceed
rated value, load torque must be reduced as speed increases. So it is constantkW
(constant speed x torque) drive.
(ii) Armature control speed is directly proportional to armature voltage for fixed field. So
constanttorque load can be met.
(iii)For a wide range of speed control, combination of methods (i) and (ii) are employed.

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Field control: Shunt motorregulator resistance in the field circuit.
Series motordiverter in shunt with field or tapped field control.
Armature control: Controlled DC voltage source (rectifier or motorgenerator set is
needed).
Wide range speed control of shunt motor is achieved by WardLeonard method. Independent
field control and armature control are obtained by an MG set or SCR rectifier.
Losses in DC machine:
(i) Core loss (almost constant, independent of load)
(ii) Armature copper loss + brush loss; proportional to square of armature current)
(iii)Windage and friction loss
(iv) Strayload loss (proportional to square of armature current)
(v) Field copper loss
No-load loss (core loss + windage and friction loss + shunt field loss)
It can be easily measured by no- load test at rated voltage swinburnes test.
DC motors are selfstarting. Back e.m.f. at starting being zero, the starting current can be
very high. The starting current is reduced to acceptable levels by including series resistance
in armature circuit and cutting and it out as the motor accelerates and reaches normal speed.
Application of DC motors:
Shunt motors nearly constant speed application; also for wide range speed control
(constanttorque and constantkW regions).
Compound motors for heavy duty application in place of shunt motors.
Series motors high starting-torque and low running torque applications like traction.

Synchronous Machines
Construction:
Already explained under Topic: Electric Machines (General). Some salient features are
summarized as:
Hydroelectric generators (alternators) Hydraulic turbines are slow speed turbines; so rotor
has salient (projecting) poles, DC excited, concentrated field windings and armature is the
stator.

Page 29 of 52
Steam turbine (turbo) generators (alternators) steam turbines are high speed turbines; so
rotor has cylindrical poles with distributed, DC excited field winding; stator is the armature.
Exciter is a DC selfexcited generator mounted on the alternator shaft.
Like other electromechanical machines, process of energy conversion is easily reversible i.e.,
the machine can act both as generator and motor.
Synchronous machine acts as:
Generator mechanical power input at shaft (from a prime mover), rotor field leads the
resultant airgap rotating field by an angle whose value depends on the power converted to
electrical form. Armature feeds power to load or mains.
Motor Electrical power is drawn by the armature from mains, creating a rotating field
which locks into the rotor field running at synchronous speed. The resultant airgap field
leads the rotor field by an angle whose value depends on the mechanical load on motor shaft.
A synchronous machine runs at synchronous speed (only) which is given by
|
.
|

\
|
=
P
f
n
s
120
; f = frequency in Hz; P = no. of poles.
The effect of armature reaction in a synchronous machine is as follows.
Generating mode lagging pf demagnetizing
leading pf magnetizing
unity pf crossmagnetizing
Motoring mode lagging pf magnetizing
leading pf demagnetizing
unity pf crossmagnetizing
The simplest circuit model (yet very useful) of a synchronous machine is excitation e.m.f. (as
determined by the field current) in series with synchronous impedance (Z
s
). As the armature
resistance can be neglected, the synchronous impedance is mainly synchronous reactance.
Synchronous reactance is
X
s
= armature leakage reactance + reactance equivalent to armature reaction
Synchronous impedance model of the synchronous machine is based on the assumption of
linear magnetization.
PU value of Z
s
can be as high as 0.60.8.

