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Research Article

DESIGN OF FRANCIS TYPE MIXED FLOW PUMP

IMPELLER USING C++

Pramesh Kumar

1

, H.L.Tiwari

2

, Dr. V. Prashad

3

, Dr. V.K.Gahlot

4

Address for Correspondence

1- RITS, Bhopal, MP, INDIA

2,3& 4 Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT), Bhopal MP INDIA

E Mail hltiwari@rediffmail.com, pramesh_manit@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT

Pumps are used for variety of applications. The design of the pump should be such that it gives better performance

and meeting the requirements. The transfer of energy to the fluid takes place in the impeller. Thus the design of

impeller becomes an important task. The efficiency of pump is very much dependent on performance of impeller,

because most hydraulic losses are related to it. As the flow characteristic keeps changing within the pump, design of

a pumping unit is not an easy task. The manual design of the pump takes lot of labour as well as time. But with the

help of Computers program we can eliminate most of the drawbacks of manual design and upgrade the hydraulic

design, in a short time period thus saving considerable time. In software, once the design steps is fixed, variation in

result on changing input data can be seen with in fraction of seconds. Thus, considerable time and labor is saved. In

this paper computer program in c++ has been written for the design of pump impeller of a Francis type mixed flow

pump for the given operating conditions i.e. No of stages, Head, Discharge, and speed and then generates the vane

shape along the mean streamline by using the point-by-point method.

KEY WORDS Performance of impeller, hydraulic losses, efficiency of pump.

==================================================================================

INTRODUCTION

Conventionally, Pumps lifts liquid from low

level to a higher level using available

mechanical energy. This is achieved by creating

a low pressure at the inlet and high pressure at

the outlet of the pump. Due to low inlet pressure

the liquid rises from where it is available and the

high outlet pressure forces it up where it is to be

stored or supplied. This is a very restrictive

definition for pump. It may be the main function

for a portable water pump, but some pumps do

not lift water at all or they do so only through an

insignificant height. Like boiler-feed pump,

forced lubrication pumps, fire fighting pumps,

booster pump etc.

A more appropriate definition would be that

Pump is a mechanical device that transfers

mechanical energy taken from some external

source to the liquid flowing through it raising its

hydraulic energy level. The prime movers can be

steam, or I.C. Engine, compressed air, electrical

motor, wind or tidal power.

Pumps are widely used for water supply,

irrigation, drainage, and water circulating

systems. Process pumps for chemical industries,

oil pumps for long pipe lines, reversible pumps

for storage schemes etc. are further examples of

their use. Requirements for each type of job

have to be designed accordingly.

Mixed flow pump

Mixed flow pumps borrow characteristics from

both radial flow and axial flow pumps. As liquid

flows through the impeller of a mixed flow

pump, the impeller blades push the liquid out

away from the pump shaft and to the pump

suction at an angle greater than 90 degrees. The

impeller of a typical mixed flow pump and the

flow through a mixed flow pump are shown in

fig 1.

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

Fig 1: Mixed flow pump impeller and line diagram

Application range of the main pumps

Radial pump is used for medium and high heads

(above 50 m). It is the conventional type of the

impeller and is used in practically all- multistage

machines.

Fig 2: Application ranges of main pumps

A-Axial flow Pumps

M-Mixed flow pumps

R- Radial flow pumps

D- Diagonal flow pumps

MS- Multi stage pumps

Range of specific speed is generally 10 to 60.

When larger volumes must be handled, double

suction impeller may be used. Francis type

impeller operates at a higher speed than the

radial pump. Specific speed is slightly higher

(30 to 90). This type of impeller may also be

made double suction. The specific speed range

of mixed flow pump is usually 90 to 150. Axial

flow pump has the highest specific speed (above

150) and is used for low heads (01 to 12m).

