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Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916

JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

Research Article
Pramesh Kumar
, H.L.Tiwari
, Dr. V. Prashad
, Dr. V.K.Gahlot

Address for Correspondence
1- RITS, Bhopal, MP, INDIA
2,3& 4 Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT), Bhopal MP INDIA
E Mail,
Pumps are used for variety of applications. The design of the pump should be such that it gives better performance
and meeting the requirements. The transfer of energy to the fluid takes place in the impeller. Thus the design of
impeller becomes an important task. The efficiency of pump is very much dependent on performance of impeller,
because most hydraulic losses are related to it. As the flow characteristic keeps changing within the pump, design of
a pumping unit is not an easy task. The manual design of the pump takes lot of labour as well as time. But with the
help of Computers program we can eliminate most of the drawbacks of manual design and upgrade the hydraulic
design, in a short time period thus saving considerable time. In software, once the design steps is fixed, variation in
result on changing input data can be seen with in fraction of seconds. Thus, considerable time and labor is saved. In
this paper computer program in c++ has been written for the design of pump impeller of a Francis type mixed flow
pump for the given operating conditions i.e. No of stages, Head, Discharge, and speed and then generates the vane
shape along the mean streamline by using the point-by-point method.
KEY WORDS Performance of impeller, hydraulic losses, efficiency of pump.

Conventionally, Pumps lifts liquid from low
level to a higher level using available
mechanical energy. This is achieved by creating
a low pressure at the inlet and high pressure at
the outlet of the pump. Due to low inlet pressure
the liquid rises from where it is available and the
high outlet pressure forces it up where it is to be
stored or supplied. This is a very restrictive
definition for pump. It may be the main function
for a portable water pump, but some pumps do
not lift water at all or they do so only through an
insignificant height. Like boiler-feed pump,
forced lubrication pumps, fire fighting pumps,
booster pump etc.
A more appropriate definition would be that
Pump is a mechanical device that transfers
mechanical energy taken from some external
source to the liquid flowing through it raising its
hydraulic energy level. The prime movers can be
steam, or I.C. Engine, compressed air, electrical
motor, wind or tidal power.
Pumps are widely used for water supply,
irrigation, drainage, and water circulating
systems. Process pumps for chemical industries,
oil pumps for long pipe lines, reversible pumps
for storage schemes etc. are further examples of
their use. Requirements for each type of job
have to be designed accordingly.
Mixed flow pump

Mixed flow pumps borrow characteristics from
both radial flow and axial flow pumps. As liquid
flows through the impeller of a mixed flow
pump, the impeller blades push the liquid out
away from the pump shaft and to the pump
suction at an angle greater than 90 degrees. The
impeller of a typical mixed flow pump and the
flow through a mixed flow pump are shown in
fig 1.

Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

Fig 1: Mixed flow pump impeller and line diagram
Application range of the main pumps

Radial pump is used for medium and high heads
(above 50 m). It is the conventional type of the
impeller and is used in practically all- multistage

Fig 2: Application ranges of main pumps
A-Axial flow Pumps
M-Mixed flow pumps
R- Radial flow pumps
D- Diagonal flow pumps
MS- Multi stage pumps
Range of specific speed is generally 10 to 60.
When larger volumes must be handled, double
suction impeller may be used. Francis type
impeller operates at a higher speed than the
radial pump. Specific speed is slightly higher
(30 to 90). This type of impeller may also be
made double suction. The specific speed range
of mixed flow pump is usually 90 to 150. Axial
flow pump has the highest specific speed (above
150) and is used for low heads (01 to 12m).

