Sie sind auf Seite 1von 107

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 1






Chapter 1
Introduction











.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 2

It is common knowledge that over the last decade there has been a major boost in communication
networks. In fact, the development of high-performance backbone networks was immediately
followed by the rapid dissemination of broadband wired access technologies, such as leased lines
based on fiber-optic links, cable modems using coaxial systems, and digital subscriber line
(xDSL) access networks. This gave users a whole new class of services that exploit the
increasing number of available network resources. Many new services are based on multimedia
applications, such as voice over IP (VoIP), video conferencing, video on demand (VoD),
massive online gaming, and peer-to-peer. Unlike traditional TCP/IP services, multimedia
applications usually require strict network guarantees such as reserved bandwidth or bounded
delays. In today environment Wi-Fi is a very popular term that use for wireless access in short
campus. A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a personal computer, video game console, mobile
phone, MP3 player or personal digital assistant can connect to the Internet when within range of
a wireless network connected to the Internet[47] .
1.1 WiMAX
WiMAX is an acronym meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX).
WiMAX is based on Wireless Metropolitan Area Networking (WMAN) standards developed by
the IEEE 802.16 group. WiMAX enables the delivery of broadband wireless services anytime,
anywhere [3][47]. The IEEE 802.16 standard was developed to deliver Non-Line-Of-Sight
(NLOS) connectivity between a subscriber station and base station with typical cell radius of
three to ten kilometres. WiMAX systems can be expected to deliver capacity of up to 40 Mbps
per channel. This is enough bandwidth to simultaneously support hundreds of businesses with T-
1 speed connectivity and thousands of residences with DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) speed
connectivity. A broad industry consortium, the WiMAX Forum has begun certifying broadband
wireless products for interoperability and compliance with a standard [47]. The WiMAX mobile
network deployments are to provide up to 15 Mbps of capacity within a typical cell radius of up
to three kilometres. WiMAX technology already has been incorporated in notebook computers
and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) to deliver high speed mobile Internet services anytime,
anywhere[3] [4].
WiMAX is the next generation of wireless technology deliberated to facilitate high speed mobile
Internet access to the large array of devices including notebook PCs, smart-phones etc. It makes
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 3

possible the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL).
IEEE 802.16 is a standard for wireless broadband access network. The main advantages of
802.16 when compared to other network access technologies, such as 802.11, are the longer
transmission range and more sophisticated support for Quality of-Service (QoS) at the MAC
level. Various application and service types can be used in 802.16 networks and the MAC layer
is designed to support this convergence [3][4] .
1.2 Background of WiMAX Network 802.16
The IEEE 802.16 Working Group is the IEEE group for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks
(WMANs) air interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems. IEEE 802.16 group was
formed in 1998 to develop standards and recommended practices to support the development and
deployment of fixed broadband wireless access systems or air-interface standards. The first
802.16 standard was approved in December 2001. it is designed as to use the single carrier
physical layer with time division multiplexing [25][47]
IEEE-802.16a was an amendment to 802.16. 802.16a was ratified in January 2003 and was
intended to provide last mile fixed broadband access 802.16c. In September 2003, a revision
project called 802.16d commenced IEEE 802.16d which is for fixed subscriber stations. This
project concluded in 2004 with the release of 802.16-2004 which replaced all prior versions
including the a/b/c amendments and formed the basis for the first WiMAX solution [23]. These
early WiMAX solutions based on IEEE 802.16-2004 targeted fixed applications, and are referred
to as Fixed WiMAX. IEEE 802.16e which supports mobility. WiMAX devices are created to
operate the three different bands 2.5, 3.5 and 5.7 GHz. The physical layer In WiMAX uses
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology and the maximum data rate in
WiMAX is 70 Mbps. Wi-max is intended to give a higher coverage area of 20 miles. WiMAX
standard eliminate the problem of last mile and act as an alternative to cable and DSL
technologies. Since it support mobile application thats why it is called as mobile WiMAX [9].
[23] Table 1.1 [9] shows the data for WiMAX standards.


.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 4

Parameters 802.16 802.16-2004 802.16e-2005
Status Completed
December 2001
Completed June
2004
Completed December 2005
Frequency band 10GHz66GHz 2GHz11GHz 2GHz11GHz for fixed; 2GHz
6GHz for mobile applications
Application Fixed LOS Fixed NLOS Fixed and mobile NLOS

MAC architecture Point-to-
multipoint, mesh
Point-to-
multipoint, mesh
Point-to-multipoint, mesh
Transmission
scheme
Single carrier
only
Single carrier, 256
OFDM or 2,048
OFDM
Single carrier, 256 OFDM or
scalable OFDM with 128, 512,
1,024, or 2,048 subcarriers
Modulation QPSK, 16 QAM,
64 QAM
QPSK, 16 QAM,
64 QAM
QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM
Gross date ratio 32Mbps-
134.4Mbps
1Mbs-75Mbps 1Mbps -75 Mbps
Multiplexing Burst TDM/
TDMA
Burst TDM/
TDMA/OFDMA
Burst TDM/ TDMA/OFDMA
Duplexing TDD and FDD TDD and FDD TDD and FDD
Channel Bandwidth 20 MHz,
25MHz, 28MHz
1.75MHz to
8.75MHz
1.75MHz to
8.75MHz
WiMAX
implementation
None OFDMA as
fixed WiMAX
OFDMA as
mobile WiMAX
Table 1.1 Basic Data on IEEE 802.16 Standards
1.3 WiMAX Architectural Issues
Figure 1.1 shows a WiMAX Network Management Reference Model. WiMAX uses MIB, which
stands for Management Information Base, to store information pertinent to network
management. WiMAX is used as metropolitan area network wireless connectivity. WiMAX
provides broadband data access for urban and rural areas. It provides point-to-point links,
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 5

residential broadband and high-speed business connections. WiMAX systems also support mesh
networks, allowing WiMAX system to forward packets between base stations and subscribers
without having to install communication lines between base stations[4] [16].

Figure 1.1: WiMAX Network Management Reference Model
Various architectural issues involved with WiMAX like point to point Vs point to multipoint,
Los Vs NLOS are discussed in following :
1.3.1 P2P Vs PMP
There are two scenarios for wireless deployment: point-to-point and point-to-multipoint [1][2].
1.3.2 Point-to-Point (P2P)
Point to point is used where there are two points of interest: one sender and one receiver. This is
also a scenario for backhaul or the transport from the data source (data center, fiber, Central
Office, etc) to the subscriber or for a point for distribution using point to multipoint architecture.
Backhaul radios comprise an industry of their own within the wireless industry.

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 6


Figure 1.2 : Point-to Point and Point-to-Multipoint Configurations
As the architecture calls for a highly focused beam between two points range and throughput of
point-to point radios will be higher than that of point-to-multipoint products.
1.3.3 Point-to-Multipoint (PMP)
As shown in the figure 1.1, point-to-multipoint is synonymous with distribution. One base station
can service hundreds of dissimilar subscribers in terms of bandwidth and services offered.
1.3.4 LOS Vs NLOS
Earlier wireless technologies were unsuccessful in the mass market as they could not deliver
services in non-line-of-sight scenarios. This limited the number of subscribers they could reach.
WiMAX functions best in line of sight situations and, unlike those earlier technologies, offers
acceptable range and throughput to subscribers who are not line of sight to the base station. LoS
and non-LoS configuration shown in fig. 13.WiMAX's ability to deliver services non-line-of-
sight, the WiMAX service provider can reach many customers in high-rise office buildings to
achieve a low cost per subscriber because so many subscribers can be reached from one base
station[9][25].
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 7


Figure 1.3: The difference between line of sight and non-line of sight
1.4 WiMAX Types
Various WiMAX types like Fixed WiMAX and Mobile WiMAX are discussed in following
subtopics [10]:
1.4.1 Fixed WiMAX
WiMAX provides fixed, portable or mobile non-line-of sight service from a base station to a
subscriber station, also known as customer premise equipment (CPE). Some goals for WiMAX
include a radius of service coverage of 6 miles from a WiMAX base station for point-to-
multipoint, non-line-of-sight service. This service should deliver approximately 40 megabytes
per second (Mbps) for fixed and portable access applications. The WiMAX cell site should offer
enough bandwidth to support hundreds of businesses with T1 speeds and thousands of residential
customers with the equivalent of DSL services from one base station [4].
1.4.2 Mobile WiMAX
Mobile WiMAX takes the fixed wireless application a step further and enables cell phone-like
applications on a much larger scale. For example, mobile WiMAX enables streaming video to be
broadcast from a speeding police or other emergency vehicle at over 70 MPH. In addition to
being the final leg in a quadruple play, it offers superior building penetration and improved
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 8

security measures over fixed WiMAX. Mobile WiMAX will be very valuable for emerging
services such as mobile TV and gaming [4][17].
1.5. Challenges in WiMAX Network
In WiMAX there are few important technical areas. They are listed in the followings [19][9].
Wireless radio channel-wireless radio play a very important role in WiMAX . As compared to
other communication channels the signals are protected by the physical medium which is
comparably stable and robust. There are certain more factors like obstructions, terrain
undulations, relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver, interference, noise created
by some other source can affect the radio channel and these factors are more unpredictable.
These are the some factors which need to be taken care in WiMAX, for example shadowing,
multipath fading, inter symbol interference, Doppler spread, Additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) [9][19].
1.5.1 Spectrum scarcity:-In WiMAX the range of spectrum allocation has a very less as
compared to other wireless network. WiMAX is designed especially for the need of providing
service for increasing number of users and providing flexible applications user services thats
why the designers need to use the spectrum more efficiently [9].
1.5.2 Quality of service:-WiMAX designed to provide a high range of application. An
application can be of different type such as voice, data, video and multimedia [2].
Every application is depend upon the terms like data rate, traffic flow, packet loss, delay and so
on. So it is a challenge to rightly balance the resource allocation with various applications and
users and another factor the QoS requirement across the wireless link, Quality of service has to
be defined for end-to-end users in the network that includes switching a variety of aggregation,
switching and routing elements between the end to end users [9][26].
1.5.3 Latency - Latency is the end-to-end delay of the voice signal from the person on one side
of the conversation to the person on the other end of the conversation. [20].
1.5.4 Packet Loss - Packet loss occurs when one or more of these packets are lost during
transmission. Packet loss can occur due to network congestion or connectivity errors between
end- points. To decrease packet loss in VoIP , the Service Provider should ensure that sufficient
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 9

bandwidth is available for the given VoIP session regardless of whether it is over a wired or
wireless medium [4][20].
1.5.5 Jitters - Jitter is variation in the order and time in which packets are sent and received. In
an attempt to smooth the incoming voice packets, a jitter buffer has been implemented in all
modern VoIP deployments. [8]
1.5.6 Mobility:-The challenge for mobility is comes from the fact of handling roaming and
handoff process. It is very important thing to find the right way of handling the resource
consumption and the performance. The future of WiMAX network consist of IP based network
so it is also important to define the IP-based mobility management [9].
1.5.7 Power consumption:-Power consumption is another very important issue in the WiMAX
network. Portability and mobility are key points in power management. The need of low power
saving protocols, better signal-processing algorithms, circuit-design with low power and
fabrication, and battery technologies with long life are key issues in the field of power
consumption. In WiMAX there is need to search for power efficient transmission schemes and
power saving protocols [9].
1.5.8 Security:- Security is important feature for any network and it is also play important role in
the WiMAX. From the user perspective the privacy and data integrity are the essential
parameters in security and from service providers perspective they want to prevent unauthorized
use of the network resources and provide service per user demand [9].
1.5.9 Support IP in wireless :-IP-based networking has the advantages of cost and flexibility for
supporting more applications and their popularity in the modern communication protocol
However challenges are following like efficient bandwidth, more reliability and quality of
service. These points should be more precise and more flexible and it should be changes
according to the changes in the network [9].
1.6 Features of WiMAX
WiMAX is a wireless broadband solution that offers a rich set of features with a lot of flexibility
in terms of deployment options and potential service are offerings. Some of the more salient
features that deserve highlighting are as follows [19] [24]:
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 10

1.6.1Very high peak data rates: WiMAX is capable of supporting very high peak data rates. In
fact, the peak PHY data rate can be as high as 74Mbps when operating using a 20MHz wide
spectrum. More typically, using a 10MHz spectrum operating using TDD scheme with a 3:1
downlink-to-uplink ratio, the peak PHY data rate is about 25Mbps and 6.7Mbps for the downlink
and the uplink, respectively[19][10].
1.6.2 OFDM-based physical layer: The WiMAX physical layer (PHY) is based on orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing, a scheme that offers good resistance to multipath, and allows
WiMAX to operate in NLOS conditions. OFDM is now widely recognized as the method of
choice for mitigating multipath for broadband wireless [7][10].
1.6.3 Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC): WiMAX supports a number of modulation and
forward error correction (FEC) coding schemes and allows the scheme to be changed on a per
user and per frame basis, based on channel conditions. The adaptation algorithm typically calls
for the use of the highest modulation and coding scheme that can be supported by the signal-to-
noise and interference ratio at the receiver such that each user is provided with the highest
possible data rate [19].
1.6.4 Support for advanced antenna techniques: The WiMAX solution has a number of hooks
built into the physical-layer design, which allows for the use of multiple-antenna techniques,
such as beam forming, space-time coding, and spatial multiplexing. These schemes can be used
to improve the overall system capacity and spectral efficiency by deploying multiple antennas at
the transmitter and/or the receiver [19].
1.6.5 Quality-of-service support: The WiMAX MAC layer has a connection-oriented
architecture that is designed to support a variety of applications, including voice and multimedia
services. The system offers support for QoS parameters such as constant bit rate, variable bit
rate, real-time, and non-real-time traffic flows, in addition to best-effort data traffic. WiMAX
MAC is designed to support a large number of users, with multiple connections per terminal,
each with its own QoS requirement [18][19].
1.6.6 Link-layer retransmissions: For connections that require enhanced reliability, WiMAX
supports automatic retransmission requests (ARQ) at the link layer. ARQ-enabled connections
require each transmitted packet to be acknowledged by the receiver; unacknowledged packets are
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 11

assumed to be lost and are retransmitted. WiMAX also optionally supports hybrid-ARQ, which
is an effective hybrid between FEC and ARQ [19].
1.6.7 IP-based architecture: The WiMAX Forum has defined a reference network architecture
that is based on an all-IP platform [12]. All end-to-end services are delivered over an IP
architecture relying on IP-based protocols for end-to-end transport, QoS, session management,
security, and mobility. Reliance on IP allows WiMAX to ride the declining cost curves of IP
processing, facilitate easy convergence with other networks, and exploit the rich ecosystem for
application development that exists for IP [19].
1.6.8 Robust security: WiMAX supports strong encryption, using Advanced Encryption
Standard (AES), and has a robust privacy and key-management protocol. The system also offers
a very flexible authentication architecture based on Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP),
which allows for a variety of user credentials, including username/password, digital certificates,
and smart cards[19].
1.7 Applications of WiMAX
WiMAX has the potential to replace a number of existing telecommunications infrastructures. In
a fixed wireless configuration, it can replace the telephone company's copper wire networks, the
cable TV's coaxial cable infrastructure while offering Internet Service Provider (ISP) services. In
its mobile variant, WiMAX has the potential to replace cellular networks.[16] This Broadband
technology, which put forward Point-to-Multi Point (PMP) broadband wireless access. It offers
both fixed and mobile broadband wireless Internet access with a high range equal to 30 miles,
and can transport broadband at around 1 gigabits/sec. WiMAX covers large regions such as
metro cities, suburban, or rural, supporting mobile broadband Internet access at speeds similar to
existing broadband. It also provides the mobility features, i.e., connection to Internet will be
always be there even when moving. It permits right to use broadband Internet in high 77.5 miles
per hour vehicular speed [16] [46].
WiMAX major application area is to provide portable mobile broadband connectivity among
different cities and countries. WiMAX makes available coverage areas in miles which is enough
to cover whole city. Even though, WiMAX backhaul can cover entire nation. WiMAX can
presents same speed as a DSL line presents, thus WiMAX use will be cost effective instead of
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 12

deploying DSL line. WiMAX can handle all kinds of network traffics, i.e., voice, video, and data
with Quality of Service (QoS) related issues .
Applications Bandwidth Guidelines Latency Guidelines Suitable QoS Class
Multiplayer
Interactive Gaming
Low 50 kbps Low <100 ms rtPs and UGS
VoIP and Video
conferencing
Low 32-64 kbps Low <160 ms UGS and rtPS
Streaming Media Low to
High
5 kbps to 2
Mbps
NA rtPS
Web Browsing and
Instant Messaging
Moderate 10 kbps to
2 Mbps
NA BE and nrtPS
Media Content
Downloads
High >2Mbps NA BE and nrtPS

Table 1.2 WiMAX Application Classes
The 802.16 standard was designed with different mixture of traffic types. At the same time,
WiMAX has to handle variety of low and high data rate applications (video or audio streaming
and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) respectively) with extremely burst traffic over the
Internet. In 802.16, the signaling and bandwidth allocation algorithms are designed to hold
hundreds of connections per channel and permits different QoS requirements. The bandwidth
and latency requirements of end user applications may be variable in nature, so IEEE 802.16
standard must be flexible and capable over a wide range of various traffic models . From a
technical view, the main issues are exploitation of wireless in broadband network. The crucial
factors have become packet drop, interference and contention. In IEEE 802.16 standard, these
are related with QoS. WiMAX Forum categorizes applications into these types as shown in
Table 2.Each application class has unique features, e.g., the bandwidth, latency and jitter
constraints to guarantee an excellent user demand.


