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Emerging Food Chemical Safety and Nutrition

Safety Issues :
Drivers of Change

Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods
(SPSFAM)

Samuel Godefroy, Ph.D.

Director General,
Food Directorate,
Health Canada

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Outline

Current trends influencing food safety emerging
issues:
Complexity of food supply chains
Globalisation and its consequences:
Economically motivated adulteration
Current and emerging food chemical safety
challenges:
Continued emphasis on process-induced chemicals
Chemicals used in conjunction with food production
Food Allergen management : A continued concern
Nutrition Safety: an increasingly important field





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Trends Influencing Emerging Issues
The Food Supply Chain remains amongst
the most complex industrial supply chains
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Trends Influencing Emerging Issues

Foods are amongst the most traded commodities
Local Food Supply
Global Food Supply
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35 Products
60 Countries
5 Continents
..... In 1 Box
This Man Delivers
Exerpt : Presentation by Dr. Paul Brent - FSANZ
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In Just One Pizza!
Dough And then the toppings.......
Canada, USA
France, UK, Poland, USA Cheese from......
Yeast Chicken from................
UK, Ireland, Germany Chilli Peppers from .......
Salt Anchovies from............
UK, France, China Pepperoni from............
Sugar Vegetables from ..........
Brazil, Indonesia, J amaica
Philippines
Tomato paste
Greece, France, Netherlands
Herbs
Greece, Italy, spain
Kenya, Asia, Tanzania,
Morocco

Exerpt : Presentation by Dr. Paul Brent - FSANZ
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Globalization and Canada
Local Issues
National Issues
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Information age
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Impact of Globalisation is further expressed in the
context of some emerging issues such as
Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA)
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Econmically Motivated
Adulteration (EMA)
Fraudulent, intentional substitution or addition of
a substance in a product for the purpose of
increasing the apparent value of the product or
reducing the cost of its production, i.e., for
economic gain (US FDA working definition) =
Food Fraud

Intended not to be detected, therefore, typically
does not result in public health consequences

(Everstine and Kennedy, NCFPD, March 2012)
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Types of EMA
Dilution
Substitution (Europe Horse Meat issue, 2013 ;
Sudan dyes in spices/Chili)
Artificially increasing weight
Transshipment, disguising true country-of-origin
Port shopping
Mislabelling, counterfeit, etc.
Spink and Moyer, JFS Vol.76, No. 9, 2011)
When EMA turns bad , health repercussions can
be expected

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EMA and Analytical Needs
- Chemical Methods for
unknown analytes /
Adulterants
- Methods enabling
food authentication
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Examples EMA incidents reported in the US
(Everstine et al. 2013)
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Food Chemical Safety incidents continue to undermine consumer
confidence


Food Chemicals Scare
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Generally managed through :

ALARA principle : As low as reasonably achievable
approach

Codes of Practice to reduce likelihood of formation

Advice to consumers on food preparation tips : e.g
reduction of acrylamide in home made fries, baked
toasts


Not deliberately introduced
Unexpected occurrence as a result
of processing

Levels may be considered of
concern although limited
epidemiological data

Multiplication of incidence as a
result of improved analytical
capabilities : Chloropropanols (e.g.
3 MCPD), Ethyl-Carbamate,
Acrylamide, Furan, Benzene in soft
drinks etc


Process-Induced Chemicals
Process Induced Chemicals : ability to detect exceed our ability
to characterise potential health effect
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Analytical methods are required:


to identify chemical

to understand formation pathways

to monitor effectiveness of efforts of mitigation /
reduction e.g., to support establishment of
sentinel levels or maximum levels as required







Not deliberately introduced
Unexpected occurrence as a result
of processing

Levels may be considered of
concern although limited
epidemiological data

Multiplication of incidence as a
result of improved analytical
capabilities : Chloropropanols (e.g.
3 MCPD), Ethyl-Carbamate,
Acrylamide, Furan, Benzene in soft
drinks etc


Process-Induced Chemicals
Process Induced Chemicals : ability to detect exceed our ability
to characterise potential health effect
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Changing food production practices:
Innovation in the food sector is leading to the emergence of novel
processing aids, incidental additives and additives used in conjunction with
food production
Most significant change expected in food packaging practices e.g.
emergence of new materials : nanotechnoologies etc..

Changes in levels of oversight related to introduction of preventive
control requirements : possibly affecting substances that had, until
now, lower oversight e.g. packaging applications
Uneven oversight,
Limited guidance
Limited predictability for the industry sector
Chemicals used in conjunction of food production
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Trends Influencing Emerging Issues
Climate Change :

Different Patterns of
Natural toxins
Pathogens
Novel crops : e.g. drought resistant

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Trends Influencing Emerging Issues
Changing Consumer demands / Interests :
Foods with added health benefits
Industry is introducing more functional foods:
Include biologically active ingredients
Making health claims
With added vitamins and minerals

Development of a new sector of foods for
targeted populations:

Gluten free foods
Formulated Liquid diet and other foods

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Continuing areas of concern
Continued focus on food allergies:
Food allergen-related incidents are topping food recalls in
Canada, the US and other OECD countries
Food allergen methods are still not fully standardised
Threshold levels are still to be developed and adopted

Continued focus on reduction of nutrients
linked / associated with chronic disease:
Sodium
Transfat

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Emerging food safety issues
are to be supported by new
and evolving analytical
methods

Ability to foresee emerging
issues should encompass
foresight of analytical method
availability and validation
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