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ASTRIX 5 Radio Planning Tools

White Paper Version 1.0


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
2 ASTRIX RADIO PLANNING PRODUCT FEATURES
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Seamless map handling
2.3 Antenna modelling
2.4 Propagationloss predictions
2.5 Automatic propagation model tuning tool
2.6 Effcient processing
2.6.1 Multithreading Support
2.6.2 Multiple resolution coverage fles
2.6.3 Offcial coverage fles
2.6.4 Raster export of calculated layers
2.7 Flags and flters
2.8 Combined coverage
2.9 Neighbours relations management
2.10 Automatic neighbourhood planning tool
2.11 Interference analysis
2.11.1 Cell/Channel selection
2.11.2 Hopping/Non-hopping
2.12 Interference matrix calculation
2.13 Measurement analysis tool
2.14 Statistics module
2.15 Traffc analysis
2.16 Dual-band functionality
3 ASTRIX 3G PLANNER (UMTS)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 UMTS calculations
3.3 UMTS simulator tool
4 ASTRIX 4G PLANNER (LTE)
4.1 Introduction
4.2 LTE calculations
5 ASTRIX FREQUENCY PLANNER (AFP)
6 ASTRIX OPTIMIZER (ACP)
6.1 Analysis
6.2 Optimisation
7 RADIO LINK TOOL
7.1 Functional overview
8 DOCUMENTATION
9 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONFIGURATION CONTROL
10 COMPANY INFORMATION

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INTRODUCTION
ASTRIX Radio Planning system is essential for effcient planning, maintenance and optimisation of cellular radio
networks. ASTRIX has been developed by Teleplan Globe, who is an independent supplier of software solutions.
The main modules of the ASTRIX software are as follows:
ASTRIX Radio Planner. Main module for the ASTRIX solutions package for network planning. The main
user interface is the geographical map of the planning area with the network elements presented.
ASTRIX 2G Planner (GSM). This is the module where 1G and 2G radio planning operations and calculations
are performed. The ASTRIX 2G module is needed for composite calculations.
ASTRIX 3G Planner (UMTS): This UMTS module allows for planning of 3G networks, and simultaneous views
of e.g. GSM networks and UMTS networks. This allows the user to plan mixed mode networks, to
have data consistency across the networks, to plan with site re-use and to optimise network
performance.
ASTRIX 4G Planner (LTE). This LTE module allows for planning of 4G networks and simultaneous views of
e.g. GSM, UMTS and LTE networks.
ASTRIX Propagation model tuning. Automatic tuning of propagation models based on live measurements
and the installed mapping data. In addition to a automated model tuning tool, a correction layer
tool is included in the module for optimum coverage predictions within each cells dominance area.
ASTRIX Frequency Planner (AFP). This Automatic Frequency Planning module allows for advanced
automated frequency planning processes. The tool is based on the Telenor R&D developed optimisation
algorithm for Automatic Frequency Assignments.
ASTRIX Optimizer (ACP). With the ASTRIX Optimisation Module, time spent on fne tuning antennas azimuth,
tilts and power parameters for best possible coverage and quality, is reduced to a minimum by
Automatic Cell Planning (ACP) features.
ASTRIX Radio Link (RLT). This module is used for planning microwave networks. The user interface
is the same as for the ASTRIX Radio Coverage, but the functionality is tailored to radio link planning
requirements of mobile communication operators.
Technology
ASTRIX Basic
ASTRIX Professional
3G Planner
4G Planner
ASTRIX Frequency Planner (AFP) q y ( )
ASTRIX Optimiser (ACP) p ( )
Radio Link Tool
ASTRIX Modules
Module GSM UMTS WiMax Microwave Point to Point TETRA
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2 ASTRIX RADIO PLANNING PRODUCT FEATURES
2.1 INTRODUCTION
ASTRIX has all the functionality of an advanced radio
planning tool. GSM functionality is an integrated part of
the ASTRIX 2G module and allows simultaneous view of
e.g. GSM900/1800 networks and UMTS networks. This
allows the user to plan mixed-mode networks, to have
data consistency across the networks and to plan with
site re-use.

Figure 1 ASTRIX main window
2.2 SEAMLESS MAP HANDLING
ASTRIX uses an integrated GIS (Geographical
Information System) as the basis for map handling.
The GIS system provides advanced map features for
best possible views and management of maps. The GIS
system supports dynamic map resolution and various
map formats.
The solution is designed to avoid the large growth of
coverage fle sizes when working with high-resolution
map data (less than 1m). The calculation effciency and
storage of coverage fles are optimised to minimize
storage fles and speed up the handling of large
amount of coverage data.

