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Background to the Study

Northern Caribbean University is a major tertiary institution, owned and

operated by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in Mandeville, Jamaica. Faced

with the rising cost of energy, the organization is presently exploring ways to

improve its utilization of energy in all forms. As an engineer and instructor in the

NCU’s Mathematics & Engineering department, the researcher was part of a team

which recently solicited the services of Caribbean ESCO Ltd to conduct an energy

audit of the campus. The presently completed audit has proposed a series of

recommendations for improving energy utilization. While the commissioning of

the audit and the future implementation of its recommendations may be laudable

this is only the genesis of what is needed for long term energy management.

In an era of shrinking energy supply and growing energy demand (Porter,

1999), every major institution needs to develop a strategic plan for energy

management. Northern Caribbean University presently has no official plan.

Therefore, building on the most relevant findings and recommendations of the

recent energy audit, this research study will seek to provide a framework for the


development of a strategic energy management model for the University. It is

intended that this plan, will serve as a reference guide for all future energy related

decision making procedures within the university in relation to energy harnessing,

production and utilization systems.

Statement of Problem

As a result of high energy costs and inefficiencies in energy utilization,

Northern Caribbean University currently expends significant financial resources

to acquire and utilize energy. Consequently the two major problems faced by the

institution are high energy costs and also inefficiencies in the utilization of

purchased energy.

Purpose of Study

To develop a plan for a strategic energy management system at Northern

Caribbean University, that is intelligent, relevant, and adaptable to future needs.

Research Questions

This basic research questions which underpinned the enquiry were:

1. What is the total average base year (2007-8) energy cost at NCU and

how do the major areas of energy utilization benchmark with

institutions of similar size?

2. What are the major energy inefficiencies in energy abstraction and

utilization on the NCU campus?

Conceptual Framework

This research paper uses a conceptual framework. The concept of an

energy management plan is a relatively modern concept in the management of

energy generation and utilization within organizations (Moran, 2008). The United

States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers an established and proven

strategy for superior energy management in any organization. In this investigation

the US EPA model will be used as the conceptual framework on which this study

is based. This conceptual framework designed by the US EPA is based on the

successful practices of Energy Star, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy to help people save money

and protect the environment through energy efficient products and practices. This

conceptual framework for an energy management plan is shown in the figure


The steps in the conceptual framework are as follows:

Figure 1a. Conceptual Framework for Energy Management

(a) Making a commitment to implement the plan. This has to do

particularly with securing the support of top management.


(b) Assess performance and set goals. The present situation at the

organization must be assessed and together with the top management

of the organization, energy management goals, objectives and

performance targets must be set by the energy management team.

(c) Create action plan. After setting the objectives and targets, an action

plan is created to make these goals reality.

(d) Evaluate Progress. Periodic evaluation of the progress achieved in the

implementation of the plan is important in ascertaining the success or

failure of the implemented plan. It also shows what remedial action if

any ought to be taken to ensure that unrealized goals are met.

(e) Recognize Achievements. The positive outcomes of the plan should be

noted or recognized for reinforcement or positive feedback. Also the

personnel that assisted in these positive outcomes should also be

recognized and further equipped to carry out the required functions.

These are the major areas of the conceptual framework used in the

formulation of the energy management plan proposed in this research paper. Re-

assessment and ongoing evaluation of the plan is one of the most important

aspects of all energy management plans. As such this must also be a key

ingredient in the NCU energy management plan.

Significance of the Study

The significance of this study arises from the increasing importance of

energy efficiency and energy conservation measures to Northern Caribbean


University in a climate of unreliable energy supply and high energy costs.

Consequently, this research derives its importance from the fact that it seeks to

formulate a strategic energy management plan which will enable the institution to

deal effectively with energy related issues or challenges.

Research conducted by Lam et al. (2004) reveals that the energy

consumption pattern at Northern Caribbean University is quite similar to that of

other universities worldwide. According to Lam et al. (2004) it is typically found

that in universities worldwide HVAC systems consume 47.5 per cent, lighting

27.4 per cent, electrical equipment 21.8 per cent, and lifts and escalators 3.3 per

cent of electricity. This data compares well with the data obtained from the NCU

energy audit


The findings of this study are confined to the immediate context of

Northern Caribbean University. Consequently, care should be taken with any

extrapolation of these findings for other research settings. Also it should be noted

that while providing some useful guidelines, this research paper emphasizes the

conceptual framework for a strategic energy management system and does not

dwell on the specifics of actual implementation, which lies beyond the scope of

this research investigation.


In this paper, data used for analysis was obtained largely from an energy

audit carried out recently on the NCU main campus, with which the researcher

was particularly involved. The rest of the primary data was obtained by the

researcher from the analysis of energy utility, and recording values obtained at

site inspections. Consequently this research relies on the veracity of all the above

mentioned data sources.

Key Terms and Definitions

The following are definitions of standard terminologies used by the American

Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE),

USA, in energy management publications.

1. Base Year: The year on which calculations are referenced. In this study

the base year is 2007 - 2008

2. EMS: Energy Management System.

3. HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

4. Infrared Thermometer: An infrared thermometer is a non-contact temperature

measurement device. Infrared Thermometers detect the infrared energy emitted

by all materials -- at temperatures above absolute zero, (0°Kelvin) -- and

converts the energy factor into a temperature reading.

5. MMbpd: Million barrels of oil per day

6. Pneumatic: Operated from compressed air

7. Poly- Urethane Foam: A special non- heat conductive, insulative material

normally used to coat building roofing for heat insulation purposes.

8. Power Factor: A numerical figure ranging from 0 to an ideal value of 1,

which gives the ratio between real power usage and apparent power usage.

9. SEMP : (Strategic Energy Management Plan). This is a plan outlining the

steps an organization must take in order to make efficient use of energy.


10. Solar-Photovoltaics: The electrical-thermal-chemical technologies

involves in the conversion of solar(light) energy directly into electricity

11. Thermo-graphic Scanner : An electronic device used in building energy

auditing for locating areas of low insulation and air leakage in a building.

12. Thermal Reflectivity: The ability of a surface to reflect heat rays from the

sun rather than absorbing them

Organization of Study

This study is made up of five major sections. This current section provides

an introduction or overview of the study. The sections which follow are:

Literature Review; Methodology; Data Analysis; Overview, Conclusions,

Recommendations and Implications.


The two fundamental challenges Northern Caribbean University currently

faces are high energy costs and inefficiency in the utilization of purchased energy.

Consequently this research outlines a strategic energy management plan adaptable

to future needs. The research questions investigate the historical energy use on the

campus over the base year (200 – 2008) and proposes recommendations for

improving efficiency in utilization and abstraction of energy in accordance with

the findings of research data.



Giancolli (2004) defines energy as the ability or capability to do work.

There are many different types of energy, but all these forms may be simply

grouped into two main forms; kinetic or potential energy. The fuel sources we use

on a daily basis, for lighting, heating, cooling and many other functions are all

forms of potential or stored up energy. However, some of these sources of energy

can be replenished when they are used, while others cannot be replenished after

use. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2008), USA defines,

renewable energy sources as energy sources that are replenishable. Examples of

these include solar energy, wind energy and biofuels. Non-replenishable sources

are called non-renewable energy sources and examples include fossil based fuels

such as natural gas, coal and crude oil.

