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HANDLING THE BIG JETS SUMMARY

Chapter 1: Introduction
Three phases of flight which combine to make jet transport A/C entirely different from any other:
T/O, Landing, Severe Wx flight
HBJ - large, heavy, turbine engines, faster, higher
! Terms:
EPR - engine pressure ratio - max compressor delivery pressure to air intake pressure
N
1
/N
2
- speed of the low-pressure compressor / speed of the high-pressure compressor
THP - SHP x propeller efficiency of a prop driven A/C
SFC - lbs/hr per lb of thrust
Gross performance - test A/C performance adjusted to be representative of the
minimum of the fleet
Net Performance - gross performance adjusted downward to account for other errors
such as flying technique
Net Flight Path - engine out climb V
2
to enroute climb
EAS - IAS corrected for PE and compressibility error - A/C is sensitive only to EAS
TAS - TAS relative to undisturbed air - EAS corrected for density
V
R
Rotate:

V
MU
+ 5% or 10% depending on whether type is prone to tailstrike
V
1
- decision speed - for engine failure on T/O can either continue the T/O or abort
V
2
- T/O safety speed for engine failure on T/O
V
3
- all engine screen speed ie. at 35ft on T/O (normally ~V2+10kts)
V
4
- all engine initial climb speed (for initial noise abatement climb achieved at
~300ft; Normally ~V2+15kt)
V
AT
- target threshold speed
V
AT0
- threshold speed full flap/ V
AT1
- 1 engine out / V
AT2
- 2 engine out
V
TMAX
- max threshold speed ~V
AT
+15 kts = unacceptable risk of overrun
V
NO
- normal operating / V
MO
- maximum operating / V
NE
- never exceed
V
RA
- rough air speed / V
F
- maximum flap speed
V
IMD
- min drag speed / V
IMP
- min power speed (1.6-1.7 V
s
modern jets)
Screen height - 35ft ft T/O, 30ft for landing
Strength - proof - maximum load in normal operation +2.5G/-1G
ultimate - ~ 1.5 x proof
G < proof may bend / G> proof bend and remain bent / G>Ult may break
ADC - air data computer
TVSI - Instantaneous VSI - accelerometer gives advanced signal by sucking or
blowing air into the VSI capsule
Chapter 2: First Order Differences
! Size: Optimum size of A/C for - route/demand/speed/frequency/seat-mile cost
! Seat - mile costs generally decrease with increased A/C capacity - so use the
largest capacity aircraft without decreasing the trip frequency
1
! Speed: A/C should fly at the highest subsonic speed before compressibility drag
becomes excessive M0.8/M0.9 or supersonic speed sufficiently high for economic
advantages to offset drag penalties >M2.0
! Turbines: Only jets can produce the power required at high altitude and high speed -
propeller compressibility losses at high altitude and speed too great
! Piston engine = 2lb thrust / lb weight
! Jet engine = 4lb thrust / lb weight and improving
! Jet engine more fuel but more economical overall higher propulsive
efficiency
! Jet at least 4 x more reliable
! Higher: Best operating for engine and the airframe
! Min drag ~ 1.4 V
s
on older types; 1.6-1.7V
s
on modern types = max endurance / Max
range ~ 1.3 V
IMD
! As TAS increases with A/C altitude - maybe reducing EAS, but reducing drag increases
TAS
! Best SFC need 90% of maximum RPM, but thrust falls with altitude for given RPM
BUT want thrust = drag at 90% RPM = high altitude
! eg. at low altitude and low sped SFC increases because of poor jet performance at low %
RPM if increase % RPM increase speed increasing drag / at lower speed at high altitude
stability problems and decreased SFC due to lower % RPM
! Best cruise speed = lower altitude
! Best range = higher altitude
! Low alt = %Thrust with !IAS due internal engine drag // Hi alt = overall lower trust but
!Thrust with !IAS due ram effect see fig 2.3 p19
Chapter 3: Consequences of Increased Size and Weight
! Increased momentum (M x V): Greater divergence if disturbed & more time reqd to
correct flight path; so must anticipate more - projected flight path - must know the attitude
and power requirement for the next phase of flight and be prepared - must retrim for each
attitude or power change
! Powered Controls: Devices like set-back hinges, horn balance, trailing edge bal tabs
insufficient, so pure power operated controls - pilot signals the hydraulic actuators - if
manual is possible programme flight to avoid large rapid control applications and
turbulence
! Pitch control fail: CG change can be used fuel/pax, configure earlier, restrict flap changes
to reduce attitude changes in the flare. For degraded elev or stuck stab, want aft CoG for
ease of control
! Artificial feel: Power operated surfaces - no feedback - can use spring but these are only
accurate at one IAS; q feel system uses dynamic pressure (#pV
2
) -senses static and pitot
pressure and feed the control system; common for elevator is V
2.2
and rudder V
3.0
;
! Failure of artificial feel: Overstress risk. Slow, smooth, small control changes - trim; do
not use the autopilot as it relies on the q feel system; avoid turbulence. For degraded pitch
feel should move the CG FWD (! long stabil) so the A/C response is less for elevator
movements
! Roll control fail: Deg aileron or spoilers. Use power and other controls such as spoilers
rather than ailerons; for crosswinds > 15 kt may need an alternate
! Yaw control fail: Degraded rudder. Use asymmetric power changes, decreased V
MCA
margin for T/O & increased V
MCL
for landing so need higher IAS approaches; crosswind <
10kts touchdown with drift on, crosswind > 10kts use an alternate
! Large weight range: - typical weights max T/O - 335 000lb, land 234 000lb, payload 27-
55 000lb, fuel load 155 000lb, APS weight no fuel/payload 153 000lb; carries more fuel
than the APS weight; T/O - land weight differs by 141 000lb; a light weight T/O is possible
on two engines; for calculations at 155 000lb fuel need weight within 10 000lb ("V
s
by
~4kts)except for T/O and landing use within 5 000lb ("V
s
by ~2kts)
! Large Ref speed changes: stall speed changes mostly with weight and configuration;
V
S1
:V
S2
~ square root of W1:W2; large variations of stall speeds, threshold speeds, and T/O
safety speeds
! Large CG range: - fuel from swept wing tanks, freight and PAX; stability increases with
fwd CG - stick forces are higher and controls are less responsive (Opposite for AFT CG);
Flare at FWD CG requires increased forces; tendency to overtrim at AFT CG; AFT CG
landing must keep force on the nosewheel while spoilers and reverse thrust on A/C tend to
pitch A/C up
! Variable incidence tailplane:
! Reasons (4): Large CG range, Large IAS range, Large trim changes (LE & TE
flaps), Reduced trim drag;
! Other advantages: Elevators always in neutral-available for full range at all
times; Stall speeds are higher at FWD CG (by about 5kts) as extra weight
exerted by tailplane to balance A/C; in practice there is a small download on the
tailplane in the cruise; T/O setting of the tailplane is extremely important
otherwise may not have sufficient force to rotate the A/C
! Failures:
! Operating system failure - use backup tailplane system eg. electric
! Stuck stabiliser - A/C in trim at one speed , stay there as long as
possible, long fast final with less flap, use CoG to help control
move fuel/pax FWD or AFT as required, both pilots to share the
forces
! Runaway - stop it ASAP
! Stalled Drive - may need to ease off the pitch force while still
trimming
! All flying tailplanes: Tail always effective, most efficient form of longitudinal control, esp
if aft section is hinged to alter camber at high AoA.