Page 30 of 52
Synchronous reactance of machine is determined from O.C. and S.C. tests by running the
machine as a generator.
Voltage regulation of a synchronous generator is (i) positive for lagging power factor; (ii) can
be zero or even negative for leading power factor.
Synchronous motor is nonselfstarting. It can be made self-starting by placing induction
bars (short-circuited) in the poles shoes (called Ammortisseur winding). The machine starts
as an induction motor and near synchronous speed pulls into synchronism, when the field is
switched on.
For connecting a synchronous generator (alternator) to bus bars, it has to be properly
synchronized to it as per procedure below:
Start (by prime mover), bring its speed close to synchronous i.e. frequency close to busbar
frequency. The phase sequence of three terminals must be the same as that of busbars.
Switch on at the moment when the two set of phasors are in synchronism. This moment can
be determined by means of three (or six) lamps or in generating stations by a synchroscope.
A generator, just synchronized to busbars, is said to be floating on it i.e., it is not
exchanging any power with bus bars.
After an alternator is synchronized to busbars, it feeds real power to mains by opening
steam/hydraulic valve i.e. by increasing the power fed to it by the prime mover. In this
process, power angle increases.
As the excitation of an alternator feeding power to busbars is increased, its power factor
becomes more lagging i.e., it feeds positive VARS and viceversa.
As the load on a synchronous motor connected to mains is increased, it draws more real
power form mains and motor power angle increases. For a given load, as its excitation is
increased, its power factor improves and becomes leading i.e., it acts as a capacitive load on
the mains.
If there is noload on a synchronous motor and its excitation is increased, it acts like a
capacitor and so feeds reactive (positive) VARS into mains. A motor, so used, acts as a
rotating VAR generator.
Power transferred between a synchronous machine and busbars is given by
o sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
f
e
Z
VE
P

Page 31 of 52
where V = busbar voltage; E
f
= machine excitation e.m.f.;
Z
s
= synchronous impedance; o = power angle (angle between phasors V and E
f
);
Direction of power transfer:
V leads E
f
------ motoring
E
f
leads V ------ generating
Power exchange with mains is maximum for = 90 elect. So for o > 90 elect., it can no
longer function as generator/motor. For larger power synchronous machines, locking
between stator and rotor fields is snapped and the machine fall out of step.
Hunting in synchronous motor is prevented by damper winding (bars placed in poleshoes)
which are shortcircuited permanently. These have currents induced in them producing
damping torque to oppose oscillatory rotor motion (Lenzs law).
Synchronous motors are costlier than induction motors. So these are used for stringent
constantspeed requirements and usually in large sizes. These are run as overexcited to help
in improving the power factor of a complete plant.
Synchronous generators (alternators) are widely accepted for power station installation.
Synchronism can be lost even at 90 elect., following transients due to sudden change in
mechanical/electrical power. Normally synchronous machines are operated with = 2030
elect.

Induction Motors (IMs)
Construction:
It has a threephase stator like that of a synchronous machine. Usually all six terminals are
brought out for connecting in star (at start) and then changing over to delta (during running).
Rotor: Two types of construction
(i) Squirrelcage bars (copper/aluminum) are placed in rotor slots and permanently shorted
by end rings. Most commonly used; cheap and rugged construction; called squirrelcage
motor.
(ii) Woundrotor (slipring) motor (SRIM); rotor properly wound for threephase winding
and connections brought out through slip rings for starting externally. External resistance
included at the time of starting.

Page 32 of 52
Stator is excited from AC mains which draws magnetizing current (apart from load current)
to create the rotating magnetic field. This results in low power factor (lagging) which
decreases as the load on the motor is reduced. Therefore, oversize induction motors must not
be used in any application.
V (applied voltage)
max
f; True for all AC devices.
The rotor must run at a speed less than its synchronous speed to induce currents in rotor bars
for production of torque. So the name asynchronous motor. Unlike synchronous motor,
which can run at synchronous speed only, induction motor has no stability problems.
The percentage slip is the percentage speed at which rotor falls behind the rotating air-gap
field. This is given by
100 %
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
s
n
n n
s
Motor speed, ( )
s
n s n = 1
Frequency of rotor currents is called the slip-frequency. This is given by,
sf f =
2

Load on motor, in equivalent terms, is seen as a resistance r
2
/s in the rotor (or r
2
'/s as seen on
stator) circuit.
Power transferred across airgap,
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
r I
P
G
2
2
2
3

Of this, 3I
2
2
r
2
is lost in actual rotor resistance.
So mechanical power output (gross), ( ) s P r
s
r
I P
G Mg
=
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 3
2
2 2
2

Torque developed,
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
G
dev
P
T
e

Synchronous speed in rad/s.,
|
.
|

\
| H
=
60
2
s
s
n
e
Torque developed is a function of slip (T
dev
(s)). It is linear in lowslip (operating) range,
passes through a maximum (T
max
= T
breakdown
) and at standstill, the starting torque (T
start
) is
much less than T
max
.