It is important to note that when non-renewable fuels are used, their

energy content does not just vanish, but rather becomes non-renewable. This is

because it becomes converted to a form which is very difficult or impossible to

recover use conventional energy abstraction techniques. Many global economies,

especially in Europe are today making a case for the increased development and


deployment of renewable energy technologies, primarily to offset their growing

energy needs and to secondly to promote sustainable environmental development

with environmentally clean energy. (Official Journal of the European Union,

January 2009).

The Global Energy Crisis

Mearns (2008) states that the world is on the verge of a global energy

crisis. This crisis results from the fact that the increase in global energy demand is

no longer congruently matched with an increase in available energy supply from

traditional energy sources. According to the Statistical Review of World Energy

2009, close to 100% of global energy needs is supplied from fossil based fuel

resources, namely, coal and crude oil. Prior to 2004, a rise in demand could be

met by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting States (OPEC) bringing on spare

capacity (opening the taps), but since then demand growth could only be met by

bringing new capacity on line. As (Mearns,2008) states, this refers to discovering

new oil fields, drilling wells, building oil processing plants and pipelines among

many other capital intensive, time consuming, and highly technical activities.

The global fossil based energy supply is indeed on the decline. In 2007 the

Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA) conducted a study attempting to

estimate the global average decline rate in fossil based energy supply. Doing trend

analysis on data as far back as the 1970’s, the team computed an average decline

rate of 4.5% based in the analysis. The world currently produces around 85

million barrels of oil per day (MMbpd). Applying the 4.5% decline rate to this

figure shows that 3.8 MMbpd new oil production capacity needs to be added

every year just to compensate for decline and maintain current production levels.

Should production ever rise to 100 MMbpd, then 4.5 MMbpd of new capacity

would be required every year, out of an ever degrading quality of oil field


It is also important to note that at the time of this research, some oil

exporting countries are currently experiencing economic growth, resulting in

notable growth in internal energy consumption. This has resulted in these

countries consuming an ever larger percentage of oil exports. Some exporting

countries may also be experiencing production decline, such as Indonesia,

Norway and Mexico. In Indonesia's case, (Jhakarta Post, May 2009) these

processes combined have consumed all oil exports.

Of note, research done by Mearns and Desouza (2008) state that the

greatest factor to mitigate for the effects of fossil fuel decline is energy efficiency,

both on the production and consumption sides. However, this single factor alone

is unlikely to solve the problem, and therefore should be coupled with alternative

energy technologies, on a truly massive scale. However these alternative energy

technologies must have a high Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI).

The Olduvai Theory, proposed by Duncan (1989), integrates decline in oil,

gas and coal production with population growth providing a bleak picture of the

per capita energy availability to mankind. Based on Duncan’s forecast, by 2012,

per capita energy production will fall off a “cliff edge”, and this will lead to the

demise of industrial civilization. Research work done by Mearns and Desouza

(2008) on the Olduvai Theory using more current data reports on fossil fuel

reserves and production revealed equally bleak findings. One worrying trend

shown in Figure 10, (see Appendix) is that a strong positive historical correlation

exists between decline in global GDP and decline in global oil supply.

The Future of Renewable Energy Technologies

Today the most commonly used Renewable Energy sources consist of

wind, solar thermal/photovoltaic, geothermal, large/small hydro, ocean-thermal

and biofuels. In a recent publication, Arvizu (2008) of the National Renewable

Energy Laboratory (NREL), USA states that based on current trends and the

rapid growth in energy demand, renewables will only account for 14% of global

energy supply by 2050. Arvizu (2008) further states that by 2050, the projected

global energy supply from renewable will be approximately 1TW while global

energy demand would have risen to approximately 20TW. As the article suggests,

rapid deployment of advanced and highly efficient renewable technologies should

be our primary method of filling this gap

Renewable vs Alternative Energy

It is important for the researcher to establish that there is a fundamental

difference between alternative energy and renewable energy. Renewable energy

has already been defined in the introduction as energy that is derived from a

replenishable source. Alternative energy on the other simply refers to all non-

fossil based energy sources that may be used to supplement traditional energy

supply. Not all alternative fuels are renewable. The ones that are replenishable are

renewable energy sources. Therefore all renewable energy is alternative energy,

but not all alternative energy is renewable.

The Importance of Energy Efficiency


Of all the energy related issues, energy efficiency is the issue of

paramount global import and significance. According to the World Energy

Council (WEC), energy efficiency may be simply defined as the state of energy

production or utilization resulting from using the “same quantity of energy inputs

to achieve a certain level of output or work”. Skoczkowski (2008), a technocrat

currently crafting the European Union’s energy efficiency policy, in an article

entitled, “Energy efficiency policy in the European Union, states that “The future

both in energy production and energy use lies in innovative, environment friendly

and efficient energy technologies.(p.1)”

Energy efficiency is a proven, cost-effective resource for any organization

or nation. It is one of the cheapest ways of cutting greenhouse gas emissions and

contributing to sustainability and security of the global energy supply. It supports

economic development and job creation, and it also reduces energy costs

providing lower energy bills for households and businesses alike. Energy

efficiency (EU energy policy, 2008) has become one of the key drives in the

innovation and research policy of many EU countries. As Skoczkowski (2008)

further states:

“The EU in particular has three key objectives with respect to the

development of energy technology over the coming years. These are (a) to
lower the current cost of renewable energy, (b) to facilitate the efficient
use of energy and (3) to place European industries in the leading position
in low carbon technologies. This includes renewable energies such as
wind, biofuels and solar, as well as sustainable coal and natural gas power
plants, including CO2 capture and storage, and, later still, fuel cells and
hydrogen, advanced fission power and fusion. All this should be done in
combination with better use of energy in conversion processes, in
buildings, industry and transport. (p. 2)”
It is worth noting that one of the three major goals involves efficient use of

energy. Also all energy conversion aspects of existing technologies will be


improved to optimize energy efficiency. It is evident that the EU intends to move

toward greater energy efficiency. Other world economies are slowly becoming

aware that energy efficiency is the major area of energy technology focus for

decades to come.

The Purpose of Energy Management Systems in Buildings

De Keulenaer (2009) defines an Energy Management System (EMS) as follows:

“An energy management system is a system that regulates the current in

the network so that the grid or micro grid is used as efficiently as possible.
This can lead to a reduction of the maintenance costs and an increase of
the equipment lifespan as well as the pursuit of the lowest possible
electricity price for consumers. (p. 1)”

Energy Management Systems trace their beginnings to the basic building

controls of the 1880s which used a bimetal-based thermostat with a hand-wound

spring-powered motor to control room temperature by adjusting a draft damper on

a coal-fired furnace or boiler. In 1890, the first pneumatic powered control

became available. As the Portland Energy Conservation Inc. (PECI) Energy

Management Systems Guide (1997) states:

“Today automated energy control has become standard practice. Virtually

all nonresidential buildings have automatic controllers with a computer as
the central processor. (p. 5)”

These systems are called Energy Management Systems (EMS), Energy

Management Control Systems (EMCS), or Building Automation Systems (BAS).