OVERVIEW OF PUMP IMPELLER

Fluid motion in centrifugal pump is actually a 3-

dimensional flow and it is quite complex for

computation. The specific speed makes it

possible to approach for design and to calculate

main dimensions of the pump; generally one

dimensional method is used by the designers. A

number of text books and published data are

available on mixed flow pump but everyone

focus on describing principles rather than

methods. The design process for pumps is

dependent on experimental data and empirical

relations despite extensive theoretical

knowledge. One of the reasons for this is the

great verity of types, sizes and services

demanded from them, which in turn, requires

great multiplicity of parameters to define the

design problem.

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

A.J. Stepanoff (1967) [1] has also given the

design procedure. In its design procedure, choice

of

2

is the first step in selecting impeller design

constants and its range is given from 17.5 to

27.5. Numerous ray diagrams and curves

showing the relation between different

parameters help in design process. Curves for

overall efficiency, cavitations constant and

relation to calculate shut off head are used in

CAD (software). But it is not possible to

accommodate every condition in preliminary

phase of design, because it will only add to the

complexity of design and very difficult to bring

in a step-by step design procedure.

To calculate cavitations constants he proposed

following two relations:

6

3

4

10

* 3 . 6

S

N

=

, and

6

3

4

10

* 0 . 4

S

N

=

[For single suctions and double suction pumps

respectively]

Church and Lal (1973) [2] covers the basic

theory and principles of design, construction and

application of centrifugal pump. Design method

for impeller and volute casing both are explained

with the help of examples.

Features of impeller design

1. Consider the design of a 75 m

3

/min, 25 m

head, double-suction stage operating at

600 rpm and handling water.

2. Contraction factor at inlet

1

lies in

between 0.8 and 0.9.

3. 15<

1

<27,

1

is inlet vane angle.

4. Relation proposed to calculate outlet

velocity triangle is

N

H

D

* * 5 . 84

2

=

Where is overall head coefficient and its value

varies between0.9 to 1.2 with an average value

very close to unity.

Neumanns (1991) [3] offers a step-by step

procedure of design optimization. It helps to

understand the influence of geometrical

parameters of the pump on its performance. He

strongly criticizes the approach of designers to

confine themselves to the design point alone and

not making conditions at off design process. In

the definition of optimum he mentioned two

configurations; one that offers highest attainable

efficiency and other that offers lowest attainable

NPSH. To show inter-relation of each

geometrical parameter he introduces various

coefficients and constants, and introduces a 40

step optimization process for impeller and 66

step optimization process for volute casing

associated with various curves and data tables

make it very complex to understand and develop

software for it. However, it offers significant

help in designing of impeller end view for the

present work. Neumann has related each

impeller dimension with the outlet diameter of

the impeller.

Gahlot and Nyiri (1993) [4] also suggested the

step-by-step design procedure for designing of

Radial, Francis, and Mixed flow pumps. For

Radial flow pump design, numbers of

relationships are given based on practical

experience. To construct vane shape three

methods are described in that book.

a) Circular arc method

b) Point-by-point method

c) Conformal representation method

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

Chapters on working principles of Impeller

pumps, Losses and efficiencies and

characteristics of impeller pumps are very handy

to understand the theory behind centrifugal

pumps. Various figures showing the relationship

between different parameters of the pumps are

provided such as effect of blade thickness, effect

of number of blades on head developed.

Variation of theoretical head with discharge and

vane angle, variation of pressure co-efficient

with specific speed, dependence of outlet vane

angle and number of blades on specific speed

etc. helps the reader to relate the theory with the

design procedure. Some design co-efficient are

given with their range of validity.

Das, Das, and Maiti (1998) [7] in their work

compared the different blade shape for the given

blade outlet angle, inlet and outlet diameters.

Outlet blade angle is assumed to be and its

common used value and the maximum value is

given as 27

0

and 30

0

. Number of blades is also

assumed. To generate the blade shape Point- by-

Point method is used this gives the more

accurate blade profile than Circulation method.

