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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4

Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif


The study of DC generator

Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy

Principle:
Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.
Production of Induced emf:
Emf is induced in a coil when we have,
Magnetic flux
Flux linkage
Change of flux
Production of magnetic field:
Magnetic field can be produced by,
Permanent magnet
Electromagnet

The production of magnetic field by permanent magnet is not a useful way as it is not
flexible, because they cannot control the magnitude of magnetic field. The production
of magnetic field in an electromagnet is flexible as we can change the magnetic field
by the change of current.
The direction of magnetic field can be found by right hand grip rule.
The direction of magnetic field can be changed by two ways.
Changing the direction of current
Changing the sense of windings
Flux linkage:
Flux linkages means that the magnetic lines of force produced in the field coil must
be cutting the conductor. Flux linkage can be achieved when,
The flux linkage can be achieved when the coil lie close to the magnet.
The magnetic axis and the coil axis must be coincident.
Change of magnetic flux.
Change of magnetic field can be produced by two ways.
Relative motion between the coil and the magnet:
Change of magnetic flux in a coil can be introduced by the relative motion between
the coil and the magnet. This relative motion may be linear or rotary. This type of emf
induced is known as dynamically induced emf
Changing current:
The change of magnetic flux can be introduced in the coil by changing the current in
the field coil. The type of emf induced is known as statically induced emf.
Basics
Generator action: An emf (voltage) is induced in a conductor if it moves
through a magnetic field.
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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Motor action: A force is induced in a conductor that has a current going
through it and placed in a magnetic field
Any DC machine can act either as a generator or as a motor.


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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif



Parts of generator




Main parts of the DC generator are
Magnetic Frame or Yoke
Pole-cores and Pole-shoes
Pole Coils or Field Coils
Armature Core
Armature windings or Conductors
Commutator
Brushes and Bearings








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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
DC Motor Stator Construction:
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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

Yoke:

The outer frame or yoke serves double purpose:
It provides mechanical support for the poles and acts as a protecting cover for the
whole machine
It carries the magnetic flux produced by the poles.

In small generators where cheapness rather than weight is the main consideration, yokes
are made of cast iron. But for large machines usually cast steel or rolled steel is
employed. The modern process of forming the yoke consists of rolling a steel slab round
a cylindrical mandrel and the-welding is at the bottom. The feet and the terminal box etc.
are welded to the frame afterwards. Such yokes possess sufficient mechanical strength
and have high permeability.




Pole Cores and Pole Shoes:

The field magnets consist of. pole cores and pole shoes. The pole shoes serve two
purpose
they spread out the flux in the air gap and also, being of larger cross-section,
reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path
they support the exciting coils (or field coils)
There are two main types of pole construction.
The pole core itself may be a solid piece made out of either cast iron or cast steel
but the pole shoe is laminated and is fastened to the pole face by means of counter
sunk screws.
In modern design, the complete pole cores and pole shoes are built of thin
laminations of annealed steel which are riveted together under hydraulic pressure.
The thickness of laminations varies from 1 mm to 0.25 mm.
The laminated poles may be secured to the yoke in arts of the following two ways:
either the pole is secured to the yoke by means of screws bolted through the yoke
and into the pole body or
the holding screws are bolted into a steel bar which passes through the pole across
the plane of laminations.
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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif




Pole Coils or Field Winding:
The field coils or pole coils, which consist of copper wire or strip, are former-
wound for the correct dimension. Then, the former is removed and wound coil is
put into place over the core
When current is passed through these coils, they electromagnetise the poles which
produce the necessary flux that is cut by revolving armature conductors.
Combination of field coils connected in series is known as field windings.

Armature Core:
It houses the armature conductors or coils and causes them to rotate and hence cut
the magnetic flux of the field magnets.
Its most important function is to provide a path of very low reluctance to the flux
through the armature from a N-pole to a S-pole.
It is cylindrical or drum-shaped and is built up of usually circular sheet steel discs
or laminations approximately 0.5 mm thick.
It is keyed to the shaft.
The slots are either die-cut or punched on the outer periphery of the disc and the
keyway is located on the inner diameter.
In small machines, the armature stampings are keyed directly to the shaft.
These laminations are perforated for air duct which permits axial flow of air
through the armature for cooling purposes.
The purpose of using laminations is to reduce the loss due to eddy currents.
Thinner the laminations, greater is resistance offered to the induced emf, smaller
the current hence lesser the I
2
R loss in the core.

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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif







Armature Winding:

The armature windings are usually former-wound. These are first wound in the
form of flat rectangular coils and are then pulled into their proper shape in a coil
puller.
Various conductors of the coils are insulated from each other.
The conductors are placed in the armature which is lined with tough insulating
material. This slot insulation is folded over above the armature conductors placed
in the slot and is secured in place by special hard wooden or fiber wedges.



