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Mapa Institute of Technology

Department of EECE

Variable Power


0V, 3V, 5V, 8V, and 15V

Submitted by:
Chua, Ronald C.
Rancho, Martin F.
Villaruel, King Ralph G.
ECE103L / B13

Submitted to:
Engr. Leonardo Valiente Jr.

June 17, 2014
Mapa Institute of Technology
Department of EECE

June 17, 2014

Engr. Leonardo Valiente Jr.

Instructor, Electronics Lab 1

Dear Engr. Leonardo Valiente Jr.:

We submit herewith a documentation of our project in ECE103L (Electronics Lab 1)
together with a Variable Power Supply (VPS) with 0V, 3V, 5V, 8V, and 15V output
voltages to be submitted to you on the day of June 17, 2014 (Tuesday) for its defense.

Your consideration of our project is greatly appreciated.


Ronald Chua

Martin Rancho

King Ralph Villaruel

First of all, we would like to thank our God Almighty for His unending grace and
sovereign wisdom that allowed us to think of this project as our way of contributing
something beneficial to our society in the future.

Second, we would like to thank our professor, Engr. Leonardo Valiente Jr., who
guided as throughout the term, and who considered deficiencies on some parts of the
making of this project that we really highly appreciated.

Third and lastly, we would also like to thank our friends who continue to give out
suggestions for us to improve on our work and to our parents who ceaselessly support
us in our endeavors to make this project possible and feasible.

We dedicate this project to all of you as expression of gratitude for all your
contributions and suggestions.

Ronald C. Chua

Martin F. Rancho

King Ralph G. Villaruel
Theories and Principles

A power supply converts the AC voltage from the outlet for instance into DC
voltage to supply electrical power to the load. A Variable Power Supply (VPS) on the
other hand has its output voltages be varied by using mechanical switch such as rotary
switch. A power supply has the following component:

Capacitor Voltage
Transformer Rectifier
Filter Regulator

A power supply with a step-down transformer should be used for loads that only
require a minimal amount of DC voltages such as 3V, 5V, 8V, and 15V. A step-down
transformer usually has its primary voltage as 220 and its secondary voltage is less than
the primary voltage. The equation for the transformer is:

1 = 1 = 2 = 1 2 2 1 2

The rectifier is responsible for the conversion of the AC voltage input into DC
voltage output. There are three types of rectifiers: (a) Half-Wave Rectifier, (b) Center-
Tap Full-Wave Rectifier, and (c) Bridge Rectifier.

In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the positive or negative
half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of
the input waveform reaches the output, mean voltage is lower. Half-wave rectification
requires a single diode in a single-phase supply, or three in a three-phase supply.
Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current; half-wave rectifiers produce
far more ripple than full-wave rectifiers, and much more filtering is needed to eliminate
harmonics of the AC frequency from the output.

(a) Input AC Voltage (b) Output DC voltage

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant
polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities
of the input waveform to pulsating DC (direct current), and yields a higher average
output voltage. Two diodes and a center tapped transformer, or four diodes in a bridge
configuration and any AC source (including a transformer without center tap), are
needed. Single semiconductor diodes, double diodes with common cathode or common
anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as single components.

(a) Input AC Voltage (b) Output DC Voltage

A capacitor can store electric energy when it is connected to its charging circuit
and when it is disconnected from its charging circuit, it can dissipate that stored energy,
so it can be used like a temporary battery. The capacitor makes the pulsating output
voltage from the rectifier stable by immediately charging and discharging the voltage
across it. It create ripple voltages that created between maximum and minimum voltage
across the capacitor.

A Zener diode is a diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in
the same manner as an ideal diode, but also permits it to flow in the reverse direction
when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage, "Zener
knee voltage", "Zener voltage", "avalanche point", or "peak inverse voltage".

Thus, a zener diode can regulate voltage across it according to its breakdown
ISO 9001

ISO 9001 sets out the requirements for an organization whose business
processes range all the way from design and development, to production, installation
and servicing.

This project is suitable for ISO9001, because it is about designing a Variable
Power Supply (VPS) with required output voltages. The group bought raw materials
from the market to produce a working VPS.

