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SIMATIC Communication with SIMATIC Manual 1 Introduction and Basics of Communication 2 Communication Services

SIMATIC

Communication with SIMATIC

Manual

1

Introduction and Basics of Communication

2

Communication Services

3

Communication Networks

4

Communication Functions for S7-300/400

5

Communication Functions for M7-300/400

6

Cyclic Communication for S7/M7/C7-300/400

7

Communication Functions on PCs

8

Connecting SIMATIC Programming Devices/OPs

9

Project Engineering and Configuring with STEP 7

10

Programming Examples

Appendix

Glossary

6ES7 398-8EA00-8BA0

Edition 2

Wir haben den Inhalt der Druckschrift auf Übereinstim- mung mit der beschriebenen Hard- und Software

Wir haben den Inhalt der Druckschrift auf Übereinstim- mung mit der beschriebenen Hard- und Software geprüft. Dennoch können Abweichungen nicht ausgeschlossen werden, so daß wir für die vollständige Übereinstimmung keine Gewähr übernehmen. Die Angaben in der Druck- schrift werden jedoch regelmäßig überprüft. Notwendige Korrekturen sind in den nachfolgenden Auflagen enthalten. Für Verbesserungsvorschläge sind wir dankbar.

Technische Änderungen vorbehalten.

We have checked the contents of this manual for agree- ment with the hardware described. Since deviations cannot be precluded entirely, we cannot guarantee full agreement. However, the data in this manual are reviewed regularly and any necessary corrections included in subsequent editions. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.

Technical data subject to change.

Nous avons vérifié la conformité du contenu du présent manuel avec le matériel et le logiciel qui y sont décrits. Or, des divergences n'étant pas exclues, nous ne pouvons pas nous porter garants pour la conformité intégrale. Si l'usage du manuel devait révéler des erreurs, nous en tiendrons compte et apporterons les corrections nécessaires dès la prochaine édition. Veuillez nous faire part de vos sugges- tions.

Nous nous réservons le droit de modifier les caractéristi- ques techniques.

Weitergabe sowie Vervielfältigung dieser Unterlage, Verwertung und Mitteilung ihres Inhalts nicht gestattet, soweit nicht ausdrücklich zugestanden. Zuwiderhandlun- gen verpflichten zu Schadenersatz. Alle Rechte vorbehal- ten, insbesondere für den Fall der Patenterteilung oder GM-Eintragung.

Copyright © Siemens AG 1997 All Rights Reserved

The reproduction, transmission or use of this document or its contents are not permitted without express written authority. Offenders will be liable for damages. All rights, including rights created by patent grant or registration of a utility or design, are reserved.

Copyright © Siemens AG 1997 All Rights Reserved

Toute communication ou reproduction de ce support d'in- formations, toute exploitation ou communication de son contenu sont interdites, sauf autorisation expresse. Tout manquement à cette règle est illicite et expose son auteur au versement de dommages et intérêts. Tous nos droits sont réservés, notamment pour le cas de la délivrance d'un brevet ou celui de l'enregistrement d'un modèle d'utilité.

Copyright © Siemens AG 1997 All Rights Reserved

SIMATIC

Communication with SIMATIC

Manual

Note

The contents of this manual shall not become part of or modify any prior or existing agreement, commitment or relationship. The Sales Contract contains the entire obligations of Siemens. The warranty contained in the contract between the parties is the sole warranty of Siemens. Any statements contained herein do not create new warranties or modify the existing warranty.

For the sake of clarity, this document cannot cover all conceivable cases regarding the operation of this equipment. Should you require further information or face special problems that have not been dealt with in sufficient detail in this document, please contact your local Siemens office.

General information This equipment is driven by electricity. Hazardous voltages are present in this electrical equipment during operation.

WARNING !

! Non-observance of the safety instructions can result in severe personal injury and/or property damage.

Only qualified personnel should work on or around this equipment. These persons must be fully conversant with all safety instructions and maintenance measures contained herein.

This equipment will function correctly and safely only if it is transported, stored and installed as intended and operated and maintained with care.

Requirements concerning qualified personnel

For the purpose of this manual and product labels, a "qualified person" is one who is familiar with the installation, assembly, start-up and operation of the equipment. In addition, s/he has the following qualifications:

Is trained and authorized to energize, de-energize, ground and tag circuits and equipment or systems in accordance with up-to- date established safety practices

Is trained in the proper care and use of protective equipment in accordance with up-to-date established safety practices.

Preliminary Remarks

Purpose of this Manual

This manual provides an overview of communication in SIMATIC S7/M7/C7 with the following content:

Introduction to communication and explanation of terms used. In this introduction to the theoretical aspect of communication, you will dis- cover how we define communication for the purpose of this manual.

Description of the communication services and their software inter- faces to the separate communication partners. In this part of the manual you will find out which communication services you can use on the various communication networks. After reading this chapter, you will be able to select the communication possibilities that are suitable for your application.

Establishing communication networks and configuring the communi- cation functions. This manual contains a brief introduction to estab- lishing and configuring communication networks.

Examples Program examples are provided for the different communication possibilities and you will also find out in which software package they are supplied.

Readership This manual has been written for planning and project engineers as well as programmers who are concerned with planning and configuring communi- cation services for the SIMATIC systems.

The manual is equally suited to beginners and communication experts.

Where to Start in this Manual

Where can you find the information that you want in this manual?

You are looking for the following information

you

can find this information in

Chapter

You would like to know more about communication

Chapter 1 Introduction and Basics of Communi- cation

You know all about communication and need to know about the pos- sibilities with SIMATIC

Chapter 2 Communication Services Chapter 3 Communication Networks Chapter 4 Communication Functions for

S7-300/400

Chapter 5 Communication Functions for

M7-300/400

Chapter 6 Cyclic Communication for

S7/M7/C7-300/400

Appendix

You want to expand an existing network

Chapter 3 Communication Networks Appendix

You already have the hardware and need to know about pro- gramming/configuring or which software tools will provide the nec- essary support

Chapter 9 Project Engineering and Configuring with STEP 7

You are looking for examples

Chapter 10 Programming Examples

You need detailed information on the hardware components or soft- ware

Appendix STEP 7 Documentation

You require information on the performance features

Appendix

Finding Your Way

Rapid access to specific information is supported in this manual by the following directories:

A complete list of contents is included at the beginning of this man- ual.

In each chapter, a heading in the left-hand column on every page provides an overview of the contents of the paragraph.

A glossary follows the appendices, with explanations of important technical terms used in the manual.

Scope of this Manual

This manual describes the communication functions that you can program and configure using the following software packages:

STEP 7, V3.1 upwards

NCM S7 for PROFIBUS, V3.1 upwards

NCM S7 for Industrial Ethernet, V3.1 upwards

An extensive overview of all communication functions can be found in the appendix.

Location in the Communication Landscape

The "Communication with SIMATIC" manual provides an introduction to and overview of the communication possibilities that SIMATIC offers. Comprehensive user documentation is available for SIMATIC describing:

the hardware

configuration and programming of a SIMATIC system.

Figure 0-1 provides an overview of the SIMATIC documentation land- scape.

In these manuals, you will find extensive information on the hardware of the communication partners and on configuring and programming. Support is also available in STEP 7 and NCM S7 via the online help function.

Manual Communication Program- ming with SIMATIC Manual Manual System Software for S7-300/400 Hardware Manuals -
Manual
Communication
Program-
ming
with SIMATIC
Manual
Manual
System Software for
S7-300/400
Hardware Manuals
- S7-200
Program Design
- S7/M7-300/400
- ET 200
- SIMATIC NET
Manual
Manual
STEP 7 User and
Reference Manuals
M7 Basis Software
SIMATIC NET
Manuals for
NCM S7 Profibus/
Industrial Ethernet

Figure 0-1Documentation Landscape for SIMATIC

Additional Support Should questions arise concerning the use of the products described in this manual that are not answered here, please approach your local Siemens contact partner.

In the event of questions or remarks concerning this manual, please com- plete the form at the end of this manual and send it back to the address provided. We would also be grateful if you use this opportunity to give your personal assessment of the manual in the appropriate section of the form.

We offer courses to make starting off with SIMATIC much easier for you. Contact your regional training center or the central training center in 90327 Nuremberg, Germany, tel. ++49 911 895 3154.

Up-to-Date

Continuously updated information on the SIMATIC products is available:

Information

in the Internet at http://www.aut.siemens.de/

from fax polling No. ++49 8765-93 02 77 95 00

In addition, SIMATIC Customer Support provides assistance:

in the Internet at

http://www.aut.siemens.de/support/html_00/index.shtm

from the SIMATIC Customer Support Mailbox on the tel. number ++49 (911) 895-7100

To call the mailbox, use a modem with up to 28.8 kbaud (V.34), and set its parameters as follows:

8, N, 1, ANSI, or dial in via ISDN (x.75, 64 Kbit).

SIMATIC Customer Support can be contacted by telephone on ++49 (911) 895-7000 and by fax on ++49 (911) 895-7002. Inquiries can also be posted in the Internet or in the mailbox.