.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 13

1.8 Quality of service in WiMAX
One of the task of MAC layer is to support Quality of service (QoS). This hypothesis is inherited
from QoS design used in the interfaces of Cable service specification. QoS function is built by
using the connection oriented MAC architecture. Both, the downlink as well as the uplink
connections are controlled by a serving base station. Transmission of a message involves
multiple stages. In the first stage a link (unidirectional) is established between corresponding
MAC layers of SS and BS. To uniquely identify the connections a temporary address (which is
used for data transmission) is used as a connection identifier [19]. The service flow of WiMAX
is defined by a unidirectional flow of different packets having a definite set of parameters for
QoS. [9][16].
The WiMAX defines four different categories of QoS which are [2] :
1.8.1Unsolicited Grant Services (UGS): It supports flows of real time services in which
fixed size data packets are generated after a specific time interval. The defining Qos parameters
for UGS is maximum sustained rate, maximum latency tolerance and jitter tolerance. Application
example of UGS is VoIP and T1/E1. In VoIP the size voice-packets generated by the voice users
are not the same always as the users or voice codecs have variable data rates. Thus in UGS, a
large number of uplink resources are wasted because the bandwidth allocation by the BS is
always fixed and every time the amount of uplink resources that is assigned to each user, is same
regardless of his/her voice status [4][25].
1.8.2 Real Time Polling Service (rtPS): In this, only sufficient uplink resources for
unicast bandwidth requests are assigned to the users by the base station. The transportation of
data in this algorithm is more efficient than UGS because always a bandwidth request process of
size equal to the required size by user. It supports flows of real time services in which variable
size data packets are generated after a specific time interval. The defining QoS parameters for
rtps is minimum reserved rate, maximum sustained rate, maximum latency tolerance and traffic
priority. Application example of rtPS is streaming audio or video, MPEG (Motion Picture
Experts Group) encoded [4][5][6].
1.8.3 Non Real Time Polling Service (nrtPS): It supports the services like File Transfer
Protocol in which delay can be tolerated. The defining QoS parameters for nrtps is minimum
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 14

reserved rate, maximum sustained rate and traffic priority and the Application supported by nrtps
is file transfer protocol [4][5][6].
1.8.4 Best Effort (BE) service: Some services like web browsing does not have any strict
requirement of quality of service. It is designed to support above type of services in which data is
sent if the desired resources are free or available and the defining parameters for BE is maximum
sustained rate traffic priority and the application example of BE is web browsing and simple data
transfer [4][5][6].
1.9 Motivation
WiMAX offers high speed and ubiquitous access which makes available valuable solutions for
quickly and easily deployment for high bandwidth last mile connectivity.
WiMAX supports variety of traffic including real time traffic, non-real time traffic, i.e., Constant
Bit Rate (CBR) and Variable Bit Rate (VBR) respectively. It also supports a widest array of
applications like real time multimedia applications (VoIP and Internet Protocol television
(IPTV)) and other non-real time applications (FTP). The WiMAX standard categorizes the traffic
into four different classes namely Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS), real time Polling Service
(rtPS), non-real time Polling Service (nrtPS) and Best Effort (BE). These are called scheduling
services. For requesting bandwidth, one of the scheduling services is picked by an application
depending on its QoS necessity. WiMAX standard does not classify any preset scheduler for
managing the Uplink (UL) of the packets at the Subscriber Station (SS) for changeable QoS
requirements.
In , attention is focused towards present UL scheduling schemes at the SS in WiMAX where
resources utilization are not proper and different available service flows are suffering from
greater access delay. The objective of the different scheduling algorithm is to enhance the
throughput and optimize the resource usage along with sustaining the QoS of various types of
connections. The factors which are under concerns while designing the scheduling algorithms are
delay, throughput, jitter, starvation, packet loss etc. There have been a lot of researches going on
the designing of an efficient scheduling algorithm for the optimized usage of the resources, but
none of them is capable to optimize all the parameters keeping the computational overhead low.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 15

Thus, we have focused on developing and modifying a scheduling algorithm which will optimize
the usage of the resources in WiMAX networks and will be computationally simple.
1.10 Research Work
The first research work ever done to find the performance on the WiMAX module here the
important aspect is to support the uplink and downlink scheduler in the WiMAX for this there
are three primary types of schedulers are implemented. SIMPLE: a Simple Priority based FCFS
scheduler to provide the real time service flow using the uplink scheduler .RTPS: a real-time
polling service (rtPS) scheduler in this all rtPS connection are able to transmit all data packet in
the queue according to available bandwidth .MBQOS: a migration-based uplink scheduler it is
based on the uplink scheduler of the queue concept and the Qos requirement is met. By using
this scheduling concept in the WiMAX module it provide the Qos provisioning for sophisticated
uplink scheduler. Secondly implement the propagation and error model to allow the simulation
in more realistic scenarios.
To support multimedia application the IEEE 802.16 Standard support different types of service
flows (UGS, rtPS, nrtPS and BE), each with different QoS requirements. However, the
scheduling mechanism is left to be defined by proprietary implementations. Many scheduling
algorithms for the IEEE 802.16 standard have been proposed, but there is a lack of
implementation of more sophisticated scheduler for Qos and find the better result as compared
to previous work .
1.11 Summary
Basics of WiMAX Network are discussed in this chapter .and also discuss its architecture and
the description of WiMAX Standards .





.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 16






Chapter 2
Comprehensive Study of
WiMAX






.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 17

In this section present the basic concept of WiMAX layers and its protocol used in WiMAX. We
discuss the technical details of WiMAX MAC layer and QoS issues related to it. Later chapter ,
various proposed approaches for the scheduling algorithms in the WiMAX are discussed and
analyzed through searching of various online resources, journals, and texts , it has collected the
necessary information for the rest of this system.
2.1 Architecture of WiMAX Scheduling
The proposed module is mainly composed of three layers: the CS (Convergence Sublayer), the
MAC CPS (Common-Part Sublayer) and the PHY layer. At the PHY layer two different PHY
implementations are supported. Figure 2.1 presents a block diagram of the module, illustrating
some of its key components and their interaction. Subsequent sections provide detailed
description of the three layers and the key components of the WiMAX module [21].
The 802.16 MAC layer is divided in to two sublayers. The Convergence Sublayer and the core
MAC layer called MAC Common-Part Sublayer. CS is further sub-divided into two types: the
Packet CS and the ATM CS. Our module implements the Packet CS, designed to work with the
packet-based protocols at higher layers [4][21] .
2.1.1The MAC Sublayer
MAC (Medium Access Control) layer is part of the Data Link Layer specified in the seven-layer
OSI model. It provides a medium-independent interface to PHY layer and efficient management
of PHY resource .The MAC CPS is the main sublayer of the IEEE 802.16 MAC and performs
the fundamental functions of the MAC [21]. The module implements the PMP mode. In PMP
mode BS is responsible of managing communication among multiple SSs. The key
functionalities of the MAC CPS include framing and addressing, generation of MAC
management messages, SS initialization and registration, service flow management, bandwidth
management and scheduling services[4][13].
Typically, MAC is responsible of network entry, creation of protocol data unit (PDU), data
transport based from Quality of Service (QoS), and etc. The MAC Architecture as depicted in
Figure 2.1 comprises of service- specific convergence sublayer and MAC common part sublayer.
These sublayers are discussed below:
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 18


Figure 2.1: MAC Architecture
The MAC handles bandwidth request from mobile stations through the following methods:
contention-based (request) and contention-free (polling). With these methods, the mobile station
can request bandwidth and the base station will allocate some resource. In contention-based
bandwidth request, the mobile station selects a CDMA code randomly from the codes provided
by the base station. This code is modulated and transmitted during an appropriate uplink
allocation. After receiving the CDMA code successfully, the BS allocates the uplink resource to
Mobile station. While in contention-free (polling) process, the BS periodically allocates
bandwidth to the mobile stations [4].
2.1.2 The Convergence Sublayer
The Service-Specific Convergence Sublayer is an interface to upper layer protocols. The CS is
responsible of receiving packet from the higher layer and from peer stations, classifying packets
to appropriate connections (or service flows) and processing packets [21]. It keeps a mapping of
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 19

transport connections to service flows. This enables the MAC CPS identifying the QoS
parameters associated to a transport connection and ensuring the QoS requirements. The CS
currently employs a simple classifier based on destination MAC address [4][17].

Figure 2.2: MAC Service-Specific Convergence Sublayer
The following are two types of convergence sublayer .
1. ATM Convergence Sublayer which is responsible for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) data
transfer.
2. Packet Convergence Sublayer which supports IPv4, IPv6, and Ethernet protocols. The Packet
Convergence Sublayer which supports IP over IEEE 802.16.
2.1.3 Common Part Sublayer
The Common Part Sublayer is designed to support point-to-multipoint architecture. It is
responsible for radio link control, bandwidth request handling, scheduling service, framing, data
packing, fragmentation, and reception/transmission of protocol data unit to PHY interface [21]
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 20

The Common Part Sublayer is responsible for creating MAC protocol data unit. The MAC PDU
is depicted in Figure 2.3. It comprises a GMH (Generic MAC Header), data payload and a 32-bit
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The GMH contains the header type, MAC PDU length, and
the CID (Connection ID).

MAC PDU (Protocol Data unit )
GMH Payload CRC


H
T
E
C
Type(6) E
S
F
C
I
E
K
S
R
S
V
LEN MSB
LEN SB (8)

CID MSB (8)
CID LSB (8)

HCS (8)

Figure 2.3: MAC Protocol Data Unit Structure
The main CPS functionalities are: connection establishment and management, generation of
MAC signaling, service flow management and scheduling.
The MAC protocol is connection-oriented in this all traffic is mapped onto connections which
are uniquely identified by the connection identifier (CID).
One of the main roles of MAC signaling is the negotiation of the bandwidth. This can be done
with stand alone bandwidth request messages or piggybacked in data packets. The uplink
scheduler at BS side decides which SSs among the ones have requested bandwidth can transmit
in the next uplink subframe [21].
2.2 The IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) Frame Structure
A frame is made up of several time slots. These time slots are combination of the symbols and a
symbol is a group of some bits. Thus, the job of the scheduler is to decide how to allocate these
bits or symbols to different connections so as to optimize the resource usage. Therefore, it is very
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 21

important to know about a frame. A frame has two sub-frames: UL sub-frame and DL sub-frame
as shown in Figure 2.4. In the DL sub-frame, only the BS to the SS communication is allowed
for sending the data and control information to the SSs and the UL sub-frame is used by the SSs
for data communication to the BS. These may be of equal or different durations as decided by the
BS. Now, the BS decides about different durations of the sub-frames [3]. The frame time may
vary from 2 ms to 200 ms.

Figure 2.4 : UL and DL sub-frame of a WiMAX frame [8]
There are two duplexing scheme exploited for DL and UL sub-frames may be Time Division
Duplexing (TDD) and Frequency Division Duplex or Duplexing (FDD). In TDD mode, same
frequency is used for both the UL and DL sub-frame transmissions except the time. In WiMAX,
a large amount of the traffic is transferred from the BS to the SS. Therefore, it is understood that
the DL sub-frame size is greater than the UL Sub-frame but it may differ according to
circumstances [26][33] . In FDD mode, different frequencies are used for both the UL and DL
sub-frame transmissions. Therefore, they are sent at the same time. Here, 802.16 systems with
TDD mode are used.
The unit of transmission at the MAC layer is a packet burst. The module implements a special
Packet Burst data structure .A packet burst is essentially a list of packets. As seen in Figure 2.5,
the BS downlink and uplink schedulers are responsible of generating DL and UL subframes,
respectively. In the case of DL, the subframe is simulated by transmitting consecutive bursts.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 22

In case of UL, the subframe is divided, with respect to time, into a number of slots. The bursts
transmitted by the SSs in these slots are then aligned to slot boundaries. The frame is divided into
integer number of symbols and PS (Physical Slots) which helps in managing bandwidth more
effectively. The number of symbols per frame depends on the underlying implementation of the
PHY layer .The size of a DL or UL burst is specified in units of symbols [3].
2.2.1 OFDM Frame structure
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a transmission method in which the
total available bandwidth is divided into many sub-carriers and allocates users in time domain.
the data stream in OFDM system is divided into several sub-streams, the duration of the symbol
is increased, which improves the robustness of OFDM to delay spread.
Figure 2.6 shows the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) frame structure for
a TDD implementation. Each frame has two parts DL and UL sub- frames separated by
Transmit/receive Transition Gap (TTG) and Receive/transmit Transition Gap (RTG) to prevent
DL and UL transmission collisions [21]. For preventing DL and UL transmission conflicts, TTG
and RTG, are used to separate two parts DL and UL sub-frames of a frame. To guarantee optimal
system operation in a frame, the following control information are applied:
Preamble: It is basically utilized for synchronization [10].
Frame Control Header (FCH): The FCH comes after the preamble. It makes available the frame
pattern information, e.g., MAP message length, coding scheme and usable sub-channels.

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 23


Figure 2.5: A simple OFDM frame structure [4]
2.3 Functional Entities for QoS Support
Figure 2.7 shows the well designed unit for QoS support, which logically exists within the MAC
layer of the BS and the SSs.
(a).According to the set of QoS parameters and the queues status, on a frame basis, the BS DL
scheduler chooses from the DL queues for the next SDUs elected for transmission to the SSs.
Alternatively, UL connection queues exists in the SSs.
(b) The right to use for medium in the UL direction is controlled by the BS and the SSs demands
bandwidth on the requirement basis.
(c) According to the sum of bandwidth requested, the BS UL scheduler calculates approximately
the remaining backlog at each UL connection


.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 24


Figure 2.6: Functional entities for QoS support [21]
2.4 PMP Working in WiMAX
In WiMAX, PMP topology has a central Base Station (BS) and many SSs. The SS sends the
bandwidth requests to BS. BS allocates the CID to SS for authorization [18]. All the traffic
passed from the BS. Figure 2.8 the PMP operation in WiMAX networks. There are two modes
for communication in the WiMAX PMP architecture: Down Link (DL) and UL. In DL, the BS
can communicate with the SS which is broadcast while, in UL SS can communicate with the BS.
Following steps take place in PMP procedure [9][16]:
1. Multiple independent sectors can be handled with a sectorized antenna and a central BS in
IEEE 802.16 standard.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 25

2. In case, where DL-MAP does not show that which specific SS is serviced in this portion of the
DL sub-frame, then capable SSs listen to that portion of the DL sub-frame and checks the CIDs
in the received Protocol Data Units (PDUs) to keep only those PDUs addressed to their CIDs.
3. On a demand, the SSs share the UL to the BS. On the basis of service class used, the SS may
get continuing rights to transmit; otherwise the BS may grant rights to transmit after receiving
request from the user.
4. Messages may be addressed individually and messages may also be addressed to multicast
connections (i.e., control messages and video distribution) or broadcast to all stations.
5 .QoS Provisioning - The most important mechanism acknowledged by the Transport CID in
which packets are associated to traverse the MAC interface into a service flow for providing
QoS. A unidirectional transport of packets for getting specified QoS is known as a service flow.
This QoS is provided by the SS and the BS. According to this QoS, parameters are set for the
service flow.
6. Service Flows - A service flow that makes available unidirectional flow of packets either the
SS transmits UL packets to the BS or the BS transmits DL packets to the SS, is a MAC transport
service.
A service flow is illustrated by the following features:
(a). SFID: Each existing service flow has SFID. In the SS, the SFID is the main identifier for the
service flow. An SFID and an associated direction are needed for a service flow.
(b). CID: When the service flow is in state of admitted or active then only CID of the transport
connection is present. If there is any connection between SFID and Transport CID then it will be
unique. There is only one to one association between SFID and Transport CID.
2.5 Scheduling Services
The WiMAX module supports the four scheduling services (UGS, rtPS, nrtPS, BE) defined by
the 802.16-2004 standard. These scheduling services behave differently with respect to how they
request bandwidth as well as how it is granted. Each service flow is associated to exactly one
scheduling service, and the QoS parameter set associated to a service flow actually defines the
scheduling service it belongs to.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 26


Figure 2.7: PMP operations [16]
Table 1 lists the mandatory QoS parameters defined by the standard that must be supported by a
scheduling service [17]. When a service flow is created the Uplink Scheduler calculates
necessary parameters such as grant size and grant interval based on QoS parameters associated to
it. For the real-time services (UGS and rtPS) the BS then allocates grants/polls on regular basis,
based on the calculated interval. For the non-real-time services (nrtPS and BE) only minimum
reserved bandwidth is guaranteed, if available after servicing real-time flows [4] [7].
Scheduling services use MAC scheduler for managing the data handling mechanisms in favor of
data flow on a connection. Only one scheduling service may available for a connection. A
scheduling service is chosen for getting particular QoS and that QoS set parameters enumerate
features of its behavior. There may be a variety of parameters e.g., tolerated jitter, SDU size,
minimum reserved traffic rate, maximum latency, grant scheduling type, unsolicited grant
interval . Various scheduling services and there usage rules are shown in Table 2.1[17].