! Long wheel base: Need to go deep into corners prior to turning; nose gear is well behind
the pilots, pilots may be off the taxiway; bog the nosegear prior to the main gear because its
more easily fixed; line up - need to put # the fuselage over the centreline then turn;
remember to completely straighten the nosewheel prior to stopping; landing - the main gear
is up to 30ft lower than the pilots and well AFT remember this fact NEVER land short.
Chapter 4: TURBINES
! Jet still internal combustion eng: induction / compression / combustion / expansion /
exhaust
! Power output ! with ! fuel burnt / Thermal efficiency ! with ! compression
3
! Piston engines do not have sufficient power or thrust to overcome the drag of a high
weight high speed A/C
! How many engines - considerations - engine failures on T/O engine failures on long
stages and overwater; 2 short range, 3 medium range, 4 long range
! 1st generation 5 000lb thrust, present 20 000 - 45 000lb thrust
! Piston engines 2lb thrust/lb weight - Jet 4lb thrust/lb weight (and ! rapidly)
! Prop turbine is much more efficient for lower forward speeds
! SFC - lb fuel/lb thrust/hr this is still 2:1 in favour of the piston however jet A/C at higher
speed, larger pax capacity, larger aircraft so overall more economical
! Higher altitude = higher TAS = less fuel for distance when high altitude and fast cruise
! Overall Efficiency: Thermal and propulsive efficiency prop still better till M0.6 then jet
due to higher tip speeds on the props with compressibility losses (over ~M0.5)
! At higher Mnos M0.8 - M0.9 the lower jet velocities of high bypass and ducted fan
engines offer improved efficiencies
! Note: mechanical efficiency of turbine approaches 100% due to all rotating parts cf
reciprocating engine
! Cooling of turbine engine is also efficient
! Piston - maximum cruising power is ~50% of max available
! Jet - maximum cruising power is ~75% of max power available + simpler and much more
reliable, more than double the overhaul life of a piston engine
! First jets centrifugal - replaced by axial compressors due economy and reduced frontal
area
! Twin spool to handle higher pressure ratios without requirement for blade angle variations
! By Pass - mixing of hot and cold air flows to obtain higher thrust with higher turbine
temperature without increasing the jet velocity and decreasing the propulsive efficiency
! Fan Engine: Without mixing of hot and cold - intermediate between turbojet and
turboprop but by design does not suffer from compressibility effects of prop; now a higher
ratio of fan air to engine airflow
! Multi-spool: Much easier to start as only one spool to turn by the starter; more flexible &
efficient due to matching aerodynamics at part-load
! Jet - thrust~RPM (mass flow) and temperature (fuel/air ratio)
! Thrust lever is not proportional to thrust - large changes at high thrust settings ie. 1/4 inch
= 700lb thrust cf at lower thrust settings 1 inch = 700lb thrust
! Reverse idle on jet much less efficient than prop - need for full reverse for major effect ie.
jet idle = 1 000lb FWD thrust, Rev idle = -500lb thrust; as always there is a greater effect
at higher speeds so reverse ASAP on the ground
! Acceleration times: Efficiency of jet engine ! at high RPM-compressor at best conditions
! Acceleration is low (limited to prevent surge) then changes to very quick
! Time delay most important for approach and landing and overshoot - up to 8 sec may be
required to obtain the required thrust
! Absence of slipstream: Jet engine airstream not over the wings - only 2-3 kts decrease in
power on stall speeds for jet (due to the drawing of air over the wings by the jet efflux)
! During approach must keep up the speed and RPM and react early
! Only use drag systems early when reqd (Speedbrakes, early LG extension)consider pax
! Endurance:
! Need lowest SFC lb/hr = min thrust and minimum drag
! Fuel consumption decreases at higher altitude due to higher propulsive efficiency at
higher TAS and increased RPM necessary to maintain thrust (jet power falls off with
altitude)
So fly as high as possible at minimum thrust and minimum drag speed
! Range: Need higher SAR - specific air range air nm/gallon
! Tangent on the drag curve = highest IAS for least drag (least thrust)
! Typical jet 65% further at 40 000ft than at SL
! Generally, with ! alt, IAS, drag, fuel flow are constant but TAS !
! So fly higher dependant on the wind
! NAPs: Get as far away as possible and higher quickly; reduce power as quick as possible
! 1st segment: Steep as possible safely at full power (no reduced power T/O), V
2
/V
3
(at
high AUW), LG up, Flap T/o
! 2nd segment: Throttle back gently climb - when cleared noise sensitive area or at specific
height back to climb power, power for 2% gradient at ~ V
3
- LG up flaps at T/O
Then increase to climb power accelerate and clean up A/C
! Must know and be prepared for pitch attitudes for 1st and second segments
! After 2nd segment power up then increase IAS and flaps up at correct IASs
! If in doubt dont do procedure - ie turbulence or bad weather
! Approach noise is reduced by later selection of LG and flaps and no use of autothrottle
! Engine Locations: Considerations for engines on wing pods - engine failures on T/O
Operating rules permit V1 = V
MCG
but T/O probably better than abort at this speed
Could have V1<= V
MCG
x 1.05 but not warranted due to low probability
But if V1 = V
MCG
= NO FAT so be prepared
! Auto Ignition and Fuel Dippers:
! High incidence on some aeroplanes lead to disturbed flow (intake stall) around engine
leading to stall/surge (especially on rear mounted pod engines) so auto ignition at
particular angle of incidence sensed from stall warning sys (usually AoA vane)
! No provision for high sideslip disturbed flow
! Disturbed flow can also lead to an increase in EGT - so fuel dippers - rapidly decreases
fuel flow if TGT overtemp for ~ 5 sec goes to flight idle fuel flow; some types limited to a
lower fuel flow reduction
! Problems - dipper runaway on T/O maybe total loss of thrust so selected off for T/O and
landing if full trim type
! Fuel: JP1/JP4 may need to reset the FCU and contents gauge
! EDP inlet temperature of greater than 10 deg C avoids icing of the fuel filters
! EDP inlet temperatures of less than 90 deg C avoids pump cavitation and seal damage
! Tank temperatures of -40/-60 lead to solid lumps forming in the fuel tanks
! If fuel temps too low, may have to descend
! J1/JP4 has higher flash point than petrol
! Engine maybe full throttle engines lever fully forward gives prescribed max thrust (ie
limited to prevent overstress) - some are not
! Ingestion: Ran is OK but standing water and nose wheel wave can cause flameout
! Birds: Bad news- lots of little ones are worse - due to poss of multiple engine failures
! Ice: Anti-ice intakes when suspect icing T/O and landing do the figures for anti-ice
! For ice build-up, select engines on 1 at a time in case of flameout
! Relight envelope ALT/IAS usually windmills at 10-25% so fuel and ignition usually OK
Chapter 5: FLYING FASTER
5
! Low drag to allow high speed
! Wing Design: 7 main aspects. Hhigh speed, airfield performance, structural strength
1. Wing area: = C
L
#pV
2
S ie C
L
and S; too small = poor perf / too large = high drag
2. Aspect Ratio: Induced drag is inversely proportional to Aspect Ratio but need higher
structural strength to support a high aspect ratio. Ie ! AR but within reason
3. Sweep: Increasing sweep increases cruise Mach No due ! M
CRIT
& M
CDR
- reduced
chordwise vector but increasing sweep increases tip stalling tendency and pitch up and
poor oscilliatory stability (Dutch roll)
=> Increased Aspect Ratio and sweep results in a marked pitch up (stall) tendency