Variation of meridional velocity along the

impeller passage is assumed to be linear from

inlet to outlet. Value of C

m

at any radius is

calculated by:

2 1

2 1

2 1

2 1

) * 1 * 2 ( * ) (

r r

r Cm r Cm

r r

r C C

C

m m

m

=

A linear variation of W may not be justified

because of existence of large variation between

W

1

and W

2

. Moreover, an assumption of

linearity of W will restrict to generation of a

single blade shape only. Keeping this in mind

and also to have flexibility in generating

different values of velocities, variation of W has

been chosen as,

d r C W

q

+ = *

Where,

q q

r r

W W

C

2 1

2 1

=

and

q q

q q

r r

r W r W

d

2 1

2 1 1 2

* *

=

To generate blade shapes for a given blade outlet

angle, inlet and outlet diameters, the parameter q

is varied. It has been found that as the value of q

is increased from negative to positive value, the

blades gets longer. They have generated the

blade shapes up to q=5, because beyond this

value blade length becomes too long.

A. Goto and H. Harada October (1998) [8] the

first time, a set of guidelines is presented for the

systematic design of mixed-flow and centrifugal

compressors and pumps with suppressed

secondary flows and a uniform exit flow field.

The paper describes the shape of the optimum

pressure distribution for the suppression of

secondary flows in the impeller with reference to

classical secondary flow theory. The feasibility

of achieving this pressure distribution is then

demonstrated by deriving guidelines for the

design specifications of a three dimensional

inverse design method, in which the blades are

designed subjected to a specified circulation

distribution or 2rV

.

The guidelines will define

the optimum choice of the blade loading or

r

V

/

m

and the stacking condition for the

blades. These guidelines are then used in the

design of three different low specific speed

industrial centrifugal compressor impellers. The

flows through all the designed impellers are

computed numerically by a three dimensional

viscous code and the resulting flow field is

compared to that obtained in the corresponding

conventional impeller. The results show

consistent suppression of secondary flows in all

cases. The design guidelines are validated

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

experimentally by comparing the performance of

the inverse designed centrifugal compressor

impeller with the corresponding conventional

impeller. The overall performance of the stage

with the inverse designed impeller with

suppressed secondary flows was found to be 5

percent higher than the conventional impeller at

the peak efficiency point. Exit flow traverse

results at the impeller exit indicate a more

uniform exit flow traverse results at the impeller

exit indicate a more uniform exit flow than that

measured at the exit from the conventional

impeller.

E S Yoon, H W Oh, M K Chung, J S Ha

November 2 / (1998) [9] the mean streamline

analysis using the empirical loss models for

performance prediction of mixed-flow pumps

with high specific speeds. A new internal loss

model to describe the effect of flow separation

on the characteristic head-capacity curve with a

dip in the low flow range is developed and a

modified recirculation loss model for calculation

of parasitic loss due to flow recirculation at the

impeller exit is suggested in this study. The

prediction performance of the proposed method

here is tested against four sets of measured total

heads and efficiencies of mixed-flow pumps,

and it is also compared with that based on two-

dimensional cascade theory. Predicted results by

the present set of loss models agree very well

with experimental data for a variety of mixed-

flow pumps over the normal operating

conditions. H W Oh, K-Y Kim November 1 /

(2001) [10] A conceptual design optimization

code for mixed-flow pump impellers has been

developed to determine the geometric and fluid

dynamic variables under appropriate design

constraints. In the present study the optimization

problem has been formulated with a non-linear

objective function to minimize the fluid dynamic

losses. The optimal solution is obtained by

means of the Hooke-Jeeves direct search

method. Computations are performed using

mean streamline analysis and the present state-

of-the-art loss correlations. Changes in the

optimized efficiency and design variables of

mixed-flow pump impellers are presented in this

paper as a function of non-dimensional specific

speed in the range 1.9 N

s

2.5.