Figure 2 Examples of ASTRIX map layers
The following map layers are supported:
Raster/grid ground heights
Raster/grid morphology
Vector/linear features
Ortho photo
Raster/grid building heights
3D vector of building foot-prints and heights
Demographic data
2.3 ANTENNA MODELLING
The effect of the physical environment on the antenna
radiation patterns is a neglected part of many radio
planning tools.
ASTRIX takes into account a number of antenna issues:
ASTRIX handles mechanical tilt and/or electrical tilt
correctly in side and back lobes.
Mast concept, with the possibility to have antennas
at a position other than the site position
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Measured side lobes and back lobes
Effects of wall mounting on the back-lobe
True over-the-roof propagation angles in urban areas

ASTRIX provides full fexibility for creating, editing and
modelling of antenna elements and combined antenna
structures.
2.4 PROPAGATION LOSS PREDICTIONS
The default propagation model in ASTRIX is based on
industry standards: Okumura-Hata, COST231-Hata,
COST231-Walfsch, Walfsch-Bertoni, Blomqvist-Ladell,
and a general model. Added to these models are
a number of correction factors which have been
developed to improve accuracy in hilly terrain. There are
several diffraction methods, effective antenna heights
and LOS correction methods optimised for handling
mountainous and water/sea areas.
In addition, ASTRIX includes multipath propagation
models that identify areas with severe time dispersion
problems for interference in GSM and multipath areas
for LTE.

Figure 3 Successful prediction of
a) Increased coverage by multipath
b) Areas with multipath interference (i.e. Q15 problems)
To address the need for ever denser urban networks,
ASTRIX includes:
Micro-cell models
Advanced small cell models, based on an automatic
combination of Okumura-Hata and Walfsch-Ikegami.

ASTRIX offers optional integration with WaveSight
(http://www.wavecall.com/). WaveSight is a ray
tracing module which employs vector data. The module
is world leading for microcell predictions.
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2.5 AUTOMATIC PROPAGATION MODEL TUNING TOOL
ASTRIX includes a sophisticated propagation model
tuning tool. The tool can be used to analyse the
agreement between predicted and measured signal
levels. The tool also includes algorithms and features
for automatic tuning of propagation model coeffcients.

To exclude spurious data, measurements can be
fltered based on signal level, distance, angle, samples,
and morphology type. The profle with morphology
information from transmitter to each measurement
point is found directly. The histogram of the error,
the mean error, the median error, the RMS and the
10 % and 90 % values are presented for all loaded
measurements or for the current measurement.
For the automatic tuning, the user can select which
model coeffcients to tune and set limits or constraints
to resulting allowable model coeffcient values.
The optimisation algorithm will then calculate new
estimates of the selected coeffcients within the defned
constraints.

Special care has been made to make the algorithm
robust in handling uncertainties and inconsistencies
in measurements, and problems caused by mutual
dependencies between model coeffcients and by
insuffcient measurement data. In the latter case,
the algorithm will make a minimum modifcation to
existing model coeffcients.
Correction layer: ASTRIX offers a unique and advanced
algorithm that combines calculated coverage
predictions with drive test measurements to calculate
signifcantly improved measurement based predictions.
Using drive test measurements to produce a correction
layer on top of normal coverage predictions the
accuracy is improved to a standard deviation of 5 to 6
dB - close to the theoretical limit. The Teleplan unique
algorithm flls gaps between measurement tracks in
an intuitively correct way.
2.6 EFFICIENT PROCESSING
ASTRIX employs several strategies to achieve effcient
processing, as described below.
2.6.1 Multithreading Support
ASTRIX calculation engine, RADIX, supports
multithreading, multi platform (Unix/Linux/Windwos)
and double parallel processing functionality. The parallel
processing calculation engine is utilising multithreading
when calculating one cell, ore when performing
prediction of a larger number of cells simultaneously.
2.6.2 Multiple resolution coverage fles
Multiple resolution coverage fles resolve size problems
related to high resolution maps. High resolution maps
typically introduce demanding work environment in
terms of processing time, memory and disk storage
space. The ASTRIX multi-resolution concept permits
calculations over large areas by automatically reducing
the resolution when moving away from the site.
Initial
prediction
Corrected
prediction
Difference layer
showing initial
prediction and
drive measurements
Measurement Tuning Tool
Initial
prediction
Corrected
prediction
Difference layer
showing initial
prediction and
drive measurements
Measurement Tuning Tool
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2.6.3 Offcial coverage fles
The concept of offcial coverage fles makes it easy to:
Get an updated coverage map at any moment for
any given state and project, without recalculating
coverage fles.
Have just one coverage fle to be used by all
planners at all stages (makes necessary corrections
for modifed antennas, direction and tilt). This keeps
the overall disk space requirements at a reasonable
level, and reduces the need to recalculate large
coverage fles when modifcations are done to the
plan.
2.6.4 Raster export of calculated layers
Calculated coverage can be exported to the GSM
Association/Coversoft coverage fle format.
Other calculated layers, i.e. cell coverage, Best Server,
C/I and several UMTS layers, can be exported to the
following formats:
ArcView grid import format
MapInfo grid import format
Google Earth
2.7 FLAGS AND FILTERS
Flag groups can be defned as global (available to all
users), for a project, or private (for one user only) in a
full fexible and dynamic way. Groups of fags can be
defned and fags can be assigned to cells. The fags
can be used as a flter when making queries to the
database, when viewing cells in the map or when
selecting cells for use in calculations.