4. Taper Ratio: Ideally, root chord to tip chord 2.5 : 1 = elliptical loading. ! ratio = tip stall.
5. Section: Roof top- lift over most of chord. Peaky lift is higher over the leading edge
velocity falls in aft of chord to avoid supersonic probs- ! M
CRIT
& M
CDR
but ! drag at
lower speed
6. Twist and Chamber: Optimum distribution of lift across span. Washout to help reduce
tip stall, increase camber towards tip to allow higher CL
MAX
=> bal twist & camber for
lowest cruise drag against clean stall qualities.
7. Thickness/chord ratio: Structural need thick - strength and L/G fuel etc. Aerodynamics
need thin (to allow hi speed, less sweep required for given Mach)
! Speed margins: piston/prop - V
NO
/V
NE
/V
DF
- DF more demonstrated dive speed for
certification. A/C not likely to exceed these figures.
! Jet: V
MO
/M
MO
- maximum intentional speeds - normal strength/handling
o V
DF
/M
DF
-maximum demonstrated speeds reduced strength/handling
! Can easily exceed these figures
! Typical 380 V
DF
450 Mno 0.88 M
DF
0.95
! Note V
MO
= old V
NE
! Lift @ low speed: high speed wing produces less lift
eg sweep reduced chordwise vector decreases lift
! V
IMD
jet is much higher than V
IMD
piston eg piston V
IMD
approx 1.2 Vs - 1.3 Vs
jet V
IMD
approx 1.4 Vs - 1.6 Vs
! Jet drag curve is not as steep need V
IMD
can create a trap quietly slides back up drag curve
- lift increases more slowly and A/C sinks - so increase thrust quite a bit to recover
! High lift devices LE Flaps (Slats, Krueger flaps), trailing edge flaps => reduce stall speeds,
T/O & land speeds and distances
! Flap increases C
L
(camber) increases S (increased chord)
! Flap retraction - ensure satisfactory speed for clean configuration (else poss <V
IMD
&
near V
s
! Flap failures: Partial fail: any flap is good except asymmetric; higher attitude. Complete
fail: % weight, avoid low wx, large LDR, long flat final, caution tail strike, max use of
spoilers & reverse, 4Eng consider idling 2 for speed control
! Sweep: Sraight wing M
CRIT
approximately M0.7. M
CRIT
increased by thin wings and sweep
(decreases chordwise flow)
! Less lift at same incidence and IAS than straight wing so fly increased incidence
! C
Lmax
at much higher incidence so still safe
! Yawing effect increases roll more than straight wing as > movement of chordwise flow.
yaw markedly increases the effective aspect ratio of outboard wing decreases effective
aspect ratio of inboard wing
! Dutch Roll: Oscillatory stability - combination of rolling/yawing. Roll much more
noticeable - little pitch disturbance
! Initial yaw is trigger then measure roll (bank angle against time)
mean time to reach # amplitude = degrees of stability
! Dutch roll worse at increased altitude or weight and lower speed (generally)
! Lateral stabil: Affected by dihedral & sweep
! Directional stabil: Affected by fin size & rudder effectiveness
! Oscillating stability always in conflict with directional stabil. Larger fin = more damping
= less Dutch roll tendency when disturbed, but fin too large = poor spiral stabil
(directional or lateral) to damp roll/yaw motion
! Correct with ailerons only - take your time (roll easier to see)
! Most A/C only slightly oscillatory unstable or protected by devices
! Spiral Stability:
! Tendency for A/C in a coordinated turn to return to wings level an release of the ailerons
NOT lateral stability = tendency for the A/C to return to wings level from a sideslip
when the ailerons released
! Spiral stabil % with $ fin area (opposite to dutch roll) so must accept a compromise
! As with dutch roll use the yaw damper to feedback to rudder so always need aileron to
maintain a turn - penalty s that must hold the aileron in the turn
! Spiral stability measured by the time taken to bank angle by #
! Most jet A/C are neutral
! Yaw and Roll Dampers
! The cause is wing sweep and lack of effective fin/rudder area
! If significant dutch roll - need yaw damper to prevent slip building up
! Yaw damper is a gyro system sensitive to changes in yaw and feeds input to rudder to
counteract the yaw
! Can have 1/2/3 yaw dampers depending on how oscillatory unstable the A/C is
! 2 Types - parallel the pilot feels the yaw through the pedals - off for T/O and landing
o Series inputs direct to the rudders and the pilot feels nothing so OK to have
selected on for T/O and landing
! Roll dampers - can control dutch roll through ailerons, but more likely fitted for roll
damping in turbulence. Not normally required.
