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# HIGHWAY ENGINEERING CC 302 2014

## SOFTENING POINT Page 1

Introduction
Softening point denotes the temperature at which the bitumen attains a particular degree of
softening under the specifications of test. The test is conducted by using Ring and Ball apparatus.
A brass ring containing test sample of bitumen is suspended in liquid like water or glycerin at a
given temperature. A steel ball is placed upon the bitumen sample and the liquid medium is heated
at a rate of 5
o
C per minute. Temperature is noted when the softened bitumen touches the metal
plate which is at a specified distance below. Generally, higher softening point indicates lower
temperature susceptibility and is preferred in hot climates.

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EXPERIMENT : SOFTENING POINT OF BITUMEN
OBJECTIVE : To determine characteristic of bitumen when the
bitumen become liquid.
APPERATUS :
I. Ring Apparatus

II. Ball Apparatus

III. Beaker

IV. Spatula

V. Thermometer

VI. Ring Hanger

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Work Apparatus

Procedure
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1. Prepare two ring with the sample bitumen and cooled ( 45 minutes )
2. Use spatula to remove the ring from the metal plate, then put into hanger and put steel ball
bearing is centered on each specimen and heat applied to the beaker
3. Put thermometer into the beaker and get the blain point when the steel ball were fall
4. Take the reading of temperature when the sample touch the hanger

Result
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Table 1 : Softening Point Test
Number Of Test Softening Point (c)
Ball A 50
Ball B 50
Average Temperature (c) 50

Calculation
Average Temperature (c)
= 50 + 50
= 100
=

= 50

Question
1. Report the source and type of bitumen
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2. List down useful for softening point test

3. List down the factor that could influence the result
.

Discussion

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Reference
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1. ASTM (1978): "Standard Tests Method forResistance to Plastic Flow of Bituminous
Mixtures using Marshall Apparatus." Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 15, pp.425 -
433.
2. Bilman, H.G. 1992. "Offshore Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Dahomey (Benin)
Embayment, West Africa". NAPE Bull. 7(2):121-130.
3. Ekweozor, C. M. (1990): "Geochemistry of Oil Sands of Southwestern Nigeria. Proceedings,
FirstWorkshop on Nigerian Tar Sands. The Nigerian Mining and Geoscience Society, Ago-
Iwoye, Aho, B.D. and Enu, E. I. - Editors, pp. 81-88.
4. Ekweozor, C. M. and Nwachukwu, J. I. (1989): "The Origin of Tar Sands of South-Western
Nigeria," Nigerian Association of Petroleum Exploration, Bulletin 4, pp. 82 - 94.
5. Enu, E.I. 1985. "Textural Characteristic of the Nigerian Tar Sands". Sedimentary Geology.
44:65-81.