2.8 COMBINED COVERAGE
The combined coverage module calculates the network
coverage, i.e. the joint coverage and interaction in a
radio network coverage of separate many cells, and
according to the functioning of the cellular network.
The combined coverage results are automatically stored
in fles. This permits the user to access the results at
later times for further analysis, post-processing and
exporting, without having to perform new calculations.
ASTRIX supports up to 10 simultaneous layers of
combined coverage fles.
Different combined coverage calculations with different
network parameters can be stored under different
names. Previous calculations can thus be retrieved
without losing the current result. It is possible to
compare different named calculations and show
differences in coverage graphically on top of the map.


2.9 NEIGHBOUR RELATIONS MANAGEMENT
Neighbour data can be imported from the operations
and maintenance centre (OMC) via the import tool.
A relation editor is available to add, delete and edit
neighbour relations graphically in the map.
2.10 AUTOMATIC NEIGHBOUR PLANNING TOOL
ASTRIX offers an advanced Automatic Neighbour
Planner tool. By searching coverage data, measurement
and network statistics, the tool can plan and suggest
neighbours based on parameters as: Co Site, Distance,
Border Counter, Geometrical (Delaunay Triangulation)
and overlap areas.
2.11 INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS
The interference analysis module is used to calculate
the interference raster based on the frequency plan and
the predicted coverage. Several options are available.
Different calculation results can be stored under
different names. Previous calculations can be retrieved
without losing the current result. It is also possible to
compare different named calculations.
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2.11.1 Cell/Channel selection
It is possible to perform the calculations all-on-all
based on the selected cells, or based on a selection of
single carriers/interferers. It is also possible to base the
calculation on the given channel assignment, to ignore
the channel assignment, or to calculate interference for
a single channel or channel type (TCH or BCCH).
2.11.2 Hopping/Non-hopping
The calculation can be done with or without frequency
hopping. Hopping can be on a cell-by-cell basis, i.e.
with hopping and non-hopping cells in the same
calculation, or with all cells hopping on the assigned
channels.
2.12 INTERFERENCE MATRIX CALCULATION
The interference matrix module calculates the pair-wise
frequency re-use restrictions between cells in a cellular
network. The results can be exported and used as input
to automatic frequency planning algorithms.
The interference relations and separation relations can
also be created and edited with the graphical relation
editor, also used for the neighbour editing.
Various options exist for the calculation:
Up-/Down-link. It is possible to base the calculation
on up-link, down-link or worst-case interference
probability.
Asymmetric/Symmetric. The interference between
cells A and B can be recorded asymmetrically for A to
B and B to A or symmetrically (worst case of the
two).
Traffc-/Area weighting. The interference probability
of a cell can be weighted with traffc raster, or
assume uniform traffc across the coverage area.
Thresholds. It is possible to set thresholds
for acceptable co-channel and adjacent channel
interference.
Unit selection and partial calculation. Various options
exist for selecting cells to be part of the calculation
and for partial calculation of the interference matrix.
2.13 MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS TOOL
The measurement analysis tool is used to analyse drive
test measurements from the network. The tool can
present network measurements as coloured tracks in
the map, as 2D graphs or as numeric displays.