! Directional and Lateral trim:
! Trim the rudder first to maintain heading then the aileron - then autopilot on - then if the
auto pilot drops out there will be no transients. Check that a constant heading has been
maintained
! Recommended to have copilot wind out the rudder trim on an asymmetric approaches so
in trim for the thrust reduction on the runway
! Stalling:
! Need to know the warnings, identification and survival capabilities
! Warning - buffet/stick shaker at ~ 10% above the EAS for the stall; shaker added if
buffet is insufficient warning
! Identification - something the pilot cannot miss/ stick pushers for the deep stall
aeroplanes
! Stall qualities - older aeroplanes had a requirement for a nose drop at the stall ie a
natural stall recovery
! Piston transport - good buffet warning and straight nose drop
7
! Turboprop - stick shakers and roll tendency with power on (slipstream)
! 1st generation Jets stall buffet and nose drop
! 2nd generation Jets - not good - devices needed for warning and qualities( this includes
highly developed wings or rear engines or T tails)- some pitch up, so need stability
augmentation (pushers)
! Super stall - rear fuselage engines with high T tail
o Different pitching tendency as the stall develops 1) pitches up, 2) loss of tailplane
effectiveness at the stall (normal A/C has a increased tailplane effect as the
tailplane is moved into clean air at the stall) these A/C have a pitch up at the stall,
the tailplane moves into the wings wake losing the capability to pitch down( the
incidence remains negative though may slowly pitch down)
o Wing section changes to a leading edge peaky pressure distribution due to
increased suction at the nose
o Sweep reduces the lift capability outboard and tips stall first = pitch up
so camber and twist and wing fences and leading edge breaker strips
o Fuselage also cause pitch up tendency
o Can have very flat attitude, but negative AoA due to high ROD
o Recovery - full forward elevator and hold it in and flaps at recommended position,
steep nose down and rapidly increasing IAS, most of these A/C have stick shaker
and stick pusher
! Factors affecting the stall:
! Wing always stalls at the same incidence - stall occurs at a relatively constant EAS but
IAS $ at higher altitude due to compressibility and instrument and PE with $ altitude
! Also stall EAS increase slightly due to Mach effect on wing
! Stall speed varies with effective weight ie. g 63 deg coordinated turn = 2.25 g = 50%
increase in stall speed (!G = stall increase factor)
! Stick shakers:
! For warning could be tactile aural or visual
! Stick knockers added sometimes for aural
! Sensors measure incidence. Can be stagnation point vane, px differential or incidence
sensing vane; Motor with out of balance weight bolted to the column, 10-30 cps so its
unmistakable not like turbulence.
! Sick Pushers:
! Statistics - failing to operate when reqd 1 in 10 mil, operating when not reqd 1 in 10 mil
! Clear ID of stall by sharp nose down of column and adequate nose down pitch by A/C
! Never operates prior to A/C reaching C
L
max
! 80lb push - not high enough to prevent rotation.
! Some cutout above 250 knots as runaway will exceed max G of A/C
! Exerts a force not a specific elevator angle
! Designs - autoignition, stick shaker, stick pusher all sense incidence , some A/C combine
one sensor on 2 sides of the fuselage also senses rate of change of incidence. Biased to not
push when reqd vice push when not reqd (2 sensors per side; failure light = system inop)
! Speed Stability:
! Behaviour of A/C speed after a speed disturbance ie stable = increase speed = increase
drag = decrease speed
! Note: Jet much flatter drag curve 1.3V
S
slower than V
IMD
(sometimes) ie. speed decrease =
drag increase = speed decrease "back end of the drag curve
! Also - piston /prop power is constant with small speed changes, but jet thrust is constant.
! So jet has poorer speed stability than Piston/Prop due to
1) drag curve - approach speeds in the neutral unstable region
2) No stabilising thrust changes with speed
! Must monitor IAS and trends carefully
! So future - speed stability augmentation/ Auto throttle
! Spoilers: Provide up to # rolling power
! 6 Reasons (4 roll, 2 lift):
1. Size: as much wing area as possible needed for the flaps
2. Twist: large ailerons on thin wings twists the wings too much = aileron reversal
3. Effectiveness: ailerons loose effectiveness at high Mnos and cause increase yaw
4. Roll with yaw: swept wing = large roll with yaw so need increase aileron control
5. Drag: need high drag devices anyway
6. Runway: need to dump lift after landing
! Roll control - spoilers open on up aileron increasing the drag and decreasing the lift =
wing drops
! When already extended as speedbrakes; Non-differential spoilers - extend on one side
but dont retract on the other for rolls; Differential spoilers extend on one side and
partially retract on the other for roll
! Blowback: Partial retraction under hi load/speed
! Failures: OK if asymmetric. Usually fitted in pairs, so may only lose # usage. Use
appropriate crosswind runway
! Jet Upset:
! High M (usually >M
MO
& near M
DF
), spoiler blowback. Also ailerons poor due twist/M
effect " little/no roll control
! Sideslip control reversal = yaw left, roll right as wing advances into compressibility effect
& drag rises, but now zero roll control to correct!
! Can result in high nose down att & hi bank " MUST slow down
! Fixes: Restrict spoiler max angle to below blowback angle or reduce M
MO
/M
DF
to provide
compressibility margin
Chapter 6: FLYING HIGHER
! High mach number stability:
! Shock wave: Upsets lift distribution chordwise and causes a rearward shift of centre of lift
! Swept wing: shock wave at (thick) root end first - loss of lift forward
! Loss of downwash over tail
! Mach Tuck: So pitch nose down and becomes unstable as mach number increases
! As mach number increases through M0.85 need to hold back stick rather than forward
! On some a/c, stabil returns briefly as lower shockwave moves aft to align with upper s/w
! Directional Controllability: Reverse rolling moment due to side slip ie. right udder causes
left wing acceleration into compressibility = reduced lift
! Lateral Directional: Reduced aileron effect at high mach numbers $control forces, jack
stalling, spoiler blowback
! Longitudinal Directional: Reduced elevator effectiveness for given deflection angle
9
! Mach meter position error - M
M0
to M
DF
large errors - most air data computers (ACDS) ensure
an over-reading Mach meter at M
MO
to M
DF
! Note: leave the rudder alone at high Mach numbers Avoid flight above M
MO
! Mach trimmers: Stability augmentation @ high Mach numbers -compensates for
longitudinal instability
! Dependant on MNo feeds signal to elevator so stability remains positive
! Result is stable a/c up to M
DF
ie. needs increasing push force as MNo increases
! Only operate above normal max cruise MNo (most times)
! U/S trimmer - keep your speed below MMO
! Trimmer runaway - approved drill
! Always monitor activity of the trimmer in normal flight
! Emergency Descent:
! Fly high less O
2
and cabin pressure 43 000ft = 15 seconds consciousness on average
! Must initiate descent immediately
! Dont trim fully otherwise there will be a too higher pull force coming out
! NB: Safety altitude may be above 10 000ft (use 15 000ft generally)
! May want to descend LG up so highest ROD at high altitude without requirement to
slow down for LG extension
! 1 pilot descend, 1 pilot gets on O
2
then hand over
! High Drag Devices
! No increase in drag when flight idle - difficult to slow down/descend quickly
! Devices for: rapid descent; approach; after landing and abort
! Devices: spoilers and LG; reverse thrust; parachute; flap beyond the landing
configuration
! Spoilers - OK up to M
DF
/V
DF
but they do blow back, no stall quality changes (but does
$stall speed), no pitch changes (or small pitch up); Generally dont use with flap high
sink rate, buffet
! LG - take care on the extension and the retraction = different speed limitations
! Flaps - keep thrust and speed up - dont take thrust out too early
! Flapless - drag very low - use two engines symmetric power and other two at flight idle -
easier to control IAS
! High Altitude: Four penalties
1. Reduced Damping: #pV
2
(=q)+ area + incidence; at constant q as altitude increases
velocity increases reducing the incidence therefore decreased damping.
