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W tons is
1629^ For 1, Tliversed Tec irons:

Wlien X is ono-foiirlh of tl-e table or flange be, and the form as 5'.
12 of a rectangle, then
SW, It was stated in the Oldliam Mill Report that this fo m of beam, which
nii^ht he considered to support a weight of say 1000 lbs., may be broken if reversed, that
is, the flange placed uppermost, as
with a weight of say 340 lbs. Hodgkinon experi-
mented on two bars 4 feet 3 inches long, the flange 4 inches wide, rib
inch deep, witli
a tliickness of metal of about
incli. One bar was tried with tlie flange uppermost, the
other bar ith the flange downwards. The former broke with
cwt., the latter with
9 cwt. Experiments on three girders of tliis shape, the web being 2 inclies high and
inch thick, the flange 2 inclies wide by
inch thick, and 24 inches long, were made by
Cooper of Drury Lane. He stated that the gain in strength over a flitch D 2 inches by
inch was 25 per cent. ; the loss in stift'ne^s being 30 per cent. The strength arising from
the accumulation of the quantity submitted to tensile action
bears out an adequate result, or .',80 times its own weight, instead
of 40,), as D 2 inches by
inch, and D D2 inches by
inch each,
i inch apart, showing over them an increase of strength
of nearly 50 per cer.t. In using t'lis form of section, it makes
no diffeience whether the load be |)laced wholly on the top of
tlie vertic<d web, or on tlie lower flange ; the result obtained in
eitlier case was tlie same.

Builder, 1845, vol. iii.

p. 593. The
rt suits of some other experiments on this useful form of iron
are given in the Enr/i/ieer's Pocliet -book for 1861, p.
205. The formula
also .ipplicable to the trough-shaped section, as N
61Sr.), as to the inverted Tee or
shape W, taking the two vertical ribs to be equivalent to one rib of the same depth and
doiiJ)le tlie thickness. Tlie thickness of the horizontal and vertical parts of these gi.d^rs
should he equal, or nearly equal, so as to obtain as near an equality in cooling as possil le.
I629tt For 2C, ]Mixed beans
Flitch be nns and double
beams : Tlie^e beams are
com|)osed of an iron ])late (cast or wrought) placed betwen two pieces of fir timber,
613s., or of a plate placed on each side of the solid timber
613<. The^e plates again may have a t.ible or
flange, as in the case of the single i)late; or of a half flange, as
in the case of the plates on each side of the beam. All these
should be bolted, or otherwise secured together, to render
them as homogeneous as possible. Hurst gives the formula
j-^j.(Ci< + 30<)
= W in cwts. Here t breadth of the one, or
two, wrought fro/i flitches
; h breadth of wood, both in inches ; C, coeflficieiit = 4 teak, 3 oak,
2'5 fir, and 2*0
elm. Fairbairn considerstbat
theaddition of the timber on each side ofthe
plate gives increased stiffness, and renders it less liable to warp under strain. It is called a
sandwich beam." He states tliis beam "to be weak, comparing the results with those of
the simple plate girder ; and its elasticity, although considerable, is nevertiieless so imper-
fect as to render it inadmissible for the support of great loads, whether proceeding from a
dead weight, or one in motion over its surface. With riveted angles or flanges, the timbers
on each side might have been useful in preventing lateral flexure, but they would not liave
contributed, in any great degree, to the vertical bearing powers of the beam." (Application,
p. 284-5.) Rolled flat irons can now be obtained about 13 to 14 inches deep, frotn
inch to an inch in width, up to 30 feet in length, and for special cases somewhat longer.
1629. The muthod of trussing a beam is explained in Cakpentrv (par. 2021, et scq.).
Ftg- CI 3s. Fis- Gist.
I629w. The formulajfor finding the strength for examples IV.and
675., are =A;
''2+-^ = s. Here Z length in feet ; d depth in feetboth measured from the points
of intersection
of the stay, tension rod, and top beam
; W load in tons uniformly dis-
h horizontal thrust on beam in tons
and s strain on inclined pait of tension rod
in tons.
When the truss has more than one stay, h, /, and (/ will represent the same ; and
A, tensile strain on the horizontal portion of the rod. The strain on the inclined tie rod
will be .\/
-'r u-d'^ s ; n the number of times that the horizontal distance between the
pier and the nearest stay is contained in I. If any load be placed on the middle, the s'raiii
h will he doubled. If any load be placed en each of the stays, then I will represent the
distance of each loaded stay from the nearest pier; d depth as before; h horizontal
thrust on the part next the pier ; s tension on each of the inclined ties. Then
- = h; and
= s. To resist the strains of the inclined tie rods with safety, allow an inch of
sectional area in the tie rod for every 5 tons of strain. The stay, being in compression,
should be calculated as a column ca])able of supporting the load if in the middle, or one
half if distributed. The beam, though in compression, should be capable of supporting the