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 27

Service
Type
Piggy Back
Request
Bandwidth
Stealing
Description QoS Parameter
UGS Not Allowed Not
Allowed
Supports real time constant
bit rate services , such as
Voip without silence
suppression
Maximum sustained
traffic rate ,Maximum
latency , tolerated jitter
rtPS Allowed Allowed Supports real time data with
variable bit rate , such as
VoIP with silence
suppression ,MPEG
Minimum reserved
traffic rate , Max ,
sustained traffic rate ,
Maximum Latency
nrtPS Allowed Allowed Supports non real time
services that requires
variable size data grant burst
on a regular basis , such as
FTP
Minimum reserved
traffic rate , maximum
sustained traffic rate ,
traffic priority .
BE
(Best
Effort )
Allowed Allowed For application that do not
require QoS , such s Web
surfing
Maximum sustained
traffic Rate
Request/transmission
Policy

Table 2.1: Scheduling services and their usage rules.
2.5.1 UGS Scheduling
UGS (Unsolicited Grant Service) is designed for real-time applications with fixed packet size. It
guarantees bandwidth on real-time basis, by allocating the flow UL grants on regular basis. The
key parameters for this service are tolerated jitter, maximum latency and minimum reserved
traffic rate. The Minimum reserved traffic rate parameter specifies the minimum bandwidth (in
bps) that must be reserved for the flow. These parameters are supplied by the user while setting
up the service flow. Based on these parameters, the BS calculates the interval, called unsolicited
grant interval, when the service flow must be allocated a grant. The Downlink Scheduler, while
scheduling UGS traffic, must ensure that the latency requirements of the flow are met. [3][4].
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 28

2.5.2 rtPS Scheduling
rtPS (Real-Time Polling Service) is designed for real-time applications with variable packet size,
and is ensured UL grants on periodic basis. For a rtPS flow, the BS polls the SS with a special
grant, referred to as request opportunity, allowing it to send bandwidth request. The BS in
response allocates sufficient bandwidth in the subsequent frames.
This mechanism enables the SS to specify the size of the grant, to meet flow's variable size
traffic needs. However, compared to UGS, rtPS incurs more overhead due to the bandwidth
request packets. The key parameters for rtPS service are maximum latency and minimum
reserved traffic rate. The BS, based on these parameters, calculates the polling interval
(unsolicited polling interval). The Like UGS, the Downlink Scheduler makes sure that the
latency requirements of the flow are met. [3][4].
2.5.3 nrtPS Scheduling
The only difference between rtPS and nrtPS (Non-Real-Time Polling Service) is that the latter is
designed for non- real-time applications. nrtPS flows are not polled on periodic basis and instead
only when sufficient bandwidth is available. SS then specifies the size of the grant through the
bandwidth request packet and BS responds by allocating sufficient bandwidth only when
available. However the BS ensures the flow of the minimum bandwidth (based on minimum
reserved traffic rate parameter) by periodically monitoring total bandwidth granted to the flow.
Currently this period is set to one second. [3][4].
2.5.4 BE Scheduling
BE (Best Effort) service, as the name suggests, is designed for the low priority best effort
applications. For a BE flow, the scheduler allocates bandwidth only when sufficient bandwidth is
available after servicing higher priority flows. No minimum bandwidth is guaranteed for this
service [3][4].
2.6 Summary
Various concepts of WiMAX network are discussed in this chapter. Description of WiMAX
layer, protocol and the working of WiMAX layer are described in detail .

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 29









Chapter 3
Literature Survey






.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 30

This chapter is the study of existing WiMAX Module and issues regarding the existing system
& there method of approach. In this detailed description of existing technique have described
like what is WiMAX and its scheduling, how its working,
Moreover it described the performance parameter of information of WiMAX module and how
can we improve them. Some approach of already discovered research work and many more.
3.1 Review of Literature
Here it has taken numerous researches under consideration. This literature review looks at the
research that has been published in the area of WiMAX 802.16 as it relates to the WiMAX
scheduling.
It compares and contrasts the research pointing out overall trends in what has already been
published on this subject. It analyzes the role of WiMAX scheduling that played and will play in
the future relative as quality of service and provide more feature.
By reviewing both scholarly and non-scholarly works, It is our objective to make a better
approach that is continuing research into the use of WiMAX module in preserving the future of
Scheduling. All the papers represent various programming models that exist and the issues that
exist in programming the WiMAX scheduling. The papers can belong to one or more of the
following categories:
Specific Articles
Overview Articles
Scientific Articles
General Articles
A table is presented, categorizing the literature in the various categories. In the last section the
summaries of the papers will be given with some comments.
3.2 Algorithms in WiMAX
WiMAX does not have any particular standard scheduling algorithm for providing specific QoS,
several scheduling mechanisms have been adopted and implemented. These scheduling
algorithms take into account various characteristics for optimized bandwidth usage like delay,
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 31

fairness, throughput, packet loss, starvation etc. Usually, the present and familiar scheduling
algorithms like Round Robin, Weighted Round Robin, and Deficit Round Robin etc. are not
suitable for WiMAX as they were originally developed for wired medium. In wireless medium,
particularly in the WiMAX PMP architecture where there is a one common BS which is
accountable for managing all types of traffic having changeable QoS concerns and a special
frame structure with special physical medium modulation. Therefore, there must be some
scheduling algorithms specific to WiMAX so as to optimize the handling of the present resources
and guarantee QoS. In this section, we will broadly categorize a variety of scheduling algorithms
proposed particularly for WiMAX.
3.3 A brief description of research paper
Few literatures describe the work that already done in the wireless network & related fields are
explored are as follows:
[1] Najah Abu Ali , Pratik Dhrona , Hossam Hassanein performance study of uplink
scheduling algorithms in point-to-multipoint WiMAX networks [1]
Abstract -The IEEE 802.16 standard defines the specifications for medium access control
(MAC) and physical (PHY) layers of WiMAX networks. A critical part of the MAC layer
specification is packet scheduling, which resolves contention for bandwidth and determines the
transmission order of users. Evaluating the performance packet scheduling algorithms is of
utmost importance towards realizing large-scale WiMAX deployment. In this paper, it conduct a
comprehensive performance study of scheduling algorithms in point-to-multipoint mode of
OFDM-based WiMAX networks. It evaluate the algorithms with respect to their abilities to
support multiple classes of service, providing quality of service (QoS) guarantees, fairness
amongst service classes and bandwidth utilization.
Summary of Paper - The aim of this. Work is to allow a thorough understanding of the relative
performance of representative uplink scheduling schemes and subsequently utilize the results to
address their scarcity in designing more efficient schemes. They focus the work on implementing
representative algorithms for the uplink traffic in OFDM WiMAX physical layer. Another major
contribution of this work is evaluating the algorithms using traffic models specifically designed
for WiMAX to represent its diverse applications incorporating the mandatory and some optional
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 32

parameters of all the traffic classes as specified in the IEEE 802.16-2004 standard. our analysis
indicates that none of the current algorithms is capable of providing efficient, fair, and robust
scheduler to support all the WiMAX classes. As well, the analysis and conclusions from this
study can be used in understanding the strengths and weaknesses of current scheduling
algorithms and thus designing efficient scheduling algorithms that addresses some or all of these
weaknesses. The study is also beneficial to WiMAX BSs and SSs manufacturers, vendors and
operators in that it provides a baseline to choose appropriate scheduling algorithms dependingon
the traffic profiles in their network.
[2] Kalpalatha Sankarasubramaniam Srikanth Subramanian A Performance Study of
Uplink Scheduling in WiMAX Network [2]
Abstract The IEEE 802.16 provides QOS support, but it does not specify the details of how
the QOS can be achieved for different types of applications. Bandwidth scheduling is one
method by which the QOS requirements can be met. The amount of bandwidth allocated to
different application depends on the type of scheduling algorithm implemented at the Base
station and Subscriber station. The scheduling algorithm should be efficient. Lot of parameters
like number of subscribers, upper bound on delay, jitter and bandwidth etc should be considered.
Summary of Paper - This paper presents a survey of simple uplink scheduling algorithms for
WiMAX. They have also carried out a simulation study of BE scheduling service on the uplink.
The simulation is carried out using the NS2 simulator with the NIST implementation ver2.6 of
WiMAX module. They used the implementation to present our analysis. Presently it supports
Different QOS service classes and has implemented the OFDMA PHY layer. In this Earliest
Deadline first concept are described. This algorithm considers the delay requirements of a
service class while allocating bandwidth. Packets of SS having lower delay requirement are
serviced first. This algorithm suits UGS and rtPS service class since they have strict bounds on
delay requirements. If there are large number of UGS and rtps service class, packets of nrtps and
BE service class will get affected..Here describe the various scenarios used to analyze the BE
traffic and analysis of the results.
[3] DivyaSaxena , Aditya Trivedi , Tarun Kulshrestha An Advanced Uplink Scheduling
at Subscriber Station for Real Time Services in WiMAX [3]
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 33

Abstract- High mobility and need for data access with high speed, brings the Broadband
Wireless Access (BWA) like WiMAX in forefront. IEEE Standard does not offer any standard
scheduling algorithm and till now, it is an open issue for research. The objectives of the
scheduling are resource optimization with high throughput and low computational complexity. In
this paper, They propose a scheduling algorithm based on a virtual frame concept for the
Subscriber Stations (SSs) of the WiMAX. Simulation sare performed in Network Simulator 2
(NS2) for verification of the proposed scheme. The simulation results show that by using the
proposed Advanced Scheduler (AS) approach the response time to BS decreased to 16.02% in
comparison to queue length aware approach. The proposed approach optimizes the usage of the
bandwidth and resources in the WiMAX networks by including intelligence for different service
flows at the SSs. Moreover, it does fair management of lower class services such as non real-
time Polling Service (nrtPS) and Best Effort (BE) in comparison to Unsolicited Grant Service
(UGS) and real time Polling Service (rtPS).
Summary of Paper In this paper, an UL scheduling algorithm for IEEE 802.16 networks
applicable for SSs, referred to as the Advanced Scheduler (AS) is proposed and
evaluated. The unique feature of this scheduler is its ability to prepare the time
frames before actual time, referred as virtual frame and reduce time consumption at the initial
phase of frame formation. AS also deals with starvation problem whereas in the queue length
aware approach, time frames are created after the bandwidth request are granted through the
BS using strict priority order for real time services.
[4] Marcio Andrey Teixeira and Paulo Roberto Guardieiro A new and efficient adaptive
scheduling packets for the uplink traffic in WiMAX networks [8]
Abstract - In this article, an adaptive scheduling packets algorithm for the uplink traffic in
WiMAX networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm is designed to be completely dynamic,
mainly in networks that use various modulation and coding schemes (MCSs). Using a cross-layer
approach and the states of the uplink virtual queues in the base station, it was defined a new
deadlines-based scheme, aiming at limiting the maximum delay to the real-time applications.
Moreover, a method which interacts with the polling mechanisms of the base station was
developed. This method controls the periodicity of sending unicast polling to the real-time and
non-real-time service classes, in accordance with the quality of service requirements of the
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 34

applications. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by means of modeling and simulation in
environments where various MCSs were used and also in an environment where only one type of
MCS was used. The simulations showed satisfactory results in both environments.
Summary of Paper - In this article, a new and efficient scheduling algorithm for uplink traffic
in WiMAX networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm is applied directly to the uplink
virtual queues in the BS and aims at supporting the real-time and non-real-time applications.
Using a cross-layer approach and based on the earliest deadline first (EDF) scheduling, a new
deadlines-based scheme for the real-time applications was defined.
[5] M.A. Ismail ,G. Piro, L.A. Grieco, T. TurlettiAn Improved IEEE 802.16 WiMAX
Module for the NS-3 Simulator [10]
Abstract - IEEE 802.16 WiMAX is a promising new wireless technology for providing
broadband ubiquitous network access. As more and more researchers and industrials are
interested in simulating such networks, a number of WiMAX simulators have been emerged in
the networking community. One of the most recent WiMAX simulators is the one developed for
ns-3. This module provides a standard compliant and well designed implementation of the
standard and benefits from the major enhancements provided by ns-3 (compared to other
network simulators) which has all the capabilities of becoming the leading network simulator in
near future. However, this WiMAX module still lacks some important features which motivated
this work. A realistic and scalable physical model is an IP packet classifier for the convergence
sub-layer, efficient uplink and downlink schedulers, support for multicast traffic and pcap packet
tracing functionality. The new design of the physical layer has improved the simulation time by
several magnitude orders while still providing a realistic implementation of the standard.
Summary of Paper In this work, they describe the enhancements that have added to the ns-3
WiMAX module in order to overcome its main limitations. The most important features added
are:(1) a realistic and scalable physical model; (2) an IP packet classifier for the convergence
sub-layer; (3) efficient uplink and downlink schedulers; (4) support for multicast traffic; and (5)
pcap packet tracing functionality. The new physical layer has improved the simulation time by
several magnitude orders while still providing a realistic implementation of the standard.
Furthermore, the IP classifier has enabled the simulation of an unlimited number of service flows
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 35

per subscriber station, while the proposed schedulers improve the management of the QoS
requirements for the different service flows.
[6] Zeynep Yurdakul, Sema Oktug A Hierarchical Channel-Aware Uplink Scheduler For
WiMAX Base Stations[11]
Abstract In this author propose a RED-based Weighted Fair Priority Queuing algorithm for
inter-class scheduling and a channel aware algorithm for intra-class scheduling. Weights of the
service classes are adaptive according to the QoS requirements of each service class. Weights of
the subscriber stations are assigned based on their channel quality and bandwidth requests.
Simulation results show that overall system throughput is improved without starving lower
priority service.
Summary of Paper There are some scheduling algorithms proposed for uplink scheduling
like Round-Robin (RR), Maximum Signal-to- Interference Ratio (mSIR) for intra-class
scheduling and Strict Priority (SP) and Random Early Detection based Deficit Fair Priority
Queuing (RED-based DFPQ) for interclass scheduling. In this paper, we propose a new uplink
schedulingalgorithm which handles both inter-class and intra-classscheduling. The algorithm
uses a RED-based Weighted FairPriority Queuing technique takes SNR variation intoaccount.
[7] Perumalraja Rengaraju, Chung-Horng Lung Anand Srinivasan QoS Assured Uplink
Scheduler for WiMAX Networks [13]
Abstract - The primary concern of broadband wireless technologies is to provide the end-to-end
Quality of Service (QoS) for integrated real-time and non real-time applications. The main focus
of the IEEE 802.16d/e MAC layer is to manage the radio recourse in an efficient way. The basic
functional blocks of the QoS model are addressed by the standards to support five different types
of service classes. However, the detailed admission control, radio resource management and
scheduling are left for implementation perspective and many research efforts are on going to
assure the QoS for end customers. In this paper They proposed a hybrid uplink scheduling
algorithm (P+E) for subscriber station (SS), which is the combination of priority and Earliest
Due Date (EDD) scheduling methods to maintain QoS and utilize the radio resource allocated by
the BS in an efficient manner. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed
hybrid scheduling algorithm.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 36