Today’s building owners and facility managers must regularly address the issue of

computerized energy management, assessing existing systems, specifying and

commissioning new systems, evaluating service contract options, or optimizing

EMS operations. The primary purpose for the evolution of EMS over the past

decades has been the need to improve energy efficiency. This is the fundamental

reason for the existence of EMS. As technology has advanced these systems have

become more intelligent sophisticated and are able to control larger spaces with

easier operation and performance. There is currently a wide variety of EMS on

the market for a variety of applications. It is very important then that the most

appropriate EMS be selected for the building spaces that are to be managed in

order to achieve the most optimum energy efficiency targets.

Examples of Successful Energy Management Systems

Most modern universities worldwide currently employ an Energy

Management System. A few of these include the University of Oxford, University

of Iowa and West Carolina University. The Strategic Energy Management Plans

(SEMP’s), of these universities, which are available online, show that the

introduction of Energy Management Systems has resulted in energy costs falling

by an average of 10%.

Northern Caribbean University, a major tertiary institution in Mandeville

Jamaica, is directly affected by the factors affecting energy provision and

utilization in Jamaica. According to the Jamaica Energy Policy Green Paper (2008

– 2020), Jamaica has one of the highest energy costs per kilowatt in the entire

Caricom region. This is because most of the energy used within the country (over

90%), is derived from imported crude oil. According to the Planning Institute of

Jamaica (PIOJ) Annual Report 2008, the energy bill for imported crude was

approximately US$2.7 billion in 2008, growing from a figure of US$2 billion in

2007. This is an increase of 35% in energy cost, which is not supported by any

commensurate increase in economic productivity.


Consequently, Northern Caribbean University, faced with high energy

costs, and operating within this high–price Jamaican energy market, should be

prepared to lead the way with the deployment of a smart energy management

system along with frugal energy management. This approach should result in

significant energy savings. It will also encourage other Jamaican organizations to

pattern this energy saving model, thus saving the nation significant foreign

exchange expense due to reduced energy demand.

According to the ASHRAE Journal (April, 2008), one outstanding

company that has exemplified strategic Energy Management is Pacific Northwest

National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program facility in southeastern

Washington State that is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's)

Office of Science. Using strategic energy management techniques, PNNL has

reduced energy consumption per square foot by 38% in office buildings since

1985 and 42% in lab space since 1990. The laboratory has been honored for

exemplary energy management by the International Facilities Management

Association, the Association of Washington Business, the U.S. DOE, and the U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency. Experience at PNNL over the years has

revealed six steps for successful energy management that any organization can

adapt. The steps they used are as follows:

1. Changing staff behavior: This refers to programmes targeted at

reprogramming organization behavior to achieve energy conservation


2. Recommissioning facility systems: A total retrofitting and overhauling

of existing energy systems.


3. Modernizing the infrastructure company-wide: Removal of outdated

energy systems and replacing with modern high efficiency systems

4. Diversifying energy supplies: Using a wider variety of dependable

energy sources rather than sole dependence on a single supply type.

5. Using alternative financing: Making use of all financing opportunities

(local and overseas) to develop and deploy alternative energy projects.

6. Evaluating effectiveness: Using management control and feedback tools

(financial, process, and electronic) to continuously analyze system results

for effectiveness and efficiency

Energy management is the practice of using energy more efficiently by

eliminating energy waste. As Herzog (1996) states, the three fundamental

components of effective energy management include: efficient purchasing,

efficient operation and efficient equipment. Efficient purchasing entails

purchasing energy at the lowest available cost, which is affected by the quantity

of energy demand, the time it is demanded and the season of demand. Efficient

operation means that the energy systems in the organization are utilized to

maximum capacity and decommissioned when little or no energy use is required.

Lastly, efficient equipment means that old and inefficient equipment must be

either upgraded or replaced with efficient equipment

Successful energy management incorporates a commitment to achieve pre-

established energy efficiency goals, systematic energy use measurement, and

clear communication of the program’s success. The amount saved through energy

management depends on many things. These include: The design and age of a

building; how heavily it is used; the availability of alternate fuels; the amount of

capital available to invest, and whether conservation programs are already in


More often than not, however, conscientious review and management of

how a building operates can produce some savings. A successful energy

management programme will: Secure top administrative commitment and on-

going support “from the top” to assure the program’s success; Appoint an Energy

Manager (EM) and develop an energy management team to coordinate efforts;

Develop clear energy management goals, a systematic program structure, and

strategies for communication and implementation; Collect information and

inventory building characteristics, past energy consumption, and energy costs for

each building; Develop an energy budget that demonstrates current conditions and

indicates the amount of expected improvements in efficiency; Analyze individual

building energy budgets and characteristics to identify potential improvements;

Implement cost-effective no-cost/low-cost measures; Evaluate potential capital

investment measures identified during initial building inventories and assess the

building to determine future savings; Monitor energy use to determine building

performance and identify additional opportunities for energy savings.


Energy management is an important activity for sustainable development,

globally, national and corporately. This becomes especially important amidst a

global climate of uncertainty, and unpredictability in energy supply. Today energy

management plans provide an easy and cost effective approach to achieve energy

utilization targets within any organization. Northern Caribbean University is no


exception, and with the implementation of such a plan, should realize major cost

reduction in utility bills and general costs of operation.



For the most part, a quantitative approach has been used in this research

project, due to the fact that the data gathered for analysis is quantitative in nature.

However for purposes of comparison to established standards and benchmarks,

qualitative procedures of comparison have been used. Relevant quantitative data

from the NCU energy audit (2008) and from established reference sources such as

the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the ASHRAE (American

Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers) have been

used to formulate an accurate description of the state of energy harnessing and

utilization at Northern Caribbean University (NCU).

From this data a model for a Strategic Energy Management System

(SEMS) has been be developed to address the short and long term energy needs of

NCU. Concepts learned from strategic planning in the NCU MBA programme

have also been combined with the technical knowledge in this research. Upon

development of the model, its merits will be analyzed based on current and

forecasted data regarding energy harnessing and utilization at Northern Caribbean



Research Design

As stated earlier, the research design method used in this research is

mostly quantitative but also incorporates qualitative comparisons in order to

arrive at the correct conclusions. This approach can be best described as the

Sequential Explanatory Strategy (Creswell, 2003). In this approach, as described

in the figure below, quantitative energy audit data is first collected and analyzed

followed by the collection of qualitative data such as benchmarking data from the

US EPA and ASHRAE. These data sets are then used to arrive at the correct

interpretation of the energy utilization trends at NCU and to make



The instrumentation used by the researcher consisted of onsite reading and

recording of utility meter values, current and voltage measurements using

electrical testers, use of geometrical imaging, geometrical calculations, and the

use of a building facilities map of the NCU campus,

Data Collection

Data in this research was initially collected empirically from various

onsite inspections and observations using the above mentioned instrumentation

tools. The energy audit data can be considered a convenience sample, in which

the case under investigation is the NCU main campus. Additional empirical data

was also obtained from a meeting chaired by Dr. Daniel Fider, Vice President for

Strategic Planning at NCU to discuss the findings of the recent energy audit. Also

in attendance were Mr. Norris Gordon, Chief Maintenance Engineer and Dr.

Andel Bailey, Chair of the Mathematics and Engineering Department. At this

meeting, there was a general consensus on the validity of the energy audit data.