Rajenthirakumar

and K. A. Jagadeesh

July (2006) [11] Design aids available today

might have helped the pump designers to bring

about theoretically the most efficient pumps, but

the production technology and quality control

during manufacture has not kept pace with such

achievements in realizing the goals of

developing energy efficient pumps. Pump

designers often face the problem of selecting and

optimizing a number of independent geometrical

parameters whilst aiming at the desired

efficiency from the pump. The only option is to

approximate the theoretical design with

experimental findings iteratively until the end

result is achieved. Tremendous development of

advanced manufacturing technology and

computer technology has made rapid

prototyping and computational fluid dynamics

(CFD) techniques the right alternative method of

reaching the target. Centrifugal pump impeller

geometry, which contributes maximum

complexity in flow during pump design, has

been analyzed in this work based on the

parameters derived through computer-aided

design (CAD) and CFD analysis. Using selective

laser sintering, technique the impeller designed

by CAD and two standard impellers

commercially available for the same duty

requirement is manufactured and their

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

performance is tested to know their hydraulic

efficiency. Results obtained from this work are

useful for standardizing pump impeller design

and for developing energy-efficient pumps.

B.P.M. van Esch J. Fluids Eng. May (2009)

[12] Many

centrifugal pumps have a suction

velocity profile, which is non uniform,

either by

design like in double-suction pumps, sump

pumps, and

in-line pumps, or as a result of an

installation close

to an upstream disturbance like

a pipe bend. This paper

presents an experimental

study on the effect of a non uniform

suction

velocity profile on performance of a mixed-flow

pump and

hydrodynamic forces on the impeller.

In the experiments, a newly

designed

dynamometer is used, equipped with six full

Wheatstone bridges

of strain gauges to measure

the six generalized force components.

It is

placed in between the shaft of the pump

and the

impeller and co rotates with the rotor system. A

high accuracy is obtained due to the

orthogonality of bridge

positioning and the

signal conditioning electronics embedded within

the dynamometer.

The suction flow distribution

to the pump is adapted using

a pipe bundle

situated in the suction pipe. Results of

measurements show the influence of the suction

flow profile and

blade interaction on pump

performance and forces. Among the most

important observations are a backward whirling

motion of the rotor

system and a considerable

steady radial force.

H.W.Oh February (2010)

[13] the effect of positive and negative curved

blade stacking on the cavitation of a mixed-flow

pump impeller has been investigated in the

present study. To this end, two types of pump

impellers with different blade stacking with no

significant difference in the non-cavitating

hydrodynamics were compared. A numerical

simulation based on the validated computational

fluid dynamics code has been carried out to

analyses the detailed flow dynamic phenomena

in the mixed-flow pump impeller. From the

predicted characteristic curves pertaining to both

the stacking conditions, superior suction

performance of the mixed flow pump impeller

with negative- curved blending has been

demonstrated over the normal operating flow

range. The computational analysis method and a

design parameter presented here in can be

effectively applied to the hydraulic design

optimization process of general-purpose

centrifugal and mixed- flow pump impellers.

IMPELLER DESIGN

The impeller of the francis type mixed flow

pump converts the mechanical rotation to the

velocity of the liquid. The impeller acts as a

spinning wheel in the pump. In spite of

extensive theoretical knowledge of fluid

dynamics and a great deal of research conducted

in the past, the design process for pumps still

relies heavily upon experimental data. There are

several reasons for it; one of the reasons is the

great variety of types, sizes, and services

demanded from them, which in turn requires a

great multiplicity of parameters to define the

design problem in hand. From Eulers

fundamental equation, we know that the total

head generated by a pump depends on many

variables like the peripheral velocity U

2

, the

meridional velocity C

m2,

outlet vane angle

2

, the

number of blades Z etc. A given head can be

developed by pump impeller designed with

various values of these variables. Though the

head developed may be approximately same, all

the designs may not be good from the point of

view of efficiency and cost of production. For

designing a new impeller, it is necessary to

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

assume some factors that give relationship

between the impeller total head and the capacity

at the design point. Optimal results of design are

obtained for a given operating conditions when

factors derived experimentally from available

high efficiency pumps are used.