Page 33 of 52
T
max
occurs at a slip,
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
max
r
x
s
Induction motor is selfstarting but the starting-torque is not high and reduces as square of
applied voltage. Reduced voltage starting is possible with motor on no-load.
Fullload slip of an IM is about 5-8%. So it is substantially a constant speed motor.
On direct fullvoltage starting, the motor draws as much as 6 time fullload current as r
2
/s
r
2
(s = 1).
Reduced voltage starting: Two methodsstar/delta change over starter (most common type)
and autotransformer starter (used only for large motors).
Small IMs (5kW or less) are started directonline.
For starting on load, SRIM is used where resistance is included in rotor circuit, which is
gradually cut out as the motor speeds up. For maximum starting-torque (T
start
), the current is
I
max
(r
2
+ R
ext
) = x
2
.
For high starting-torque requirement, in place of SRIM, doublecage IM can be used. At
start, rotor frequency is f
2
= f and so current mainly flows in high resistance outercage
(innercage reactance being high at this rotor frequency). When running, rotor frequency is f
2

= sf << f and so current shifts mostly to low resistance innercage.
IM speed control:
( ) ( ) s
P
f
s n n
s

|
.
|

\
|
= = 1
120
1
So there are three methods of speed control:
(i) Speed control by adding resistance in rotor; only possible for SRIM; low efficiency
operation as power is lost in external resistance; can be used only for small change in
speed for short time durations.
(ii) Pole changing only two speeds (discrete) are possible practically.
(iii)frequencycontrol to keep maximum flux/pole constant, V/f should be kept constant, so
that magnetizing current remains same and maximum torque is achieved at all speeds.
This method has become economical with advances in power electronic circuits.
V/fcontrolled squirrelcage IMs are in strong competition to DC motors for large range of
speed control. Though control circuitry is complex, it has become efficient and reliable with

Page 34 of 52
modern solidstate power devices. Advantage is the ruggedness of IM and negligible
maintenance needs.
For negative slips (super-synchronous speed), IM works as an induction generator. Used in
windmill generators and aerospace applications.

FractionalKW Motors
Singlephase Motors
Household power supply being single-phase, single-phase motors (small-size) is universally
used for house appliancesmixi, fridge, washing machine etc.
Singlephase winding on stator, squirrel-cage rotor. When the winding is excited from AC
source, two oppositely rotating fields are created in the airgap, both having synchronous
speed. So no-starting torque is produced. However, if the rotor is made to run in one
direction (by other means), field rotating in that direction is strengthened and the oppositely
rotating is weakened (this is caused by current induced in the squirrelcage rotor bars).The
result is that the motor develops a running torque.
For a selfstart, singlephase motor, a second winding at 90 elect. spacing is placed in stator
called starting winding, while the main winding is called running winding. The starting
winding is made-up of thinner wire (higher resistance) and has an impedance (may be added
externally) such that the current drawn by it has a phase shift close to 90 elect. from the
running winding current (both are connected to the common single-phase mains). The
resultant arrangement is close to a two-phase (called split-phase as the source is single-
phase). So a strong rotating field is created at start, resulting in development of starting-
torque.
Phase splitting is achieved by
(i) high resistance starting winding (usually disconnected by a centrifugal switch after start)
or
(ii) a capacitor is added in series with the starting winding; the motor is then called capacitor-
start motor.
Capacitorstart, singlephase motor has large starting torque and the capacitor is kept in
circuit during running. Its leading current improves the overall power factor of the motor.
Starting, of course, should be on noload.