2. Reduced Stability - Spiral stability (which opposes oscillatory stability) improves with
increased altitude and oscillatory stability decreases with increased altitude
! Be gentle with aeroplane at high altitude - control it smoothly
! 5 stability modes:
! Stick-free long stabil (pitch)
! Stick-free lateral stabil (roll)
! Directional stabil (yaw)
! Spiral stabil (spiral dive recovery tendency)
! Oscilliatory stabil (Dutch roll tendency)
3. Restricted Maneuver - buffet speeds increase with g decreasing the maneuver margins
especially above F300; as Mno reduces the VMO/VDF values. Also manoeuvre ceiling
reduces with g due to reduced VMO/VDF values
! eg. light weight 1 g manoeuvre ceiling F500
! heavy weight 2 g manoeuvre ceiling F300
4. Reduced Speed range - stall speed increases with altitude + V
MO
/V
DF
decreases above
F300 due to M
MO
/M
DF
constant limits
! Stall speed increases with weight also
! Permitted speed range can be ~200kts at low altitude &
50kt at high altitude
! Aural high speed warning at VMO + ~10kt and MMO
+ ~0.01M
Chapter 7: T/O and LANDING
! Approach: 6 aspects make a jet approach more difficult than prop.
1. No prop slipstream for immediate lift
2. Higher power on stall speeds due to no prop slipstream
3. Increased momentum of large A/C (no sudden flight path " possible; much power & time
reqd to fix a problem)
4. Poor jet acceleration response
5. Decreased speed stability at low speed
6. Drag increasing faster than lift producing high sink rates: High sink rates close to the
ground rely on thrust only dont rotate A/C this drives the main LG on harder in large
A/C.
"So on very first tendency of IAS decreasing or sink you should increase thrust and possibly
incidence to stop it
! An apparently normal attitude may be causing large sink rates
! Remember bad approach = Bad landing
! Wind Gradients:
! Shear effects due to terrain and obstructions; so fly approach at higher speeds ie add #
windspeed to approach speeds up to 15kt normally
! Gusts - add # the gust value to approach speed - extreme conditions may add ~20kt total
! Glideslope:
! Optimum is 2.5 - 3.0 degrees 700-800 ft/min for 140-150kt approach so remember
700ft/min or use 5 x your GS
! Avoid steep and shallow approaches
! If no G/S guidance - your projected flight path must be closely monitored
! Use DME if possible 300ft/nm and ROD = 5 x GS
! Roll freedom on the ground:
! Ground clearance of the wing is much less - engine pods/less dihedral/extended flaps,
$Attitude due $AoA with swept wing
! Also swept wing roll hard with yaw
! So for crosswind T/O aileron in early - regardless of whether you think its necessary;
throughout the rotation keep the wings level; landing dont get too active on the ailerons
too close to the ground; push off the drift angle rather than kick it off (smoothly feed in
rudder and aileron)
! May have to hold in aileron until very slow on ground
! Care not to overcontrol in flare if engine out
! High Ground Speeds
11
! 140kts = 233 ft/sec - so rehearse the abort drill prior to T/O - keep it straight on landing
and persist with reverse and modulate the braking until very slow ie taxi speed
! Tyres are also speed limited
! Brake temperatures: Heavy weight abort; may be close to 900 deg C; just taxiing raises
the temperature possibly sufficient to compromise the abort performance - possibly
welded on
! Always adhere to the brake cooling procedures
! Fusible plugs fitted to the rims deflate the tyre prior to its bursting
! Plugs only work due to over pressures from excessive braking not due to excessive
carcass temperatures as in prolonged high weight taxi
! Following abort use only light brake pressure only
! Following landing - chock as soon as possible and release the brakes
! Known hot brakes = after T/O leave LG down for up to 20min to cool
o After landing: If excessive, evac a/c & prepare for brake fire
o If not excessive, slow taxi, chock a/c
o Rejected T/O: Hold in suitable location for rec cooling time before next T/O
! Mishandled Rotations
! Need to rotate correctly or may not leave the ground - ground stall
! T/O distance greatly influence by the rotation speed, rotation rate, and the rotate attitude
! Early high rotations cause increased drag and increased ground run
! Late low rotations cause increased ground runs
! Some A/C all engine T/O can be more limiting than the engine out T/O for obstacles due
to increased IAS
! No snatch rotations - V
R
to V
LOF
to V
3
etc
! Heavy weight = slower rotation rate not different attitude
! Reverse Thrust
! Reverse flow path is ~45 degrees from ahead and ~ 50% efficiency loss
! Reverse in flight - OK but buffet
! Problems in crosswind landing/abort - go to idle reverse and use asymmetric braking
! Use reverse thrust ASAP on landing as more efficient at the higher IASs
! Must hold the A/C on the runway
! Unlike the propeller where idle reverse = 60% of full reverse, jets have no good reverse
until full reverse - so dont cancel it too early - leave it until 100% certain
! ~50kt in headwind engine exhaust towards the intake and visibility problems
! Abort at V1 need to go to full reverse ASAP and held to a complete stop
! Engine out case - maximum symmetrical full reverse then the other if held on the rudder
and the nose wheel steering- if need asymmetric braking idle reverse asymmetric engine
! Aquaplaning
! Complete dynamic aquaplaning = icy runway
! Dynamic - standing water lifts tyre off the runway - 9"p
! Viscous - thin film water (damp runway) and smooth surface eg. rubber deposits - well
below 9"p (7.7"p)
! Rubber reversion - skid and water = steam = reverted rubber delaying water dispersal
! All three types can occur in one landing run
! Tandem bogies tend to reduce the aquaplaning hazard of the rear wheels
! Very slippery runway require 25 - 50 % increased landing distance
! Once aquaplaning has commenced can be sustained to much lower speeds in much less
water
! Crosswind presents a greater hazard due to less water runoff especially greater than 10 kt
o Know the condition of the tyres and know your aquaplaning speeds
o Know the criticality of the approach - is the landing distance suitable for the water
condition, landing weight cf the threshold speed, heavy precipitation only lasts 15-
20 minutes - delay the landing
o Approach as per a normal landing
o Threshold = last chance if I aquaplane will I stop - No - GO AROUND
o Firmly on the ground - forward column max reverse ASAP, must keep flying the
aeroplane with aileron and rudder
! All aquaplaning is avoidable - hold or divert if the Aquaplaning is not acceptable
! Slush (very important consideration)