Contents

1

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1-1

1.1 Basic Terminology

1-2

1.2 Network Topology

1-5

1.3 Classification of Networks

1-8

1.4 Access Techniques

1-9

1.5 Client/Server Concept

1-11

 

1.6 Links

1-12

1.6.1 Class of Link

1-14

1.6.2 Link Types

1-15

1.6.3 Link Resources

1-16

1.7 ISO Reference Model

1-17

1.8 Coupled Networks

1-21

1.9 Reliability of Transmission

1-25

1.10 Application Areas for the Subnets

1-26

2

Communication Services

2-1

2.1 Introduction 2-2

2.2 S7 Functions 2-4

2.3 ISO Transport Services 2-6

2-7

2.5 PROFIBUS-FDL Services 2-8

2.4 ISO-on-TCP Services

2.6 PROFIBUS-FMS Services

2-9

2.7 PROFIBUS-DP Services

2-10

2.8 Global Data Communication (GD)

2-11

2.9 AS-i Services

2-12

3

Communication Networks

3-1

3.1 Overview

3-2

3.2 Multipoint Interface (MPI)

3-5

3.3 PROFIBUS

3-7

3.4 Industrial Ethernet

3-12

3.5 Point-to-Point Link

3-14

3.6 AS-Interface

3-16

4

Communication Functions for S7-300/400

4-1

4.1 Introduction 4-2

4.2 Communication SFCs for Non-Configured S7 Links 4-3

4-4

4.2.2 Communication Within an S7 Station 4-6

4.3 Communication SFBs for Configured S7 Links 4-8

4.2.1 Communication via MPI Subnets

4.4 SEND/RECEIVE Interface

4-13

4.5 FMS Interface

4-15

4.6 Communication via Point-to-Point Links

4-18

5

Communication Functions for M7-300/400

5-1

5.1 Communication Functions for Non-Configured S7 Links

5-2

5.2 Communication Functions for Configured S7 Links

5-5

6 Cyclic Communication for S7/M7/C7-300/400

6.1 Introduction 6-2

6.2 Global Data Communication (GD) 6-3

6-7

6.4 Distributed I/O via the AS-i bus 6-9

6.3 Distributed I/O via PROFIBUS-DP

6-1

7

Communication Functions on PCs

7-1

7.1 Communication Functions for Configured S7 Links (SAPI-S7)

7-2

7.2 PC Interface for SEND/RECEIVE

7-5

8

Connecting SIMATIC Programming Devices/OPs

8-1

8.1 Programming Device/PC Interfacing for STEP 7 on Subnets

8-2

8.2 SIMATIC OP Interface to Subnets

8-4

8.3 TeleService

8-6

9

Project Engineering and Configuring with STEP 7

9-1

9.1 S7 Project

9-2

9.2 Specifying the Network Configuration

9-3

9.3 Address Assignment

9-5

9.3.1 Address Assignment via MPI

9-5

9.3.2 Address Assignment via PROFIBUS

9-6

9.3.3 Address Assignment via Ethernet

9-7

9.4 Link Resources

9-8

9.5 Configuring Links

9-13

9.5.1 Special Case of the Point-to-Point Link

9-16

9.5.2 Links to Non-S7 Stations

9-17

10 Programming Examples

10-1

10.1 Communication with SFCs

10-2

10.2 Communication with SFBs

10-4

10.3 Communication with FDL between SIMATIC S7s

10-7

10.4 Communication with FDL - SIMATIC S7 and S5

10-9

10.5 DP Communication via CPs

10-11

10.6 Communication with ISO Transport between SIMATIC S7s

10-12

10.7 Communication with ISO Transport - SIMATIC S7 and S5

10-14

A-1

A Appendix A.1 Communications Matrix

A-2

A.1.1 MPI Subnet

A-3

A.1.2 PROFIBUS Subnet

A-6

A.1.3 Industrial Ethernet

A-9

A.2 Technical Data

A-13

A.2.1 SIMATIC S7-200

A-13

A.2.2 SIMATIC S7-300

A-14

A.2.3 SIMATIC S7-400

A-16

A.2.4 SIMATIC M7-300/400

A-18

A.3 Performance Data

A-19

A.3.1 Response Time for Communication SFBs via Configured S7 Links

A-19

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1 Introduction and Basics of Communication

Overview In this chapter you will find out what we mean by communication within the context of SIMATIC. You will become familiar with the most important terms and will find out where communication takes place from the view- point of the user.

Chapter Overview

In Section

You will find

On page

1.1

Basic Terminology

1-2

1.2

Network Topology

1-5

1.3

Classification of Networks

1-8

1.4

Access Techniques

1-9

1.5

Client/Server Concept

1-11

1.6

Links

1-12

1.7

ISO Reference Model

1-17

1.8

Coupled Networks

1-21

1.9

Reliability of Transmission

1-25

1.10

Application Areas for the Subnets

1-26

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.1 Basic Terminology

Overview The basic terminology and principles of communication that are important for information transfer between controllers and between controllers and OPs/PCs will be explained here.

Communication

Communication involves the transmission of data between two communi- cation partners of different types, controlling the communication partner and querying the operating status of the communication partner. Commu- nication can take place via different communication routes.

Station Module with communication CPUCPU FM capability Subnetwork Station CPUCPU FM Module with communication
Station
Module with
communication
CPUCPU
FM
capability
Subnetwork
Station
CPUCPU
FM
Module with
communication
capability

Communication

Partner

Station

Subnet

Figure 1-1:

Example of Communication Partners in a Subnet

A communication partner is a module that is capable of performing com- munication functions, i.e. exchanging data. The physical location of the communication partner can either be within the same unit or in another item of equipment. Examples of communication partners are CPUs or FMs.

A station is a device which as a self-contained unit (e.g. programmable controller, programming device, operator panel/system, PC or non- Siemens unit) can be connected to one or more subnets.

The subnet is the sum total of all physical components that are required in order to build up a data transmission route as well as the associated com- mon procedures required for transferring data.

The interconnections between stations connected to a subnet do not pass through gateways. The physical entirety of a subnet (MPI, PROFIBUS, Industrial Ethernet) is also designated as a transmission medium.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Network

A network is a unit which comprises one or more interconnected subnets of the same or different type. It comprises all stations that are able to communicate with one another.

Station Network Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Subnet 3
Station
Network
Subnet 1
Subnet 2
Subnet 3

Link

Communication

Functions

Communication

Services and

Software

Interfaces

Figure 1-2:

Example of a Communication Network

A link is the logical assignment (via configuration) of one communication partner to another for the purpose of executing a specific communication service. The link is directly assigned to a communication service.

The link has two end points which contain the information required for addressing the communication partner as well as further attributes for es- tablishing the link (see Section 1.6). The communication functions only use the local end point for link reference purposes.

These are the functions offered by a software interface which utilize communication services. Communication functions can transfer data be- tween communication partners that have different performance data, control the communication partner (e.g. switch it to the STOP state) or query its current operating status.

This term describes the communication functions using defined perform- ance features, such as data to be transferred, devices to be controlled, devices to be monitored and programs to be loaded. The communication services (simply referred to as services from now on) are offered via software interfaces in the data terminal (e.g. SIMATIC S7 system func- tions). The communication services can be classified with respect to their performance in accordance with the ISO reference model (see Section

1.7).

Introduction and Basics of Communication

A software interface does not necessarily offer all the communication functions of a service. The communication service can be provided in the respective data terminal (e.g. PLC, PC) using various software interfaces.

Protocol This is a bit-specific arrangement between two communication partners for the purpose of executing a specific communication service. The proto- col defines the structure of the contents of the data traffic on the physical cable and specifies, for example, the operating mode, procedure for es- tablishing a link, data backup and transmission rate.

Data Consistency The extent of the data area that cannot be modified by competing proc- esses simultaneously is termed the data consistency. Data areas that are larger than the data consistency can therefore become inconsistent as a whole. This means that a self-contained data area (larger than the data consistency) can comprise new and old consistent data blocks at any one time.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.2 Network Topology

Overview

The term topology refers to the different structures found within a subnet (e.g. tree, ring).

When a number of autonomous automation system components such as sensors, actuators or PLCs exchange information, they must be physically interconnected in some form of structure. In this manner they form a communication network. The network topology is the basic geometric structure of the network. The communication stations are the nodes of the network. They are linked by junctions. The simplest structure is obtained when the network comprises just two communication stations, i.e. two nodes. This is the simplest structure, known as a point-to-point structure.

Line The simplest geometrical form is a line structure. It is often called a bus structure, even though a bus does not necessarily have a line structure. In this case, all stations on the network only require one interface. They can be linked with the main line via short tapped lines.

Whereas in a point-to-point structure, four nodes for example can com- municate simultaneously in pairs, this is not possible in a line structure. It has to be ensured that only one station is able to transmit at a time, during which all other stations are only permitted to listen. This means that rules are necessary to define when a station has the right to transmit. Bus ac- cess techniques are important here. They are also necessary for the other topologies described below.

Station 1 Station 2 Station 3
Station 1
Station 2
Station 3

Figure 1-3:

Example of Line Topology

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Ring Certain similarities exist between the line and ring structure. Permission to send also has to be controlled via bus access techniques in this case. A ring can be constructed in the form of point-to-point links connected in series. An advantage of this type of ring is that each node can operate as a repeater so that large distances can be covered The disadvantage of the ring structure is, however, that failure of a node causes much greater problems than in the case of the line structure. The ring structure is oth- erwise more similar to the line structure in terms of its characteristics.

Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 6 Station 5 Station 4
Station 1
Station 2
Station 3
Station 6
Station 5
Station 4

Figure 1-4:

Example of Ring Topology

Star The next type of structure that deserves a mention is the star structure. This structure has an extremely important node at the star point. It controls the entire communication and if it fails, the entire network usually fails with it.

Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 * * = Star coupler
Station 1
Station 2
Station 3
*
*
= Star coupler

Figure 1-5:

Example of Star Topology

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Tree

Finally, the tree structure is also used in automation engineering. It can also be interpreted as a chain of a number of line structures of different lengths and also of different types. In this case, the elements that are used to connect the separate lines have a special significance.

Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 R R Station 4 Station 5 R = Repeater
Station 1
Station 2
Station 3
R
R
Station 4
Station 5
R
= Repeater

Figure 1-6:

Example of Tree Topology

These elements can be simple repeaters for cases in which the connected sections are of the same type, but they can also be converters (routers, bridges, gateways) for cases in which the sections to be connected are of different types.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.3 Classification of Networks

Overview Three different classes of network are specified in terms of their geo- graphical coverage. These are the LAN (local area network), MAN (metropolitan area network) and WAN (wide area network). It is, however, not always possible to categorize a network precisely because the boundaries tend to overlap. Limits can be defined for the distance covered by the network as follows:

LAN <

5 km

MAN <

25 km

WAN

>

25 km.

Topology of the Networks

Statements can be made about the topologies implemented on the basis of the distances to be covered. The topology of a WAN is dictated by geo- graphical conditions (e.g. location of the major population centers and the expected communication traffic between the nodes of the network). For reasons of economy (the economic use of cables), irregular webs in a tree structure usually result. The topology of a LAN, however, is more clearly structured because the overall functional capability is much more impor- tant than the economic use of cables. Line, ring and star structures are typical for LANs.

Apart from LANs and WANs, FANs (field area networks) are also being introduced. The FAN is used in process automation for communication at the field level in the process environment, whereas the MAN and WAN are responsible for communication within and between the higher levels of the hierarchy (works, production and company management levels). This is particularly important when different production centers, sales companies, etc. form a single administrative unit but are separated by large distances.

Transmission

The choice of physical transmission medium depends mainly on the re-

Medium

quired length of the network, the degree of intrinsic safety required and the transmission rate. The commonly used transmission mediums, listed in ascending order of complexity and performance, are as follows:

2-core, not twisted, not shielded (e.g. AS-i bus)

2-core, twisted, not shielded

2-core, twisted, shielded (e.g. PROFIBUS)

Coaxial cable (e.g. Industrial Ethernet)

Fiber-optic cable (PROFIBUS / Industrial Ethernet)

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.4 Access Techniques

Overview Since only one telegram can be transmitted at any one time on a bus, there has to be a system to determine which bus station is permitted to transmit on the bus. The number of "listening" telegram receivers is not important. Access to the bus is controlled by the bus access technique. There are different categories of bus access techniques: central and de- centralized, whereby the latter is subdivided into deterministic and sto- chastic (or random) techniques:

Access technique Central Decentral Deterministic Stochastic
Access technique
Central
Decentral
Deterministic
Stochastic

Figure 1-7:

Bus Access Techniques

Master/Slave A typical central technique is the master/slave technique. The master di- rects the entire bus traffic. It sends data to the slaves (polling) and gives the slaves the command to send. Direct communication between slaves is usually not possible. The advantage of master/slave techniques is the simple and therefore efficient bus control. This is why they are often used in field buses such as PROFIBUS-DP.

Master Bus system Slave Slave Slave Master/slave assignment
Master
Bus system
Slave
Slave
Slave
Master/slave assignment

Figure 1-8:

Example of a Master/Slave Configuration

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Token Passing Token passing is a decentralized, deterministic technique. In this case, a token (fixed bit pattern) travels through the communication network as a sign of permission to send. The station in possession of the token is per- mitted to send, but must pass the token on within a specified time limit. This guarantees that a maximum token circulation time is not exceeded. If this technique is used in a line topology, the network is often described as

a token bus. The token is passed from station to station in a logical ring in

accordance with certain rules. If the network is physically in the form of a ring, it is called a token ring.

If several masters and slaves are configured in a communication network, only the masters receive the token.

CSMA/CD The most important stochastic (random) access technique is CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection, standardized in IEEE 802.3). In this case, any station is permitted to send at any time,

provided that no other station is transmitting. Conflict occurs, however, as

a result of signal runtimes when two stations start to transmit at the same

time because the bus was free. In this case, both stations detect the colli- sion by monitoring, stop transmitting and try again after a random waiting time. Buses that use CSMA/CD (e.g. Industrial Ethernet) usually operate at

a transmission rate of 10 Mbits/s.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.5 Client/Server Concept

Overview Client/server concepts are based on the principle of separating the func- tions of using (client) and managing (server) data. The aim of separating these functions is higher productivity in user program development as a result of clear task definition, easier integration of different applications and better access to data from a large number of work stations. Mail serv- ers and communication servers are available for the purpose of properly organizing efficient access to services for a large number of users (clients).

Server

It is the responsibility of the server to store and manage the data and to ensure that special functions are available (e.g. communication services).

The communication functions of the server do not have to execute in the user program, but can also be implemented in the operating system (e.g. order confirmation PUT/GET services).

Client

The responsibility of the client is to make it easier for the end user to be able to access the overall system without the need for the detailed distri- bution of data and functions to be visible.

Model In the field of automation applications, the interactions between applica- tions and the services provided by the communication system can often be described in the form of the client/server model. In this case, the applica- tion that behaves like a client (e.g. PUT/GET) requests a service and the server (e.g. programmable controller) provides the service. Information is usually exchanged via so-called communication objects. There are differ- ent types of communication objects with different attributes (e.g. data type, access right) and available operations. A client executes, for example, the "read" operation on a server object of the "variable" type.

Note The term „server“ is not a synonym for "slave". The concept of a server is based on a Layer 7 view and the concept of a slave is based on a Layer 2 view. A station that only has the functional scope of a slave is not able to send on its own initiative. If an event occurs (e.g. transition to the STOP state), a server, however, is able to send an appropriate signal via the bus.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.6 Links Introduction A link is the logical assignment of one communication partner to another
1.6
Links
Introduction
A link is the logical assignment of one communication partner to another
for the purpose of executing a specific communication service. The link is
directly assigned to a communication service.
Each link has two end points (on the associated CPU or CP) which con-
tain the information required for addressing the communication partner as
well as further attributes for establishing the link. The communication
functions in the user program only reference the local end point of the
link.
Communications
Communications
function USEND
function AG_RECV
S7
CP
S7
CP
CPU
CPU
S7 link
FDL
link
Subnet
Subnet
Communications
Handling block
function URCV
SEND
S7
S5
CP
CPU
CPU
CP
Links reserve link resources for each end point on the modules participat-
ing in communication. This therefore affects the signal quantities for links.
In the SIMATIC 7 family, links are categorized as follows:
Links
Class of link
Configured
(via link table)
Not configured
Link connection/
disconnection
Static
Dynamic
(only M7-300/400)
Dynamic
Further details are provided in the subsequent sections.
Active / Passive
To ensure that a link is established properly, it must be passive at one
end point and active at the other.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Static Static links are used when sufficient link resources are available in the individual stations of a system configuration and they do not have to be released again. Time-consuming connecting and disconnecting of links do not have to be taken into account on planning either.

Static links are established once only and are then permanent.

Dynamic Dynamic links are used to exchange data in sequence with different communication partners or for the purpose of using existing link resources more efficiently.

The actual connecting and disconnecting of links does not take place when the station starts up, but only in response to an explicit request from the user program.

It is therefore essential that the time involved in connecting and discon- necting links is taken into account in the case of time-critical processes.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.6.1 Class of Link

Use Depending on the software interface used, the associated communication functions require either configured or non-configured links (see Chapter

2).

Configured Links

This type of link is configured using STEP 7 (in the link table), whereby a local ID is assigned to the respective link end point. This local ID is re- quired for parameterizing the communication functions. The local ID ref- erences a data area that also contains its own address information and that of its communication partners.

Note

Communication functions that originate from a SIMATIC OP or PC also require configured links. In this case, however, the links are configured using a separate tool (e.g. ProTool or COML). These links also reserve link resources (for S7 functions) on the CPUs.

Non-Configured

Non-configured links are not configured via the link table in STEP 7.

Links

These links are established implicitly when the communication function is called and are removed if necessary when the data has been successfully transmitted.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.6.2 Link Types

Definition The link establishes access to the communication service from the soft- ware interface. A link is directly allocated to a communication service. For this reason, a corresponding link type exists for each communication service.

In SIMATIC S7 the link types are allocated to services as follows (see Section 2.1):

Service

Link Type

S7 functions

S7 link

ISO transport

ISO transport link

ISO-on-TCP

ISO-on-TCP link

FDL

FDL link

FMS

FMS link

Protocol driver

Point-to-point link

e.g. RK512

The appropriate link type can be selected on configuring the links using STEP 7.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.6.3 Link Resources

Overview Every link requires link resources on the participating stations for the end point or for the transition point (e.g. CP). The number of link resources depends on the type of CPU or CP (see Page 9-13).

If all the link resources for a communication partner are reserved, it is not possible to establish a new link.

CPU CP MPI Free link resource Reserved link resources Industrial Ethernet PROFIBUS
CPU CP MPI
CPU
CP
MPI

Free link resourceCPU CP MPI Reserved link resources Industrial Ethernet PROFIBUS

Reserved link resourcesCPU CP MPI Free link resource Industrial Ethernet PROFIBUS

Industrial Ethernet

PROFIBUS

Figure 1-9:

S7 Functions via Integrated MPI or via PROFIBUS/Industrial Ethernet with CP

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.7 ISO Reference Model

Overview If data is to be transferred between two devices via a common network, it is necessary to define the protocol and the access technique. Other infor- mation concerning, for example, establishing the link also has to be speci- fied. For this reason, a 7-layer model has been defined by the International Standardization Organization (ISO).