Page 35 of 52
Universally used for ceiling fans, air-circulators and several other applications. These devises
present no-load at starting.
Shaded Pole Motor: Starting-torque is obtained by enclosing part of the poles (poles are
made projecting type) of the single-phase winding. The lagging current in this shading ring
causes the flux in this part of the pole to lag behind the main pole flux, resulting in creation
of starting torque.
Commonly used in very small sizes table fans, tape drives etc.
2-Phase AC Servomotor: The two-phase windings are placed at 90 elect. space angle. For
low inertia, rotor is generally of drag cup type with stationary core inside it. The reference
winding is excited with fixed voltage AC; the control winding is excited with AC of the same
frequency at 90 elect. phase angle (two-phase). Control is achieved by varying the
amplitude of control winding voltage. Used for low power control applications.
PMAC permanent magnet AC motor: It is a synchronous motor (with induction start),
but poles are permanent magnets. No DC excitation is therefore needed. Becoming popular
for widerange V/f control. Also, larger rating motors are available now.
PMDC permanent magnet DC motor: No field pole excitation is required; so no field
loss; used as DC servo-motor; also for wide-range speed control. Becoming progressively
available in larger sizes.
Brushless PMDC Motor Basically a synchronous motor: DC source switching is
controlled synchronously by signal from shaft position sensors (usually Hall effect type).
Used for control applications. Becoming progressively available in larger sizes.









Page 36 of 52


EXPERIMENTS














EXPERIMENT No. 1
OC AND SC TESTS ON A SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER
Name _______________________________________ ID No.___________________________


Page 37 of 52
Sec.No ______________________ Batch No.____________

Date___________________________ Instructors signature_____________________________
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Introduction
Equivalent Circuit
Taking into account each winding resistance and leakage reactance, magnetizing current and
no-load losses, a transformer can be represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.1.1. The
equivalent circuit, though approximate, is quite accurate for practical purposes.

Fig.1.1 Equivalent circuit of transformer
'
2 1
R R R
eq
+ =

'
2 1
X X X
eq
+ =

Here, R
1
and X
1
are resistance and inductance of primary winding. R
2
and X
2
are the
resistance and inductance of secondary winding referred to the primary side.
2. Objective
a. To determine the parameters of the equivalent circuit of a single-phase transformer
and estimate the performance characteristics.
b. Verify the performance characteristic by loading the transformer.


3. Name plate ratings of the transformer to be tested:
..
..
4. Range of instruments and accessories (standard format)

Page 38 of 52
S. No. DESCRIPTION TYPE RANGE MFR. NAME MFR. NO.





Note: In O.C. test, voltage applied is rated while current drawn is 5-8% of full-load current.
In S.C. test, full-load current is drawn while the voltage applied is 5-8% of rated-voltage.
5. Circuit Diagrams
(a) Circuit diagram (b) Equivalent circuit
Fig.1.2 O.C. Test; conducted from LV side
(a) Circuit diagram (b) Equivalent circuit
Fig.1.3 S.C. Test; conducted from HV side
6. Methodology

Page 39 of 52
The parameters of the equivalent circuit of Fig.1.1 can be determined by the nonloading
tests.
Open Circuit Test for determining shunt parameters (G
i
and B
m
)
Short Circuit Test for determining series parameters (R
eq
and X
eq
)
a) Voltage ratio ( turns ratio) Test
Now, temporarily connect a voltmeter (of appropriate rating) on HV side (open) and
record V
2
.
Then, voltage ratio ( turns ratio) =
1
2
V
V
= (1.4)
b) Open Circuit (O.C.) Test
Connect the transformer as in Fig.1.2 (a), keeping the HV side open and LV side to be
excited from mains. Switch on the mains and take the following readings.
Readings
Applied voltage (rated), V
1
=
No load current, I
0
=
No load power (= core loss), P
i
=
c) Short-Circuit
Conduct the test from HV side with LV short-circuited as in the diagram of Fig.1.3 (a).
To circulate fullload current through the transformer, reduced voltage of about 5 -8% of the
rated voltage is needed. This supply is obtained from a variac.
Turn the variac wheel to zero voltage output position and then switch on the supply for
the transformer under test. Raise the variac voltage gradually till input current to transformer
reaches its full load value. Record meter readings.
Readings
Applied Voltage, V
SC
=
Input current, I
SC
=
Input power (=copper loss), P
SC
=
7. Calculations
= =
1
0
0
V
I
Y (1.5)