Phases of pump design

A centrifugal pump design has to pass through

following phases:

Phase 01: Determination of dimensionless

parameters, which define the hydraulic flow

passage. The flow passage includes impeller

vanes and volutes.

Phase 02: Geometry of impeller, volute in

meridional and blade-to-blade planes.

Phase 03: Analysis of flow through the

hydraulic passages and prediction of

performance characteristics of pumps by

application of computational techniques such as

CFD packages.

Phase 04: Manufacture of prototype pump.

Phase 05: Testing and finalizing the design.

Various CFD packages are available to predict

the pump performance characteristics within the

acceptable limits. Above mentioned first two

phases are necessarily performed in order to

reach the third phase. My work is concerned

with the first two phases.

Design of impeller

Design of impeller includes the design of flow

passage parameters at the inlet and outlet. The

design procedure uses many dimensionless

factors: their values are based on experimental

observation rather than complete theoretical

analysis. These dimensionless factors have been

drawn against a single parameter i.e. specific

Speed of the pump. The variation of such

dimensionless number against specific speed

along with the basic mathematical relationship

for the passage of the pump gives many

parameters, which are required for drawing the

flow passage of the pump impeller [1].

Development of Vane

After determining the vane angles and

diameters, the next step in designing is to

construct the vane shape.

Vane shape should be such that the passage

should not be too long as it increases friction

losses.

Fig.4 :Velocities and vane angles plotted

against impeller radius

The velocity of the liquid relative to the impeller

W and the radial component of the absolute

velocity C

m

both at inlet and outlet edges of the

vanes are known and may be plotted against the

impeller radius. These points are connected by a

straight line or smooth curve, as shown in fig.

Intermediate values may be obtained from these

curves so as not to have any sudden changes to

disrupt the flow. When the values of C

m

and W

are known, a curve of may then be plotted

against R, since sin =C

m

/W.

a) Circular arc method

b) Point-by-point method

c) Hydrodynamic design method

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

Circular arc method

In this method, the impeller is arbitrarily divided

into number of concentric rings between the

radius R

1

and R

2

. The vane may be defined by

one or two arcs of a circle. Two arcs method

give better results as compared to the single arc

method.

Fig 5: single arc method of profile

construction

The single arc method is illustrated in fig. From

point O which is centre of rotation of impeller,

draw a line OK at an angle (

1

+

2

) from the line

OB. Extend the line BK to meet the ring of

radius R

1

at point A. From B draw a line at an

angle

2

such that it intersects the bisector of line

BA at point G. An arc of a circle of radius and

centre G gives the desired vane profile. The

radius may be calculated from the formula

( )

1 1 2 2

2

1

2

2

cos * cos * * 2

R R

R R

=

In the two arc method, the vane shape is

constructed by joining arcs of two circles drawn

through points A and B.

Point-by-point method

This method of obtaining the vane shape is

given by C. Pfleiderer. It is based on the

assumption that the transition of

1

to

2

depends

on the radius R and on determining the central

angle for a given Rand . The values of R and

constitute polar coordinates for a given point

in the vane surface. A smooth curve drawn

joining all such points gives the central line of

the vane.

Let be the vane angle at radius R. Then for

very small increments in radius dR we have

tan

*

dR

d R =

tan * R

dR

d =

Where is measured in radians. Integrating

from R

1

to any radius R,

=

2

1

tan *

R

R

R

dR

If is measured in degrees, then

=

2

1

tan *

*

180

R

R

R

dR

Above equation is solved by tabular integration

assuming finite increment R.

Vanes are generally made of constant thickness

allowing certain thickness at the inlet. A thin

sharp edge will give high efficiency when the

vane angle matches with the direction of fluid

flow. But at other angular positions it drops

rapidly. An inlet edge which is generally

rounded gives somewhat lower maximum

efficiency when the vane angle matches to flow

direction but it does not drop so rapidly at other

angles.