Layers 1, 2 and 4 are absolutely essential for reliable, adequate commu- nication. Layer 1 defines the physical conditions such as current and volt- age levels. In Layer 2, the access mechanism and address of the station is defined. This ensures that only one station is able to send data via the network at any given time.

Data reliability and consistency are only ensured by the functions of Layer 4 (transport layer). Apart from controlling transport, the transport layer also performs tasks for data flow control, inhibiting and acknowledgement.

Links are established for the purpose of implementing these functions.

Layer 7, the application layer, contains the communication services (e.g. S7 functions).

Protocol This is a bit-specific arrangement between two communication partners for the purpose of executing a specific communication service. The protocol defines the structure of the contents of the data traffic on the physical ca- ble and specifies, for example, the operating mode, procedure for estab- lishing a link, data checking and transmission rate.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

ISO Reference

The ISO reference model defines layers in which the response of the

Model

communication partners is defined. These layers are arranged one above the other whereby Layer 7 is the uppermost layer. The ISO reference model will be referred to later in the descriptions of the services. Only identical layers communicate with one another.

The way in which the separate layers are implemented in a real case is not specified by the reference model, but depends on the specific implemen- tation. In the case of PROFIBUS, Layers 3 to 6 are not used in order to obtain high-speed communication with real-time capability and essential functions are integrated in Layers 1, 2 and 7.

The specifications for the separate layers are as follows:

Layer

Designation

Function

Features

7

Application layer

Application functions:

Communication

Provides application- specific communication services

services, e.g.

 

Read/Write

Start/Stop

6

Presentation

Data presentation:

Common language

layer

Converts the standard presentation format for the communication system to a device- specific format

5

Session layer

Synchronization:

Coordination of the session

Opening, closing and monitoring a session

 

Transport layer

Connecting / disconnect- ing links, repeating packets, sorting packets, packaging

Error-free transfer

4

of packets

3

Network layer

Addressing other net- works/ routing, flow control

Communication between two sub- nets

2

Data link layer

Access techniques:

CRC check

Data block boundaries, error-free data transfer, error detection, error detection, error handling

CSMA/CD

 

token

1

Physical layer

Physical aspects of data transfer, transmission medium, baudrate, specification of the electrical, mechanical and functional parame- ters of the cable/bus

Coaxial/triaxial ca- ble, fiber-optic ca- ble, 2-wire cable

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Physical Layer

Layer 1:

This layer ensures that bits are transferred via the physical medium in the order in which they are received from the data link layer (Layer 2). The electrical and mechanical characteristics as well as the types of transmis- sion are specified here.

Data Link Layer

Layer 2:

It is the responsibility of this layer to transfer bit strings between two sys- tems. This also includes detecting and rectifying or reporting transmission errors and checking the flow. In local networks, the data link layer also guarantees exclusive access to the transfer medium. For this purpose, the layer is subdivided into two sublayers, medium access control (MAC) and logic link control (LLC), which are also known as Layer 2a and Layer 2b respectively. The most well-known standards for the media access tech- niques in the MAC sublayer are:

IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet, CSMA/CD), IEEE 802.4 (token bus), IEEE 802.5 (token ring).

The IEEE 802.2 standard is usually used for the LLC sublayer. As a result of the special real-time requirements that apply to fieldbus systems, these access techniques are often used in a heavily modified form.

Network Layer

Layer 3:

This layer is responsible for transferring data between the data terminals. The data terminals are the sender and receiver of a message that may pass through several transit systems. For this purpose, the network layer has to organize the routing.

Transport Layer

Layer 4:

The transport layer is responsible for providing the user with a reliable end-to-end link. The services provided include establishing a transport link, transferring data and removing the link. The service user can demand a specific quality of service (QoS). Quality characteristics are, for exam- ple, transmission rate and residual error rate.

Session Layer

Layer 5:

The main task of the session layer is to synchronize communication appli- cations. Apart from this, the services of the session layer allow synchroni- zation points to be set within a longer transmission, such that in the event of interruption of the link, the entire transfer procedure is not repeated, but can be restarted from a specific synchronization point.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Layer 6:

Systems of different types usually speak different languages initially on data transfer. The presentation layer translates the different languages of the participants into a uniform language with an abstract syntax. In most cases, Abstract Syntax Notation one (ASN.19 defined in ISO 8824 is used and the associated Basic Encoding Rules (BER) are employed.

Layer 7:

The application layer comprises the application-specific services of the various communication applications. The applications are numerous, so it is difficult to establish uniform standards. The most important standard in automation is the manufacturing message specification (MMS) which de- scribes the services and protocols of the MAP (manufacturing automation protocol) application layer. Modern fieldbus systems are strongly oriented towards MMS with respect to the design of the application layer.

The specifications of PROFIBUS are described in detail by Layers 1, 2 and 7 of the ISO layer model. All seven layers have not been implemented for the sake of simplicity. Layers 3 to 5 are "empty".

PROFIBUS is a multi-master system. A hybrid bus access method is used to control bus access, i.e. token passing is used decentrally and the mas- ter/slave principle is used centrally.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.8 Coupled Networks

Overview In order to guarantee a continuous flow of information between two differ- ent subnets, special coupling elements are required. The subnets to be coupled have usually developed separately over the years and cannot be directly coupled because information arriving from subnet A cannot be interpreted by the protocols of subnet B. An important requirement is that the coupled subnets should behave like a single subnet from the viewpoint of the user, i.e. that coupling should not have any detrimental effect on the functioning of the network. The coupling of subnets is therefore invisible to the user; s/he is not aware of it and does not have to make any software modifications because of it.

Depending on the complexity of the coupling and the disparity between the subnets to be coupled, either repeaters, bridges, routers or gateways can be used as the network coupling elements. They can be mapped onto the ISO reference model on the basis of their tasks.

Repeater The repeater copies the information received via the cable to the opposite side of the coupling and amplifies it in the process. A repeater operates invisibly for all layers of the communicating stations, i.e. even the physical layers of both networks must be identical. Repeaters are often used, not to connect two subnets of the same type, but to expand or extend an existing subnet, e.g. a bus system.

Station A Station C Application Application Presentation Presentation Session Session Transport Transport
Station A
Station C
Application
Application
Presentation
Presentation
Session
Session
Transport
Transport
Network
Network
Data link
Repeater
Data link
Physical
Physical
Physical
Network
A
C
Subnet
R

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Bridge Bridges are used to couple subnets that use the same protocols in the data link layer (Logical Link Control, LLC). The transfer medium and the bus access techniques (medium access control, MAC) of the subnets to be linked can be different. Bridges are usually used when local networks with different topologies are to be connected or when specific structures have to be connected to subnets via special applications.

The tasks of the bridge are limited in some versions to bus access (MAC). The LLC is not affected by this. This type of bridge is used for subnets that only differ with respect to the transfer medium (e.g. 2-core cable and fi- ber-optic cable) and which are otherwise identical.

Station A

Station C

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Bridge

Data link

Data link

Data linkData link

Data link Data link

Physical

Physical

PhysicalPhysical   Physical

 

Physical

Physical Physical   Physical

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data link  Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Physical A B C Subnet Subnet Network

Physical  Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link A B C Subnet Subnet Network

A B C Subnet Subnet
A
B C
Subnet
Subnet

Network

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Router

The router is used to connect ISO networks which differ in Layers 1 and 2. The router also determines the optimal communication path for a message through an existing network (routing).

The shortest distance or the shortest transmission delay can be used as criteria for the optimum route. The router performs its task by changing the source and destination addresses of the network layer for the arriving data packets before it sends them onwards.

Routers have to perform a much more complex task than bridges, so they have lower operating speeds.

Station A

Station C

Application

Application

Presentation

Presentation

Session

Session

Transport

Router

Transport

Network

Network

NetworkNetwork   Network

 

NetworkNetwork Network  

Network

Data link

Data link

Data linkData link

Data link

 
Data link Data link Data link   Data link

Data linkData link Data link Data link  

Physical

Physical

PhysicalPhysical   Physical Physical

 

Physical

PhysicalPhysical Physical   Physical

Physical
A B C Subnet Subnet
A
B C
Subnet
Subnet

Network

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Gateway Gateways are used to connect networks of differing architectures, i.e. any two subnets can be connected. Within the context of the ISO reference model, the task of gateways is to convert the protocols of all layers. A gateway also enables an ISO network to be connected to a non-ISO net- work. In this case, one half of the gateway has a different type of structure from the 7-layer structure, as shown in the diagram. High costs and low speeds are typical characteristics of network connections via gateways.

Station A Gateway Station C Application Application Application Presentation Presentation Presentation
Station A
Gateway
Station C
Application
Application
Application
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
Presentation
Session
Session
Session
Session
Transport
Transport
Transport
Transport
Network
Network
Network
Network
Data link
Data link
Data link
Data link
Physical
Physical
Physical
Physical
Network
A
G
C
Subnet
Subnet

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.9 Reliability of Transmission

Overview In Layer 1, the bits to be transferred are physically coded to guarantee the best possible reliability and safe data transfer. When data is received, it has an associated error probability above Layer 1 as a result of interfer- ence acting on the transfer medium. The terms "bit error rate" and "block error probability" can be found in the literature in this context.