Page 40 of 52
= =
2
1
V
P
G
i
i

(1.6)
( ) = =
2 2
0 i m
G Y B (1.7)
= =
sc
sc
eq
I
V
Z (1.8)
= =
2
sc
sc
eq
I
P
R (1.9)
( ) = =
2 2
eq eq eq
R Z X (1.10)
Table 1.1
Serial No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Different transformer
Loading (K)
0.15 0.30 0.45 0.6 0.75 0.90 1.05 1.20
Copper loss (K
2
.P
C
)
Iron loss (P
i
) (constant loss)
Total loss(P
L
) = (P
i
+ K
2
.P
C
)
Out Power (P
0
) in kW
Input Power (P
i
) in kW
Estimated Efficiency


a) Efficiency vs. Load characteristic at 0.8 power factor lag
Output power, P
0
= K.(Rated kVA).cos u = K.(Rated kVA).(0.80) =
Iron loss (constant loss) = P
i
=
Copper loss = K
2
.P
c
=
where P
C
= copper loss at rated current = I
Rated
2
R
eq
=

Page 41 of 52
Total loss, P
L
= (P
i
+ K
2
.P
C
) =
Input Power, P
input
= P
0
+ P
L
= K.(Rated kVA).(0.8) + P
i
+ K
2
.P
C
=
Efficiency, =
Input
Output
=
b) Maximum Efficiency
Load at which maximum efficiency occurs,
= |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
rated
C
i
kVA
P
P
x

Maximum efficiency, =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
i
P xS
xS
2 cos
cos
max
u
u
q
q
max
at 0.8 power factor =
q
max
at upf power factor =
c) Regulation vs. Power factor
Determine the following either on LV or HV side
Rated voltage V =
Rated current I =
R =
X =
Table 1.2
Power factor, cos u 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
R cos u
X sin u
R cos u + X sin u
R cos u - X sin u
LAG
Regulation = --------
LEAD


Mark the power factor corresponding to zero voltage regulation.

Page 42 of 52

8. GRAPHS:
Draw: (a) Estimated Efficiency vs. output, at 0.8 power factor lag and unity power factor.
(b) Measured Efficiency vs. output, at unity power factor.
(c) Estimated Regulation vs. power factor. Verify the regulation at unity power
factor from the load test.

9. RESULTS:
a. Load Efficiency
FL
4
1
_________
FL
2
1
_________
FL
4
3
_________
FL _________
b. Maximum efficiency =
Load at which maximum efficiency occurs =
c. Power factor at which regulation is zero =

Page 43 of 52
EXPERIMENT No. 2
LOAD TEST ON A DC SHUNT GENERATOR
Name____________________________________________ ID No._______________________
Sec.No _______________________ Batch No._____________ Marks obtained_____________
Date__________________________ Instructors signature______________________________
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Introduction
Use the circuit diagram as given in Fig. 2.1. With the field resistance adjusted to a certin
value by means of the regulating resistnce, the desired no load voltage can be obtained. The
external charactersistics (effect of the load on the generated voltage) can then be obtained by a
load test with total field resistance remaining fixed in the process. Speed is to be kept constant.
2. Objective
To obtain external characteristic of a DC shunt generator.