Summary of Paper - Many uplink scheduling algorithms have been analyzed for the WiMAX
network environment. The priority schedulers are often used in practical implementations, but
they do not guarantee the specified QoS for BE and nrtPS. On the other hand, the EDD scheduler
guarantees the specified QoS for all the service classes, other than UGS. In this work, combine
these priority and EDD schedulers to improve the QoS for nrtPS and BE service classes, while
keeping the QoS requirements satisfied for other classes at the same time.
[8] Chakchai So-In, Student Member, IEEE, Raj Jain, Fellow, IEEE, and Abdel-Karim
Tamimi, Student Member, IEEE Scheduling in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks:
Key Issues and a Survey [16]
AbstractInterest in broadband wireless access (BWA) has been growing due to increased user
mobility and the need for data access at all times. IEEE 802.16e based WiMAX networks
promise the best available quality of experience for mobile data service users. Unlike wireless
LANs, WiMAX networks incorporate several quality of service (QoS) mechanisms at theMedia
Access Control (MAC) level for guaranteed services for data, voice and video. The problem of
assuring QoS is basically that of how to allocate available resources among users in order to
meet the QoS criteria such as delay, delay jitter and throughput requirements. IEEE standard
does not include a standard scheduling mechanism and leaves it for implementer differentiation.
Scheduling is, therefore, of special interest to all WiMAX equipment makers and service
providers. This paper discusses the key issues and design factors to be considered or scheduler
designers. In addition, we present an extensive survey of recent scheduling research. We classify
the proposed mechanisms based on the use of channel conditions. The goals of scheduling are to
achieve the optimal usage of resources, to assure the QoS guarantees, to maximize throughput
and to minimize power consumption while ensuring feasible algorithm complexity and system
scalability
Summary of Paper In this paper they describe survey report of the various types of scheduling
algorithm and its comparison and discuss about its pros and cons .here compare and summarize
several proposed mapping algorithms for WiMAX networks. Notice that each algorithm has its
own pros and cons and complexity tradeoffs.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 37

Scheduling is the main component of the MAC layer that helps assure QoS to various service
classes. The scheduler works as a distributor to allocate the resources among MSs. The allocated
resource can be defined as the number of slots and then these slots are mapped into a number of
sub-channels (each sub-channel is a group of multiple physical subcarriers) and time duration
(OFDM symbols). In OFDMA, the smallest logical unit for bandwidth allocation is a slot. The
definition of slot depends upon the direction of traffic (downlink/uplink) and sub-channelization
modes.
The primary goal of a WiMAX scheduler is to assure the QoS requirements; the scheduler needs
to support at least the five basic classes of services with QoS assurance. To ensure this, some
proposed algorithms have indirectly applied or modified existing scheduling disciplines for each
WiMAX QoS class of services. Each class has its own distinct characteristics such as the hard-
bound delay for rtPS and ertPS. Most proposed algorithms have applied some basic algorithms
proposed in wired/wireless networks to WiMAX networks such as variations of RR and WFQ.
For example, to schedule within a class, RR and WFQ are common approaches for nrtPS and BE
and EDF for UGS and rtPS .The priority-based algorithm is commonly used for scheduling
between the classes. For example, UGS and rtPS are given the same priority which is also the
highest priority .There are three distinct scheduling processes: two at the BS - one for downlink
and the other for uplink and one at the MS for uplink . At the BS, packets from the upper layer
are put into different queues, which ideally is per-CID queue in order to prevent head of line
(HOL) blocking. However, the optimization of queue can be done and the number of required
queues can be reduced. Then, based on the QoS parameters and some extra information such as
the channel state condition, the DL-BS scheduler decides which queue to service and how many
service data units (SDUs) should be transmitted to the MSs. Several ways to send bandwidth
requests were described.
[9] Chirayu Nagaraju and Mahasweta Sarkar, Member IEEE A Packet Scheduling To
Enhance Quality of Service in IEEE 802.16 [19]
Abstract - The QoS differentiation process is often unfair especially to traffic classes which do
not require high QoS. Such traffic classes are often starved to the extent that they experience
extremely low throughput. In this paper, we look into a scheduling algorithm for providing QoS
in Wireless Broadband Networks which alleviates this unfairness. The algorithm implements two
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 38

queuing theory principles - Earliest Deadline First (EDF) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) to
assure QoS to various classes of traffic. We propose an enhancement to the EDF queuing
principle to ensure that lower priority traffic do not starve. The simulation results show
considerable improvement in the throughput of low priority traffic while retaining the packet
delay constraint of the high priority traffic classes.
Summary of Paper Here Packet Scheduling with QoS are used in this, Enhanced earliest
deadline algorithm is improved with the intention that the lower priority service flow will not
suffer from starvation. The most important part of this algorithm is that novel packets produced
at application level are fragmented to guarantee that these packets well fit into and can be sent to
time slot. Whenever packet fragmentation is done, the fragmented packet, which is in end, might
be of less size that is allowable for transmission to a slot. If it exists then the last fragment can be
filled with lower priority BE service flow.
[10] Juliana Freitag and Nelson L. S. da Fonseca Uplink Scheduling with Quality of
Service in IEEE 802.16 Networks [24]
AbstractIn order to support real-time and bandwidth demanding applications the IEEE 802.16
standard is expected to provide Quality of Service (QoS). Although the standard defines a QoS
signaling framework and four service levels, scheduling mechanisms for this network are
unspecified. In this paper, author proposes a scheduling discipline for uplink traffic. Simulation
results show that our scheme is capable to provide QoS. Moreover it shares fairly the resources
among connections of the same service type.
Summary of Paper Here UL Scheduling with QoS are used , In this paper , for the BS UL
scheduler, there are three queues for different available traffics such as low, medium and high
priority queue. Here, the scheduler uses strict priority sequence for serving these service flows.
The high priority is assigned to UGS traffic, medium priority is for rtPS and nrtPS connections
whereas low priority is given to BE connections. Now, rtPS and nrtPS requests can move to the
high priority queue to meet QoS requirements. Drawback of this approach is that for migrating
rtPS and nrtPS request, each time request is deleted from intermediate priority queue and
inserted into high priority queue which gives burden to the BS because the BS is the place where
several decisions are taken within seconds for better network performance.

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 39

[11] Qingwen Liu, Student Member, IEEE, Xin Wang, Member, IEEE, and Georgios B.
Giannakis, Fellow, IEEE A Cross-Layer Scheduling Algorithm With QoS Support in
Wireless Networks[35]
AbstractScheduling plays an important role in providing quality of service (QoS) support to
multimedia communications in various kinds of wireless networks, including cellular networks,
mobile ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. The authors propose a scheduling
algorithm at the medium access control(MAC) layer for multiple connections with diverse QoS
requirements ,where each connection employs adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) scheme
at the physical (PHY) layer over wireless fading channels. Each connection is assigned a priority,
which is updated dynamically based on its channel and service status; the connection with the
highest priority is scheduled each time .The authors scheduler provides diverse QoS guarantees,
uses the wireless bandwidth efficiently, and enjoys flexibility, scalability, and low
implementation complexity. Its performance is evaluated via simulations.
Summary of Paper -In this paper, they introduce a priority-based scheduler at the medium
access control (MAC) layer for multiple connections with diverse QoS requirements, where each
connection employs adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) scheme at the physical (PHY)
layer. We define a priority function (PRF) for each connection admitted in the system and update
it dynamically depending on the wireless channel quality, QoS satisfaction, and service priority
across layers. Thus, the connection with the highest priority is scheduled each time. The
scheduler provides prescribed QoS guarantees and utilizes the wireless bandwidth efficiently
while enjoying low implementation complexity, flexibility, and scalability.
[12] Claudio Cicconetti, Luciano Lenzini, and Enzo Mingozzi Quality of Service Support
in IEEE 802.16 Networks[36]
Abstract -This has boosted the use of a wide variety both of established and recent multimedia
applications. One of the features of the MAC layer of 802.16 is that it is designed to differentiate
service among traffic categories with different multimedia a requirements. This article focuses
on mechanisms that are available in an 802.16 system to support quality of service (QoS) and
whose effectiveness is evaluated through simulation.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 40

Summary of Paper - In this article, They review and analyze the mechanisms for supporting
QoS at the IEEE 802.16 MAC layer. Then analyze by simulation the performance of IEEE
802.16 in two application scenarios, which consist of providing last-mile Internet access for
residential and SME subscribers, respectively. The analysis is aimed at showing the effectiveness
of the 802.16 MAC protocol in providing differentiated services to applications with different
QoS requirements, such as VoIP and Web.
[13] Matthew Andrews Probabilistic End-to-End Delay Bounds for Earliest Deadline First
Scheduling [38]
Abstract- They analyzes the Earliest-Deadline-First (EDF) scheduling discipline within the
framework of statistical multiplexing. Derive techniques for bounding the probability of delay
violations when the session injections are independent. This enables us to determine whether a
given set of sessions can all meet their delay bounds with the required violation probability.
These techniques can be used by a Connection Admission Control (CAC) scheme to decide
whether to admit a new session. Our analysis applies to both the single node problem and the
network problem in which the sessions have multiple hops. It also gives extensive numerical
results to illustrate how our bounds may be calculated.
Summary of Paper - In this paper they assume that the service at a server is preemptive but
non-cut-through. By preemptive mean that a server can serve more than one packet
simultaneously and can transfer service from one packet to another before the first packet is fully
served. They allow preemptive service in order to simplify the analysis.
[14] Yaser P. Fallah Panos Nasiopoulos Raja Sengupta Fair Scheduling for Real-Time
Multimedia Support in IEEE 802.16 Wireless Access Networks[45]
Abstract - In this the author review the quality of service features of access networks such as the
802.16 standard, and identify algorithms and schemes that are needed for supporting multimedia
traffic in such networks. The 802.16 standard only specifies the features that should be
implemented and leaves the design of a quality of service solution to developers. This includes
the design of a mandatory scheduling framework. They present a comprehensive multimedia
support framework based on the standard features. The framework specifies the architectures for
the base station and the subscriber station, and contributes a number of algorithms for different
service provisioning objectives. They use the concept of virtual packets to provide fair packet
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 41

based centralized scheduling of uplink and downlink packets. The presented solution also
provides algorithms for temporal and throughput fair scheduling in multi rate physical layer of
the 802.16 networks. An important part of the presented design is a multi-class fair scheduling
scheme which is proposed for providing better delay performance for real time applications,
while maintaining slightly longer term fairness.
Summary of Paper - In this paper, they present a detailed architecture and its supporting
algorithms for providing fair multi-class services for uplink and downlink flows in an 802.16
MAC, considering the multi rate operation. The proposed architecture also allows for other
algorithms to be used as its components. They note that, providing fairness is necessary in cases
that customers expect to receive a fair service according to their contract. Fairness becomes
especially important in the case of multi rate operation of the PHY, due to the fact that one
stations poor channel may degrade service quality for others.
3.4 Categorization
The following section gives a brief categorized overview of the papers in the categories
Specific, Overview, Scientific and General, followed by detailed discussion of some of the
most relevant papers. A paper in the category specific describes one aspect of a subject into
detail. A paper in the category overview will give a broad view of the subject. To the third
category, Scientific, belongs the papers that contain a systematic approach of the subject or
stick to the exact science. The papers that do not belong to any one these categories are labeled
as General papers.







.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 42

S.No Reference No. Specific Overview Scientific General
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 8
5 10
6 11
7 13
8 16
9 19
10 24
11 35
12 36
13 38
14 45
Table 3.1 Literature Categorization
3.5 Problem Formulation
For the problem formulation as we know the WiMAX is the still an open research area .The
design of WiMAX network is specially challenging because the wireless communication channel
is constantly varying. WiMAX is access for the broadband wireless technology for this WiMAX
has required high transmission rate with the better quality of service framework, enabling
efficient scalable network for data video and voice. To provide all these feature there various
types of scheduling concept are implemented. By analyzing the previous concept we formulate
the new method of scheduling to provide the better result and reduced the delay on the WiMAX
network.
In the scheduling when the data are transmitted, it transmits the data in strict priority order from
high to low priority order. we solve the problem when the data in the intermediate queue.
When data are transmit from intermediate queue to high priority queue. The intermediate queue
hold the bandwidth request sent by the rtPS and nrtPS at that time request are transmitted from
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 43

intermediate queue by the availability of data on it. For the availability of data on high priority
all the time from intermediate queue we used the earliest deadline.
We use the earliest deadline method in the intermediate queue to provide the availability of data
on the high priority queue. By this concept the high priority queue does not wait for the request
of data. In the earliest deadline it selects the SSs based on delay requirement. In this it assigns a
deadline to arriving of packets of a SSs. Since each SSs specifies values for maximum latency
parameters. The scheduler gives the guarantees the minimum bandwidth requirement of both
rtPS and nrtPS connection over window duration of time .since this window is non overlapped
and consecutive in timeline and there is bandwidth is guaranteed for the long run. The amount of
backlogged process and amount of bandwidth received is calculated in the current window of
intermediate queue .the priority assigned to the request is inversely proportional to the amount of
received bandwidth which it belongs to .and low priority assigned to those requests sent by the
connections which already received the minimum required bandwidth in current window.
3.6 Conclusion
Paper [1][2][8][13][16][19][38] are relates to each other in this earliest deadline method are
described . Paper [11][16] here the description of the various types of algorithm that can be used
for WiMAX Scheduling takes as a overview and specific .In paper[10] discussed about the
network Simulation tool NS3 that Support the WiMAX module. Paper [24[35] here discussed
priority for the Scheduling Services. The concept for the proposed work are implemented by
[1][24] used as a specific , scientific to enhance the performance of the above mentioned scheme
we have integrated the idea of classification of the scheduling and improve its QOS.
3.7 Summary
Base paper is considered and elaborated to justify the work. Other reference papers are
highlighted and concept of each paper is explained in simpler way. For purpose of WiMAX
network to provide better quality of services , there are various types are scheduling are available
to implement the WiMAX module , we use the concept of the previous paper that are
refereeing in previous reference paper.

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 44








Chapter 4
Proposed Solution for WiMAX
Scheduling




.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 45

4.1 Feasibility Study
The feasibility studies are useful for both users and analyst. The feasibility studies decide the
constraints and the assumed attitudes in the system development. The two key feasibility
considerations in the development of our project are:
Technical Feasibility: As various project management systems have been developed so far and as
well as available today so this project is technically feasible.
Time Feasibility: Considering the total design and coding of the project which includes
implementation of complex tasks such as the graphical representation and tree structure, the total
time required for the development of this system is approximately 4 months.
4.2 Requirement Specification
Recommended hardware configuration includes
Pentium IV 1.86 GHz
1 GB RAM
80 GB Hard Disk
15 Color Monitor
Software Requirements
Ubuntu 12.04/Windows XP
Python
NS-3.14
4.3 Design Issues
In this we introduces the BS uplink scheduler algorithm which allocates bandwidth to the SSs
based on the Qos requirements of connections. In this we uses four types of services are used to
transmit the bandwidth request according to its service.