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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Commutator
A Commutator is a mechanical rectifier which converts AC to DC.
A Commutator is made of copper segments insulated from each other by mica
sheets.
It is mounted over the shaft of the machine.
The ends of the armature windings are connected to the Commutator segments in
a proper manner so its purpose is to facilitate the collection of current from
armature winding.
It is of cylindrical structure and is built up of wedge-shaped segments of high-
conductivity hard-drawn or drop forged copper. These segments are insulated
from each other by thin layers of mica.
The number of segments is equal to the number of armature coils. Each
commutator segment is connected to the armature conductor by means of a copper
lug or strip (or riser). To prevent them from flying out under the action of
centrifugal forces, the segments have V-grooves, these grooves being insulated by
conical micanite rings.






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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif






Brushes and Bearings
The brushes, whose function is to collect current from commutator, are usually
made of carbon or graphite and are in the shape of a rectangular block.
These brushes are housed in brush-holders usually of the box-type variety.
The brush-holder is mounted on spindle and the brushes can slide in the
rectangular box open at both ends.
The brushes are made to bear down on the commutator by a spring whose tension
can be adjusted by changing the position of lever in the notches.
A flexible copper pigtail mounted at the top of the brush conveys current from the
brushes to the holder.
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The number of brushes per spindle depends on the magnitude of the current to be
collected from the commutator.
Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Because of their reliability, ball-bearings are frequently employed, though for
heavy duties roller bearings are preferable.
The ball and rollers are generally packed in hard oil for quieter operation and for
reduced bearing wear.
Sleeve bearings are used which are lubricated by ring oilers fed from oil reservoir
in the bearing bracket.
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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Armature Winding
Pole Pitch (Yp):

The distance between two consective opposite poles in term of armature slots is
known as pole pitch.
1 pole pitch is equal to 180 degree electrical.
It can also be defined as the no. of armature slots per unit pole.


.
Total Slots
Yp
No of poles
=
Note:
Emf is only produced in the sides of the coil and a connection serves only to make the
current path complete.

Coil Pitch:
It is also called coil span or back pitch.
It is defined as the distance between the two sides of the same coil in terms of
number of armature slots. eg if Yb=5 it means that one side of the coil is in slot 1
and the other side is in the slot no. 6.
Full Pitch Winding:
If the pole span or the coil pitch is equal to the pole pitch then winding is called full
pitched. It means that the coil span is 180 degree electrical. In this case the coil sides lie
under opposite poles hence the induced emfs in them are additive therefore maximum
emf is induced in the coil as a whole it being the sum of emfs induced in the two coil
sides eg if there are thirty six slots and four poles then 36/4=9 slots. if no. of slots is 35
then Yb =35/4=8 because it is customary to drop fractions.

Fractional pitch winding:

If the coil span is less than the pole pitch then the winding is called fractional pith
winding. In this case there is a phase difference between the emfs in the two sides of the
coil hence the total emf around the coil is the vector sum of the emfs in the two coil sides
is less in this case as compared to that in the previous case.
Front Pitch (Yf):

The distance in terms of no. of slots between the finishing end of the first coil and the
starting end of the second coil is called front pitch.

Commutator pitch (Yc):

The number of commutator segments spanned by each coil of the winding is known as
commutator pitch.

Single layer winding:

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In this case only one coil side is placed in each armature slot.
Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

Double layer Winding:
In this case two coils are placed in each armature side.

Starting and Finishing End:

These are the points where terminal of the coil are available.

Types of Winding:
There are two types of windings.
Lap winding and Wave Winding.

Lap Winding:
In lap winding the finishing end of one coil is connected to a Commutator
segment and to the starting end of the adjacent coil situated under the same pole
and so on.
Lap winding is the type of winding in which consective coils overlap partially.

Characteristics of Lap Winding:

.
(Even integer)
.
No of slots
No of ploes
= Yp

1 for progressive winding
Yb =Yp - 1 for retrogressive winding
where Yb is back pitch and always +ve odd integer
Yb Yp = +

1 for progressive winding
Yf =Yp +1 for retrogressive winding
where Yf is front pitch and always -ve odd integer
Yf Yp =
13
1 Yc =
Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif


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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif


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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
















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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Wave winding:
in wave winding the finishing end of the one coil in n pole is connected to the starting
end of the next coil in the n pole and so on.
Consective two coils do not overlap

Characteristics:
Average pole pitch
2
=even integer
S
yp
p

= average pole pitch


Yb =yp+1, yp-1, yp
Yf=yp-1, yp+1, yp
Both yb and yf are of the same sign
2 yc
Conductor in each parallel path
2
z
=
In this case, no of parallel paths =no. of carbon brushes
=2 (always)
So it is a high voltage but small current winding.
Comparison:
Lap winding Wave winding
Yp=
z
p

2 z
yp
p
+
=
Yb=yp+1 Yb=yp+1, yp-1, yp
Yf=yp-1 Yf=yp-1, yp+1, yp
yb yf Yb may or may not equal to yf
Yb=+ve, yf=-ve Yb=+ve, yf=-ve
Carbon brushes =poles Carbon brushes=2
Parallel poles =poles Parallel pole =2
Low voltage High voltage
High current Small current

Power for the both lap and wave winding are almost the same, when all the others factors
are the same.