Mr. Norris Gordon also identified some key areas for immediate attention. These

areas are identified in the recommendations section of this paper.

Research Questions

The questions addressed in this research were:

1. What is the total average base year (2007-8) energy cost at NCU and

how do the major areas of energy utilization benchmark with

institutions of similar size?

2. What are the major energy inefficiencies in energy abstraction and

utilization on the NCU campus?

Data Analysis

In addition to the benchmarking of qualitative research data, the primary

analysis technique is cost- benefit analysis. This is primarily due to the fact that

plan is formulated from an examination of a variety of energy saving

recommendations. Each of these measures come both with benefits and associated

costs. Consequently cost-benefit analysis has been used to examine determine the

results of these implementation of recommendations in the plan.



Based on the data obtained in this research, energy utilization at NCU,

particularly the percentage breakdown of energy consumption is not significantly

different from that obtained in other universities of similar size or larger.

However like all other institutions there is room for significant improvement in

energy utilization for greater efficiency.

Answer to Research Question 1

Research Question 1

How does the total average base year energy cost at NCU and the

major areas of energy utilization benchmark with high efficiency

institutions of similar size?

In answer to this research question, data from the energy audit conducted

between June to September 2008 reveals that for the base year (July 2007 to

June 2008) utility cost was approximately forty-one million (J$40.98M) dollars. A

breakdown of this cost is provided in figure 1b.


Utility Costs

*Data Source – NCU Only, Energy Audit 2008
J$14.41 ,
(Caribbean ESCO 35% Ltd.)
Figure 1b. J$26.57 , Breakdown of

NCU’s electricity and

water costs (2007 -2008)

As shown in figure 1, water consumption cost was estimated at J$14.41M

or 35% of total utility cost. This cost did not include the cost for electricity

consumed for pumping and distribution. Energy audit data reveals that the base

year trucked water unit cost was $523.37/m³ ($2.37/gal) compared to NWC water

unit cost at $126.67/m³ ($0.57/gal). Electricity cost was J$26.57M and

accounted for 65% of total utility costs.

Table 1 above shows that NCU’s energy costs is comparative with

Florida A & M University which has a little over twice the population of

NCU and approximately twice the Cost/BA.

Table 1

Comparative Utility Cost of Tropical Zone Universities with NCU


University Total Utility Estimated Student Total Cost Cost/B

Cost(US$) Population(SP) Building Area /SP A
(2007 - (BA)
2008) (Square feet)
Florida State 51 million 41,000 2,300,000 1243 22.17

University 62.8 52,000 2,550,000 1208 24.63

of Florida million

Northern 0.5 million 5,300 160,000 94.3 3.13

Caribbean 6

Answer to Research Question 2

Research Question #2

What are the current inefficiencies in energy abstraction and utilization?

The NCU energy audit revealed the following areas as major inefficiencies:

1. Lack of proper maintenance/servicing of energy utilizing equipment

(Especially Air Conditioners and Circuit Breakers): Increased
Electro/Mechanical resistance due dirty or corroded electrical/mechanical
contactors has resulted heating and conduction losses. This results in loss
of energy and decrease in equipment service life. Effective maintenance/
servicing of equipment will lower losses and increase useful life of
2. Low air conditioning efficiency: The refrigerant currently in use is not the
most efficient on the market. Efficiency can be increased by replacing the
existing refrigerant with the Hydrocarbon type
3. Lack of a computerized energy management system: The lack of an energy
management system leads to a lack of control and knowledge of the
energy utilization or waste within the institution.

4. Low efficiency fluorescent lighting: The tubes in use are not the most
efficient on the market. Also, many fluorescent lights use inefficient
magnetic ballasts instead of electronic ballasts
5. Low electrical power factor: The electrical power factor is currently an
average of 0.72 while the ideal value is 1. This indicates that
approximately (0.28) 28% of electricity that is paid for, does no useful
6. Low thermal reflectivity of building roofing: Currently most roofs are
painted in dark colours resulting in poor solar heat reflection.
7. Lack of water leak control: Due to the type of faucets used, leaks are
frequent due to individuals forgetting to turn off faucet valves. The faucets
types are also high flow instead of low flow.
8. Lack of harvesting of rain water: Currently no catchment facility is in
place to harvest available rain water
9. Lack of occupancy based lighting and water controls in classrooms,
bathrooms and offices: There are currently no electronic controls to switch
off lighting and AC systems when student leave rooms unoccupied,
resulting in energy waste
10. Lack of public education campaign: There is currently no ongoing
public education campaign to sensitize faculty, staff and students on the
role they must play in energy management.
11. Lack of renewable energy systems: There are currently no working
renewable energy systems for supplementation of the NCU energy bill.
The energy management measures currently in place at NCU are
effectively summarized in the results of the Energy Management Matrix
shown in Table 2 overleaf. The Energy Management Matrix is a self
assessment tool constructed by the US department of Energy for organizations
to access their energy management techniques. It is important to note that:
i). Energy management scores range from 0-4, with 4 being the highest
score. Also higher scores are better than lower ones
ii). A perfectly balanced profile is represented by a perfectly horizontal
line. Balanced profiles are better than unbalanced profiles

iii). A Profile in need of improvement is one that needs balancing and a

Energy Management Matrix - Self Assessment Tool

Energy Marketing,
Management Underlying tracking,
L Policy Organization Principles reporting Promotion Investment
1 X X X
0 X X X
higher energy management score in at least one area for action are to
achieve balance and move upscale.

Table 2
NCU Energy Management Matrix1

1- The complete Matrix Assessment Tool is included in the Appendix (Figure 11). This demonstrates
how the above values for NCU have been derived. Energy Matrix Tool – US Department of Energy,

It is clear from the results of the matrix that the state of energy

management at NCU is very poor. Major steps need to be taken to move upscale

and to achieve balance in the NCU matrix.




Due to high energy costs and inefficiencies in energy utilization, Northern

Caribbean University currently expends significant financial resources to acquire

and utilize energy. As a result the two major problems faced by the institution are

high energy costs and also inefficiencies in the utilization of purchased energy.

The primary aim of this research paper had been the development of a

plan for the management of energy use at Northern Caribbean University, which

is intelligent, relevant, and adaptable to future needs. Consequently, the basic

research questions which underpinned the enquiry were:

1. What is the total average base year (2007-8) energy cost at NCU and

how do the major areas of energy utilization benchmark with

institutions of similar size?

2. What are the major energy inefficiencies in energy abstraction and

utilization on the NCU campus?

Based on the analysis of the research data, the following conclusion was




Upon implementation of the recommendations which follow, for a strategic

energy management plan, the energy audit indicates the University could save

US$185,221.00 (J$10.50M) annually at prevailing utility rates. This would

represent annual savings of approximately 474,000 kWh or 35% in electricity

savings. Electricity demand would be reduced from 525-kVA to approximately

317-kVA. Water consumption could be reduced by 9,000 m or at least 2,000,000

gallons annually.

The combined project implementation cost estimates total approximately

US$353,000.00 (J$19.67M). If implemented, this could result in a simple payback

period of approximately two years. Northern Caribbean University should

therefore seek the appropriate financing routes in order to effect this plan. The

most cost effective implantations both in the short and long term are those steps

that will lead to energy efficiency and energy conservation.