.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 46

4.4 WiMAX uplink scheduler Model
A lot of research is currently ongoing on this topic and a number of algorithms have been
proposed. It provides an extensive survey of recent scheduling algorithms that can be applied to
WiMAX networks [45].
Uplink Scheduler at the BS decides which of the SSs will be assigned uplink allocations based
on the QoS parameters associated to a service flow (or scheduling service) and bandwidth
requests from the SSs[10][13].
Uplink scheduler together with Bandwidth Manager implements the complete scheduling service
functionality. The standard defines up to four scheduling services (BE, UGS, rtPS, nrtPS) for
applications with different types of QoS requirements. The service flows of these scheduling
services behave differently with respect to how they request for bandwidth as well as how the
bandwidth is granted. The module supports all four scheduling services. Each service flow is
associated to exactly one transport connection and one scheduling service. The QoS parameters
associated to a service flow actually define the scheduling service it belongs to.[11].
Standard QoS parameters for UGS, rtPS, nrtPS and BE services, When a service flow is created
the uplink scheduler calculates necessary parameters such as grant size and allocation interval
based on QoS parameters associated to it. The current WiMAX module provides three different
versions of schedulers [46]
4.4.1 The first one is a simple priority-based First Come First Serve (FCFS)
The most basic queue scheduling discipline is First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithm is : In
this all packets are treated equally by placing them into a single queue, then servicing them in the
same order that they were placed into the queue[7][14].
For the real-time services (UGS and rtPS) the BS then allocates grants/polls on regular basis
based on the calculated interval. For the non real-time services (nrtPS and BE) only minimum
reserved bandwidth is guaranteed if available after servicing real-time flows. In these not all of
these parameters are utilized by the uplink scheduler. Also reminder that currently only service
flow with fixed-size packet size are supported, as currently set up in simulation scenario with On
Off application of fixed packet size. For the uplink scheduling, priority is given starting from
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 47

highest priority scheduling type to the lowest priority one (UGS >rtPS > nrtPS >BE). Among
the flows of same scheduling type, priority is given on FCFS basis. For the BS and SS
(outbound) schedulers, higher priority is given to the initial ranging and management
connections, i.e., broadcast >initial ranging >basic >primary >UGS >rtPS >nrtPS >BE.
4.4.2 RTPS: A real-time polling service (rtPS) Uplink Scheduler
The second one is similar to first scheduler not including by rtPS service flow. All rtPS
Connections are able to transmit all packets in the queue according to the available bandwidth.
The bandwidth saturation control has been implemented to redistribute the effective available
bandwidth to all rtPS that have at least one packet to transmit. The remaining bandwidth is
allocated to nrtPS and BE Connections. The main concept of Rtps uplink Scheduler is:
(1) to serve all active rtPS connections every uplink subframe and
(2) to assign to each rtPS connection an uplink burst that is able to fully satisfy the bandwidth
request, subject to the constraint on the total UL bandwidth. The scheduler is based on a priority-
based approach. The priority is enforced by serving active connections from the highest to the
lowest priority (UGS > rtPS > nrtPS > BE).
For rtPS connections, the BS allocates periodically request opportunities, which are exploited by
SSs to send bandwidth requests. Bandwidth requests are computed by SSs to fully transmit their
pending rtPS data. The BS Uplink scheduler is able to serve all active SSs .And the Scheduler is
able to lower packet loss ratio of more than one order of magnitude with respect to the simple
one.
4.4.3The Migration-based Quality of Service uplink scheduler
A MBQS (Migration-based Quality of Service) uplink scheduler has been implemented for the
uplink scheduler .This scheduler uses three queues: the low priority queue, the intermediate
queue and the high priority queue. The scheduler serves the requests in strict priority order, from
the high priority queue to the low priority queue. According to the IEEE 802.16 standard, the BS
uplink scheduler provides grants (time slots) at periodic intervals to the UGS flows to send data
[24].
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 48

Periodic grants are also given to rtPS and to nrtPS flows to request bandwidth. Before satisfying
bandwidth requests, the uplink scheduler must allocate resources to these periodic grants.
Additionally, the uplink scheduler must guarantee that the delay and the bandwidth requirements
of rtPS and nrtPS flows are met. The BS executes the uplink scheduler during each frame, and it
broadcasts the schedule in the UL-MAP message in the downlink subframe.
To guarantee bandwidth to UGS flows, data grants are periodically inserted into the high priority
queue. The interval between grants to the UGS flows is informed by the SSs at the connection
establishment time. Moreover, unicast request grants are also inserted into the high priority
queue. Intervals between request opportunities to rtPS and to nrtPS flows are defined by the BS.
To guarantee the maximum delay requirement, the BS assigns a deadline to each rtPS bandwidth
request in the intermediate queue. Each time the scheduler is executed, the requests with deadline
expiring in the frame following the next one migrate to the high priority queue.
To calculate the deadline for migration, it would be necessary to know the arriving time of the
packets at the SSs queues. Since the BS has no access to this information, the worst possible case
is considered, which corresponds to the arrival at the queue immediately after the connection
sent the last bandwidth request. Hence, the deadline of a request should be equal to the sum of
the arriving time of the last request sent by the connection and its maximum delay requirement.
The scheduler guarantees the minimum bandwidth requirement of both rtPS and nrtPS
connections over a window of duration T. Since these windows are non-overlapped and
consecutive in the timeline, bandwidth is guaranteed in the long-run. Every time the scheduler is
executed, it calculates a priority value to the requests in the intermediate queue considering the
per connection minimum bandwidth requirement, amount of backlogged requests (in bytes), and
amount of bandwidth received in the current window. The priority assigned to a request is
inversely proportional to the amount of bandwidth received by the connection to which it
belongs to. Low priority values are assigned to those requests sent by connections which have
already received the minimum required bandwidth in the current window.
4.5 Proposed Solution
The vast increase the contemporary application with varying QoS requirement creates a demand
for unified services and networking platform and supports such applications . In the WiMAX
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 49

802.16 (d) standard specifies a service framework for scheduling class services. This clases work
with respect to bandwidth request and grant mechanism and Qos requirement. The aim of this
work is to allow a thorough understanding the relative performance of representative uplink
scheduling schemes and subsequently utilize the results to the address here scarcity in designing
more efficient schemes. We focus our work on implementing representative algorithms for the
uplink traffic in OFDM WiMAX Physical layer using the NS-3 . In the WiMAX it uses the four
types of services for data flow to get Qos requirements [24].
Here connection are associated between the subscriber station and the base station with service
flow for this data transmission varies types of scheduling are available to transmit the data . In
the WiMAX it have four types of services for data flow , like UGS carries the constant bit rate
such as voice over IP . The rtPS is designed for the real-time requirement which generates
variable size data packets periodically, nrtPS for the bounded delay and best effort for the FTP
services. In the proposed work we uses the uplink scheduler mechanism in which bandwidth
allocation are provided on demand. When the SSs has the backlogged data, it sends the
bandwidth request to BS. The BS turn allocates the time slots to SS based on bandwidth request
and QoS requirement .For this time slots are organized in frame and divided into to part uplink
subframe that used by the BS and Uplink Subframe that Used by the SSs to send the request.
4.6 Hierarchical structure of proposed method
Shows a sketch of the proposed implementation UPS (Uplink Packet Scheduling). In the first
level, the entire bandwidth is distributed in a strict priority manner. UGS has the highest priority,
then rtPS, nrtPS, and finally BE. So inter class fairness is not achieved in presence of large
number of the higher priority packets. In the second level, different mechanisms are used to
control the QoS for each class of service flow.
The uplink packet scheduler allocates fixed bandwidth to the UGS connections. Earliest deadline
first (EDF) is used to schedule rtPS service flows [1], in which packets with the earliest deadline
are scheduled first. The nrtPS service flows are scheduled using the earliest deadline connection.
The remaining bandwidth is equally allocated to each BE connection. The UPS solution is
composed of three modules: information, scheduling database and service assignment modules.
Here is a brief description of the different of UPS:

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 50


Fig.4.1. Hierarchical structure of Proposed Method
At the beginning of each time frame, the Information Module collects the queue size information
from the BW-Requests received during the previous time frame. The Information Module will
process the queue size information and update the Scheduling Database Module.
The Service Assignment Module retrieves the information from the Scheduling Database
Module and generates the UL-MAP.BS broadcasts the UL-MAP to all SSs in the downlink
subframe. BSs scheduler transmits packets according to the UL-MAP received from the BS.
In their Uplink Packet Scheduling Algorithm, they adopt Earliest Deadline First (EDF)
mechanism. There is a database that records the number of packets that need to be sent during
each frame of every rtPS and nrtPS connection [1].


.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 51

4.7 Proposed Methodology
4.7.1 The Advanced Migration-based Quality of Service using hybrid
approach for uplink scheduler In this scheduling we also uses the three queues to
transmit the allocated bandwidth according to strict priority, from the high priority queue to the
low priority queue. In these scheduling algorithms we used the concept of earliest deadline. The
earliest deadline concept used in the intermediate queue .By using this concept in the
intermediate queue , the request that migrate from the intermediate queue to high priority queue
will migrate on earliest deadline basis , by using this concept it does not wait for the available
bandwidth in high priority queue and delay are reduced . The figure 4.2 shows the proposed
scheduling algorithm.
The concept of Earliest Deadline First is analyzed with scheduling discipline within the
framework of statistical multiplexing. It derives techniques for bounding the probability of delay
violations when the session injections are independent. This enables us to determine whether a
given set of sessions can all meet their delay bounds with the required violation probability. Our
analysis applies to both the single node problem and the network problem in which the sessions
have multiple hops .This algorithms is the Delay-based algorithms: The basic is scheduler to
serve the connection based on the deadline. Here the set of schemes is specifically designed for
real-time traffic such as nrtps and rtPS service classes, for which the delay bound is the primary
QoS parameter and basically the packets with unacceptable delays are discarded. EDF for both
rtPS and nrtps in are used in this algorithm for SSs.
QoS Parameters for the scheduling can assure the QoS requirements for various service classes.
The main parameters are the minimum reserved traffic, the maximum allowable delay and the
tolerated jitters. For this we need to reschedule or inter leave packets in order to meet the delay
and throughput requirements. Earliest Deadline First is technique that give guarantee the delay
requirement [24].



.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 52


Fig. 4.2 shows the architecture of the proposed BS Uplink Scheduler.












.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 53

4.8 Flow Chart for the proposed Algorithm
























Fig.4.3 Advanced Scheduler Operational Chart for Hybrid Approach MBQOS
Start
Received Packet
Send Bandwidth Request
UGS Flows
and unicast
request
Calculate Available Frame from High Priority queue
BE
request
Calculate the available frame from intermediate queue and take
data from the intermediate queue and update the frame .
Save Packet in the frame
Calculate available Frame
Frame full
Rtps and
nrtps request
Select Empty Frame
Save packets are in frame and update the Frame count
Check the
request on
the basis of
Earliest
Deadline
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 54

4.9 Proposed Algorithm
An Hybrid Approach for the scheduling of Quality of Service in IEEE 802.16 Network
Scheduling Algorithm
1. If the periodic data grants and unicast request opportunities that must be scheduled in the
next frame do High priority Queue Insert request
Then
CheckDeadline;
CheckMinimumBandwidth;
2. Schedule the requests in the high priority queue starting from the head of queue;
3. Schedule the request in the intermediate queue in Earliest Deadline First Basis and for the
requests for whom the deadline cannot be meet the requests are moved to the high
priority queue.
If intermediate queue is empty and available slots > 0 then schedule the requests in the
low priority queue starting from the head of the queue .
Algorithm
Start:
{
Insert the Req[i] by scheduler in Queue ;

If ( Req [i]==UGS )
{
Then insert BR[i] = Req[i]
}
Else If ( Req[i] = = rtPS nrtps )
{
Then
Check Deadline ( );

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 55

Check Minimum Bandwidth ( );

If (Available Bytes >= BR[i] )
{
Then

Migrate Req[i] to high priority Queue;
}

Else
{
Granted BW[CID]= Granted BW[CID] + BR[i]
Available Bytes = Available Bytes BR[i]
}
}

Else If ( Req[i] = = BE )
{
If (Available Slots >0 && Intermediate Queue= Null )
{
Then BR [i] = Req[i]
}
}
End;
Go to Start;
}
Procedure # 1
Check Deadline ( )
{
For each request i the intermediate queue do
If service [CID] == rtPS
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 56

{
Then
Frame[i] = (Deadline[i] Current Time) Frame Duration;
If Frame[i] == 1 Then
If Available Bytes BR[i]
Migrate request i to high priority queue;
}
Else
{
pick the BR[i] with the same priority on EDF basis
Assign deadline upon the arrival of packet
While uplink channel capacity >0
{
Granted BW[CID] = granted BW[CID] +
size of min deadline (p,i)
CreateIE ()
Uplink channel capacity = Uplink channel capacity
size of min deadline (p),i)
End while
}
}
Granted BW[CID] = Granted BW[CID] + BR[i];
Backlogged [CID]= Backlogged [CID]- BR[i];
Available Bytes = Available Bytes BR[i];
End;
}


.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 57

Procedure #2
Check Minimum Bandwidth ( )
{
For each connection CID of type rtPS && nrtPS Do
{
Backlogged tmp[CID] = Backlogged[CID];
Granted BW tmp[CID] = Granted BW[CID];
For each request i in the intermediate queue do
If BWmin[CID] granted BW tmp[CID]
{
Then
priority[i] = 0;
}
Else
{
Pick the BR[i] with the same priority on EDF basis
Assign deadline upon the arrival of packet
While uplink channel capacity >0
{
Granted BW[CID] = granted BW[CID] +
size of min deadline (p),i)
CreateIE ()
Uplink channel capacity = Uplink channel capacity
size of min deadline (p),i)
End while ;
}
}

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 58

Priority[i] = backlogged tmp[CID] (granted BW tmp[CID]
BWmin[CID]);
Granted BW[CID]= Granted BW[CID] + BR[i];
Backlogged tmp[CID]= Backlogged tmp[CID]-BR[i]
End;
}
}

In the proposed Algorithm Scheduling, the proposed discipline is presented. After inserting the
periodic grants in the high priority queue, the algorithm checks which requests in the
intermediate queue should be scheduled in the following frame and the scheduler migrates the
requests to the high priority queue .The scheduler serves the high priority queue. The number of
slots needed to serve the requests in the high priority queue is always less or equal to the number
of available slots in the uplink sub frame. Schedule the requests in the intermediate queue in
Earliest Deadline basis for the request with the same priority level. The scheduler allocates
bandwidth to the requests in the low priority queue when both the intermediate queue is empty
and there are available slots in the uplink frame.
The procedure#1 Check Deadline verifies for each rtPS request whether it should be migrated to
the high priority queue or not. The conditions for migration are: the request deadline expires in
the frame following the next one, and the amount of bandwidth requested BR[i] is less than or
equal to the amount of available bytes1 in the next uplink frame.
In case of migration, the algorithm updates the amount of bandwidth allocated to the
corresponding connection in the current window (BW granted [CID] on the earliest deadline
basis, it assign deadline upon the arrival of packet , and check the channel capacity should be
greater than 0 then BW granted [CID] will be the granted bandwidth is the sum of the size of
packet p from queue SSs . and it creates the information element in this uplink channel capacity
Will be reduce by the size of retrieve packet p from the queue.
The Procedure #2 Check Minimum Bandwidth first calculates a priority value for each request in
the intermediate queue. Then, it sorts the intermediate queue according to the earliest deadline
basis. It checks the request i in intermediate queue if available bytes is greater than broadcast
request of i migrate the request to high priority queue otherwise pick the broadcast request on
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 59

EDF basis. Finally, while there is available bandwidth, the scheduler migrates the requests to the
high priority queue and updates the variables BW granted [CID], backlogged [CID], and the
amount of available bytes in the following uplink frame.
4.10 Summary
In this chapter we discuss about the proposed solution of WiMAX and the discuss its
hierarchical model of the proposed algorithm . This chapter is concluded with diagrams about
the scheduling in WiMAX network. In this three scheduling concept has been discuss FCFS,
rtps and mbqos. Enhanced scheduling methods are also proposed with proper algorithm to
achieve high performance with maintain QoS . In the next chapter, for implementing this
algorithm, the information of simulation topology, simulation and performance evaluation
parameters are discussed.