The module can establish automatic or manual links
between measured BCCH/BSIC pairs and planned cell
identities (CI), if such data are present in the plan.
Several measurement formats are supported. Additional
formats can be added upon request.
2.14 STATISTICS MODULE
ASTRIX generates area and demographic statistics for
coverage, interference, GPRS and UMTS (per services,
carriers, etc.).
Filters for different thresholds, morphology types
and inside of polygons can be specifed. Aggregated
statistics as well as per cell, per morphology type or per
polygon statistics can be calculated.
The statistics may be exported directly to Microsoft
Excel ore text.
2.15 TRAFFIC ANALYSIS
The traffc analysis module permits the calculation of
traffc density maps based on
Measured or estimated traffc in the network
Best server plot
Morphology map (Clutter)
Demographics
Live traffc per cell can be imported from the operations
and maintenance centre, scaled with the expected
traffc growth, and used to predict the number of
transmitters on each cell in the future network.
The calculated maps can be edited and scaled.
2.16 DUAL-BAND FUNCTIONALITY
ASTRIX currently supports dual-band functionality which
includes:
Working with multiple systems in one plan
Prediction of different systems in one plan
Combined coverage and dominance plots based on
dual-band functioning
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3 ASTRIX 3G PLANNER (UMTS)
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The UMTS network planning functionality in ASTRIX
is based on a combination of analytical calculations
and simulations using a number of different network
parameters. Calculation- and simulation results can be
presented in a number of plots and statistical reports.
The UMTS module allows simultaneous view of e.g.
GSM networks, together with the UMTS network. This
allows the user to plan mixed mode networks, to have
data consistency over the network, and to plan with
site re-use.
3.2 UMTS CALCULATIONS
The UTMS modules offers:
Pilot interference calculations
Pilot reception calculations CPICH RSCP
Multiple combined coverage calculations, 10 levels
Ec/Io calculations relative to load
Pilot pollution detection and out of cell ratio
calculations
Capacity and coverage vs. population statistics tools
3.3 UMTS SIMULATOR TOOL
The UMTS simulations based on a number of factors,
e.g.:
Services settings
Terminals settings
Morphology settings
Traffc per service and per pixel
Path loss of each sector to each pixel
Repeaters. UMTS specifc carrier and sector
parameters are the same as for the master cell.
Repeaters and master cell are treated as one in the
calculations.
4 ASTRIX 4G PLANNER (LTE)
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The LTE planning functionality in ASTRIX is developed
in close cooperation with ASTRIX customers, research
institutes and system vendors.
The LTE module allows i.e. simultaneous view of e.g 2G,
3G and 4G networks. This allows the user to plan mixed
mode networks, to have data consistency throughout
its networks, and to plan with site re-use og existing
infrastructure.
4.2 LTE CALCULATIONS
Frequency Coordination
Calculations of frequency reuse patterns
Static coordination to support manual frequency
administration
Semi static coordination for adaptive allocation
Make Realistic Interference Arrays
Nominal SINR Arrays
Calculations of RSRP, SINR and RSRQ
Table of SINR gain as function of load
Calculations CQI / modulations schemes based on RSRQ
and defnable mapping curves
Various tables and plots to defne throughput based
on CQI
Implementation of various mapping schemes based
on network equipment
Calculations of capacity gains from MIMO confgurations
and LOS calculations
Network planning with MIMO confguration
Calculation of improvement relative to SISO
LOS calculation to accurately simulate MIMO effect
Calculations of advanced statistics
Capacity and coverage vs. population density maps.
Throughput based on various network confgurations
Distribution of capacity vs. population density maps
Automatic optimization of antenna confgurations
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5 ASTRIX FREQUENCY PLANNER (AFP)
ASTRIX Frequency Planner
ASTRIX Frequency Planner is based on an optimization
algorithm developed at Telenor Research Lab that
supports the Frequency Assignments work processes.
After Teleplan Globe acquired the algorithm from
Telenor, it was integrated in the ASTRIX Radio Planning
System as an automatic frequency planning module.
Functionality highlights
Full user fexibility in defning constraints and
weighting of : C/I, C/A, Traffc and Neighbour
Statistics.
Handling and management of several frequency
plans simultaneously.
Supports non hopping, baseband hopping and
synthesized hopping
BSIC and HSN planning.
Full user fexibility for adjusting Co and Adjacent
penalties for traffc and handover statistics.
Supports full network retune and partial planning of
new cells and TRXs.
Visually view proposed changes to analyze, accept or
retune.
Why ASTRIX Frequency Planner
Reduce costly infrastructure investments with the best
possible frequency plan. Proven solutions chosen by
Telenor Operators around the world for over 10 years
20 years experience in delivering Radio Planning and
GIS software to the Telecommunication industry.
6 ASTRIX OPTIMIZER (ACP)
The ASTRIX optimizer tool is used to optimise a set of
performance metrics or criteria for the network. The
aims are to:
Reduce pilot pollution, improve performance
Balance the network
Identify noise contributors
6.1 ANALYSIS
The analysis mode is used to calculate current values of
the performance criteria values for the network. Results
are calculated across a selected geographical area. The
following are some of the area performance metrics
calculated:
Ec/Io
Dominant server
Weak coverage
Handover status
Cell balance metrics (like cell noise contribution and
areas with weak Ec/Io)