Recommendations - Strategic Energy Management Plan

For an accurate picture of the factors affecting energy management at

NCU, Porter’s Diamond of National Advantage Model was modified to reflect the

factors affecting an energy management advantage. These elements for the

creation of an energy management advantage are shown in Figure 2.

There are four important parts of this model which are all self –

reinforcing, because of their direct impact on each other. The first and most

important among these four are factor conditions. Factor conditions are the

renewable energy resources that are readily available for use by NCU in order to

create a competitive advantage in energy utilization. Next, these factor conditions

must be correctly managed under a good firm strategy.

Figure 2. Diamond model of energy management advantage – NCU

As the energy management profile has indicated, the NCU firm strategy in

relation to energy management is quite weak. The third element of the model is the

energy demand conditions, upon which the firm management strategies directly

impinge. It is this third element that must be properly controlled by firm strategy in

order to realize the benefits of successful energy management. Finally, the fourth

element, Related and Supporting Industries represent the very essential

departments or divisions on the campus which must work with management to

make energy management goals a reality.


Consequently, the recommendations for the implementation of a strategic

energy management plan at Northern Caribbean University should follow the

following steps.

STEP 1: Secure the commitment of top management

Every successful energy management plan must first be mandated by the

top management of the organization. Consequently the NCU Board must mandate

the implementation of a SEMP if this plan is to be successful

STEP 2: Appoint an energy manager for the campus

This is the first step that must be taken in the implementation of a SEMP.

This manager will be responsible for setting energy management goals and

ensuring that the energy resources are effectively utilized to meet these goals

STEP 3: Identify an energy saving goal.

Based on the energy audit data, NCU spent approximately JA$40 million

on energy for the base year. Since the areas of energy inefficiency have already

been identified in question 2, the first step in the energy management plan is to

identify an energy management goal. Based on Energy Star (2008) data, a good

goal to begin with is to reduce base year energy costs by at least 30%. Thus:

Year 1 – Energy Savings Goal

20% x JA$40 million = JA$8 million/per annum in energy savings

STEP 4: Distribute the energy saving goal over the major areas of in efficiency

that can be addressed immediately

a) The energy audit reveals that 65% of the total energy cost during the

base year was used to pay for electricity. This translated to approximately JA$27

million spent to purchase electricity. It was also revealed that the average electrical

power factor at the university was 0.72 which is much lower than the ideal value of

1. One recommendation to correct the electrical power factor is to install AC

capacitors at the incoming utility lines of the campus, to lift the electrical power

factor to at least 0.96. If this is done the savings calculated off the base year cost

would be:

(0.96 – 0.72) x JA$27 million = 0.24 x JA$27 million = JA$6.5 million in

savings per annum

It is evident that the implementation of this recommendation alone would enable

NCU to realize 81% of its JA$8 million energy saving goal. The cost- benefit

analysis for this step is shown in Table 3.

Table 3

Implementation- Power Factor Correction

Existing Power
Factor Conditions
Demand Energy Op. Cost
Location/System Quan. Pf Kw kVA (kVA) (kWh/yr) ($/yr)
JPSCo Supply 1 0.79 415 525 525 1,366,992 376,338.00

Revised PF. Conditions

Demand Energy Op. Cost
Location/System Quan. Pf kW kVA (kVA) (kWh/yr) ($/yr)
JPSCo Supply 1 0.96 415 432 432 1,325,982 353,929.00

Measure Costs
Quan Total Cost
Model . VAR Materials LabourUn Cost (US$) (US$)
Capacitor Bank 1 201 $30,900.00 $4,635.00 $35,535.00 $35,535.00
TVS-201 2 $1,000.00 $300.00 $1,300.00 $ 2,600.00
Miscellaneous 1 $ 4,000.00 $1,500.00 $5,500.00 $ 5,500.00
Total Project
Cost ($43,635.00)

Table 3 (continued)

Implementation- Power Factor Correction

Measure Savings

Demand Energy Payback
Savings kWh Savings ($/yr) (years)
93 010 US 22,410.00 2
18% of 3% of
existing existing 6% of existing
kVA kWh $ cost

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

b) Another major recommendation that is easily implementable in the short

term and would also yield significant energy savings is to paint all roof surfaces of

buildings white. This will significantly reduce the AC heat load by as much as

30%. By so doing the other 19% of the NCU energy saving goal for year 1 will be


STEP 5: Identify long term energy saving goals

Operating and maintenance Improvements. Urgent action must be taken to

carry out maintenance services on all air conditioning equipment, with special

attention to cleaning evaporator and condenser heat transfer surfaces. Inspection

and service to electrical terminals in circuit breaker panels and motorized

equipment should have already been carried out to aid in reducing distribution

losses which contribute to increased electricity and equipment maintenance costs.

This should be done at least once every three years, preferably using a thermo-

graphic scanner, or infrared thermometer to aid in assessing terminal temperatures

and overload conditions.


In addition to thermo-graphic scanning, a computerized preventive

maintenance programme should be implemented relevant to all significant building

assets. Classrooms should be equipped with automatic lighting controls which turn

off lights on zero occupancy. Bathroom facilities should be retrofitted with low

flow push type water faucets and water softeners to prevent failure of faucets due

to mineral deposits. The cost associated with this step is shown in Table 4.

Table 4

Operation and Maintenance Improvements Costs

Item Description Quan. Labour Materials Cost
1 Implement an energy conservation 4,700.0
awareness programme 1 2,500.00 2,200.00 0

2 Implement a computerized
Preventive maintenance
Programme. Service all AC and 6,500.0
refrig. equipment. 1 5,000.00 1,500.00 0

3 Carry out thermografic scan of

electrical terminals and circuit
breakers and service as required. 6,000.0
1 6,000.00 - 0
4 Repair water leaks 1 3,750.00 1,000.00 0

5 Disconnect unwanted fluorescent 1,500.0

lamp ballasts. 1 1,500.00 - 0

6 Service all air conditioners and 4,500.0

replace defective condensers. 1 4,500.00 - 0

Totals ($23,250.00) ($4,700.00) ($27,950.00)

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Improve Air Conditioning Efficiency. The energy audit reveals that the

estimated combined total air conditioning equipment cooling capacity is

approximately 120-tons. These mainly consist of air cooled split systems which

utilize R-22 refrigerant (HCFC). An alternative hydrocarbon refrigerant of higher


energy efficiency is R-22a. The cost benefit analysis of this step is shown in Table


Table 5

Project Summary- Air Conditioner Refrigerant Retrofit.

Project Cost US$16,625.00

Measure Savings J$1,213,625
*Data Source – NCU Energy
Demand Energy Cost Payback Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO
kVA kWh/yr $/yr yr.
US$19,790.0 Ltd.)
49 62,625 0
32% 28% 00

Fluorescent Lighting Efficiency. Fluorescent lamps are the predominant lighting

fixtures at NCU. The great majority utilize 40-Watts T-12 tubes along with

magnetic ballasts. Both are outdated and relatively inefficient. Lighting Efficiency

Improvement can be effected by carrying out a “group re-lamping” project to

replace the existing 40-Watts with 32-Watts tubes and the magnetic with electronic

ballasts. This measure could reduce lighting energy consumption by approximately

at least 34%. The cost benefit analysis of this step is shown in Table 6.