High current and low voltage application
electrolysis
welding







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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Emf formula:
Let
flux
pole
= in wb.
So flux cut by the conductor in one revolution =2
That is ,d =2
Now dt =time in one revolution
If N =speed of armature in r.p.m so
60
(sec) dt
N
=
For one turn loop, T=1
Faradays law of electromagnetic induction is given by,

2
(60/ )
d
e
dt N

= =

2
, 2
60
4
, 4
60
N
e p
N
e P

= =
= =

Let p be the number of pole in the DC machine

60
P N
e

=
Here egives the emf produced in each turn of the winding.
Now for, lap winding: ( )
60
P N Z
e
P

=
Wave winding: ( )
60 2
P N Z
e

=
Where Z is the total number of armature conductors generally we can write,
( )
60
P N Z
e
A

=
Where A =2 for wave winding
A=no. of poles for lap winding



Types of DC generator:

Generally classified on the bases of their field excitation. On this basis, they are mainly
classified into two types
Spectator excited DC generator
Self excited DC generator


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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Separately excited DC generator:
In the generator, the field winding is excited by an external DC source


a
- I
a l
t a
I I
V E R
=
=

Where R
a
is resistance of the armature winding. Separately excited DC generator is rarely
used in practice.

Self excited DC generator:
In self excited DC generator, no external DC source is needed for field excitation. The
field winding is connected to the armature winding, so the field current is provided by the
emf produced in the armature. Initially when there is no emf in the armature, no field
current, residual magnetic field is present in the field winding. Self excited DC
generators are commonly used in practice.

Types of self exited DC generators:
Self excited DC generators are often classified on the basis of the field connection with
armature winding.
They are generally of three types.
Series type self excited DC generators.
Shunt type Self excited DC generators.
Compound type Self excited DC generator.
Series type:
In this configuration, the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding
so that the whole armature current flows through the field winding as well as through the
load.
In this case,
( )
f l a
t a
I I I
V E I R R
= =
= +
f
Shunt type:
In shunt type generator, the field winding is connected in parallel with the armature
winding so that some of the armature current flows through the field windings and rest
through the load.
In this case,
a
I
a f c
t a
I I I
V E R
= +
=
Compound type:
In a compound type DC generator, we use the sets of field windings on each pole, one is
the series winding and the other is in parallel with the armature winding.
In this case
1 2
f2 2
I
a f f
I I I
where I
= +
=


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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif


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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Voltage build up phenomenon in self excited DC
generators
We know that, in self excited DC generators, initials 0
f
I = and
a
I is produced due to the
residual magnetism present in the field winding. Now after the production of the armature
current, the field current
f
I increases, which in return, increases the
n
I which then
increases
f
I and so on.
So the emf in self excited DC generators goes on increases until the field winding is
saturated and the further increases in the current
f
I does not rein force the magnetic field.
At this point (steady state), the voltage becomes constant and maximum (rated voltage).
This phenomenon is known as voltage build up phenomenon.
Condition:
Residual magnetism
Connect the field winding with the armature winding properly
The resistance of the field windings should not be very high, that is, it should be
less than the critical resistance.
VI characteristics:
Series type:
In this type of DC generators,

a f l
I I = =
f
f
a
t
, R 1.2
R 8
I=0
V
t a a f
V E I R I R
usually
when
E
=
=
=
=
I
As (load voltage) varies by varying the load, so it is not use for domestic purposes.
t
V
Shunt type:
In this type of DC generator,

f
I
a f c
t
f
t a
I I I
V
where
a
R
V E I R
= +
=
=

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Ideally the field winding resistance is infinite all the current pass through the load and if
a
R is negligible, the load voltage almost remains constant so it is generally used for
domestic purpose.
Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif








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Electric Machine I Lec #3 and 4
Dr. Suhail Aftab Qurashi Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif
Characteristics of Field Winding:
Series Type:

Rf should be very small. (Rf=1.2 ohm)
The wire should be very thick.
Full load current passes through this resistance.
Few number of turns are generally sufficient as NI = where I is quite large.
Critical Resistance: The maximum total series resistance that is (R
L
+Rf) with
which the series DC generator would just excite is known as its critical resistance.

Shunt Type:

Rf should be very large. Rf=1K ohm
The wire should be very thin.
It carries a very small amount of current usually in milliampere.
It has large number of turns as the current is very small.
Critical resistance: The maximum field resistance with which the DC generator
of shunt type would just excite is known as its critical resistance.

Note:
As a characteristic of field windings for series type and shunt type DC generator are
much different from each other so they are not interchangeable.

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