Design Problem

In this thesis a computer program has been

developed to design a Francis type mixed flow

pump impeller for the following data:

1) Head 20 meters

2) Discharge 0.25 m

3

/sec

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

3) Rotational speed of the impeller is 1450

rpm

4) Allowable torsional shear stress for the

shaft material is 45.7 kg/cm

2

Calculation of the major parameters for the one

impeller:

1. Actual speed(N

act

)

2. Power required P= x Q x H/ x 75

Where Power Q = Discharge (m

3

/s)

= Overall efficiency.

H = Head (m)

3. Diameter of Shaft

The shaft diameter depends upon the power it

has to transmit and the maximum permissible

deflection of the shaft. Assuming that only

torque is acting, the diameter of shaft may be

calculated by the equation.

Where p=76.36 Hp

1. Hub diameter(dh) =1.35*dsh;

2. At the back hub diameter is

dh=1.4*dsh;

3. Theoretical head Hth=h/h

4. Theoretical discharge

5. specific speed

6. Average inlet velocity Com=

(2gh)^(1/2)

7. Calculation of Outlet Diameter (D2)

U

2

=d2N/60and

=(300/270+N

q

)

^(2.25)

8. Calculate C

m1

= K

cm1*

(2*g*H)^

(1/2)

9. Calculate inlet velocity through eye Inlet

diameter

D

1

=((Q

th

*4/*C

om

)+(d

sh

)

^2

)

^ (1/2)

10. Width of impeller at inlet

b

1

=(Q/*D*C

m

*)

11. Tangential velocity at inlet

U

1

=(*D

1

*N/60)

12. Inlet vane angle

1

=Sin

-1

(C

m

/ W)

13. Outlet vane angle

2

=tan

-1

(C

m2

/U

2

-C

U2

)

14. Average exit velocity

15. Outlet tangential velocity

U

2

=(*D

2

*N/60)

16. Impeller width at outlet

b

2

=b

q

*(Q)

^(1/2)

/ (H)

^(1/4)

17. Relative velocity at inlet

18. Relative velocity at outlet

W

2

=(C

m2

/ Sin

2

)

19. Calculate Cu2= U

2

-(Cm2/tan

2

)

20. Calculate degree of reaction

r= 1- (C

U2

/ 2* U

2

)

After calculating the main dimensions of

impeller the vane shaping is being done. For this

a linear variation in C

m

is assumed given by

=

2 1

2 1 1 2

2 1

2 1

* *

*

r r

r C r C

r

r r

C C

C

m m m m

m

A linear variation for relative velocity can not be

assumed for two reasons:

1) There exists a large variation in relative

velocity at inlet and relative velocity at

outlet.

2) A linear variation in W will restrict to the

generation of a single shape only.

Hence, for the above said reasons the variation

in W is given by the following equation

=

q q

q q

q

q q

r r

r W r W

r

r r

W W

W

2 1

2 1 1 2

2 1

2 1

* *

*

Various vane shapes can be obtained by giving

various values of q, either positive , negative

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

or decimal; except zero because for q = 0

becomes an undefined quantity.

=

q q

q q

q

q q

r r

r W r W

r

r r

W W

W

2 1

2 1 1 2

2 1

2 1

* *

*

In this computer program Point-by-Point method

is used for generating the vane shape.

Increments in radius are calculated

by

n

r r

r

m m 1 2

=

where n is the number of

steps. The results are being tabulated as shown

in the following table 1.

0

is the span angle. A

plot of R and generates the required vane

shape.

RESULTS

The results of the design problem with the

following input data are tabulated and results of

manual calculation and calculation made by the

program are compared, and the vane shape along

the mean streamline is generated.