! Drag on undercarriage = #pV
2
- impact damage and engine malfunction, decreased
acceleration and braking, decreased controllability of the nosewheel and greater difficulty
in differential braking
! T/O DIST use the FLTMAN corrections
! If not in the FLTMAN increase T/O distance by 30-50%
! Slush is not accounted for in the refusal charts with engine inoperative
! So an attempt to stop at V1 = overrun the runway
! So an attempt to continue the T/O at V1 may significantly increase the T/O distance
! Dont T/O if greater than 12.5mm of slush
! With less than 12.5mm of slush V
1
wet = V
1
dry - 10 kt, if runway length sufficient for the
increased T/O distances
! Generally - avoid crosswind, must keep the A/C straight on T/O and Landing and have
ignition override ON, Use maximum power for the T/O, max flap to min T/O roll
! Scheduling T/O Performance
! Types of certification: Unclassified; CAR 4(b) (old US), BCAR & SR422(B) (modern UK
& US specs)
! T/O run and distance use +15% or 0% with engine failure at V
1
! Refusal distance use +10% if have reverse thrust tables
! Most pistons have V
2
= 115% V
S
or 110% V
MCA
! For jets as no slipstream over wing V
2
= 120% Vs
! V
R
= 1.05 V
MCA
OR 1.10 V
S
OR 1.10 V
MU
(poss 1.05 V
MU
type dependent) OR a V
R
which
allows 1.1 V
MCA
or 1.2 V
MS1
ie V
2
at 35 ft with one engine inoperative
o Wet V1 = 15ft screen ht, but still hit V2 at 35ft
o Must be able to rotate 5kts early without detriment to perf
! Jets more sensitive than prop so must attain the speeds
o Eg. if V
2
+ 10kt = 15% greater than the T/O run and distance - no real margin
! Reduced Thrust T/O - to save the turbines
! When not limited by: T/O length, 1Inop climb gradients, 1Inop out obstacle clearance
! Reduce the T/O thrust so that one of the above is the most limiting
! Generally - not reduced more than 10 % all requirements met with reduced power,
warnings not compromised, must have T/O thrust available, not used for free standing
water, ice, slush or snow
! Although the performance may be satisfactory with engine out in the event of a problem
restore maximum power
! Method -ensure a higher temperature than the OAT such that actual weight = the regulated
13
T/O weight ie maximum weight for T/O at this temperature. Use this thrust for
calculations.
! Less risk due to enhanced engine reliability
! Should not be used to increase the overhaul life only to improve the reliability
! Landing Performance
! At 1.3Vs from 50 ft till stop
! For propeller A/C wet runway OK since large margin applied to dry runway
! Wet runway: UK ref landing dist gives adjustment; US = 15% allowance
! Reverse thrust U/S: Old CAR/SR rule was LDR x 1.66; now, margin is 1.11 (all engs) or
1.08 (1inop)
! Propeller limited reverse thrust only if the asymmetric handling is suitable
! UK - use 1.3V
S
+ 15 kt from 30 ft wet runway - all engine and one engine inoperative
! Jets have V
ATO
and V
TMAX
usually V
ATO
+ 15 kt if not < V
ATO
+ 15 kt on late approach - try
again
! Dont float - put it down firmly on the runway OR try again
! Piston - landing = 167% of engine out or no reverse thrust distance
! 67% caters for wet runways and increased threshold speeds
! Stopway can be used for accelerate -stop distance
! Clearway can be used for /O performance calculations
! T/O Technique
! Know exactly what youll do for the abort and malfunction after V
1
and for a normal T/O
! V
3
= all engine screen speed approx V
2
+10 kt
! V
4
= first segment noise abatement pitch attitude - then turn
! Turns at 15 - 20 degrees AOB
! At the noise abatement altitude reduce power and attitude - dont descend and maintain
2nd noise abatement speed
! At next altitude reapply climb power and clean up at flap raising speeds - watch the VSI
dont descend
! Monitor flaps until UP and climb at en-route climb speed - trim
! Turbulent T/O - increase speeds slightly and aim to have flaps up near their maximum
speed - obtain the rough air speed then continue the climb
! Heavy Rain - auto ignition on
! Icing - thrust loss due to de-ice
! Abort - power off, brakes, spoilers, reverse thrust - keep straight with rudder
! After V
1
- keep straight - V
R
- V
2
maintain V
2
accurately
! Landing
! For good landing, need good app - try 700 ft/min and use early and gentle corrections
! Dont duck under G/S on the ILS final on visual use the 1000 ft markers as the aimpoint
! Flare - idle - push off the drift - land stick forward, spoilers, reverse, brakes and keep
level and straight
! Overshoot - accurate pitch attitudes are essential- flaps to T/O prior to LG up
o Poss VSI errors initially - ignore
! Contaminated runway
! Rolling coefficient of friction is higher than sliding coefficient of friction
! On wet surfaces braking coefficients fall off markedly with increasing speeds
! Can always delay the T/O or landing or divert; Dont be afraid to abort OR go round
Chapter 8: SEVERE WEATHER
! Design gust value 66 ft/sec vertically at V
RA
, 50ft/sec at cruise speed, 25 ft/sec at dive speed
! Derived from WWII Vg recorder results and flight recorders support these gust envelopes
! Design gust envelope is fine - rough air speeds may need adjustments in future
! Need stability, control and strength
! Rough Air speed - between minimum speed for 66ft/sec TAS gust and not stall and the
maximum speed for 66ft/sec TAS gust and not break
! Note. maximum altitude in the gust is affected by weight so heavy weight maximum altitude
is lower as is the level of protection
! Types of Severe Weather
! Heavy Rain
o Under violent thunderstorms could cause flameout; normal rain not significant -
except for ice and visibility
o Hail - radar does not see dry hail, frequently under anvil; four cases every 12
months of severe damage by hail - quickest way is straight through - do not turn.
o Lightning - mostly within 5000 ft (+- 5deg of FZL) of the Freezing Level- turn up
the lighting remember that this may affect the compass
o Static - St Elmos fire - can completely upset MF/HF and VHF to some extent
o Ice - cloud or rain below 0deg C (& down to -40deg, though mostly above -30deg)
Use anti-ice - worst climbing through rain to above the Freezing Level - hand fly
if possible
! If ice buildup occurs, switch on 1 engine at a time in case of flameout
! Turbulence
o CAT - from wind shear from jet streams (worst polar side & at/below core),
change track or lower altitude
o Convective - (storm) - gusts of 10 000ft/min recorded, dont climb above as the
turbulence is less at lower levels unless terrain; Dont T/O or land with convective
turbulence due storm - delay/cancel/divert. Typical cell life 1hr.