Table 6

Lighting Improvements Project Summary

Project Cost US$56,457.00 J$3,951,990

Measure Savings:
Energy Cost AC Payback
kVA kWh/yr $/yr Tons Yrs
66 103,668 $29,424.25 4 1.9
34% 34% 34%

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Install a Computerized Energy Management System (EMS). An energy

management system is really an automatic energy control and utilization

information system. It allows the energy manager the ease of evaluating whether or

not efficiency targets are being met, or to determine where and how to take

corrective actions. Such as system can result in significant savings to NCU,

however, the initial outlay of this system is capital intensive, as shown in cost

benefit analysis of Table 7.

Table 7

Installation of A Computerized Energy Management System

kVA Operating Cost
Type Demand kWh/yr (US$/yr)
Electricity consumption 525 1,366,992 366,487.00

Estimated Water
consumption 7,116 51,970.00
Total Existing 1,366,992 $418,457.00

kVA Operating Cost
Type Demand kWh/yr ($/yr)
Electricity consumption 470 1,230,293 $329,838.00

Estimated Water consumption 6,404 $46,773.00

Total Projected 1,230,293 $376,612.00

Measure Costs
Unit Total
Product Price Cost Total Cost
Location Part Number Description Quantity (US$) (US$) (J$)

Central Control H8822 Aquisuite 1 3,200.00 3,200.00 233,600.00

Multiple H8830 Transceiver 13 1,040.00 13,520.00 986,960.00
Main meter # 1 H8036-0300-2 1000A meter 1 1,300.00 1,300.00 94,900.00
Generator # 1 H8036-0400-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21

Table 7

Installation of A Computerized Energy Management System

Generator # 2 H8036-0400-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Cedar Hall H8036-0300-1 300A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Liela Reid Hall H8036-0300-3 300A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Gymnatorium H8036-0300-3 1600A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Woodwork shop H8036-0300-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Robinson Hall H8036-0300-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Library H8036-0300-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Chapel H8036-0300-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Cafeteria H8036-0300-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Jamaica Hall H8036-0300-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Pump House H8036-0300-3 800A meter 1 1,092.77 1,093.00 79,772.21
Water meter # 1 U001-0018 Flow,SDI,BRS, 1 1,500.00 1,500.00 109,500.00
Water meter # 2 U001-0018 Flow,SDI,BRS, 1 1,500.00 1,500.00 109,500.00
Water meter # 3 U001-0018 Flow,SDI,BRS, 1 1,500.00 1,500.00 109,500.00
U001-0020 Flow,Prog Cable
Cable and control 3 180.00 540.00 39,420.00
Installation cost 1 10,200.00 10,200.00 744,600.00
Total $46,373.00 J$3,385,247.000

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

This is definitely a long term goal that NCU should not undertake solely,

but rather seek grant funding, Alumni donations or Sponsorship to complete.

Figure 3 outlines the basic components of this energy management system, citing

the Acquisuite System as an example.


*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Figure 3. Component of energy management system (AcquiSuite)

These systems are modular and can be easily expanded and upgraded as

needed around the NCU campus. They are composed primarily of a central EMS

server, which is inter-connectible to the campus Local Area Network. Feeding into

this central EMS server are data acquisition modules which are placed at the

monitoring nodes in the system. These modules transmit real time data wirelessly

or via cabling to the EMS server, which monitors all energy conditions, while

providing control and warning alert functions for the campus energy manager.

Solar Water Heating Systems. Hot water is generated by electric water

heating systems. This is an extremely inefficient and costly use of electricity. Solar

water heating systems should be installed in all areas utilizing hot water on a

regular basis, especially for domestic purpose. These systems would not only save

money but they would give a clear indication that NCU is an environmentally

conscious facility in pursuit of the use of economically viable renewable energy.

The cost -benefit analysis of this step is shown in Table 8.

Table 8

Replacing Electric Water Heating with a Solar

Heating System

Op. Cost
Type gal/day M3/day (days/yr) Efficiency kWh/day kWh/yr (US$/yr)

Jamaica Hall 900 3.40 300 95% 117 35,023 8,055.00

Liela Reid 1080 4.08 300 95% 140 42,027 9,666.00
Hotel 300 1.13 320 95% 40 12,834 2,952.00
Canteen 220 0.83 350 95% 29 9,988 2,297.000
Cedar Hall 1425 5.39 300 95% 185 55,453 12,754.00
Existing 3925 155,325 $35,724.74



Jamaica Hall 900 3.40 65 90% 123 8,010 1,842.00

Liela Reid 1080 4.08 65 90% 148 9,612 2,211.00
Hotel 300 1.13 45 90% 41 1,848 425.00
Canteen 220 0.83 15 90% 30 452 104.00
Cedar Hall 1425 5.39 65 90% 195 12,682 2,917.00

Total Projected 3925 32,604 $7,498.94

Measure Costs

Table 8

Replacing Electric Water Heating with a Solar

Heating System

Op. Cost
Type gal/day M3/day (days/yr) Efficiency kWh/day kWh/yr (US$/yr)
Unit Cost Qty (US$)

Solar panels and supports 850 65 55,604.17

Solar water tank 4,500 5 22,500.00
Circulator pump and
controls 1,000 5 5,000.00
Interconnecting piping 2,000 5 10,000.00
Installation labour 5,300 1 5,300.00
Maintenance savings/yr (4,500.00)
Total 1st Year $93,904.1
Cost 7

Measure Savings
Energy & Cost Savings Payback
kWh/yr kW $/yr Yrs
122,721 1 79%

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Reduce Solar Heat Gain with spray applied polyurethane Foam. Roof

areas are either dark in colour or painted red. Dark roofs contribute significantly to

air conditioning electricity consumption and consequently operating costs due to

solar heat gain transmitted to the space. The most economical and proven method

of roof insulation is spray applied polyurethane foam system. This system not only

reduces solar heat gain, but is also an effective roof sealing product. This

application could reduce solar heat gain by approximately 75% and reduce air

conditioning electricity consumption. The cost-benefit analysis of this step for the

NCU Gymnatorium is shown in Table 9.

Table 9

Foam Coating of NCU Gymnatorium – Cooling Costs

Existing Operatin
Roof Area Ton "U" Annual g Cost
Roof Area (sq. ft) hrs/sf value ton.hrs kWh/yr (US$/yr)

Main Building 2,000 3 0.545 6,000 7,200 1,584.00

Total Existing 2,000 6,000 7,200 1,584.00

Main Building 2,000 0.8 0.135 1,500 1,800 396.00

Total Revised 2000 1500 1800 396.00

Measure Savings

Energy Costs Payback

kWh/yr US$/yr yr.
7,199 $1,188.00 3.4

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Collection of Rain Water from Roofs. The high cost of truck delivered

water and scarcity of NWC supply have created a critical problem that could be

alleviated by installing rain water collection gutters to harvest and pumped through

an efficient treatment and filtration system for domestic use. Figure 4 shown

overleaf provides a map of the section of the NCU campus with an outline of the

proposed system

*Data Source – NCU Repairs & Maintenance Department, 2003

Figure 4. Map outlining proposed water harvesting system layout


Table 10

Building Perimeter and Surface Area

Building Number Building Name Perimeter of Surface Area of

Building Roof

(Unit = feet ) (Unit = Square feet)

(Length of (Rain Collection)

1 Gymnatorium 721 20,709
2 Reid’s Hall 414 5,941
3 Procurement 276 5,166
4 Music 276 5,166
5 Clock Tower 171 1,808
6 Information Science 296 4,305
7 Cedar Hall 656 12,055
8 Robinson Hall 512 15,500
9 Hiram S Walters 486 13,433
10 Science & Admin. 952 19,375

11 Field View 315 5,123
12 President’s Suite 210 2,755
13 Vicbern Laboratories 224 2,583
14 Jamaica Hall 427 8,611
Total 5936 122,530

Using a scale factor of 1cm  20m as shown on the map, the following

calculations of building perimeter and roof surface area were made. This is

recorded in Table 10. Also using the same scale, the approximate length of piping

required to lead water into the collection tanks is 3,500 ft. Table 11 summarizes

the calculations of the important quantities.