3. Name plate ratings:
..
..
..
..

4. Range of instruments and accessories (standard format)
S.No. DESCRIPTION TYPE RANGE MFR. NAME MFR. NO.








Page 44 of 52
1. Connection Diagram
Fig.2.1
6. Methodology:
1. Connect as shown in Fig.2.1.
2. Switch on the supply and run the set at rated speed.
3. Adjust the no-load voltage to the rated value with the help of field regulating resistance
R
f
in the generator field circuit and note the speed.
4. Connect the load. Increase the load. For each load, note down the load current and
voltage across load. Maintain the speed of the set at its no-load value and field resistance
of generator is kept constant.
Readings
Generator field resistance =
No-load speed, n
0
= (to be kept constant)
No-load voltage, V
0
=
Table 2.1
V
L


I
L

7. Calculations: NIL
8. Graph to be drawn
(1) V
L
vs. I
L

9. Results
The external characteristic of the given DC shunt generator is shown in graph.

Page 45 of 52
EXPERIMENT No. 3
OC AND SC TESTS ON A SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
Name____________________________________________ ID No._______________________
Sec.No ________________________ Batch No._____________ Marks obtained_____________
Date___________________________ Instructors signature_____________________________

1. Introduction
A synchronous machine can be represented by its equivalent circuit (per phase) as in Fig.3.1.
The machine is run at rated (synchronous) speed.
Fig.3.1
The synchronous impedance (Z
s
) can be determined by means of O.C. and S.C. tests.
OC Test
The machine is run (as a generator) at synchronous speed with armature terminals open.
The graph of V
OCL
vs. I
f
is the O.C.C. (open-circuit-characteristic) which indeed is the
magnetization characteristic of the machine. It exhibits the saturation effects.
SC Test
The armature terminals are shorted. The machine is run at synchronous speed and I
f
is
gradually increased, starting from zero value. The field current needed for I
SCL
= I
FL
(rated) is
very small. The graph of I
SCL
vs. I
f
is S.C.C. (short-circuit-characteristic). The field current
being very small, this operates in linear region. So S.C.C. is a straight line, only one point on
S.C.C. corresponding to I
SCL
= I
FL
need to be determined experimentally.

Page 46 of 52
2. Objective:
To determine the equivalent circuit parameters of a synchronous machine and hence to
estimate the percentage regulation at different power factors.

3. Name plate ratings:





4. Range of instruments and accessories (standard format)
S.No. DESCRIPTION TYPE RANGE MFR. NAME MFR. NO.






5. Connection Diagram

Page 47 of 52
Fig.3.2 Connection diagram for conducting O.C. and S.C. test.
6. Methodology and Readings
The synchronous machine you are required to test is mechanically coupled to a DC shunt
motor. Connect the synchronous machine with DC shunt motor as shown in Fig.3.2


O.C. Test
- Keep the TPST switch of the synchronous machine circuit in open state. Start the DC
shunt motor of motor- generator (M-G) set. Adjust its speed to the synchronous
speed.
- Adjust the potentiometer of synchronous machine field circuit so as to have minimum
voltage across the field winding. Then, switch ON the DC mains of the field circuit.
- The synchronous machine is now running as a generator.
- Gradually increase I
f
and read the line voltage V. Record the observations in Table
3.1 and plot open circuit characteristic (O.C.C).
Table 3.1 (O.C.C.)
I
f

V
OCL
(line)
V
OC
(phase)
SC Test
- With the set running at n
s
, switch off the DC excitation of the synchronous machine.
- Close the TPST switch to short circuit the generator terminals.
- Adjust the potentiometer of synchronous machine field circuit so as to have minimum
voltage across the field winding. Then, switch ON the DC mains of the field circuit.
- Gradually raise the I
f
. Go on till the ammeter reads 15% above the rated value of AC
current of the armature.
- Record I
f
, I
SCL
at this value and plot the short circuit characteristic (S.C.C).
Measurement of Armature Resistance
Using a DC source, voltmeter and ammeter, take a few readings across two terminals of
Synchronous Machine. Record in Table 3.2


Page 48 of 52
Table 3.2
V

I

7. Calculations & Results (all calculations are done on per phase basis)
1. Plot the O.C.C. (V
OCL
vs. I
f
)
2. Plot on the same graph S.C.C. (I
SCL
vs. I
f
)
Using the above graph, calculate the following parameters.
1. ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
SC
OC
s
I
V
d unsaturate Z =
I
f
= constant
V
OC