o Orographic - complete upward and downward movement of a large mass of air
over a large area - Sierra Nevada/Andes
! Autopilot
! Types: torque limited, long-stop torque cut-out, torque cut-out & limit switch cut-out
! Flight at rough air speed straight and level
! Most autopilots better than pilots but be ready to take over if drops out
! Let the autopilot fly attitude only with no other locks (height, speed etc) and monitor the
autotrim
! Instruments
! Local pressure field variation errors to 1000ft (in heavy rain) - ALT/VSI
! ASI - in heavy rain this may under read, so hold power and attitude
! Compass - can remain affected for entire flight after lightning
! AI - usually OK this is the best instrument to trust
! Always ignore the roll pointers initially and establish roll attitude using reference
aeroplane and horizon
! Believe your eyes on the horizon
! Use the instruments only, as you cant fly by seat of your pants in turbulence
15
! Radar
! For weather avoidance only not penetration
! Radar does not see dry hail and there is no difference between wet hail and rain
! Avoid echoes by 15nm at reduced airspeed and 20 nm when above F300
! Avoid especially the scalloped edges or hooked fingers
! Flight Techniques
! No T/O or landings in severe turbulence
! Flight Plan around predicted areas
! Avoid turbulence airborne
! If committed to weather fly correct technique (can turn back)
o Harness on, strap in the PAX and the cabin staff
o Dont climb over the storm
o Check your terrain clearance ; use the weather radar; believe and use the flight
instruments; use the deicing; turn off the static radios; full flight deck lights; fly at
rough air speed and use the correct power; autopilot on but with no locks
! Be prepared for it
! Fly attitude at rough air speed dont chase with power; Leave pitch trim alone
! Spin - high rate of turn + fairly low airspeed - hard opposite rudder, forward column and
centre the ailerons
! Spiral Dive - high rate of turn and rapidly increasing airspeed - use the ailerons
Chapter 9: THE VERY BIG JET - ~700 000LB (B747)
! Can demonstrate 0.97 True Mno and no requirement for Mach trimmers or yaw dampers
! Low workload and good stability and control especially for T/O and landing
! Initially difficult to judge clearance on final and at flare height due to higher pilots eye level
! Easy to fly, light to handle, responsive and manoeuvrable
! Dimensions ~200 ft wide, 230ft long, 32/63high 36 ft wheel clearance and 90 ft to rear
LG
! MTOW 710 000 lb MLW 564 000lb C of G 15-32% MAC
! V
MO
330 kt below 8 000ft for birds and the windscreen
! V
RA
- rough airspeed = 280 kt APS weight (no crew, fuel or payload) 360 000 lb
! Fuel weight max 315 000 lb LG 270 kt extension, 320 kt max
! V
2
133-170 kt, V
ATO
118-148 kt max 45 000 ft LCN 77.5/83.0 flexible
! Flight Deck
! Horizontal glareshield for a horizontal reference
! Reference eye position indicator - to ensure adequate downwards vision on approach
! Instrument panel 16 deg canted from vertical
! Flight Controls
! Fully hydraulic, LE flaps pneumatic - all have alternate power
! LG hydraulic with free fall backup
! Four hydraulic systems each has EDP and ADP (air driven pump- off engine bleed air)
loss of engine dose not equal loss of hydraulic still have ADP off bleed air from the
other engines
! Single Failures and double failures leave A/C symmetrical control
! Two and three systems primary flight controls - double asymmetric - full rudder control
available
! If one system fails for double supply decreases the rate of control change by 20-30%
! Landing gear retraction - body gear or wing gear stays down there is no backup for this
! All engine out no ADP but EDPs sufficient if windmilling above 1.3Vs/160 kt
! Pitch - 4 elevators (1 or 2 ), and stabilisers (3 hydraulic)/ roll 4 ailerons (1 or 2 )and 10
spoilers (3 hydraulic)
! Yaw - 2 rudders (2 each)
! Gear body (1) wing (1)
! 2 Training Edge Flaps (1 + electric)
! Flying Qualities. Performance- still gives 4% gradient 2nd segment at MTOW
! Handling - Stability
! No significant dutch roll
! Yaw dampers not mandatory for flight
! High roll rates
! Increased spiral stability low and slow
! Manoeuvre - 75 lb/g/ no Mach Trimmers needed
! Longitudinal stability near stall - need nudger augmenter weight near stall
! Controllability
! Large surfaces (fin and stabiliser ) large and powerful controls - light and precise and
fast response
! Directional Control
! Turn coordinator system applies proportional rudder to coordinate turn and applies
adverse aileron yaw - this works at flaps greater than 1 degrees with yaw dampers on -
inoperative at high IAS flaps up
! V
MCG
118 kt, V
MCG2
142 kt, V
MCA1
102 kt, V
MCA2
137 kt max rudder force ~70lb
o (V
MCG
is $ than V
MCA
due to longer moment arm rudder-LG versus rudder-CoG)
! Rudder ratio changer system - reduces the maximum rudder angle as a function of IAS
! Lateral Control
! Max wheel force ~ 15 lb light forces with good roll rates
! Roll rates from 30 deg L/R to 30 deg R/L full wheel no rudder is ~ 4.5 seconds and 8.3
seconds with 2 and 3 hydraulic systems US
! Longitudinal control
! Light and effective and low break out forces = precise attitude changes
! Aircraft pitches nose up at ~0.94 T
MNO
! Therefore no Mach Trimmers needed
! Stab effective @all speeds no jack stall problems
! Trim
! Short blips for stabiliser trim - stabiliser wheel may not move but it works - confirmed by
the stick forces reducing
! Lateral trim rarely needed
! Two engine out enroute still need 2-3 degrees AOB to aid directional control
! Stall
17
! Good - flaps 1 degree = TE flaps at 1 degree LE flaps 1/2 down
! 5 degrees = TE flaps at 5 degrees LE flaps all down
! Then 10deg, 20 deg, 25 deg, 30 deg
! LG has no effect on stall
! Warning by natural buffet and stick shaker then straight nose drop (with flaps down only)
! Flaps up - lots of warning but no nose drop stabil maintained by nudger/pusher
! Pitch change remains level but recovery very simple
! V
S
at 710 000 lb flaps up is 193 kt V
S
landing 110-92 kt
! T/O and Landing
! Stick Forces to rotate is light - so a snatch could cause a tail strike
! Rotate to 9 degrees
! Pilot is a long way off the ground when main gear leaves
! Climb at V2 +10 kt and follow the flap retraction sequence
! V
2
+ 20 flaps to 10, V
2
+40 flaps to 5, V
2
+ 60 flaps to 1 degrees, V
2
+ 80 flaps up.