6.2 OPTIMISATION
The unique and advanced optimisation algorithm is
used to improve the performance of the network based
on network statistics, measurements and coverage
predictions. The optimisation is done by iterating
on antenna azimuth and elevation (electrical and
mechanical tilt).
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7 RADIO LINK TOOL
7.1 FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW
The ASTRIX Radio link tool is used for planning
microwave networks. The user interface and database
support are the same as in the main module, but the
functionality is tailored to the radio link planning needs
of mobile communication operators.

The functionality of the radio link tool includes:
Creation of radio links
Site sharing
- The sites created in any part of the ASTRIX system
can be shares with the other modules. This
facilitates the planning tasks and data consistency
checks.
Map analysis
- Terrain profle, between terrain points, between
cells, from one cell to any point in the terrain
stepwise or continuously.
- Terrain height tracking, morphology tracking, peak
height search
- Line-of-sight (LOS) analysis
Calculation of the LOS is made from each
transmitter to a receiver with given height in a
selected area.
- Demographic analysis
Link profle analysis
The link profle is presented graphically with Fresnel
zone, earth curvature, and morphology heights. Link
fading and performance data are calculated on the
basis of relevant ITU recommendations.
Performance predictions
- Link budget
- Diversity
Space and frequency diversity improvement is
calculated, based on ITU-R P 530-11
- Parameters based on performance objectives in
G.821 and G.826. Support for both calculation and
management of objectives
- Fading and fading probabilities based on ITU-R P
530-11 and ITU-R P 530-8
Interference
Co- and adjacent channel interference.
Precipitation
Calculation of unavailability due to rain in 0.001% of
the time.
Support for frequency and channel plans
Creation of channel plans based on ITU
recommendations. Fill in channels based on channel
arrangements (for example co-channel re-use).
Unavailability due to poor link connection.
Support for hop chains
Create hop chains by selecting more hops. Some
calculations can be carried out for the chain, as for
example total length and total unavailability due to
rain.
Refection protection
Calculation of optimum space between space
diversity antennas, calculation of wavelength
difference based on ITU-R P 530-11. Detection of sea
path refections.
Site candidate search
From an arbitrary point or site in the map, fnd other
sites which can be candidates for a hop to that point
or site. The selection may be based on criteria, as for
example line of sight. The result is a list of candidate
hops with distance, direction and other data. Each
item in the list can be opened into the hop profle
window.

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8 DOCUMENTATION
The software is delivered with a complete set of User
Manual, System Manual, Installation Guide, and Release
Notes. All documentation can be delivered in both
electronic and printed form.
9 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONFIGURATION CONTROL
Teleplan Globe is certifed according to ISO 9001. The
ASTRIX software is developed according to Teleplan
Globes Quality Assurance Procedures.
10 COMPANY INFORMATION
Teleplan AS was established in 1959 and is a leading
independent consultancy and systems engineering
house. Teleplan Globe is part of the Teleplan family of
companies.
Teleplan has provided a wide range of services to
private organisations, public civilian authorities, and to
military authorities in NATO member countries. Teleplan
has considerable experience in design and development
of systems for radio planning, communications,
information management, command and control,
and electronic warfare. Teleplan has a long history
of providing consultancy services within the felds of
telecommunication.
Contact details are as follows:
Teleplan Globe AS
P.O. Box 69
Fornebuveien 31
NO-1324 Lysaker
Norway
Web: http://www.teleplanglobe.no
Email: info@teleplan.no
Teleplan Globe AS
Fornebuveien 31
P.O.Boks 69
NO-1324 Lysaker
Norway
T:+4767127000
F:+4767127270
E: info@teleplan.no
www.teleplanglobe.no