I
SC

I
f


2) Calculate Z
s
for all values of I
f
. Plot Z
s
against I
f
. Comment on the variation of Z
s
and
explain reasons for the same.
I
f


Z
s


1) Calculate
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
SC
OC
s
I
rated V
adjusted Z =
I
f
corresponding to V
OC
(rated value)
( ) ( ) = =
2 2
e s s
R adj Z X
Observe that in your calculation of X
s
(adj), effect of R
e
(phase) can be ignored so that
( ) ( ) adj Z adj X
s s
=
2) Calculate the percentage regulation at full load 0.8 power factor lag/ lead and unity power
factor for synchronous generator.

Page 49 of 52
8. Graphs
O.C.C., S.C.C. and Z
S
vs. I
f
.
9. Results
Percentage regulation at upf =
at 0.8 pf lag =
at 0.8 pf lead =

Page 50 of 52
EXPERIMENT NO.4
MEASUREMENT OF POWER IN THREE-PHASE CIRCUIT

Name____________________________________________ ID No._______________________
Sec.No ________________________ Batch No._____________ Marks obtained_____________
Date___________________________ Instructors signature_____________________________

1. Introduction
Use the circuit diagram shown in Fig. 4.1. A three phase induction machine coupled with a DC
generator is used as the load. The load is gradually increased. Two- wattmeter method is used for
the power measurement - active power, reactive power and power factor.
2. Objective
To measure the active power, reactive power, apparent power & power factor in the three phase
circuit by two-wattmeter method.

3. Name plate ratings:





4. Range of instruments and accessories (standard format)
S.No. DESCRIPTION TYPE RANGE MFR. NAME MFR. NO.













Page 51 of 52
(P.C. range C. C. range pf)
=
(Total no. of divisions on the scale)

5. Connection diagram

Fig 4.1: Power measurement by using two-wattmeter method

6. Methodology and Readings
1. Make the connections as per circuit diagram given in Fig.4.1.
2. Consider two watt meters as W1 and W2.
3. Calculate multiplication factor of each watt meter by observing ranges which you have
selected.
4. Check the circuit connections. Switch on the main supply.
5. Note that you connected COM terminal of watt meters to one of its pressure coil
terminals i.e. M and voltage range terminal (V--) to third phase line(Y) .
6. You observe that the pointer of one of the wattmeter gives some reading. (If you do not
observe it, then immediately switch off the supply and check the connections once again).
7. Now in the watt meter which kicks back, interchange the connections of the two terminals of
its pressure coil (i.e. connect COM terminal to third phase line (Y) and voltage range
terminal to M).Assume the reading of this wattmeter is negative,
8. Note readings of the wattmeters, ammeter& voltmeter.


Multiplication Factor (MF) of Wattmeter (WM)

1. Multiplication factor (M.F.) of W1 =________________


2. Multiplication factor(M.F.) of W2 =_________________

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7. Observations:
Table 4.1

S.NO
Wattmeter1
MF
(W
1
)
Watts
Wattmeter2
MF
(W
2
)
Watts
Ammeter
(I
L
)
Amps
Voltmeter
(V
L
)
Volts
Active
Power
(KW)
Reactive
Power
(KVAR)
Apparent
Power
(KVA)
Power
Factor
Cos
Load 0
Load I
Load II
Load III
Load IV
Load V

8. Calculations

1. Reading of wattmeter 1

W
1
= No. of Div. M.F. = ____________________

2. Reading of wattmeter 2

W
2
=No. of Div. M.F. = _____________________

3. Active power in three phase load;

P= W
1
+ W
2
= ______________

4. Reactive power in three phase load

Q=3 (W
1
W
2
) Vars = _____________________

5. Power factor of the load

p.f. =cos [tan
-1 (
[3 (W
1
W
2
)] / [ (W
1
+ W
2
)])] =___________________

9. Graphs :NIL

10. Results