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Chap. I. TIERS AND VAULTS.

861
centre of gravity let fall the vertical Nh, which may be taken to express the wein'hl
of the voiissoir. Tliis weight may be resolved into two forces, whereof one, Nc, is
parallel to the joint, and the other Nrt is perpendicular to it. In the .same manner the
power
Q,
expressed by QN in its direction may be resolved into two forces, whereof
Nf
will be parallel to the joint and the other N(/ perpendicular to it. Producing the
line from the joint IIG, drawing the horizontal line GI and letting fall the vertical HI,
consider the line IIG as an inclined plane whose height is HI and base IG. Then the
Force Nc with which the voussoir will descend will be to the weight as the height H
I
of the inclined plane is to its length H G. Calling
p
the weight of the voussoir, we
then have Nc=/> x
-jjj,
and the force Na which presses against the plane as the base of the
plane I G is to its length, which gives the force Na=/> x
y.^.
1384. Considering, in the same way, the two forces of the power
Q, which retain the
voussoir on the inclined plane, we shall find the parallel force N/"= Q x j-.y,, and the per-
pendicular force Nc^ =
Q X
Yic-
-^'"^ force resulting from the two forces Na, NJ, whicli
press against the joint, will be expressed by
p
x
yiq+
Q, x
qjj
;
and as the voussoir only
begins to slide upon a plane whose inclination is greater than 30 degrees, the friction will
be to the pressure as the sine of .30 degrees is to its cosine, or nearly as 500 is to 866, or
I'i'i of its expression. Calling this ratio /, we shall, to express the friction, have
(^;;x^H+ Q x-(;h>"-
As the friction prevents the vcuvsoir sliding on its joint, in a state of equilibrium, we fluill
have the force Ny equal to the force Nc, less the friction; from which results the etjuatior.

^
IG HI ^ IG 111 N
Q
""
TIG
=P
><
HG
-
{.P
>^
G H
- <^
X
H GJ
""
"
-Ml tlie terms of which equation having the common divisor HG, it becomes

Qx IG=j3x HI-(px IG-Q,x IH)xw;


and, bringing the quantities multiplied by Q, to the same side of the equation, we have
Qx IG
+ (Q,x IH)x n=p xHI

(/3xIG)x7i; which becomes


Q X (IG + n X IH=p X (HIn X IG) ; whence results
Q=^ X
jGi^wxIH'
'^^l^i-'i is the formula for each voussoir, substituting the
values for the expression.
1385. Thus for the third voussoir N
(,fiff.
567.)
placed on an inclined plane of 40 de-
grees, HI wliich represents the sine of the inclination will be 643, and its co.slne repre-
sented by IG, 766, the expression of the friction n will be
^gj!,
or
Ja
nearly. The weight of
tlie voussoir expressed by its area will be 473, wliich several values being substituted
in the formula, we have
0-4-Q
643-1^x766
^~^''^''766Tiix643'
which gives Q=83'6, the expression of the horizontal force P, which will keep the voussoir
N in ecjuilibrium on its joint instead of 83 "4, which was the result of the ojjcration in tiie
preceding subsection.
IT f
M V TP
1386. The same formula
Q,=p x
iG+y^viH S^'^^^
^^'^ ^^^'^ voussoir M on an inclined joint
of 60 degrees, whose sine HI is 866 and cosine IG500, Q=473 x
^^"iS
><
^^
= 273-4;
500 +
55
X 866
instead of 273 "3, which was the result of the operation in the preceding section.
1387. For the half-keystone, the sine HI, being of 80 degrees, will be expressed by
985, and its cosine IG by 174; the half-keystone by 236.', and the friction by
y.
935
15
^
174'
The formula now will be Q=236.1 x prj[|rg-, which gives Q,= 282-2, instead
of 231-^ found by the other method. These slight differences may arise from sup-
pressing the two last figures of the sines, and some remainders of fractions which have been
neglected. Multiplying these values of the powers which keep the voussoirs in e(]uilibriuni
upon their beds by the several arms of the levers, as in the preceding calculations, their
energy will be as follows :

For the voussoir N, 83-6 x 244-94= 20476-98


0,273-4x256-26= 70061-48
S, 282-2x260-50= 73313-10
For the total force in respect of the fulcrum T= 1 63851 -56.
Wliich ii the value of/;, and being substituted for It in the formula x= V
-''";
i-
'.'; -