.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 60




Chapter 5
The Simulation Environment





.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 61

The proposed model has been implemented and simulated in the network simulation tool
Network Simulator 3 (Ns-3) . For this work, Ns-3 test bed has been used to collect simulation
data in Python .NS3 is an open source software. Ns-3 provides great flexibility while simulating
various scenarios. In this chapter, the details of simulation topology has been provide[14][15].
In this project WiMAX uplink scheduling are described first, it present a technique for
determine the working of scheduling , in this project we uses four types of scheduling SIMPLE:
a simple priority based FCFS scheduler , RTPS: a real-time polling service (rtPS) scheduler ,
MBQOS: a migration-based uplink scheduler . this scheduling are implement through the Ns-3 .
Some additional aspects of the 802.16 specifications, as well as physical layer and channel
models, are modeled using Ns-3. It provide some additional feature as compared to previous
simulator like leverages existing Ns-3 wireless propagation loss and delay models, as well
as Ns-3 mobility models , Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) mode feature and the Ns-3 basically
support the Wireless MAN-OFDM PHY layer , Initial Ranging , Service Flow Initialization ,
Management Connection are its main feature[34] .
5.1 Network Simulator Environment
Ns-3 is a discrete-event network simulator in which the simulation core and models are
implemented in C++. Ns-3 is built as a library which may be statically or dynamically linked to a
C++ main program that defines the simulation topology and starts the simulator. Ns-3 also
exports nearly all of its API to Python, allowing Python programs to import an Ns-3 module in
much the same way as the Ns-3 library is linked by executables in C++.
Ns-3's development initially began in 2006, while its first stable release was in June 2008. Ns-3
has an automatic documentation tool which is very useful in learning the environment. Ns-3 has
also been designed from the ground up to be a wireless and wired simulation tool [4][12].
Ns-3 is a recently released next generation simulator. It enables a highly rich set of features and
is expected to become the first choice of the scientific community soon. It is still in its evolution
phase and work at different fronts is still ongoing. Its primary function is to simulate networks of
communicating nodes and the traffic between them. To do this, Ns-3 provides its primary
abstractions of computing nodes with applications to generate traffic; and net devices and
channels to move the traffic [10].
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 62

5.2 Organization of Ns-3
The organization of the Ns-3 code can be divided into three parts.
The core of the simulator is the most stable part, as it is designed such that new simulation
requirements should not imply changes in the core and the simulator.
The second part consists of some basic models and the models that are needed and hence
contributed by the research community. This part holds models for computers, so-called nodes,
from the network device down to the physical layer. It also holds applications and routing
algorithms along with other models [12].
The third part is auxiliary helper functions to simplify setting up a simulation environment and
tests to ensure correct functionality throughout version updates.
To simplify access to the variety of models, some commonly used models are equipped with so-
called helpers. These helpers make it easy to connect objects. For example, a helper can be used
to equip a container of nodes with network devices, or to install wireless communication devices
including the MAC, physical and channel layer with corresponding parameters on several
network devices at once. These helpers are defined for use in simulation scripts. Within the
simulator itself, the use of helpers is not allowed [12].
Main parts of the core are defined by the modern object oriented approach of Ns-3.Regarding the
performance, maintenance and extensibility of a network simulator, packets is crucial. The
design of the packets for Ns-3 was focused on
(a) Easy integration in real-world code and systems.
(b) Fragmentation and concatenation should be supported.
(c) Efficient memory management of packets.
(d) Changes in the core of the simulator should not be necessary for the introduction of new
packets, headers or tags.



.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 63

Test
Helpers
Routing Internet
Stack
Devices Applications
Node Mobility
Common Simulator
Core



Figure 5.1: Software organization of Ns-3 [12]
Along with the coding standard, Ns-3 introduced unit-test to verify the simulators behavioris as
expected, after changes have been made. Unit-tests are enforced for new models, enhancement of
models and bug-fixes. An overview on the software organization of ns-3 is depicted in Figure.
Ns-3 is fundamentally a C++ object-based system. By this we mean that new C++ classes (types)
can be declared, defined, and subclassed as usual. Many Ns-3 objects inherit from the
Ns3::Object base class. These objects have some additional properties that we exploit for
organizing the system and improving the memory management of the objects: A metadata
system that links the class name to a lot of meta-information about the object, including the base
class of the subclass, the set of accessible constructors in the subclass, and the set of attributes
of the subclass.
A computing device that connects to a network is called a host or sometimes an end system.
Because Ns-3 is a network simulator, not specifically an Internet simulator, we intentionally do
not use the term host since it is closely associated with the Internet and its protocols. Instead, we
use a more generic term also used by other simulators that originates in Graph Theory.
Node In ns-3 the basic computing device abstraction is called the node. This abstraction is
represented in C++ by the class Node. The Node class provides methods for managing the
representations of computing devices in simulations. We should think of a Node as a computer to
High level
wrappers
Nodes ,
Net Devices ,
Sockets
Packets
Smart Pointers ,
Logging , Callbacks ,
Tracing
Events
Scheduling
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 64

which we will add functionality. One adds things like applications, protocol stacks and
peripheral cards with their associated drivers to enable the computer to do useful work.
Application In ns-3 the basic abstraction for a user program that generates some activity to be
simulated is the application. This abstraction is represented in C++ by the class Application. The
Application class provides methods for managing the representations of our version of user-level
applications in simulations.
The Application class in the object-oriented programming sense to create new applications. we
will use specializations of class Application called UdpEchoClientApplication and
UdpEchoServerApplication. As we might expect, these applications compose a client/server
application set used to generate and echo simulated network packets
Channel In the real world, one can connect a computer to a network. Often the media over
which data flows in these networks are called channels. When it connect to Ethernet cable to the
plug in the wall, means they are connecting the computer to an Ethernet communication
channel. In the simulated world of Ns-3, one connects a Node to an object representing a
communication channel. Here the basic communication subnetwork abstraction is called the
channel and is represented in C++ by the class Channel.
The Channel class provides methods for managing communication subnetwork objects and
connecting nodes to them. Channels may also be specialized by developers in the object oriented
programming sense. A Channel specialization may model something as simple as a wire. The
specialized Channel can also model things as complicated as a large Ethernet switch, or three-
dimensional space full of obstructions in the case of wireless networks.They use specialized
versions of the Channel called CsmaChannel, PointToPointChannel and Wifi Channel.
Net Device In ns-3 the net device abstraction covers both the software driver and the simulated
hardware. A net device is installed in a Node in order to enable the Node to communicate with
other Nodes in the simulation via Channels. Just as in a real computer, a Node may be connected
to more than one Channel via multiple NetDevices.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 65

The net device abstraction is represented in C++ by the class NetDevice. The NetDevice class
provides methods for managing connections to Node and Channel objects; and may be
specialized by developers in the object-oriented programming sense. We will use the several
specialized versions of the NetDevice called CsmaNetDevice, PointToPointNetDevice, and
WifiNetDevice .An Ethernet NIC is designed to work with an Ethernet network, the
CsmaNetDevice is designed to work with a CsmaChannel ; the PointToPointNetDevice is
designed to work with a PointToPointChannel and a WifiNetNevice is designed to work with a
WifiChannel.
Topology Helpers Since connecting NetDevices to Nodes, NetDevices to Channels, assigning
IP addresses, etc., are such common tasks in ns-3, it call as topology helpers to make this as easy
as possible. For example, it may take many distinct ns-3 core operations to create a NetDevice,
add a MAC address, install that net device on a Node, configure the nodes protocol stack, and
then connect the NetDevice to a Channel. Even more operations would be required to connect
multiple devices onto multipoint channels and then to connect individual networks together into
internetworks. It provides topology helper objects that combine those many distinct operations
into an easy to use model for the convenience.
Modules include To help our high-level script users deal with the large number of include files
present in the system, this group includes according to relatively large modules. It provide a
single include file that will recursively load all of the include files used in each module. Rather
than having to look up exactly what header need, and possibly have to get a number of
dependencies right, it give the ability to load a group of files at a large granularity.
Each of the ns-3 include files is placed in a directory called ns3 (under the build directory)
during the build process to help avoid include file name collisions. The ns3/core-module.h file
corresponds to the ns-3 module it find in the directory src/core in the downloaded release
distribution. If the list the directory they will find a large number of header files.
When it build, Waf will place public header files in an ns3 directory under the appropriate
build/debug or build/optimized directory depending on the configuration. Waf will also
automatically generate a module include file to load all of the public header files.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 66

NS3 Namespace - The next line in the first.cc script is a namespace declaration. Using
namespace ns3; thens-3 project is implemented in a C++ namespace called ns3. This groups all
ns-3-related declarations in a scope outside the global namespace, which hope this will help
with integration with other code. The C++ using statement introduces the ns-3 namespace into
the current (global) declarative region [21].
The general process of creating a simulation can be divided into several steps.
1. Topology definition: to ease the creation of basic facilities and define their
interrelationships, ns-3 has a system of containers and helpers that facilitates this process.
2. Model usage: models are added to simulation (for example, UDP, IPv4, point-to-point
devices and links, applications); most of the time this is done using helpers.
3. Node and link configuration: models set their default values (for example, the size of
packets sent by an application or MTU of a point-to-point link); most of the time this is
done using the attribute system.
4. Running: simulation facilities generate events, data requested by the user is logged. Ns-3
has a subsystem which performs logging and allows fine-grained control over printing on
screen only the information requested by user.
5. Output result analysis: after the simulation is finished and data is collected, data is
statistically analyzed and some conclusions are drawn.
6. Visualization: raw or processed data collected in a simulation can be animated (using, for
example, PyViz or NetAnim) or displayed in graphs (using, for example, Gnuplot or
matplotlib).
7. Waf is a Python-based framework for configuring, compiling and installing applications.
To overcome the main limitations of the existing Ns-3WiMAX module described in the
previous section, we have developed new features and enhanced some existing ones. The
most important features are developed [21]:


.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 67

5.3 Proposed WIMAX Module for NS-3

Fig 5.2.Proposed WIMAX Module for NS-3
(1) A realistic and scalable physical model;
(2) An IP packet classifier for the convergence sub-layer;
(3) Efficient uplink and downlink schedulers;
(4) Support for multicast traffic;
(5) pcap packet tracing functionality.
The new physical layer has improved the simulation time by several magnitude orders while still
providing a realistic implementation of the standard. Furthermore, the IP classifier has enabled
the simulation of an unlimited number of service flows per subscriber station, while the proposed
schedulers improve the management of the QoS requirements for the different service flows[21].
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 68

5.4 Implementation header files for the WIMAX Module:
config-store-module.h - It stores the value for special instance like its file format ,file name ,
text mode defined by this module .
csma-module.h CSMA device models a simple network in the spirit of Ethernet. A real
Ethernet uses CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) scheme with
exponentially increasing backoff to contend for the shared transmission medium. The ns-
3 CSMA device and channel models only a subset of this.
dsdv-helper.h Helper class that adds dsdv routing to nodes . Helpers make it easy to connect
objects. For example,a helper can be used to equip a container of nodes with network devices, or
to installwireless communication devices including the MAC, physical and channel layer with
corresponding parameters on several network devices at once.
WiMAX-module.h - This module contain all the base class which is used for the WiMAX
module this module Enabled to be sure that WiMAX will be compiled and built .
Global-route-manager.h -This singleton object can query interface each node in the system
for a GlobalRouter interface. For those nodes, it fetches one or more Link State Advertisements
and stores them in a local database. Then, it can compute shortest paths on a per-node basis to all
routers, and finally configure each of the node's forwarding tables .It works are Allocate Router
Id,Delete Global Routes , Build Global Routing DatabaseInitialize Routes
core-module.h - The "core" module contains a time management class to hold a time and
convert between various time units, a scheduler base class used to implement new simulation
event schedulers, a simulator class used to create, schedule and cancel events.
mobility-module.h - Used to assign positions and mobility models to nodes.
wifi-module.h - Used to enable wifi facility to node.
network-module.h For designing of the packet and node use this module.
internet-module.h - The internet module contains models for both TCP and UDP
applications-module.h - Used as a base class for ns3 applications. Applications are associated
with individual nodes. Each node holds a list of references to its applications.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 69

SerializeToXmlFile ( ) Used for generating an XML file in the NS 3 simulator.
5.5 Recent developments and its future
However, NS3 is still in the process and some major challenges still remain for NS3 to solve.
The biggest one is that NS3 needs participation from the research community. Firstly, the
simulation credibility needs to be improved. It is known that one of the limitations of
simulations, in general, is that it often suffers from lack of credibility. Generally there are four
points that are important for NS3 to solve this problem. They are:
a) Hosting NS3 code and scripts for published work
b) Tutorials on how to do things right
c) Flexible means to configure and record values
d) Support for ported code should make model validation easier and more credible.
All in all, NS-3 is an active open-source project and it is still under development. It has several
simulator features designed to aid current Internet research. It is also a community-based
development and maintenance model, which needs more people and organizations to participate
to contribute before it become good enough for the Internet research community.
5.6 Summary
In this chapter we discuss about the Ns3 Simulator in detail and header files that used for our
proposed Work. And also discuss the Ns3 module for the WiMAX network and its Parameter. In
the Next chapter result and analysis are described.






.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 70







Chapter 6
User Manual and Experimental
Result








.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 71

The simulation described in this dissertation was tested using the NS-3 that allows users to create
arbitrary network topologies. Here considered 20 nodes for the simple WiMAX scenario and 95
mode for the mixed wireless simulation NS-3 simulates the WiMAX Nodes and record the
transmission with applying simulation parameter on wireless node. Mainly it records the delay,
throughput , delivery ratio on the WiMAX network. All the metrics (Delay , PDR, Throughput )
is recorded into the XML or in .tr (trace) files format and Analysis the data . This chapter
discusses the results and performance of WiMAX uplink Scheduling.
6.1 Simulation Snapshots
1. Snapshot

Fig.6.1 Show the terminal on ubuntu





.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 72

2.

Fig 6.2: Running NS-3 on Terminal .
3.

Fig 6.3 : Show Static node topology at the time of starting of simulation of 20 SS and 1 BS
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 73

4.

Fig 6.4 : show the movability of nodes after some time and the address of the node
5.

Fig 6. 5 After simulation , all the nodes started communicating among each other.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 74

6.

Fig .6.6 Shows the trace value After Simulation on the Terminal
6.2 Simulation Parameters for the proposed algorithm
Table shows various parameters under which the simulation has been performed. 21 nodes are
created here, in this some of the nodes for the base station and most of the nodes for the
subscriber station. Connections are created having UGS ,Rtps , Nrtps service flows are used and
shows the result according to its service flow .The main intention of the simulation is to study the
properties of the proposed scheduling algorithm and evaluate its performance in a WiMAX
network; we also studied its delay, throughput, packet loss analysis of previous and proposed
scheduling algorithms.




.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 75

Simulation Parameters Value
Simulator NS-3(v-3.14)
Number of SS 5,10,20,50
Number of BS 1
Mobility of nodes Random way point
Simulation Time
100 seconds
Number of Nodes
95
Transmission Range
200 m
Physical layer
OFDM
Traffic Type
UDP
Simulation Area(m*m)
800*800

Table 6.1 Simulation Parameters
6.3 Metrics for Evaluation
The simulation described in this dissertation was tested using the NS-3 that allows users to create
arbitrary network topologies. Here considered 21 nodes for simulation .In Metrics evaluation we
calculated the various parameter to analyze the result. When simulation complete its generates
the .tr file and the xml file . We use this parameter for measuring the performance of the
Scheduling.
Throughput
Packet Delivery Ratio
Delay
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 76

6.3.1Throughput: (Th) Throughput is measure of number of packets successfully delivered in a
network. It is measured in terms of packets/second. The value of throughput should be high or
else it affects every service class defined in WiMAX. Equation shows how to calculate
throughput. This metric is used to evaluate the performance of the opportunistic schedulers [46].


I
packet Deliverd

I
packet Arrival - Packet Start Time
i

6.3.2 Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR): Packet delivery ratio signifies the total number of packets
successfully delivered to the destination. Equation 3 shows how to calculate PDR (Packet
Delivery Ratio) [46]


I
packet Deliverd

I
packet Arrival - Packet Start Time
i

6.3.3 Packet Loss Ratio (PLR): Packet loss affects the perceived quality of the application.
Several causes of packet loss or corruption would be bit errors in an erroneous wireless network
or insufficient buffers due to network congestion when the channel becomes overloaded. Some
of the packets are lost due to network congestion or due to noise. Packet loss ratio should be
minimum, so as to keep the successful delivery of high QoS. According to ITU (International
Telecommunication Union) standards, the value of packet loss should be kept at minimum level
[46].

I
packets Lost

I
packets Sent


6.3.4 Delay: Delay or latency could be defined as the time taken by the packets to reach from
source to destination. The main sources of delay can be categorized into: propagation delay,
source processing delay, network delay and destination processing delay. Here we have
calculated end to end delay which is a measure of elapsed time taken during modulation of the
signal and the time taken by the packets to reach from source to destination. Here the packet
Th =
Equation (1)

PDR =
100 Equation (2)

100 Equation (3)

PLR =
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 77

losses some energy as well in the form of noise which is also taken into consideration. End to
end delay could be measured as the difference of Packet arrival and packet start time Equation 1
shows the calculation of average end to end delay [46].