! ~6 deg NU on downwind a little strange for most pilots
! Speed an approach is easy to maintain within 1 kt but it is easy to get too low close in
! Judgement of flare height is difficult
! Threshold clearance - a lot of A/C is beneath and behind
! 1000 ft aimpoint for a 747 gives at touchdown at 60 ft in and 2.5 ft wheel clearance at the
threshold and 44 ft pilots eye height
! So to meet perf implication of the 30 ft screen height - aimpoint should be 1 600ft
! Aimpoint
! Day no Vasis - use the 3rd touchdown mark (1500ft markers)
! Night no Vasis - use the 8th light in
! Vasis use between the second and third Vasis
! ILS will also give adequate LG clearance
! Final Checks
! Use the radio height - 100/50/30 ft calls on the aeroplane computer voice -or copilot
! At 50ft the threshold should be disappearing under the nose
! Note: if below a 3 degree approach path (eg flapless 2 deg) then 1 600 ft aimpoint is not
sufficient and must use something greater than 1 600 ft
! ILS
! Threshold crossing height at 50 ft aerial on the 747 on the nose gear doors so cross the
threshold at a pilots eye height of 72 ft, aerial 50 ft, wheels clearance 36 ft
! Start flare at wheel radio height of 50 ft as in the autoland to increase the clearance at the
threshold
! Flare and Landing
! At 50 ft RH one small flare on the elevator
! At 30 ft RH idle slowly and resist any nose down pitch change
! Maintain attitude power off by 10 ft
! Set up the flight path and wait for the aeroplane to touch down
! Spoilers extend automatically when on the ground, lower the nose, pull reverse and gentle
braking
! Difficult to judge GS since high so make use of the INS GS, and make fast turnoffs at 25
kt, then slow to 12 kt
! Body Gear Steering System - body gear turns opposite direction to nose wheel steering
! Dont let the nosewheel steering skid otherwise A/C travels bodily sideways the wrong
way due to body steering
! Crosswind landing - while waiting for the aircraft to land push off the drift with rudder
! Full reverse to 90 kt then reducing to not above 50% N1 below 50kt
! Note: for T/O and approach takes approx 30 seconds from 1 deg to 5 deg flap
! Abnormal/Double Failures
! No real problems - minimum asymmetric control speed for the go-round is 142 kt
! Can still achieve 200 ft/min ROC double asymmetric at 10-20 deg flap at 470 000lb
! Comfortable go-round from min 300 ft
! If above 470 000 lb OK since can achieve a cleaner configuration in 200 ft altitude loss
! Two in reverse on the runway is fine in dry conditions
! Partial Flap
! Fly approach V
REF
+ 20 for or V
REF
+ 40 for double flap failure
! May have to disable the stick shaker
! Hydraulic Failures
! #1, #2 systems out gives 1/2 pitch control V
REF
+ 20 kt is good
! Side Window Landings - Use the left hand edge of the runway to line up on approach
! Miscellaneous Items
! Buffet boundaries - most limiting is at high weights and high altitudes
! Half main gear retracted landings - can land with 2 wing gear and 1 body gear but not 2
body and 1 wing gear since the wing LG is in front of the body LG - minimum weight,
maintain lateral conrol
! Can land no wing gear (ie retract the serviceable wing gear)
! Can land body gear only also
! Special Systems
! Attitude Warning - set to operate at 11 deg body angle at low rate of pitch change and 6
deg body angle at high rates of pitch change (>7deg/sec) and to stop tail strike at 13 deg
body angle
! Throttle Bar - to prevent rapid reversals at high altitudes raises idle setting
! Flap loading relief - limits the maximum speed for 30 deg flap, flaps dont run below 25
deg until below 170 kt regardless of the flap lever, Flaps raise from 30 to 25 deg when
IAS above 170 kt regardless of the flap lever
! Workload
! Command / lookout / flight path control / engineering / navigation / communication
! Command, lookout, and comms are the same in any aircraft, the rest are very easy 747
! Ferry
! 2 engine out V
MCG
suitable for 3 engine ferry T/O
! Full thrust on the 3rd engine by 110 kt MTOW 560 000lb
! Fifth Pod Ferry between fuselage and #2 approved
! Autopilot
! 3 autopilots and 3 INSs - altitude hold, altitude select, vertical speed hold, airspeed hold,
Glideslope hold, autoland, heading select and navaid tracking, and autothrottle
! Windmill Start - above 280 kt. Need pneumatic starter assist below 280 kt
! Emergency Descent
! Power off, brakes out, M
NO
/V
MO
this allows decreased exposure at high altitude
! Wait for LG down technique results in 8 000 ft higher in the first minute of high level
high rate descent
! Well above 30 000 ft will be below LG limit speed for the cruise so can use landing gear
19
immediately
! At 30 000 ft do not wait for LG speeds descend immediately
! Suggestion - if 280 kt then slow to 270 kt for LG, if cruising above 280 kt descend
immediately do not wait for LG speeds
! Training - easy even simulated 2 engine out (idle)
! Summary:
! Taxi slowly, Dont tail strike on T/O, Allow plenty of clearance for approach and landing
! Use the 1600 ft mark as aimpoint and never get low
Chapter 10: ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT
! Ferry (engine out)
! No passengers, distance for T/O = distance for four engines x 1.15 for engine out 35 ft
! US FAR - two engine need 1.2 % gross, dry runway only, minimum weight
! UK - V
R
> 1.03 V
MCA2
, V2 > 1.07 V
MCA2
, VR > V
MCG2
, distance x 1.18 (35 ft) ie BCAR
considers the additional engine failure, US FAR does not.
! Considerations for Engine Out Ferry T/O
! Consider effect on services and systems of a further engine failure
! Minimum T/O weight
! Reduced flap settings for T/O to improve directional control
! V
MCG2
versus max tyre speed
! V
1
> V
MCG
! The T/O
! Symmetrical engines at full power and third engine brought up to full power
progressively
! Nose held forward so there is pressure on the nosewheel
! Although tiller control is abandoned early its still making a contribution so need increased
rudder as the aircraft leaves the ground
! Engine failure on T/O need 5 deg for the double asymmetric case
! Worst case - re-land is better than loss of directional control = V
MC
! Asymmetric Training
! Go round OK anytime at or above 142 kt
! If no climb potential need a commit point say 200 ft
! Dry runway asymmetric reverse is OK
! Wet runway use the inner power only initially
! Can always use higher power on inboard engines for approach OR use second engine
symmetric with 3rd at idle
Chapter 11: CONCLUSION
! To Pilots
! Use determination, prudence, and confidence
! Fly the aircraft dont let the aircraft fly you
! Keep escape routes open at all times and never hesitate to use them
! Know your aeroplane - the qualities more than the systems
! Know: The control capability after failures
o V
DF
/ M
DF
o Yaw damping considerations
o Stalling characteristics
o Roll rates qualities
o High mach manoeuvre limits
o Brake cooling periods
o Asymmetric reverse thrust capability
o Aquaplaning speeds
o Baulked landing qualities
o Limitations of the autopilot
o Instrument limitations particularly the AI
! Be professional - keep proficient at hand flying (and at high altitude)
! Do visual approaches and raw ILSs
! Must stay enthusiastic = prevents laziness = protection
! To Training Captains
! Have a complete fully qualified crew on board the A/C
! Use good simple, unambiguous procedures - ensure the correct application
! Ensure pilots can fly the aeroplane not only operate it
21