In Layer 2, coding is performed for data security purposes. A characteristic of a code of this type is the so-called hamming distance (HD). This speci- fies the number of bits that differ between two valid code words, i.e. how many bits must toggle before another valid code word is produced. Tog- gling of a number of bits up to HD-minus-one is therefore detected as an error.

Residual Error

Above Layer 2, a residual error probability remains. It specifies the ratio of

Probability

undetected, faulty telegrams to the total number of telegrams received. The residual error probability can therefore be regarded as a measure of transmission reliability. This depends on the interference on the cable, the physical coding used (e.g. NRZ, Manchester coding) and the message coding (telegram).

Hamming Distance The hamming distance, therefore, can only be applied as a means for assessing the transmission reliability within limits. If a specific bit error probability and a fixed hamming distance are assumed, the residual error rate increases with size of the telegram. A high reliability can be obtained if considerable effort is invested in the physical coding, so that the bit error rate or block error probability is reduced. If a constant hamming distance is assumed, this results in a reduction of the residual error probability. A low residual error probability can therefore be assumed with the AS-i bus, de- spite its hamming distance of 2.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

1.10 Application Areas for the Subnets

Overview SIMATIC offers a range of communication networks to suit different re- quirements (see Chapter 3). These requirements of the automation land- scape can be categorized in the following four automation levels:

Ethernet PROFIBUS/ MPI AS-Interface
Ethernet
PROFIBUS/
MPI
AS-Interface

Management level

Cell level

Field level

Actuator/sensor

level

Management Level At the management level, supervisory tasks are processed which affect the entire works (management functions). These include storing process values as well as optimizing and analyzing processing functions as well as their output in the form of reports. The data required for these reports is collected from various sites and processed. From the management level, it is also possible to access other sites.

Cell Level

The number of stations can exceed 1000.

At the cell level, all automation and optimization functions are processed autonomously. At this cell level, programmable controllers, PCs and hu- man-machine interfaces are connected to each other.

Field Level The field level is the link between the installations and the programmable controllers. The field devices measure, signal and transmit the commands from the cell level to the installations. Small data volumes are usually transferred. A hierarchic communication arrangement is typical for this level, i.e. several field devices communicate with one master.

Introduction and Basics of Communication

Actuator/Sensor

At this level, a master communicates with the actuators and sensors that

Level

are connected to a subnet. Its characteristic feature is a fast response time for a small number of data bits.

Communication Services

2 Communication Services

Overview In this Chapter, you will find out the types of communication services that are available and how they can be categorized in terms of performance. You will become familiar with the software interfaces for communication services that exist within SIMATIC.

Chapter Overview

In Section

You will find

On page

2.1

Introduction

2-2

2.2

S7 Functions

2-4

2.3

ISO Transport Services

2-6

2.4

ISO-on-TCP Services

2-7

2.5

PROFIBUS-FDL Services

2-8

2.6

PROFIBUS-FMS Services

2-9

2.7

PROFIBUS-DP Services

2-10

2.8

Global Data Communication (GD)

2-11

2.9

AS-i Services

2-12

Communication Services

2.1

Introduction

Definition A SIMATIC S7 communication service describes communication func- tions using defined performance features, such as data to be transferred, devices to be controlled, devices to be monitored and programs to load. The SIMATIC S7 communication services (simply referred to as services from now on) are offered via software interfaces in the data terminal (e.g. SIMATIC S7 system functions). A software interface does not necessarily offer all the communication functions of a service. Such a service can be provided in the respective data terminal (e.g. PLC, PC) with different software interfaces.

Services and

Communication in SIMATIC S7 is based on various subnets on which

Subnets

various services are provided. The following table shows the relationship between services and subnets.

Services

S7 communication functions (S7 functions)

 

ISO transport

FDL (SDA)

 

ISO-on-TCP

FMS

DP

GD

Sub-

Industrial

PROFIBUS

MPI

nets

Ethernet

A summary of the communication services that are used in SIMATIC is

given below. For information on subnets, see Chapter 3.

S7 Functions The S7 functions offer services for communication between S7/M7 CPUs, SIMATIC OPs/OSes and PCs. The S7 functions are already integrated into every SIMATIC S7/M7 system. The S7 functions correspond to a service of the ISO application layer, so they are independent of the subnet and can be used in all subnets (MPI, PROFIBUS, Industrial Ethernet).

ISO Transport

These functions support error-free transmission of medium data volumes

(up to 240 bytes) via open communication on Layer 4 (the transport layer

of the ISO reference model) with Industrial Ethernet between SIMATIC S7

and SIMATIC S5.

Communication Services

ISO-on-TCP These functions support error-free transmission of medium data volumes (up to 240 bytes) via open communication with TCP/IP protocol on Layer 4 in accordance with the ISO reference model with Industrial Ethernet be- tween SIMATIC S7 and PCs or non-Siemens systems via TCP/IP net- works.

The ISO-on-TCP service requires the extended RFC1006 standard.

FDL (SDA)

These functions support the error-free transmission of data from SIMATIC S7 to SIMATIC S5.

They are optimized for the transmission of medium data volumes (up to 240 bytes) via open communication on Layer 2 of the ISO reference model, fieldbus data link (FDL) with PROFIBUS.

FMS

PROFIBUS FMS (fieldbus message specification) offers services for the transmission of structured data (FMS variables).

The FMS service can be placed in Layer 7 of the ISO reference model. It complies with the European standard EN 50170 Vol. 2 PROFIBUS and therefore facilitates open communication between stations on PROFIBUS.

DP

PROFIBUS-DP services facilitate transparent communication with distrib- uted I/O. From the control program, distributed I/O is addressed as if it was central I/O.

This service complies with the European standard EN 50170 Vol. 2 PROFIBUS master/slave and therefore facilitates open communication to distributed I/O and field devices.

GD

Global data communication is a simple communication service that is integrated into the operating system of the S7-300/400 CPUs.

GD communication facilitates cyclic data transfer between CPUs via the MPI interface. Cyclic data transfer takes place with the normal process image.

AS-Interface

These services are provided for cyclic data transmission between a pro- grammable controller, and actuators and sensors at a lower system level.

Communication Services

2.2 S7 Functions

Overview The S7 functions offer services for communication between S7/M7 CPUs, SIMATIC OPs/OSes and PCs. The S7 functions are already integrated into every SIMATIC S7/M7 system. The S7 functions correspond to a service of the Application Layer (Layer 7 of the ISO reference model), so they are independent of the subnet and can be used in all subnets (MPI, PROFIBUS, Industrial Ethernet).

Features

The S7 functions comprise the following:

Complete functions for programming SIMATIC programmable con- trollers with STEP 7 (e.g. downloading the hardware configuration, loading STEP 7 programs, online operator control of the SIMATIC stations and program testing and diagnostics).

Writing and reading variables as well as automatic transmission of data to the operator control and visualization stations (OPs and OSes) without the need for additional communication functions in the user program of the communication partner.

Error-free transfer of an area or subarea of data blocks (up to 64 Kbytes), a bit memory area or the process image between SIMATIC S7/M7-400 stations. This means that data transfer is only completed when the receive function in the communication partner has loaded the data (BSEND/BRCV).

High-speed data transfer without checking, independent of the time taken to process the communication function by the communication partner (e.g. operating and status signals). This means that the data can be overwritten with more up-to-date data at the communication partner (USEND/URCV). This is only possible between SIMATIC S7/M7-400 stations.

Program controlled reading and writing of variables without the need for additional communication functions in the user program of the communication partner (PUT/GET).

Control functions in order to set the CPU of the communication part- ner into the stop state, or to trigger a complete restart or warm re- start.

Monitoring functions that output the current operating status of the CPU of the communication partner.

The software interfaces (see Chapter 4) to the user program constitute the communication SFCs/SFBs that are integral to the operating system. The data volume lies between 76 and 460 bytes (in the case of BSEND/BRCV up to 64 Kbytes).

Communication Services

Transmission

A

high degree of data security is achieved due to automatic repetition of

Reliability

incomplete or incorrect telegrams on MPI/PROFIBUS and Industrial Eth- ernet (Layer 2 of the ISO reference model).

Transmission of the data is acknowledged by the communication partner on Layer 7 of the ISO reference model. This is indicated in the appropriate block.

Integration in

The SIMATIC S7 family, together with the S7 functions offers communica-

STEP 7

tion functions via configured and non-configured S7 links. The configured links are configured using STEP 7 and are implicitly established when the station starts up. The non-configured links are explicitly established when the associated communication function is called.

Assignment to Software Interface

In SIMATIC S7-300/400 systems, the S7 functions are provided by the communication SFCs for non-configured links and the communication SFBs for configured links.

In

SIMATIC M7-300/400 systems, the functional scope of the S7 functions

is

provided by M7 API.

On the PC, a subset of the S7 functions is provided via the SAPI-S7 inter- face.

Communication Services

2.3 ISO Transport Services

Overview

ISO transport provides services for transmitting data via links. The link is automatically monitored by the ISO transport service.

The ISO transport service (ISO 8073 Class 4) corresponds to Level 4 of the ISO reference model.

Features Large quantities of data can be transmitted using the ISO transport service due to "data blocking", i.e. useful data can be segmented in several data telegrams.

The ISO transport service facilitates communication to any communica- tion partner (e.g. SIMATIC S5 or PC) that supports sending and receiving data in accordance with ISO transport.

Data is only transferred on Industrial Ethernet with the ISO transport serv- ice.

