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The Scientific Method

Steps of The Scientific Method


The Question
Your science fair project starts with a question. This might be based on an observation you have made or a
particular topic that interests you. Think what you hope to discover during your investigation, what question would
you like to answer? Your question needs to be about something you can measure and will typically start with words
such as what, when, where, how or why.
Background Research
Talk to your science teacher and use resources such as books and the Internet to perform background research on
your question. Gathering information now will help prepare you for the next step in the Scientific Method.
Hypothesis
Using your background research and current knowledge, make an educated guess that answers your question. Your
hypothesis should be a simple statement that expresses what you think will happen.
Experiment
Create a step by step procedure and conduct an experiment that tests your hypothesis. The experiment should be a
fair test that changes only one variable at a time while keeping everything else the same. Repeat the experiment a
number of times to ensure your original results werent an accident.
Data
Collect data and record the progress of your experiment. Document your results with detailed measurements,
descriptions and observations in the form of notes, journal entries, photos, charts and graphs.
Observations
Describe the observations you made during your experiment. Include information that could have affected your
results such as errors, environmental factors and unexpected surprises.
Conclusions
Analyze the data you collected and summarize your results in written form. Use your analysis to answer your
original question, do the results of your experiment support or oppose your hypothesis?

Investigatory Project Parts
Title
The Title should be clear and precise. It has an objective or purpose. It should not be written too long or too short.
By just reading the title, you can determine what the investigative study is all about.
Abstract
The Abstract should be one or two paragraphs only. It includes your research problems, the method or procedure
that you used and the findings or conclusion of the study.
Chapter I
1. Introduction and Its Background
The Introduction is about one page only wherein it includes the background of the study and its rationale. It usually
leads into the research problem.
2. Statement of the Problem
The Statement of the Problem has two categories namely: the general problem and specific problems. Usually, one
general problem and three specific problems which derived from the general problem. The research problems
should be specific, reliable,valid, measurable, objectively stated. It can be a question form or in a declarative
statement.
3. Formulation of the Hypothesis
The Formulation of the Hypothesis has two types namely: the null hypothesis and affirmative hypothesis.
Hypotheses is a scientific guess which intends subject for thorough investigation. It is recommended to use null
hypothesis in your research project.
4. Significant of the Study
The Significant of the Study indicates how important is your investigatory project for the people, environment and
community as a whole. It is really relevant in the changing world or global impact into the field of technology.
5. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The Scope and Delimitation of the Study covers the range of your research. It includes the period of research, the
materials and equipment to be used, the subject of the study or the sample of the study, the procedure and the
statistical treatment to be used.
6. Definition of Terms
The Definition of Terms has two types: the Dictionary-derived definitions and the Operational definitions which
derived from how these terms were used in your research.
Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Studies
Related Literature
The Related Literature are statements taken from science books, journals, magazines, newspapers and any
documents from authorized scientists, Science experts or well-known Science agencies. These statements can
support your study through their concepts, theories, principles and laws. Footnoting is important on this part.
Related Studies
The Related Studies are those researches which may be local and foreign studies who can attribute to your research
or can support your investigation scientifically. Footnoting is also important on this part.
Chapter III
Methodology has several parts namely: the subject of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment
1. The Subject of the Study
The Subject of the Study includes your population and the sample. It applies the sampling techniques to obtain a
good sample of the study. Your sample should be valid and reliable.
2. The Procedure
The Procedure is the step by step and systematic process of doing your research. It includes the materials with right
amount of measurements, the appropriate equipment to be used in doing the scientific investigation. It consists of
several trials with control variables, independent variables and dependent variables. Gathering of data is essential
in any kind of research. It is recommended to use control and experimental set-ups to arrive at valid conclusion.
3. The Statistical Treatment
The Statistical Treatment comes in various ways. It can be mean, median, mode, percentage, Chi-square, standard
deviation, T-test, Pearson r, Spearman rank or Anova I or Anova II. It is recommended to use T-test in any
experimental research.
Chapter IV
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
1. Presentation of Data, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
The data gathered should be presented in order to be analyze. It may be presented in two forms namely: through
table or graph. You may use both of them if you want to clearly figure out your data. A table has labels with
quantity, description and units of measurement. Graph has several types namely the line graph, bar graph, pie
graph and pictograph. Choose what type of graph that you prefer to use. Analyze the data that had been gathered,
presented in table or graph scientifically. You interpret the data according to what had been quantified and
measured. The numerical data should be interpreted clearly in simple and descriptive statements.
2. Results
Results show the findings or outcomes of your investigation. The result must be based according to the interpreted
data.
Chapter V
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1. Summary
The Summary briefly summarizes your research from Chapter I to Chapter IV which includes the research problems,
methodology and findings. It consists of one or two paragraphs only.
2. Conclusion
The Conclusion is the direct statement based on findings or results. It should answer your hypothesis and research
problems.
3. Recommendation
The Recommendation is given based on your conclusion. You may give few recommendations which you think can
help the fellow Science students, researchers, consumers or the entire community where people live in.







Science Laboratory Rules
The laboratory can be a very exciting place in which to work but it can also be very dangerous if the safety
rules are not obeyed.
1) Never enter a laboratory unless given permission by your teacher.
2) Do not bring bags into the laboratory. Valuables should be given to the teacher to mind, not left in your bag.
Bags are not to block doorways.
3) No running or pushing.
4) Keep the floor and passageways clear.
5) Keep work areas tidy and uncluttered.
6) Never have food or drink in a laboratory. Do not taste or lick chemicals from the laboratory glassware. Do not
drink from laboratory glassware or taps.
7) Wash you hands after using chemicals or biological materials.
8) Tell your teacher if you cut or burn yourself.
9) If you spill any chemicals or break some glassware, report it to your teacher who will tell you how to clean it
up.
10) Only put broken glass into the broken-glass bins.
11) Always return cleaned equipment to the correct place.
12) Leave benches clean and dry. Put rubbish in the bins and not the sink.
13) Wear safety glasses when directed to by your teacher. The frames can be cleaned before use.
14) When heating or mixing substances, never look inside the flask, test tube or beaker. Do not point these
experiments at anyone.
15) Do not open cupboards or examine specimens or experiments left in the laboratory unless given permission by
your teacher.
16) The Department of Education and Training requires all students to wear leather lace-up shoes for the protection
of feet from chemical skills and falling objects when experiments are being carried out.
17) Long hair should be tied back.
18) Be careful using a Bunsen burner especially when you are wearing flammable clothing.
19) Be aware of the evacuation procedure for the laboratory.
20) Follow the instructions of the teacher in charge of the class.
Common laboratory tools
Name Use
Compound
Microscope
Uses two lenses to make things
look larger.
Cover Slip
Used to cover specimens on a
microscope slide.
Glass Slide
Used to place specimens on to
observe under the microscope.
Magnifying
Glass or
Hand Lens or
Simple
Microscope
Uses one lens to make things
look larger.
Hot Plate
An electrical device used to heat
things up.
Graduated
Cylinders
(glass or
plastic)
Used to measure liquid volume.
A very accurate tool. Graduated
in mL.
Beaker
(glass or
plastic)
Used to stir, heat (if glass), and
measure liquid volume in mL
(rough estimate).