Delay = Packets Arrival
i -
Packet Start
I

6.4 Performance Evaluation
In the simulation there are comparative study of the WiMAX scheduling .here use previously
three scheduling Simple, FCFS and MBQOS scheduling then we compare these scheduling with
the proposed Hybrid MBQOS algorithm. For the simulation of all algorithm here presented the
20 Subscriber Station (SSs) with 1 Base station (BS). And for the proposed algorithm
scheduling, the proposed discipline is presented the simulation of 20 Subscriber Station (SSs)
with 1 Base station (BS). In these the periodic grants in the high priority queue, the algorithm
checks which requests in the intermediate queue on EDF basis should be scheduled in the
following frame and the scheduler migrates the requests to the high priority queue.
6.4.1 Simulation for Throughput
Throughput is a measure of successful delivery of packets in a given interval of time. The
calculation of throughput was done by equation. Throughput are shown in Fig.6.7 to Fig.6.10 on
the x axis denote the No. Of Nodes, and y axis denote Throughput in Mbps. Shows the
throughput comparison of previous scheduling with Advanced Hybrid Scheduling algorithm with
Scheduling Services. In this simulation we compare the Hybrid Mbqos with the , Simple Fcfs in
this Hybrid Mbqos has better Throughput, in Rtps and Mbqos scheduling also find the Better
result in it .The Overall average performance of throughput is becoming better in WiMAX
network.



Equation (4)

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 78

6.4.1.1Graph that Shows the Throughput , compare between the simple Fcfs scheduling
and Advanced Hybrid Mbqos Scheduling .

Graph 6.1: Throughput compare between Simple Fcfs And Hybrid Mbqos
6.4.1.2Graph that Shows the Throughput, compare between the Rtps scheduling and
Advanced Hybrid Mbqos Scheduling

Graph 6.2 : Throughput compare between Rtps And Hybrid Mbqos
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 79

6.4.1.3 Graph that Shows the Throughput, compare between the Mbqos scheduling and
Advanced Hybrid Mbqos Scheduling.

Graph: 6.3 :Throughput compare between Mbqos And Hybrid Mbqos
6.4.1.4 Graph that Shows the Throughput and compare between the Simple Fcfs , Rtps,
Mbqos and Advanced Hybrid Mbqos Scheduling Algorithm.

Graph: 6.4 Throughput compare between Simple Fcfs ,Rtps,Mbqos And Hybrid Mbqos
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 80

6.4.1.5 Graph that Shows the Average Throughput compare between the Simple Fcfs ,
Rtps, Mbqos and Hybrid Mbqos (proposed algo) .


Graph: 6.5 Average Throughput compare between all Simple Fcfs , Rtps, Mbqos and Advanced Hybrid
Mbqos
6.4.2 Simulation Graph for Delay
To calculate delay/Latency for the WiMAX network, equation is used .Delay are shown in
Figure 6.11 to Figure 6.14, in this x axis denote the delay in ns and y axis denote no. of node .
Delay is less in the proposed scheduling approach compares previous scheduling. In this
Scheduling




.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 81

6.4.2.1Graph that Shows the delay compare between the simple Fcfs scheduling and
Hybrid Mbqos (proposed algo) .

Graph 6.6 Delay compare between Simple Fcfs And Hybrid Mbqos
6.4.2.2 Graph that Shows the delay compare between the Rtps scheduling and Hybrid
Mbqos (proposed algo) .

Graph : 6.7 Delay compare between Rtps And Hybrid Mbqos
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 82

6.4.2.3 Graph Shows the delay compare between the Mbqos scheduling and Hybrid Mbqos
(proposed algo).

Graph: 6.8 Delay compare between Mbqos And Hybrid Mbqos
6.4.2.4 Graph that Shows the delay compare between the Simple Fcfs , Rtps, Mbqos and
Hybrid Mbqos (proposed algo) .

Graph: 6.9 Delay compare between all Simple Fcfs , Rtps, Mbqos and Advanced Hybrid Mbqos
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 83


6.4.2.4 Graph that Shows the Average delay compare between the Simple Fcfs , Rtps
,Mbqos and Hybrid Mbqos (proposed algorithm) .

Graph : 6.10 : Average Delay compare between all Simple Fcfs , Rtps, Mbqos and Advanced Hybrid Mbqos
6.4.3 Simulation Graph for Packet Loss Ratio
Packet Loss Ratio are shown in Fig 6.15 to Fig 6.18shows packet delivery ratio in Simple, Rtps,
Mbqos and Hybrid Mbqos is shown in figure 6. X axis denote no. of nodes in network and y
axis denote time. Packet delivery ratio in Hybrid Mbqos improved when Uplink Channel allocate
the Bandwidth to the Base Station.





.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 84

6.4.3.1 Graph that Shows the packet Loss Ratio compare between the Simple Fcfs and
Hybrid Mbqos (proposed algo) .

Graph : 6.11 Packet Loss Ratio compare between Simple Fcfs and Advanced Hybrid Mbqos
6.4.3.2 Graph that Shows the packet Loss Ratio compare between the Rtps and Hybrid
Mbqos (proposed algo) .

Graph : 6.12 Packet Loss Ratio compare between Rtps Advanced Hybrid Mbqos
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 85

6.4.3.3 Graph that Shows the packet Loss Ratio compare between the Mbqos and Hybrid
Mbqos (proposed algo) .

Graph : 6.13 Packet Loss Ratio compare between Mbqos and Advanced Hybrid Mbqos
6.4.3.4 Graph that Shows the packet Loss Ratio compare between all the Simple Fcfs, Rtps,
Mbqos and Hybrid Mbqos (proposed algo)

Graph: 6.14 Packet Loss Ratio compare between all simple Fcfs, Rtps, Mbqos and Advanced Hybrid Mbqos
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 86

6.4.4 Simulation Graph for the Simple WiMAX Network
In this WiMAX Network No scheduling Concept are used when simulate the WiMAX Network
analyze its Throughput, Delay sum and Packet loss ratio in it. In the scheduling we use the four
types of service flow in it and find that rtps has large throughput. And whwn we compare the
delay less delay in nrtps Service flow.
From Figure.6.19 shows the throughput, in this sometime throughput are less and some time
throughput are increased. In figure 6.20 Delay are shown in it, here delay is increased in it. In
figure 6.20 there is no packet loss, In the simple WiMAX network there no packet loss because
when bandwidth allocation are available its allocate the bandwidth so there is no packet loss in it.
6.4.4.1 Graph that Shows the Throughput of Simple WiMAX network

Graph : 6.15 : Throughput of Simple WiMAX Network




.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 87


6.4.4.2 Graph that Shows the Delay of Simple WiMAX network

Graph: 6.16 Shows the Delay sum of Simple WiMAX Network
6.4.4.3 Graph that shows the packet Delivery Ratio of Simple WiMAX network

Graph : 6.17 Shows the packet Delivery ratio of Simple WiMAX Network

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 88

6.5 Comparative Study of Simple FCFS, Rtps , Mbqos and Hybrid Mbqos
By performing simulation procedure results are achieved. Analysis in terms of theory and graph
is shown. Comparison of Simple, Rtps, Mbqos Advanced Hybrid Mbqos is also described in
terms of parameter is include in table.

Table 6.2 Show the Comparative study of Simple,Rtps,Mbqos and Hybrid Mbqos
6.6 Results and Discussion
We discuss the results obtained by the proposed Advanced Scheduler and compare them with all
three scheduling and see its result. Typical scenario was considered for testing the proposed
Advanced Scheduler approach under varying conditions. The parameter considered for
comparison of its throughput with respect to its nodes and time to receive the packets at the
destination. Throughput compare and result are come in increased form. And delay reduced.
6.7 Summary
In this chapter, Firstly shows the simulation figure in it ,then shows its graph by discussed the
comparative Study of all scheduling algorithm and see its result in it .




S.No Parameter Simple Rtps Mbqos Advanced
Hybrid Mbqos
1 Delay More Medium Medium Less
2 Throughput Low <Medium Medium High
3 Packet Delivery Ratio Less Medium Medium Medium
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 89





Chapter 7
Conclusion and Scope for
Future Work







.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 90

This chapter discusses the evaluation of the Advanced Scheduler for Hybrid Mbqos . It also
outlines some of the possible enhancements to the proposed approach for future directions.
7.1 Conclusions
The proposed approach maintaining throughput and optimizing there source usage. The
simulation result shows that the proposed approach minimizes the response time from the SS to
the BS and increasing the throughput of the network. We implemented proposed approach on the
NS3 and ran simulations to study the behavior of the approach.
We also compared every aspect of the proposed approach against the already existing approach
in various scenarios and saw that proposed approach was easily able to achieve less delay in
response to BS and high throughput, and reduce the packet delivery ratio.
We also highlighted the correctness of proposed protocol by demonstrating that new flows are
seamlessly admitted into the system and instantly given a fair share of the available bandwidth.
We also studied the approach performance across various QoS parameters and analyzed the
results objectively.
The following conclusions can be made from the results obtained using the proposed
Advanced Scheduler approach:
1. The proposed approach has less computational overhead. This includes a realistic and scalable
physical Channel model, an IP packet classifier, and sophisticated uplink and downlink
scheduler. In this it supports multicast traffic and packet tracing functionality. By this feature it
makes more realistic the evaluation design of the proposed work.
2. The proposed work support the four services this concept level specified by the WiMAX
standard for considering the Qos requirement for the scheduling decisions.
3. In this work we used the priority queue concept for the scheduling algorithm. By using this
concept we increased the throughput in it and reduced the packet loss and delay as compare to
previous algorithm. In the Advanced Hybrid Mbqos approach for uplink Scheduler uses the
earliest deadline concept in it. If there is different service levels in the network then scheduler
allocates enough slots for each connection so that qos requirement are supported. When the slots
not used by the high priority services are shared among the BE connections avoiding the
bandwidth waste.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 91

4. The proposed approach has reduced computational complexity of the scheduling algorithm. In
this way, the proposed approach optimizes the usage of the bandwidth, saves memory at the SS
keeping the computational overhead low.
5. The Scheduling used the EDF concept, so it is necessary in the priority queue algorithm results
in good performance for real-time applications at the same time providing reasonable fairness
among the various real-time applications. The priority queue algorithm would also be suitable for
networks whose traffic profile predominantly consists of data traffic e.g. email, file transfer, and
web browsing. A weakness of the priority queue algorithm is that it does not include the Average
Throughput in the utility function for rtPS SSs.
7.2 Future Work
This section discusses some of the possible enhancements and extensions to change the protocol.
It also outlines strategies for evaluating the approach against other scheduling algorithms .The
future work includes the following areas:
The future work in hybrid scheduling algorithm can be implemented as we can design the hybrid
scheduling in the network with certain few more parameters like weighted round robin method at
the place of EDF algorithm and analyze the result. As many method can apply on the mbqos
scheduling and see the result.










.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 92







List of Publications









.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 93

International Journals
1. Mamta Chauhan, Rajnish Choubey, Roopali Soni, Survey on Handoff with QoS in
WIMAX , International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887),Volume 50
No.16,Pp-23-26, July 2012 .
2. Mamta Chauhan ,Rajnish Choubey ,Roopali Soni, Detailed WiMAX Network using the
Concept Scheduling , International Journal of Computer Technology and Electronics
Communication , Volume 1 Issue 1 Pp-33-40,October-2012
3. Mamta Chauhan, Rajnish Choubey, Roopali Soni, An Advanced Scheduler for Hybrid
Mbqos in WiMAX Network, International Journal of Computer Technology and Electronics
Communication, Will published volume-2, issue-3, June-2013.
National conference
1.Mamta Chauhan , An Advanced Uplink Scheduling at Subscriber Station for Various
scheduling services in WiMAX, National conference On Advances Engineering Research and
Applications [AERA-2013],sponsored by Madhya Pradesh council of Science and technology,
organized at Oriental College Of Technology, Bhopal , March-2013









.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 94






References
&
Bibliography







.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 95

[1] Najah Abu Ali, Pratik Dhrona , Hossam Hassanein A performance study of uplink
scheduling algorithms in point-to-multipoint WiMAX networks ,ScienceDirect , Computer
Communications 32, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comcom.2008.09.015 , ISSN: 0140-3664, Pp -
511521, 2009

[2] Kalpalatha Sankarasubramaniam , Srikanth Subramanian A Performance Study of Uplink
Scheduling in WiMAX Network (IEEE), 2012 International Conference on Recent Trends In
Information Technology (ICRITIT) , Chennai, Tamil Nadu ,ISBN: 978-1-4673-1599-9, Pp- 377
- 382 ,April 2012.

[3] Divya Saxena , Aditya Trivedi , Tarun Kulshrestha An Advanced Uplink Scheduling at
Subscriber Station for Real Time Services in WiMAX , (IEEE),Third International Conference
in Emerging Applications of Information Technology (EAIT) at Kolkata ,2012,ISBN-978-1-
4673-1828-0 , Pp- 372 - 375 , Nov. 30 2012-Dec. 1 2012 .

[4] Gerson Bacor Cloud-based Network Simulator for Next Generation Wireless Technology
(WiMAX and LTE) , Master of Information Technology (MIT) thesis , ,Submitted: October,
2011,

[5] Feng jao A technical and market study of WiMAX Faculty of Electronics Communication
and Automation , Helsinki University of Technology, http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:aalto-
201203071327 . 2009.

[6] Adnan Sohail Performance Analysis of Bandwidth Request Mechanism of rtPS and nrtPS
in WiMAX Uplink Traffic , IEEE, Computer Modelling and Simulation (UKSim) , 2012
UKSim 14th International Conference , Cambridge, ISBN:978-1-4673-1366-7, Pp- 636 - 639 ,
28-30 March 2012

[7] P.Saravanaselvi , P.Latha Weighted Fair Queue Scheduling Algorithm for IEEE802. 16
Networks International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA) , International Conference
on Recent Trends in Computational Methods, Communication and Controls (ICON3C 2012) Pp-
ICON3C(8):5-8 , ISSN 0975-8887, 2012

[8]Marcio Andrey Teixeira ,Paulo Roberto Guardieiro A new and efficient adaptive scheduling
packets for the uplink traffic in WiMAX networks , in EURASIP Journal on Wireless
Communications and Networking 2011 , Teixeira and Guardieiro; licensee Springer
:http://jwcn.eurasipjournals.com/content/2011/1/113 , 27 September 2011,EURASIP Journal on
Wireless Communications and Networking ,Pp-1-11 , 27 September 2011

[9] Kas, M. A Survey on Scheduling in IEEE 802.16 Mesh Mode IEEE Communications
Society , Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE , Volume: 12 , Issue: 2 , ISSN :1553-
877X, ,Pp-205 - 221 , 2010

[10]. M.A. Ismail , L.A. Grieco ,T. Turletti, An Improved IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Module for the
NS-3 Simulator, Proceedings of SIMUTools Conference,2010 , http: // code . nsnam .org /
iamine/ns-3-WiMAX-release/, ISBN 978-963-9799-87-5 , Pp-1-10 ,2010
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 96

[11] Zeynep Yurdakul, Sema Oktug A Hierarchical Channel-Aware Uplink Scheduler For
WiMAX Base Stations This paper appears in:Telecommunications (AICT), 2010 Sixth
Advanced International Conference , ISBN: 978-1-4244-6748-8 , pp-398 403, 9-15 May 2010

[12] Fabian Fuchs , Analysis of Scheduling and Topology-Control Algorithms for Wireless Ad
Hoc Networks Diploma Thesis at the department of Computer Science Institute for Theoretical
Informatics (ITI) , KIT University of the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg and National
Laboratory of the Helmholtz Association , October 2011 March 2012 , www.kit.edu

[13] Perumalraja Rengaraju, Chung-Horng Lung , Anand Srinivasan , QoS Assured Uplink
Scheduler for WiMAX Networks , Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2010-Fall) at
Dept. of Syst. & Comput. Eng., Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON, Canada , 2010 IEEE 72nd , ISSN :
1090-3038 E-ISBN :978-1-4244-3574-6 Pp-1 - 5 , 6-9 Sept. 2010.

[14] Sin-seok Seo, Joon-Myung Kang , Nazim Agoulmine , John Strassner , James Won-Ki
Hong FAST: A Fuzzy-based Adaptive Scheduling Technique for IEEE 802.16 Networks ,
Integrated Network Management (IM), 2011 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium at Dept. of
Computer. Sci. & Eng., Pohang Univ. of Sci. & Technol. (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea,E-
ISBN :978-1-4244-9220-6,Print ISBN:978-1-4244-9219-0, Pp-201 - 208 , 23-27 May 2011 .

[15] Chrisrtopher Thomas NS3 simulation of WiMAX Networks , Thesis submitted as
Master of Science in Computer Science at Washington University in St. Louis, 2011,www
.nsnam .org / tutorials /NS-3-LABMEETING-1.pdf .

[16] Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Fellow, Abdel-Karim Tamimi, Scheduling in IEEE 802.16e
Mobile WiMAX , (IEEE), Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal at Dept. of
Comput. Sci. & Eng., Washington Univ. in St.Louis , Volume: 27 , Issue: 2 , ISSN :0733-8716
,Pp-156-171, February 2009 .