Table 1: Input and Output data

Input data:

Head =20 m

Discharge Q =0.25 m

3

/sec

Rotational speed N=1450 rpm

Allowable torsional stress T

tors

=45.7 kg/cm

2

Output data:

Parameter Symbol Result

Specific speed

Nsq

76.1307

Overall Efficiency

no

0.84

Hydraulic Efficiency

nh

0.93

Volumetric Efficiency

nv

0.98

Power

Pm

79.365079 HP

Shaft diameter

dsh

0.0351 m

Hub Diameter

dhi

0.047385 m

Inlet diameter

D

1

0.209211714 m

Blade angle at inlet

1

20.8976

Impeller inlet velocity

Cm1

5.0513 m/sec

Outlet diameter

D

2

0.3087 m

Breadth at Outlet

B

2

0.065197 m

Impeller Outlet Velocity

Cm

2

3.9552 m/sec

Outlet blade angle

2

28.999

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

Point by Point Method

Where, n=10, q=1

Table 2: Point by Point Method

R(m) Theta

0.104605857 20.89763017 0

0.109582746 21.37106615 6.887127038

0.114559635 21.8901151 13.30250383

0.119536542 22.46176359 19.27842529

0.124513413 23.09451736 24.84259985

0.129490303 23.79884256 30.01878883

0.134467191 24.58777372 34.82730866

0.13944408 25.47776528 39.28542254

0.144420969 26.48991416 43.40763424

0.149397853 27.65175743 47.20589536

0.154374747 28.99999998 50.689725

Fig. 6 : Vane Profile

CONCLUSION

Main dimensions of the francis type mixed flow

pump was calculated by using the computer

program developed in c++ and the vane shapes

have been plotted by taking value of q = 1 and

it can be seen from this plots that for positive

values of q the variation in relative velocity

from inlet to outlet is gradual but the span angle

is large indicating a large length of vane and

hence a higher head loss due to friction and

increased hydraulic losses.

REFERENCES

1. Stepanoff .A.J. (1967), Centrifugal and

Axial Flow Pumps John Wiley, New York.

2. Lal J. and Church C. (1973), Centrifugal

Pumps and Blowers, Metropolitan Book

Company, Delhi.

3. Neumann B. (1991), The interaction

Between Geometry and Performance of a

centrifugal Pump, Mechanical Engineering

Publications London

4. Gahlot V.K. and Nyiri A. (1993), Impeller

Pumps, Theory and Design,

M.A.C.T., Bhopal.

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

5. Chandraker A.L. (1996), A user friendly,

interactive, visual C++ based design code

for centrifugal pump, Proceedings of 23

rd

National Conference on Fluid Mechanics

and Fluid Power.

6. Panwalkar A.S. and Bhaskar C.

(1996),Computer aided design of radial and

Mixed flow Pump, Proceedings of 30

th

National Conference on Fluid Mechanics

and Fluid Power.

7. Das S., Das P.K., Maiti B. (1998), CAD of

centrifugal pump impeller with blades of

single curvature, Proceedings of 25

th

National Conference on Fluid Mechanics

and Fluid Power.

8. A. Goto and H.Harada oct (1998) On the

design criteria for supperession of secondary

flows in centrifugal and mixed flow

impellers. J. Turbomach.Oct1998

Volume 120,

9. E . S. yoon,HWOh,M K Chung, J S ha Nov

2(1998) Performance perdiction of mixed

flow pump. Dept of Thermal and Fluid

System Korea instituted of machinery and

materials

10. H W Oh, K-Y Kim November 1/(2001))

Mean streamline performance analysis of

mixed-flow fan impellers covering the low

flowrate characteristics. Proceedings of the

Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A

Journal of Power and Energy

11. Rajenthirakumar and K. A. Jagadeesh

July(2006) Analysis of interaction between

geometry and efficiency of impeller pump

using rapid prototyping. Department of

Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of

Technology, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, 641

004, Tamil Nadu, India.

12.

B.P.M. van Esch May (2009) Performance

and Radial Loading of a Mixed- Flow Pump

Under Non-Uniform Suction flow. J. Fluids

Engg. May 2009 Volume 131.

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