ISO 9002 is not suitable for this project, because it is the appropriate standard for
organizations that do not design and develop products, since it does not include the
design control requirements of ISO 9001. Its requirements are identical aside from that
distinction. ISO 9003 is not also suitable, because it is the appropriate standard for an
organization whose business processes do not include design control, process control,
purchasing or servicing. It focuses on inspection and testing to ensure that final
products and services meet specified requirements.
Description, Functions, Limitations of the Project

The Variable Power Supply (VPS) has 5 outputs which are 0V, 3V, 5V, 8V, and
15V. The group used a 220 to 24 Step-down Transformer with a current rating of 1A.
The Bridge Rectifier is connected to the step-down transformer to convert the
Alternating Current (AC) voltage into Direct Current (DC) voltage with the characteristics
of a rectifier diode connected in the circuit to let the current passing through it to past in
only one direction with respect to its orientation, and we used a 1N4001 as our rectifier
diode which has a voltage rating of 50V and a current rating of 1A. The problem in this
part is that the output voltage of the rectifier is pulsating or it is not stable. To maintain
the voltage, we connected a capacitor filter in the circuit with a voltage rating of more
than 35V. We included an in series with the capacitor as a safety resistor, because the
capacitor has an initial of 0V upon turning-on the VPS so there would be a surge on the
circuit that might harm the circuit.

The group designed the VPS with multiple circuits that correspond to the required
output voltages. Each of the individual circuit of the 3V, 5V, 8V, and 15V has different
Zener diodes connected parallel to the output voltage terminals. The purpose of the
Zener diode is to regulate the voltage through it. We used the following Zener diodes
with respect to their Nominal Zener voltages:

Zener Diode Nominal Zener Voltage ( )

1N4728 3.3 V

1N4733 5.1 V

1N4738 8.2 V

1N4744 15 V

For the 0V output voltage, it is practical that the circuit would be shorted or it is
only a wire.

An is connected in series with the Zener diode to control the flow of the current
through it, and an is also connected in parallel with the Zener diode as a

safety resistor to prevent the case of shorting the output voltage terminals that will result
to damaging the VPS.

The appearance of the VPS is that it is a box that has a dimension of 4" x 5" x 3"
and it weighs approximately 1kg. The VPS has also a rotary switch attached to it
outside the protective case to vary the output voltage with respect to their terminals. For
the safety of the VPS, we also included a typical fuse with a current rating of 6A.

The output voltages may not be exactly as 3V, 5V, 8V, and 15V but it is
acceptably close to these values. This is due to the safety measures that we had
installed in the circuit.
Individual Simulations of Output Voltages

(a) 3

(b) 5

(c) 8

(d) 15
Schematic Diagram of Printed-Circuit Board (PCB)
Work Distribution

1) VILLARUEL, King Ralph G.

He simulated the circuits for the 3V, 5V, 8V, and 15V output voltages
using Tina Pro as his simulation software. He is also assigned to make the
documentary of the VPS.

2) CHUA, Ronald C.

He did the actual circuit on the breadboard to verify the results of the
simulated circuits using his own tools such as Digital Multi-meter (DMM),
breadboards, wire strippers, and to name a few.

3) RANCHO, Martin F.

He was responsible for the final project that are composed of the
etched-PCB with electrical components attached firmly to it, and installation
of the finalized-PCB inside the protective casing including other significant
electrical parts such as rotary switch, fuse, and LED.
Tabulated List of Materials


1 Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) 150.00

1 Step-down Transformer (220 to 24 ) 225.00

1 Protective Case 125.00

20 Fuse (6 A) - MINI 20 MM 30.00

20 Resistor (10 k), (2 watts) 36.00

20 Resistor (500 ), (2 watts) 36.00

20 Resistor (100 ), (1 watt) 32.00

20 Resistor (180 ), (1 watt) 32.00

20 Resistor (20 ), (1 watt) 32.00

20 Resistor (30 ), (1 watt) 32.00

20 Resistor (300 ), (1 watt) 32.00

20 Resistor (820 ), (1 watt) 32.00

20 Light-Emitting Diode (LED) 5 MM RED 28.00

1 Ferric Chloride (200 mL) 22.00

50 Rectifier Diode (1N4001) 50.00

3 Zener Diode (1N4728) 7.50

3 Zener Diode (1N4733) 7.50

4 Zener Diode (1N4738) 12.00

4 Zener Diode (1N4744) 16.00

1 Capacitor (470 uF), (35 V) 7.00

1 Capacitor (470 uF), (50 V) 12.00

1 Capacitor (220 uF), (60 V) 40.00

2 Capacitor (100 uF), (60 V) 50.00

TOTAL PhP 1046.00