[17 ] Jan Gerhardsen Formanek WiMAX in Coastal Traffic and Performance Prediction in a
Geographically Challenging Environment thesis submitted for Master of Science in
Engineering Cybernetic at Submission, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Department of Engineering Cybernetics , http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:no:ntnu:diva-
9812, Pp-99, January 2009

[18 ] M. Ma J. Lu C.P. Fu Hierarchical scheduling framework for QoS service in WiMAX
point-to-multi-point networks, (IEEE) , Communications, IET at Sch. of Electr. & Electron.
Eng., Nanyang Technol. Univ., Singapore, Singapore , Volume: 4 , Issue: 9 , ISSN :1751-8628,
pp-1073-1082 ,June 11 2010.

[19] Chirayu Nagaraju , Mahasweta Sarkar, A Packet Scheduling To Enhance Quality of
Service in IEEE 802.16 in Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer
Science 2009 Vol I at San Francisco, USA , ISBN:978-988-17012-6-8 ,Pp-425-430, October ,
2009.

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 97

[20 ] Pratik Dhrona , Najah Abu Ali ,Hossam Hassanein ,A Performance Study of Scheduling
Algorithms in Point-to-Multipoint WiMAX Networks, (IEEE),Local Computer Networks,
2008. LCN 2008. 33rd IEEE Conference at Sch. of Computer., Queen''s Univ., Kingston , E-
ISBN : 978-1-4244-2413-9,Print ISBN:978-1-4244-2412-2,Pp-843-850 ,14-17 Oct. 2008.

[21] Jahanzeb Farooq , Sophia Antipolis , Thierry Turletti An IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Module
for the NS-3 Simulator ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and
Telecommunications Engineering) ICST, Brussels, Belgium, ISBN: 978-963-9799-45-5 , 2009

[22] Shamik Sengupta, Mainak Chatterjee, Samrat Ganguly Improving Quality of VoIP Streams
over WiMAX, IEEE Computer society,Computers, IEEE Transactions at central Florida
university,volume:57 .Issue:2 ,Pp-145-156 , Feb 2008.

[23] Melo, Mrcio of Daniel Tavares , "Performance of WiMAX networks with mobility" ,
Thesis Submitted at Electronic Engineering / Mobile Communications / Telecommunications
networks at Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, University of Aveiro , 2008

[24] Juliana Freitag , Nelson L. S. da ,Fonseca Uplink Scheduling with Quality of Service in
IEEE 802.16 Networks ,(IEEE), Global Telecommunications Conference, 2007. GLOBECOM
'07. IEEE at State Univ. of Campinas, Sao Paulo da Fonseca, Washington, DC ,N.L.S. E-ISBN
:978-1-4244-1043-9,Print ISBN:978-1-4244-1043-9, Pp -2503-2508 ,26-30 Nov. 2007

[25] Xiaojing Meng, An Efficient Scheduling For Diverse QoS Requirements in WiMAX A
thesis submitted as Master of applied science , Electrical and Computer Engineering Waterloo,
Ontario, Canada,Pp-61, 2007

[26 ] Antonio Iera, Antonella Molinaro, and Sara Pizzi, Channel-Aware Scheduling for QoS
and Fairness Provisioning in IEEE 802.16/WiMAX Broadband Wireless Access Systems IEEE
Communications Society , Network, IEEE at Univ. of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria ,
Volume: 21 , Issue: 5 , ISSN :0890-8044,Pp-34-41 , Sept.-Oct. 2007.

[27]Alexander Sayenko , Olli Alanen, Timo Hmlinen Scheduling solution for the IEEE
802.16 base station, Research Article on Computer Networks at Telecommunication
Laboratory, MIT Department, University of Jyvskyl, Finland , Volume 52, Issue 1, ISSN:
1389-1286 ,Pp= 96-115, 18 January 2008.

[28] Thontadharya H.J, Shwetha D and J.T.Devaraju,Study of routing and scheduling
algorithms in WiMAX mesh and multi hop networks, World Journal of Science and
Technology, ISSN: 2231 2587,Pp.120-123, 2012

[29] Giuseppe Piro ,Nicola Baldo, Marco Miozzo An LTE module for the ns-3 network
simulator SIMUTools '11 , 4th International(Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-
Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering) ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and
Techniques, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium 2011, ISBN: 978-1-936968-00-8,Pp-415-422,2011

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 98

[30] Chen-Yu Yang ,Ching-Chun Chou ,Hung-Yu Wei ,Synchronous multicast and broadcast
service in multi-rate IEEE 802.16j WiMAX relay network Springer Science+Business Media,
Springer US, Wireless Networks Volume 17, Issue 8 , Print ISSN 1022-0038, Online ISSN
,1572-8196, Pp 1795-1807, 2011-11

[31] Sonia Nazari,Hamid Beigy A New Distributed Uplink Packet Scheduling Algorithm In
WiMAX Newtorks, IEEE, International Conference Future Computer and Communication
(ICFCC),2010,Wuhan,ISBN: 978-1-4244-5821-9,Pp-V2-232,May 2010.

[32] Wei Nie , Naixue Xiong; Houjun Wang ,A Novel Hybrid uplink Bandwidth Scheduler in
WiMAX Real Time Communication Networks, Ubiquitous Information Technologies and
Applications (CUTE), 2010 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference Sanya, ISSN
:1976-0035,PrintISBN: 978-1-4244-8813-1,Pp-1-6 ,16-18 Dec. 2010

[33] Wei Nie, Naixue Xiong,Houjun Wang,Fair Scheduling for Real-Time Multimedia Support
in IEEE 802.16 Wireless Access Networks, Wireless Pervasive Computing, 2008. ISWPC
2008. 3rd International Symposium , at Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of British
Columbia,Vancouver,E-ISBN: 978-1-4244-1653-0,Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-1652-3 ,Pp-293
297,7-9 May 2008.

[34] Alexander Bakharev,Simulator-Controlled Real-World Experiments in Multihop Wireless
Mesh Networks,Thesis submitted as Master of Science Computer Science and Engineering at
Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering ,LTU-EX-2011-32437191,
Jan 2011

[35] Qingwen Liu, Xin Wang,Georgios B. Giannakis,A Cross-Layer Scheduling Algorithm
With QoS Support in Wireless Networks ,IEEE Vehicular Technology Society, Vehicular
Technology, IEEE Transactions at Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN , Volume: 55 , Issue: 3 , ISSN : 0018-9545, pp-839-847, May2006

[36]Lenzini, and Enzo Mingozzi, Quality of Service Support in IEEE 802.16 Networks ,
Network, : IEEE Communications Society , IEEE at Pisa Univ, Volume: 20 , Issue: 2 ,Pp-50-
55,March-April 2006.

[37] Eleftherios Karipidis,Nicholas D. Sidiropoulos, Zhi-Quan Luo,Quality of Service and Max
Min Fair Transmit Beam forming to Multiple Co-channel Multicast Groups , : IEEE Signal
Processing Society, Signal Processing , IEEE Transactions on Tech. Univ. of Crete, Chania ,
Volume: 56 , Issue: 3 , ISSN : 1053-587X ,Pp-1268 - 1279 ,March 2008

[38] Matthew Andrews ,Probabilistic End-to-End Delay Bounds for Earliest Deadline First
Scheduling , INFOCOM 2000. Nineteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and
Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE AT&T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, USA
Volume: 2 ,ISSN: 0743-166X,Print ISBN: 0-7803-5880-5, Pp- 603 612, Mar 2000 .

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 99

[39] Kulkarni Sandhya, H. J. Thontadharya, Devaraju, J.T, Das D, Performance Evaluation of
VoIP in Mobile WiMAX; Simulation and Emulation studies , (IJCSE)International Journal on
Computer Science and Engineering ,vol-3 ,ISSN : 09753397,PP- 1124 -1130, 01/20111

[40] JASON B. ERNST , Scheduling techniques in wireless mesh network Thesis Presented to
the Faculty of Graduate Studies of the University of Guelph for the degree of Master of Science ,
http://scholar.google.co.in , [PDF] from uoguelph.ca, April, 2009

[41] Marco Miozzo, Faouzi Bader , Accurate Modelling of OFDMA Transmission Technique
using IEEE 802.16m , Springer Berlin Heidelberg , Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer
Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Volume 68, 2011, Series
ISSN 1867-8211 , Second International ICST Conference, MONAMI 2010, Santander, Spain, pp
258-269 , September 22-24, 2010.

[42] S. Kulkarni, HJ Thontadharya, JT Devaraju, and D. Das. Performance evaluation of voip in
mobile WiMAX, simulation and emulation study ,in International Journal on Computer Science
and Engineering,Vol.3,ISSN : 0975-3397, Pp- 1124 , Mar2011

[43] J.Y. Pan, T.Y. Lee, W.S. Lee, and C.Y. Tsao. Improving the r-score of an adaptive voip
codec in ieee 802.16 networks. Telecommunication Systems, Springer science + Buisness
Media vol-51 ,issues -1329 ,ISSN: 1018-4864 (Print) 1572-9451, Pp- 11 , 2011.

[44] IEEE Standard 802.16e-2005, Part16: Air interface for fixed and mobile broadband
Wireless access systemsAmendment for physical and medium access control layers for
combined fixed and mobile operation in licensed band, E-ISBN : 0-7381-4857-1, ISBN: 0-7381-
4856-3,2006

[45] Fallah, Y.P. Vancouver, BC Nasiopoulos, P.; Leung, V. , Fair scheduling in multirate
wireless access networks , Wireless Pervasive Computing, 2008. ISWPC 2008. 3rd
International Symposium at Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of British Columbia , -ISBN
: 978-1-4244-1653-0,Print-ISBN: 978-1-4244-1652-3,Pp-293-297 , 7-9 May 2008

[46] Vikram Mehta, Dr. Neena Gupta, Performance Analysis of QoS Parameters for WiMAX
Networks, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1,
ISSN: 2277-3754 , Issue-1,Pp-105-110 , May 2012

[47] http://www.wirelessman.org.
[48] http://www.WiMAXforum.org/technology
[49] http://www.nsnam.org/docs/release/3.13/models/html/WiMAX.html
[50] Ns3 model library, http://www.nsnam.org/docs/release/3.13/models/html/index.html
[51] Ns3 tutorial , http://www.nsnam.org/tutorials/ns-3-tutorial-tunis-apr09.pdf

.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 100

[52] ns3:WiMAXHelper , http://www.nsnam.org/doxygen/WiMAX-helper_8cc_source.html

[53]GSOC2009WiMAXUplinkScheduler,http://www.nsnam.org/wiki/index.php/
GSOC2009WiMAXUplinkScheduler

[54] Dr. Roberto Hincapie ,Quality of Service and Resource Allocation in WiMAX , publisher
intech published online 03, february, 2012 , published in print edition February , 2012

[55] kwang-cheng chen , national taiwan university, taiwan ,j. Roberto b. De marca pontifical
catholic university, brazil , johnwiley & sons, ltd. Ieee press , Ieee communications society,
sponsor

[56] kamran etemad and ming-yee lai , WiMAX technology and network evolution wiley A
john wiley & sons, inc., publication ieee communications society

[57] F. Ohrtman, WiMAX Handbook: Building 802.16 Wireless Networks, McGraw- Hill,
ISBN: 1590595742, May 24, 2005, pp. 54-75.

[58] Jeffrey G. Andrews, Arunabha Ghosh, Rias Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX:
Understanding Broadband Wireless Networking .Prentice hall, Edition-1 ,tot Page-496 , pub
date -2007 , ISBN13-9780132225526 ISBN 10 -0-13-222552-2 .


















.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 101











APPENDIX A: Abbreviations








.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 102

ACK Acknowledge
AF Available Frames
AMC Adaptive modulation and coding
ARQ Automatic retransmission requests
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AWGN Additive white Gaussian Noise
BE Best Effort
BS Base Station
BWA Broadband Wireless Access
CINR Carrier to Interference and Noise Ratio
CBR Constant Bit Rate
CDMA Carrier Detection Multiple Access
CID Connection Identifier
CPS Common Part Sublayer
CPE Customer Premise Equipment
CQICH Channel Quality Information Channel
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CS Convergence Sublayer
DTPQ Delay Threshold Priority Queuing
DFPQ Deficit Fair Priority Queue
DRR Deficit Round Robin
DL Down Link
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
EDF Earliest Deadline First
FCFS First Come First Serve
FCH Frame Control Header
FDD Frequency Division Duplexing
FEC Forward Error Control
FRTS Frame Registry Tree Scheduler
FTP File Transfer Protocol
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 103

GMH Generic MAC Header
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
IPTV Internet Protocol Television
LA-LWT Link-Adaptive Largest Weighted Throughput
LWDF Largest Weighted Delay First
LOS Line Of Sight
MAC Media Access Control
MBQOS Migration Based Quality Of Service
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
NLOS Non-Line-Of-Sight
NRTPS Non-Real Time Polling Service
NS3 Network Simulator 3
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
PBR Piggy Back Request
P2P Point-to-Point
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PMP Point-to-MultiPoint
PQ Priority Queue
PS Physical Slots
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QOS Quality of Service
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RR Round Robin
RTG Receive/transmit Transition Gap
RTPS Real Time Polling Service
SAP Service Access Point
SDU Service Data Unit
SFID Service Flow Identifier
SS Subscriber Station
TDD Time Division Duplexing
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 104

TTG Transmit/receive Transition Gap
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UGS Unsolicited Grant Service
UL Up Link
VBR Variable Bit Rate
VoD Video on demand
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Networking
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WDRR Weighted Deficit Round Robin















.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 105





APPENDIX B: General Terms









.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 106

Backhaul : Wireless backhaul is the use of wireless communications systems to get data from an
end user to a node in a major network Manufacturers of network switching equipment use the
term backhaul to refer to the process of getting data to the network backbone. Such as the
Internet.
Bandwidth: Total link capacity of a link to carry information.
Channel: The physical medium is divided into logical channel, allowing possibly shared uses of
the medium. Channels may be made available by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots,
distinct spectral bands.
Common Part Sublayer: The Common Part Sublayer is designed to support point-to-multipoint
architecture. It is responsible for radio link control, bandwidth request handling, scheduling
service, framing, data packing, fragmentation, and reception/transmission of protocol data unit to
PHY interface.
Convergence Sublayer: The term applied to the top portion of a protocol, typically at the Data
Link Layer (Layer 2), that functions to format data originating in higher layers for processing by
the lower layers. The CS adds a header or wraps the data in a header and trailer that contain
information necessary to provide the necessary services. Typically, error control and priority
information are added at this layer.
Data Transfer Rate: The data transfer rate is commonly used to measure how fast data is
transferred from one location to another.
Digital Subscriber Line: It is medium for transferring data over regular phone lines and can be
used to connect to the Internet.
Jitters - Jitter is variation in the order and time in which packets are sent and received. In an
attempt to smooth the incoming voice packets, a jitter buffer has been implemented in all modern
VoIP deployments
Line-of-sight (LOS) : Is a condition where a signal travels over the air directly from a wireless
transmitter to a wireless receiver without passing an obstruction.
.

An Advance Uplink Scheduler For Hybrid Migration Based Quality Of Service In Wimax Network Page 107

MAC Layer: The Media Access Control Layer is one of two sub layers that make up the Data
Link Layer of the OSI model. The MAC layer is responsible for moving data packets to and from
one Network Interface Card (NIC) to another across a shared channel.
Non Line of Sight (NLOS): Is a condition where a signal from a wireless transmitter passes
several obstructions before arriving at a wireless receiver. The signal may be reflected, refracted,
diffracted, absorbed or scattered.
Node: A device that implements IP.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing: OFDM modulation technique for transmitting
large amounts of digital data over a radio wave. OFDM works by splitting the radio signal into
multiple smaller sub-signals that are then transmitted simultaneously at different frequencies to
the receiver.
Protocol: When computers communicate with each other, there needs to be a common set of
rules and instructions that each computer follows. A specific set of communication rules is called
a protocol.
TCP/IP: The purpose was to allow computers to communicate over long distance networks. The
TCP part has to do with the verifying delivery of the packets. The IP part refers to the moving of
data packets between nodes
Wifi : Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a local network. It refers to wireless
networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless
signal.
WiMAX: Is a long range system, covering many kilometers , that uses licensed or unlicensed
spectrum to deliver connection to a network, in most cases the Internet.
4G: Is a collection of fourth generation cellular data technologies.