Transmission

A high degree of data security is achieved due to automatic repetition in

Receipt of data is acknowledged by the ISO transport service of the com-

Reliability

the case of ISO transport and additional block checking mechanisms

(CRC check on Layer 2).

munication partner. This is indicated in the appropriate block.

Integration in

With the ISO transport services, the SIMATIC S7 family offers communi-

STEP 7

cation functions for sending and receiving data via static links. The asso- ciated ISO transport links are configured using STEP 7. They are estab- lished when the station starts up.

The STEP 7 "NCM S7 for Industrial Ethernet" option package supple- ments the STEP 7 link configuration with the "ISO transport" link type.

Assignment to Software Interface

In SIMATIC S7, the ISO transport services are used for communication with the blocks AG_SEND and AG_RECV via the Industrial Ethernet sub- net (see Chapter 4).

On the PC, the ISO transport services are provided in the form of C func- tions.

Communication Services

2.4 ISO-on-TCP Services

Overview

The ISO-on-TCP service corresponds to the standard TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) with the extended RFC 1006 in accordance with Layer 4 of the ISO reference model.

RFC 1006 is required because TCP provides data stream communication without blocking the data into messages.

This behavior is rectified in the case of the ISO protocol of Layer 4 with an end of message code (EOM). The EOM allows messages (data blocks) to be transmitted. TCP/IP does not recognize this. Additive protocols have to used for the purposes of sending messages. RFC 1006 describes how the services of ISO layer 4 can be mapped onto TCP. RFC 1006 is an official standard and is used by many manufacturers.

Features The ISO-on-TCP service facilitates communication to any communication partner (e.g. PC or non-Siemens system) that supports sending and re- ceiving data in accordance with ISO-on-TCP.

With the ISO-on-TCP service, data is only transferred on Industrial Ether- net.

Transmission

A high degree of data security is achieved due to automatic repetition and

Reliability

additional block checking mechanisms (CRC check on Layer 2).

Receipt of data is acknowledged by the communication partner. This is indicated in the appropriate block.

Integration in

With the ISO-on-TCP services, the SIMATIC S7 offers communication

STEP 7

functions for sending and receiving data via static links. The associated ISO-on-TCP links are configured using STEP 7. They are established im- plicitly when the station starts up.

The STEP 7 "NCM S7 for Industrial Ethernet" option package supple- ments the STEP 7 link configuration with the "ISO-on-TCP" link type.

Assignment to Software Interface

In SIMATIC S7, the ISO-on-TCP services are used for communication with the blocks AG_SEND and AG_RECV via the Industrial Ethernet sub- net (see Chapter 4).

On the PC, the ISO-on-TCP services are provided in the form of C func- tions.

Communication Services

2.5 PROFIBUS-FDL Services

Overview

FDL (fieldbus data link) offers services for the transmission of data on the PROFIBUS subnet.

The FDL service of SIMATIC S7 supports the SDA function (send data with acknowledgement).

The FDL service can be placed in Layer 2 of the ISO reference model.

PROFIBUS-FDL complies with the European standard EN 50 170 Vol. 2 PROFIBUS.

Features

Receipt of data is acknowledged by the FDL service of the communication partner.

The FDL service facilitates communication to any communication partner (e.g. SIMATIC S5 or PC) that supports sending and receiving data in ac- cordance with the SDA function.

Transmission

A high degree of data security is achieved due to automatic repetition and

With the FDL service, the SIMATIC S7 offers, communication functions

Reliability

additional checking mechanisms (parity bit per character and check sum

Integration in

on Layer 2).

STEP 7

for sending and receiving data via static links. The associated FDL links are configured using STEP 7. They are established implicitly when the PROFIBUS-CP for SIMATIC S7 starts up.

The STEP 7 "NCM S7 for PROFIBUS" option package supplements the STEP 7 link configuration with the link type "FDL link".

Assignment to Software Interface

In SIMATIC S7, the FDL services are used for communication with the blocks AG_SEND and AG_RECV via the PROFIBUS subnet (see Chapter

4).

On the PC, the FDL services are provided in the form of C functions.

Communication Services

2.6 PROFIBUS-FMS Services

Overview

PROFIBUS-FMS (fieldbus message specification) offers services for the transmission of structured data (FMS variables).

The FMS service can be placed in Layer 7 of the ISO reference model. It complies with the European standard EN 50170 Vol. 2 PROFIBUS and therefore facilitates open communication with field devices.

Features

Services for reading and writing FMS variables via FMS links are avail- able.

Receipt of data is confirmed by the partner with an application acknow- ledgement, i.e. the application running on the distant communication partner has received the data correctly.

Data is only transferred with the FMS service on the PROFIBUS subnet.

Transmission

A high degree of data security is achieved due to automatic repetition and

With the FMS service, the SIMATIC S7 offers communication functions for

Reliability

additional checking mechanisms (parity bit per character and check sum

Integration in

on Layer 2).

STEP 7

sending and receiving data via static links. The associated FMS links are configured using STEP 7. They are established implicitly when the station for SIMATIC S7 starts up.

The STEP 7 "NCM S7 for PROFIBUS" option package supplements the STEP 7 link configuration with the link type "FMS link".

Assignment to Software Interface

In SIMATIC S7, the FMS services are used for communication with the communication FBs for FMS via the PROFIBUS subnet (see Chapter 4).

On the PC, the FMS services are provided in the form of C functions.

Communication Services

2.7 PROFIBUS-DP Services

Overview PROFIBUS-DP services facilitate direct communication with distributed I/O. From the control program, distributed I/O is addressed as if it were central I/O.

PROFIBUS-DP services comply with the European standard EN 50170 Vol. 2, PROFIBUS. Any standard slave can be connected.

Features The "distributed I/O" expands the central I/O with I/O modules that are connected to a central controller via a parallel bus (via an IM) or a serial bus (interface on CPU, IM or CP). The serial bus is PROFIBUS-DP which covers open communication up to Layer 7.

The PROFIBUS-DP interface is either integrated on the S7/M7 CPUs or separate interfaces are used (IMs, CPs).

The I/O that is located, for example, in an expansion unit (ET 200 station) connected to PROFIBUS as a DP slave, is addressed in the same manner as any other I/O in the central controller or in an expansion unit. This means that the I/O modules can be directly addressed using instructions or they are accessed via process image transfer.

Transmission

A high degree of data security is achieved due to automatic repetition and

Distributed I/O is configured using the hardware configuration functions of

Reliability

additional checking mechanisms (parity bit per character and check sum

Integration in

on Layer 2).

STEP 7

STEP 7.

This also applies to the system integration of the ET 200 stations.

Non-Siemens slaves can also be integrated into the hardware configura- tion system.

Communication Services

2.8 Global Data Communication (GD)

Overview

Global data communication is a simple communication service that is integral to the operating system of the S7-300/400 CPUs.

Features GD communication facilitates the cyclic exchange of global data, such as inputs, outputs, bit memories and areas in data blocks, between CPUs via the MPI interface (without using blocks). Cyclic data transfer takes place with the normal transfer of the process image.

The response time is dependent on the cycle of the user program and its value is a fraction of this cycle time (GD reduction factor).

Transmission

This technique is a broadcast technique; therefore, there is no guarantee

Reliability

for data security.

Integration in

Global data communication is configured with STEP 7 via a global data

STEP 7

table. All S7-300/400 CPUs must be located in the same STEP 7 project.

Communication Services

2.9 AS-i Services

Overview AS-i services facilitate direct communication with decentralized actuators and sensors. From the control program, they are addressed as if they were distributed I/O.

The AS-i specification has been submitted in the form of a prototype standard to the IEC and EN.

Sensors and actuators that comply with this specification can be con- nected.

Features

The sensors and actuators are addressed in the central controller or ex- pansion unit in the same manner as any other I/O. This means that the sensors and actuators can be directly addressed with instructions or they can be accessed via process image transfer.

Power is supplied and data is transferred on the same cable.

For each AS-i slave station, 4 sensors and actuators can be con- nected.

Up to 4 input bits and 4 output bits are available per slave station.

Transmission takes place at a fixed cycle time of up to 5 ms.

The response time is <= 5 ms.

The AS-i interface is available as a separate interface (CP) for SIMATIC S7-200/300 and M7 300.

Transmission

A high degree of data security is achieved due to automatic repetition and

Reliability

additional checking mechanisms (parity bit and a special signal shape).

Integration in

As far as configuration is concerned, the CP is simply integrated during

STEP 7

hardware configuration.

Communication Networks

3 Communication Networks

Overview In this Chapter, you will become familiar with the communication networks that are available for SIMATIC. You will learn which protocols are realized in which network and which SIMATIC products are offered for these communication networks. On the basis of this information, you will be able to select your own communication network.

Chapter Overview

In Section

You will find

On page

3.1

Overview

3-2

3.2

Multipoint Interface (MPI)

3-5

3.3

PROFIBUS

3-7

3.4

Industrial Ethernet

3-12

3.5

Point-to-Point Link

3-14

3.6

AS-Interface

3-16

Communication Networks

3.1

Overview

Subnets in

SIMATIC offers the following subnets which meet the requirements of the

SIMATIC

different automation system levels (management, cell, field and actua- tor/sensor level):

MPI The MPI subnet meets the requirements of the field level and cell level with low coverage. MPI is a multipoint interface in SIMATIC S7/M7 and C7 systems. It is designed as a programming device interface and is intended for networking a small number of CPUs for the purpose of exchanging small volumes of data.