Table 11

Summary of Water Harvesting Calculations


Piping 3500 ft
Guttering 5936 ft
Collection Surface Area 122,530 ft2

The annual rain fall in the Mandeville area is 78 inches or 6.5ft (Jamaica

Meteorological Office, 2009). Assume a moderate collection efficiency of 70% in

the water harvesting system, the annual volume of water that can be collected is:

Annual Volume (Harvested Water) = 0.7 x 6.5ft x 122,530ft2 = 557,511ft3

Converting to gallons: 557,511ft3 = 4,170,471 gallon of water per annum. The

estimated water consumption for the base year (2007-08) was 42,257 m³ or

11,163,118 gallons of water at a cost of J$14.41 million. Therefore the potential

saving in cost due to water harvesting is:

Savings = (4.17/11.16) x J$14.41 million = J$5.38 million

This is 37% of associated water costs per annum. This figure can be improved

further should there be significant reduction in water wastage on campus.

The estimated cost of setting up the water harvesting system is summarized in

Table 12.

Table 12

Table of Cost for Water Harvesting System

Item Unit Price Quantit Total Cost

(US$) y (US$)
Piping, (20ft length of 6” $25.00 175 $4,375.00

Pipe fittings $875.00 $875.00
Guttering, (20ft length) $32.00 300 $9,600.00
Gutter fittings $1,875.00 $1,875.00

Filtration System $6,250.00 $6,250.00

Earth Work (digging, $2,500.00 $2,500.00

Total Cost $25,475.00

The total cost of the system is calculated to be US$25,475 or J$2,267,275

Calculated Payback time = (Total Cost/ Total Savings) x 1 yr

= (2.27/5.38) x 1yr = 0.42 years

STEP 5: Ongoing optimization of energy conservation measures

With the appointment of an energy manager, there must be ongoing

optimization of energy management and energy conservation measures, with an

aim to reduce energy demand by at least 5% each successive year after year 1.

STEP 6: The implementation of an ongoing campus wide energy

awareness/conservation campaign, managed by Corporate Communication and

Public Relations, NCU.

This measure is pivotally important and should see implementation in both

the short and long term. Users of the campus facilities must be shown the role that

they can play in reducing energy consumption and must be encouraged to do so.

STEP 7: Implementation of renewable energy systems to supplement energy


While outside the scope of this research, two renewable energy

technologies that have great prospects for implementation on the NCU campus are

Solar-Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Technology. The East Campus, where the

School of Nursing is located is a promising site for the deployment of a wind farm

as it lies in the direct path of wind currents emanating from the southern sea coast.

Provided that the appropriate financing is arranged, the implementation of this

system could result in NCU selling electrical power to the JPS grid and

supplementing its energy bill through Peak Shaving.

Peak shaving involves the lowering of a firms overall energy consumption

cost during peak hours as a result of the organization selling generated power to

the grid at that particular time. In respect of solar photovoltaic systems, the

National Housing Trust is currently providing loans for the deployment of the

systems and the feasibility of implementation of these systems in the proposed

NCU student housing project should also be investigated.

Summary of Recommendations

The above recommendations are holistic in nature, addressing major areas

of inefficient energy utilization on the campus, namely electricity usage for

lighting and air conditioning, building heat absorption and water consumption.

However, it is advised that these recommendations be implemented on a phased

basis, beginning with the least cost or most easily implemented ones. Coming out

of a planning meeting chaired by Dr. Daniel Fider on January 06, 2009, Mr. Norris

Gordon, chief maintenance engineer at NCU identified a few of these

recommendations for immediate implementation. These are as follows:

1. Cleaning and Servicing of all A/C Units to increase efficiency

2. Serving of electrical contactors and circuit breakers and installation of

power factor correction capacitors at the JPS mains entrance.

3. Installation of low flow water faucets


4. Installation of room occupancy sensors in all classrooms to control

lighting and air conditioning usage

5. Replacing any existing T-40W fluorescent tubes with 32W tubes and

magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts

6. Replacing existing electric water heaters on the dormitories with solar

water heaters

7. Launching an ongoing campaign to sensitize users of the campus to the

role they must play in energy conservation and management.

The other recommendations are more capital intensive and of a longer term in

nature. They should be implemented after the low cost recommendations are put

into effect. In summary, the implementation of these recommendations especially

the seven identified above for immediate implementation, will produce significant

cost savings with immediate effect.


Depending on the actions taken regarding the above mentioned

recommendations there will be certain implications. These implications will affect

not only the university administration, but also the students and the wider


Firstly, implementation of the prescribed recommendations on phased basis

could have the following positive implications:

1. The university could realize significant cost savings of at least J$10.50

million dollars annually.

2. As a result of energy cost reduction, and an overall reduction in

budgetary expense, tuition increases for students could be lessened.


3. A positive example of good environmental stewardship would be set

for other corporate partners to follow.

4. The University will eventually be moving towards self sufficiency in

relation to its energy generation and consumption needs with the

deployment of wind and solar renewables.

On the other hand, a failure to implement these important recommendations

could have the following implications:

1. The university will continue to experience a rising energy bill due the

rising cost of energy in Jamaica and globally.

2. There will be increasing pressure on the university budget from

increased energy cost, which may result in the need to recover these

costs in increased tuition fees.

3. The university would have lost the opportunity to be a trend setter in

environmental stewardship within its immediate corporate environs.

4. The university will continue to be utterly dependent on the energy

obtained from the local power grid and therefore susceptible to any

failures and irregularities in supply as well as increased costs.


It is strongly recommended that the university administration appoint an

energy manager to oversee the implementations of these recommendations on a

phased basis as outlined in the plan. It is also important that the suggested

electronic energy management system be acquired and installed on the main

campus and manned daily by the campus energy manger. In so doing energy

security and yearly cost reductions could be realized and the institution would be

an example of good environmental stewardship in corporate Jamaica.