PROFIBUS

PROFIBUS is the network for the cell and field level in the open, multi- vendor SIMATIC communication system.

Two versions of PROFIBUS are offered:

PROFIBUS DP, the fieldbus for high-speed, cyclic transfer of small volumes of data

PROFIBUS, in the cell, for the high-speed exchange of medium- sized quantities of data with communication partners that have equal rights

Industrial Ethernet

Industrial Ethernet is the network for the management and cell level in the open, multi-vendor SIMATIC communication system. Industrial Ethernet is suitable for the high-speed exchange of large quantities of data and facili- tates communication between one site and another via gateways.

Point-to-Point

A point-to-point link is not technically a subnet. In SIMATIC, this link is

Link

implemented via point-to-point communication processors (CP), whereby two stations are linked together.

AS-Interface The AS-Interface or actuator/sensor interface is a subnet system for the lowest process level in automation systems. It is specially designed for the interconnection of binary sensors and actuators. The data volume is lim- ited to 4 bits per slave station.

Communication Networks

Access Technique

The access technique specifies how and when a station can send its data on the subnet. In the event of simultaneous requests to send from different stations, it controls the access authorization. The following types of access techniques exist:

CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access / collision detection)

Token passing

Master/slave

The access techniques are described in detail in the sections describing the relevant subnets.

Max. Length of Network

Transfer Medium

This is the greatest distance between two stations of a subnet. A subnet can comprise one or more segments (bus segments). Bus segments can be connected via segment couplers such as repeaters or bridges.

The transfer medium is the bus cable via which data is transferred. A distinction is usually made between copper and fiber-optic cables.

Copper: 2-core cable, coaxial cable, twisted pair

Fiber-optic: Glass or plastic fiber-optic cables

Communication Networks

Technical Data

The following table provides an overview of the subnets.

 

Features

MPI

PROFIBUS

 

Industrial

AS-Interface

Ethernet

Standards

SIEMENS pro-

PROFIBUS to

Ethernet to

AS-i specification to IEC TG 17B

cedure

EN 50170

IEEE 802.3

Volume 2

Access technique

Token passing

Token passing

CSMA/CD

Master/slave

with subordinate

 

master/slave

Transmission rate

187.5 Kbit/s

9.6 Kbit/s - 12 Mbit/s

10 Mbit/s

167

Kbit/s

Transfer medium

Copper:

Copper:

Copper:

Copper:

Shielded 2-core

Shielded 2-core

Double-shielded coaxial cable or Industrial Twisted Pair

Unshielded

cable

cable

2-core cable

Fiber-optic:

Fiber-optic:

Glass or plastic fiber-optic cable

Glass or plastic fiber-optic cable

Fiber-optic:

Glass fiber-optic

cables

Max. no. of stations

32

127

> 1000

32

Max. length of network

50 m (expandable us- ing RS485 re- peaters or opti- cal link modules)

Copper:

Copper:

Cable length max.

Approx. 10 km 1)

1.5

km

300

m

 

Fiber-optic:

Fiber-optic:

 

over 100 km 2)

4.5

km

Topology

Line, tree,

Line, tree,

Line, tree,

Line, tree

ring, star

ring, star

ring, star

Services

S7 functions, GD

S7 functions, FDL, FMS, DP

S7 functions,

AS-i functions

ISO transport,

 

ISO-on-TCP

Automation system level

Cell and field level

Cell and field level

Management and cell level

Actuator/sensor

level

Hamming distance

4

4

2

-

1)

Depends on transmission rate 2) Depends on OLM type used

Communication Networks

3.2 Multipoint Interface (MPI)

Applications

The MPI subnet is suitable for the field level and cell level with low cover- age. MPI is a multipoint interface in SIMATIC S7/M7 and C7 systems. It is designed as a programming device interface and is intended for network- ing a small number of CPUs.

PG MPI OP S7 - 400 S7 - 300
PG
MPI
OP
S7 - 400
S7 - 300

Access technique

Figure 3-1:

Example of an MPI Subnet

Token bus (see PROFIBUS)

Features

The MPI interface is integral to the S7/M7 and C7 CPUs. This pro- vides a simple networking capability.

Networking of a small number of communication partners with small data volumes.

Global data communication offers a simple, configurable communi- cation service.

Several CPUs and programming devices/OPs can be connected.

Communication Networks

Technical Data

Standards

SIEMENS-specific

 

Stations

Maximum of 32 active stations

Access technique

Token passing

 

Transmission rate

187.5 Kbit/s.

 

Transfer medium

Shielded 2-core cable, fiber-optic (glass or plastic)

Max. length of network

Segment length 50 m, via RS 485 repeaters up to 1100 m, with fiber-optic cables via OLM > 100 km

Topology

Line, tree, star, ring

 

Services

S7 functions Global data communication

SIMATIC Products

System

Modules

 

Services

S7-300

CPU 312 IFM CPU 313 CPU 314, CPU 314 IFM CPU 315 CPU 315-2 DP

S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD, DP

S7-400

CPU 412-1 CPU 413-1 CPU 414-1 CPU 416-1 CPU 413-2 DP CPU 414-2 DP CPU 416-2 DP

S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD, DP S7 functions, GD, DP S7 functions, GD, DP

M7-300

CPU 388-4

 

S7 functions

M7-400

CPU 488-4

 

S7 functions

CPU 488-5

S7 functions

C7-620

C7-623/624

 

S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD S7 functions, GD, DP

C7-626

C7-626-2DP

Programming

PG 720, PG 720C PG 740 PG 760

S7 functions

device

S7 functions

S7 functions

OP

OP 3, OP 5, OP 7, OP 15, OP 17; OP 25, OP 35, OP 37

S7 functions

S7 functions

S7 functions

PC

CP 5412-A2

(ISA)

S7 functions

CP 5411

(ISA)

S7 functions

CP 5511

(PCMCIA)

S7 functions

MPI card

(ISA)

S7 functions

CP 5611

(PCI)

S7 functions

More products are listed in Catalogs ST 70 and IK 10.

Communication Networks

3.3

PROFIBUS

Definition PROFIBUS is the network for the cell and field level in the open, multi- vendor SIMATIC communication system. PROFIBUS is physically either a copper cable network based on a shielded 2-core cable or a fiber-optic cable network.

Access technique

The network access technique for PROFIBUS corresponds to the "Token bus" method specified by EN
The network access technique for PROFIBUS corresponds to the "Token
bus" method specified by EN 50170, Volume 2 for active stations and the
"Master/slave" method for passive stations.
Token
Master
Master
Master
PROFIBUS
Slave
Slave
Slave
Slave
Slave
Slave

Master/slave assignment

Figure 3-2:

Principle of the PROFIBUS Access Technique

The access technique is independent of the transfer medium. Figure 3-2 shows the procedure used with active and passive stations. This is ex- plained briefly below:

All active stations (masters) form, in a prespecified sequence, the "logical token ring" whereby each active station is aware of the other active sta- tions and their sequence in the logical ring (the sequence is independent of the topological arrangement of the active stations on the bus).

The right to access the medium (the "token") is passed from active station to active station in accordance with the sequence specified by the logical ring.

When a station receives the token (addressed to it), it has permission to send telegrams. The time allowed is specified by the so-called token holding time. Once this has elapsed, the station is only permitted to send one more high-priority message. If the station is not waiting to send a message, it passes the token onto the next station in the logical ring im- mediately. The corresponding token timers ("max. token holding time", etc.) are configured for all active stations.

Communication Networks

If an active station is in possession of the token and connections to pas- sive stations are configured for it (master/slave links), these passive sta- tions are queried (e.g. variables are read) or data is sent to them (e.g. setpoint values).

Passive stations never receive the token.

This access technique allows stations to be added and removed under operating conditions.

Applications for

The PROFIBUS subnet for the cell and field level supports the exchange

PROFIBUS

of information between field devices and with systems at a higher system level. It is used to transfer small to medium quantities of data. In SIMATIC S7, a CP is always required for PROFIBUS.

S5 with PROFIBUS-CP PG PROFIBUS-CP PROFIBUS OP S7 - 300 S7 - 400 PROFIBUS-CP PROFIBUS-CP

S5 with PROFIBUS-CP

PG PROFIBUS-CP PROFIBUS OP S7 - 300 S7 - 400 PROFIBUS-CP PROFIBUS-CP
PG
PROFIBUS-CP
PROFIBUS
OP
S7 - 300
S7 - 400
PROFIBUS-CP
PROFIBUS-CP

Figure 3-3:

Example of a PROFIBUS Subnet

Communication Networks

Applications for

PROFIBUS-DP

PROFIBUS-DP offers a standardized interface for the transfer of process input and process output data between SIMATIC S7 stations and field devices (DP slaves). PROFIBUS-DP is characterized by high-speed, cy- clic exchange of small quantities of data between DP masters and DP slaves.

DP master

OP DP master PG/PC S7 - 315-2 DP PROFIBUS-CP STEP 7 NCM S7 for PROFIBUS
OP
DP master
PG/PC
S7 - 315-2 DP
PROFIBUS-CP
STEP 7
NCM S7 for
PROFIBUS
PROFIBUS
e.g.
PROFIBUS-CP
S7 - 300
e.g.
ET 200 M/U/B
AG 95U/DP
slave
Non-Siemens
DP slave
CP
DP slave

Features of

PROFIBUS

Figure 3-4:

Example of a PROFIBUS-DP Subnet

The following services can be used simultaneously on PROFIBUS

FDL, FMS and S7 functions or

DP, FDL and S7 functions.

Defined bus circulation times are guaranteed by the token passing technique.

PROFIBUS-DP allows data to be exchanged between master and slave stations from different manufacturers without the need for special adaptation of the interface.

In SIMATIC S7/M7, PROFIBUS-DP interfaces have been integrated into the CPUs (second interface for S7 CPUs or interface submod- ule for M7 CPUs). To the customer, this means:

the single-master with integrated interface guarantees faster re- sponse times (1 to 2 ms for 12 Mbit/s).

integrated interfaces are less expensive than separate interfaces and consume less space.

Extremely fast response (1 to 5 ms) on querying DP slaves.

PROFIBUS allows data to be exchanged between stations via FMS or FDL without the need for special adaptation of the interface.

Communication Networks

Technical Data

Standards

EN 50170 Volume 2 PROFIBUS

 

Stations

Maximum of 127 stations in the network

 

Access techniques

-

Token bus for bus allocation among active sta-

tions.

Master/slave for communication with passive sta- tions.

-

Transmission rate

9.6 Kbit/s to 12 Mbit/s

 

Transfer medium

Shielded 2-core cable or fiber-optic cable

 
   

Transmission rate

Length

 

Copper:

   

Per segment

9.6

to 93.75 Kbit/s

1000 m

187.5

Kbit/s

800

m

500

Kbit/s

400

m

1.5

Mbit/s

200

m

3

to 12 Mbit/s

100

m

With repeaters

9.6

to 93.75 Kbit/s

10 km

187.5

Kbit/s

8

km

500

Kbit/s

4

km

1.5

Mbit/s

2

km

3

to 12 Mbit/s

1

km

Fiber-optic:

(depending on type of OLM used)

9.6

Kbit/s to 12 Mbit/s

>100km

Topology

Line, tree, star, ring

 

Services

S7 functions

FDL

FMS

DP

Communication Networks

SIMATIC Products

System

Modules

Services

S5 95U

CPU 95U

FDL, DP (M or S) *)

S5

CP 5431

FMS, FDL, DP (M) DP (M or S)

115/135/

IM 308-B/C

155U

 

S7-200

CPU 215

DP (S)

S7-300

CPU 315-2 DP CP 342-5 CP 343-5

DP (M or S) S7 functions, FDL, DP (M or S) S7 functions, FDL, FMS

S7-400

CPU 413-2 DP CPU 414-2 DP CPU 416-2 DP IM 467 CP 443-5 Basic CP 443-5 Extended

DP (M) DP (M) DP (M) DP (M or S), (M and S) S7 functions, FDL, FMS S7 functions, FDL, DP (M or S)

M7-300/400

IFM submodule

S7 functions, DP (M or S)

C7

CPU 626-DP

DP

OP

OP 5, OP 7, OP 15, OP 17; OP 25, OP 35, OP 37

S7 functions

S7 functions

S7 functions

PC/

CP 5412 A2

(ISA)

S7 functions, FDL, FMS, DP(M) *) S7 functions, FDL, DP (M) S7 functions, FDL, DP (M) *) S7 functions

*)

program-

ming

CP 5411

(ISA)

device

CP 5511

(PCMCIA)

CP 5611

(PCI)

 

*) Depends on configuration ordered

M

S

= Master

= Slave

More products are listed in Catalogs ST 50, ST 70 and IK 10

Communication Networks

3.4 Industrial Ethernet

Applications Industrial Ethernet is a subnet for the management level and the cell level that supports communication between computers and programmable con- trollers. It is used for the transmission of large quantities of data and can be used for transmission over large distances. Physically, Ethernet is a copper cable network based on a shielded coaxial cable, a twisted-pair cable, or a fiber-optic network.

S7 - 300 with Ethernet-CP S7 - 400 with Ethernet-CP Industrial Ethernet HMI / control
S7 - 300 with Ethernet-CP
S7 - 400 with Ethernet-CP
Industrial Ethernet
HMI /
control
STEP 7
NCM S7
PG with Ethernet-CP
PC with Ethernet-CP
M7 with Ethernet-CP
S5 with Ethernet-CP

Figure 3-5:

Example of an Industrial Ethernet Subnet

Access technique The CSMA/CD access technique is used. Before transmission, each sta- tion checks whether other stations are currently transmitting. If no other station is transmitting, it can start sending immediately. If a collision oc- curs due to two stations starting to transmit simultaneously, they both stop transmitting and repeat the procedure once a random waiting time has elapsed.

Features

In the case of Industrial Ethernet, the ISO and TCP/IP protocols are used.

Due to the access technique used, all stations on Industrial Ethernet have equal rights.

A large variety of non-Siemens systems can be accessed via ISO transport or ISO-on-TCP.

Communication Networks

Technical Data

Standards

IEEE 802.3

Stations

More than 1000

 

Access technique

CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access/collision detection)

Transmission rate

10 Mbit/s

Transfer medium

Copper:

2-core, shielded coaxial cable Industrial Twisted Pair Fiber-optic cable

Fiber-optic:

Max. length of network

Copper:

1.5

km

Fiber-optic:

4.5

km

Topology

Line, tree, star, ring

 

Services

S7 functions

ISO transport

ISO-on-TCP

SIMATIC Products

System

Modules

 

Services

S5 115/135/155U

CP 1430 CP 1430 TCP

 

ISO transport

ISO-on-TCP

S7-300

CP 343-1 CP 343-1 TCP

 

S7 functions, ISO transport S7 functions, ISO-on-TCP

S7-400

CP 443-1 CP 443-1 TCP

 

S7 functions, ISO transport S7 functions, ISO-on-TCP

PC / programming device

CP 1413

 

S7 functions, ISO transport, ISO-on-TCP S7 functions, ISO transport, ISO-on-TCP S7 functions, ISO transport, ISO-on-TCP

(ISA)

 

CP 1411

(ISA)

CP 1511

(PCMCIA)

Further products are listed in Catalogs ST 50, ST 70 and IK 10

Communication Networks

3.5 Point-to-Point Link

Applications A point-to-point link allows data to be exchanged via a serial link. The point-to-point
Applications
A point-to-point link allows data to be exchanged via a serial link. The
point-to-point link can be used between your system and other program-
mable controllers, computers or non-Siemens systems with communica-
tion capability.
A point-to-point link is not classified as a subnet.
S7 - 400 with point-to-point CP
PC
Figure 3-6:
Example of a Point-to-Point Link
Features
Adaptation to the protocol of the communication partner with the aid
of standard procedures or loadable special drivers.
A customized procedure can be defined using ASCII characters.
Technical Data
Stations
2
Transfer medium
Serial interface-specific cable
Physical interfaces
RS 232C (V24)
20
mA (TTY)
RS 422/485
Transmission rates
From 300 bit/s to
max. 76.8 Kbit/s with RS 232C and RS 422/485
max. 19.2 Kbit/s with 20 mA
Max. length of
network
10
m with RS 232C
1000
m with 20 mA and 9.6 Kbit/s
1200
m with RS 422/485 and 19,200 Kbit/s
Protocol drivers
ASCII driver
3964
(R)
RK 512
Printer driver
Loadable special drivers

Communication Networks

SIMATIC Products

System

Modules

Procedures / Drivers

S5 95/100U

CP 521

3964

(R), ASCII

S5 115/135/155U

CP 523

3964

(R), ASCII

CP 524/525

3964

(R), RK 512, ASCII,

loadable special drivers

CP 544 CP 544 B

3964

(R), RK 512, ASCII

3964

(R), RK 512, ASCII,

 

loadable special drivers

S7-300

CP 340-RS 232C CP 340-20mA CP 340-RS 422/485

3964

(R), ASCII

3964

(R), ASCII

3964

(R), ASCII

S7-400

CP 441-1

3964

(R), RK512, ASCII

CP 441-2

3964

(R), RK512, ASCII, load-

able special drivers

M7-300/400

IFM submodule

3964

(R), RK512, ASCII, load-

able special drivers

Communication Networks

3.6

AS-Interface

Applications The AS-Interface or actuator/sensor interface (abbreviated: AS-i) is a subnet for the lowest process level in automation systems. The simplest types of binary actuators and sensors are linked to an automation system station via the AS-i bus.

SIMATIC S7 300 AS-Interface CP 342-2 power supply AS-i module AS-i module Actuator / sensor
SIMATIC S7 300
AS-Interface
CP 342-2
power supply
AS-i module
AS-i module
Actuator / sensor
AS-Interface
distributor
AS-i Bus

Figure 3-7:

Example of an AS-i Subnet

Access technique The AS-Interface is a so-called "Single-master system", i.e. only one master exists in each AS-i subnet that controls data transfer. It calls all slaves in sequence and reads or writes the data. Master/slave access with cyclic polling guarantees a defined response time.

Features

AS-Interface is optimized for interfacing to binary actuators and sen- sors. The AS-i bus is not simply dedicated to the transfer of data between sensors/actuators and the master, it also supplies power to the sensors.

AS-i modules are available for 1 to 8 bits (channels) and are de- signed to the IP65 degree of protection. They are suitable for direct installation on the machine or equipment.

No configuration is required before start-up. Slaves can be replaced without the need for configuration.

The AS-i master conducts cyclic data transfer with up to 31 stations in less than 5 ms.

Numerous devices (actuators/sensors) can be connected as a result of manufacturer-independent standardization.

A power supply unit is required for supplying power via the bus.

Communication Networks

AS-Interface is not a subnet within the context of STEP 7.