Supporting Figures for Energy Consumption, NCU

(Source: NCU ENERGY AUDIT 2008)

B ase Year Electricity Consumption (kWh) Profile









7 7 7 7 07 07 8 08 8 8 08
l- 0 g-
0 -0 ct
-0 v- c- n -0 b- ar
-0 r- 0 -
Ju Se
No De Ja Fe Ap ay
Au O M M

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Figure 5. Monthly electricity use profile at NCU for the period July 07 – May 08

160,000 700



kW h Used
Dem and KV A



- 7 -








r- 0

t- 0












*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Figure 6. Base year electricity use profile for the period July 07 – June 08
































*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Figure 7. NWC water consumption profile December 06 – December 07

Key Observations, Historical Electricity Use
1. The combined base year water and electricity costs are estimated at
approximately forty one million ($40.98M) dollars. Electricity and water
represents 65% and 35% of total costs respectively.

2. Average monthly electricity consumption was 113,916 kWh and average

monthly peak demand was 503 kVA.

3. The lowest power factor value was 0.77

4. Facility load factor was 0.31. This value is considered slightly low
compared to 0.04 for a typical University campus.

5. Base year unit cost moved from $16.08/kWh to $23.36/kWh due to

increases in international oil price. This will have an adverse effect on
unit cost for the future as these values have yet to stabilize.

6. Electricity consumption was very high in November. This should be

investigated to prevent a repeat of this occurence.

7. Electricity unit cost was US$0.27/kWh. This value has moved near the
threshold where applications of several renewable energy measures
become economically viable. NCU should consider the application of
renewable energy after implementing load reduction and efficiency
improvement measures.

8. Average monthly electricity cost was approximately $2.21M. However

electricity cost in the last month of the audit period was approximately
$2.7M and this cost is expected to increase.

9. Monthly average electricity consumption is 33% above the 85,437 kWh

recommended benchmark.

10. Peak Electricity demand is 44% above the 400 kVA benchmark peak

11. Average power factor (0.79) is below acceptable level of 0.96 and
warrants immediate attention.



F&B $510


































*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Figure 8. Estimated breakdown of and use electricity cost


E stim ated E nd U se E lectricity (K VA) D em an d

20% 22%




15% 19%



*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Figure 9. Estimated electricity end use kVA demand breakdown


Figure 10. World GDP growth and fossil fuel consumption 2

2- Dr. E. Mearns, - Presentation to the Royal Society of Chemists, Aberdeen, UK,

October 29, 2008. “The Global Economic Crisis and its role in the pending
collapse of the Global Economy”

Figure 11. Energy management matrix 3

3-US Department of Energy, Self Assessment Tool for Organizations. When using
the matrices, consider each column individually. Place a mark in each column
that best describes the organization’s energy performance status. Join the marks
across the columns. This will describe the organization's approach to energy
management, and provide an overall indication of how well balanced energy
management is within the organization.

Supporting tables for energy consumption, NCU



(Source of Data in Appendix – NCU ENERGY AUDIT 2008)

Table 13

Base Year Electricity Use Data

kWh Demand Demand Monthly Cost Cost Power Load
Used kW KVA (J$) (J$/kWh) Factor Factor
Jul-07 100,800 331 396 1,620,404.00 16.08 0.84 35%
Aug-07 82,944 396 461 1,511,628.00 18.22 0.86 21%
Sep-07 95,976 389 511 1,765,185.00 18.39 0.76 29%
Oct-07 110,952 425 576 2,068,166.00 18.64 0.74 28%
Nov-07 138,312 425 526 2,445,719.00 17.68 0.81 33%
Dec-07 114,696 396 497 2,214,776.00 19.31 0.80 36%
Jan-08 110,376 367 475 2,115,825.00 19.17 0.77 28%
Feb-08 120,960 389 475 2,376,293.00 19.65 0.82 37%
Mar-08 125,064 410 490 2,406,095.00 19.24 0.84 37%
Apr-08 127,224 396 497 2,601,342.00 20.45 0.80 36%
May-08 125,712 396 490 2,782,513.00 22.13 0.81 33%
Jun-08 113,976 382 648 2,662,358.00 23.36 0.59 26%
Totals 2 576 J$26,570,303.00 J$19.36
Averages 113,916 392 503 0.79 31%

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)


Table 14

Base Year Electricity Use Summary

Base Year July 07 - June 08 Electricity

Consumption (kWh) 1,366,992 *Data Source – NCU Energy

Maximum Demand 576 Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO

Costs (JA$) $26,570,303.00 Ltd.)
Estimated Costs (US$) $369,032.00
Unit Cost (JA$) $19.44
Electricity and
Unit Cost (US$) $0.27 Water Consumption
Foreign Exchange Rate $72.00 Statistics

The summary table of electricity consumption for the period under review
shows that electricity use versus the recommended benchmarks are above those
expected of this facility. This clearly indicates the need for the implementation of
energy conservation measures recommended in this report.

Table 15

Monthly Electricity Use Summary and Recommended Benchmark

Monthly Electricity Use Summary & Recommended Benchmark

Consumption Benchmark Difference
Tower (kWh) 113,916 85,437 33%
Peak Demand (kVA) 576 400 44%
*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Table 16

Historical Water Consumption and Costs

Cons M3/20day Trucking Cost at

(M3) Cost Unit Cost mth. Trucking $523.37/M3 M3 Total Cost(J$)

Dec-06 3,135 396,599 126.51 1903 995,992 5,038 1,392,591.00

Jan-07 2,494 316,764 127.00 1903 995,992 4,397 1,312,755.00
Feb-07 2,114 268,457 127.00 1903 995,992 4,017 1,264,449.00
Mar-07 1,603 202,596 126.39 1903 995,992 3,506 1,198,588.00
Apr-07 2,991 364,616 121.90 1903 995,992 4,894 1,360,608.00
May-07 1,585 208,824 131.75 1903 995,992 3,488 1,204,816.00
Jun-07 1,646 217,236 132.00 1903 995,992 3,549 1,213,228.00
Jul-07 1,820 225,759 124.04 1903 995,992 3,723 1,221,750.00
Aug-07 1,881 233,230 124.00 1903 995,992 3,784 1,229,222.00
Sep-07 593 74,262 125.23 1903 995,992 2,496 1,070,254.00
Oct-07 867 108,421 125.00 1903 995,992 2,770 1,104,413.00
Nov-07 1,229 162,447 132.18 1903 995,992 3,132 1,158,439.00
Dec-07 598 77,538 129.66 1903 995,992 2,501 1,073,529.00

Total 19,421 2,460,150 126.67 22,836 11,951,902 42,257 14,412,052.00

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)

Significant Electricity Consuming Equipment

The major electrical equipment that contribute significantly to electricity

costs are fluorescent lights, air conditioners, computers and related office

equipment. These items should therefore be targeted in the effort to improve

energy efficiency. Their estimated relative energy demand and consumption

contributions are shown in the following tables and charts.

Table 17

Estimated Electricity End Use & Percentages of Total Energy Demand


End Use kVA % KWh %

General Lighting 128 23% 331,877 25%

Security Lights 20 4% 88,000 7%
Air Conditioning 104 19% 228,210 18%
Refrigeration 16 3% 73,949 6%
Resisitive 66 12% 122,924 9%
Water pumps 16 3% 44,400 3%
Equipment 83 15% 166,304 13%
Computers 110 20% 220,869 17%
Cafeteria/Thai Centre 10 2% 25,000 2%
Totals 554 1,301,534

*Data Source – NCU Energy Audit 2008 (Caribbean ESCO Ltd.)


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