Fluid motion in centrifugal pump is actually a 3-
dimensional flow and it is quite complex for
computation. The specific speed makes it
possible to approach for design and to calculate
main dimensions of the pump; generally one
dimensional method is used by the designers. A
number of text books and published data are
available on mixed flow pump but everyone
focus on describing principles rather than
methods. The design process for pumps is
dependent on experimental data and empirical
relations despite extensive theoretical
knowledge. One of the reasons for this is the
great verity of types, sizes and services
demanded from them, which in turn, requires
great multiplicity of parameters to define the
design problem.
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

A.J. Stepanoff (1967) [1] has also given the
design procedure. In its design procedure, choice
is the first step in selecting impeller design
constants and its range is given from 17.5 to
27.5. Numerous ray diagrams and curves
showing the relation between different
parameters help in design process. Curves for
overall efficiency, cavitations constant and
relation to calculate shut off head are used in
CAD (software). But it is not possible to
accommodate every condition in preliminary
phase of design, because it will only add to the
complexity of design and very difficult to bring
in a step-by step design procedure.
To calculate cavitations constants he proposed
following two relations:
* 3 . 6
, and
* 0 . 4

[For single suctions and double suction pumps
Church and Lal (1973) [2] covers the basic
theory and principles of design, construction and
application of centrifugal pump. Design method
for impeller and volute casing both are explained
with the help of examples.
Features of impeller design
1. Consider the design of a 75 m
/min, 25 m
head, double-suction stage operating at
600 rpm and handling water.
2. Contraction factor at inlet
lies in
between 0.8 and 0.9.
3. 15<
is inlet vane angle.
4. Relation proposed to calculate outlet
velocity triangle is

* * 5 . 84


Where is overall head coefficient and its value
varies between0.9 to 1.2 with an average value
very close to unity.
Neumanns (1991) [3] offers a step-by step
procedure of design optimization. It helps to
understand the influence of geometrical
parameters of the pump on its performance. He
strongly criticizes the approach of designers to
confine themselves to the design point alone and
not making conditions at off design process. In
the definition of optimum he mentioned two
configurations; one that offers highest attainable
efficiency and other that offers lowest attainable
NPSH. To show inter-relation of each
geometrical parameter he introduces various
coefficients and constants, and introduces a 40
step optimization process for impeller and 66
step optimization process for volute casing
associated with various curves and data tables
make it very complex to understand and develop
software for it. However, it offers significant
help in designing of impeller end view for the
present work. Neumann has related each
impeller dimension with the outlet diameter of
the impeller.
Gahlot and Nyiri (1993) [4] also suggested the
step-by-step design procedure for designing of
Radial, Francis, and Mixed flow pumps. For
Radial flow pump design, numbers of
relationships are given based on practical
experience. To construct vane shape three
methods are described in that book.
a) Circular arc method
b) Point-by-point method
c) Conformal representation method
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

Chapters on working principles of Impeller
pumps, Losses and efficiencies and
characteristics of impeller pumps are very handy
to understand the theory behind centrifugal
pumps. Various figures showing the relationship
between different parameters of the pumps are
provided such as effect of blade thickness, effect
of number of blades on head developed.
Variation of theoretical head with discharge and
vane angle, variation of pressure co-efficient
with specific speed, dependence of outlet vane
angle and number of blades on specific speed
etc. helps the reader to relate the theory with the
design procedure. Some design co-efficient are
given with their range of validity.
Das, Das, and Maiti (1998) [7] in their work
compared the different blade shape for the given
blade outlet angle, inlet and outlet diameters.
Outlet blade angle is assumed to be and its
common used value and the maximum value is
given as 27
and 30
. Number of blades is also
assumed. To generate the blade shape Point- by-
Point method is used this gives the more
accurate blade profile than Circulation method.
Variation of meridional velocity along the
impeller passage is assumed to be linear from
inlet to outlet. Value of C
at any radius is
calculated by:
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
) * 1 * 2 ( * ) (
r r
r Cm r Cm
r r
r C C
m m


A linear variation of W may not be justified
because of existence of large variation between
and W
. Moreover, an assumption of
linearity of W will restrict to generation of a
single blade shape only. Keeping this in mind
and also to have flexibility in generating
different values of velocities, variation of W has
been chosen as,
d r C W
+ = *

q q
r r
2 1
2 1


q q
q q
r r
r W r W
2 1
2 1 1 2
* *


To generate blade shapes for a given blade outlet
angle, inlet and outlet diameters, the parameter q
is varied. It has been found that as the value of q
is increased from negative to positive value, the
blades gets longer. They have generated the
blade shapes up to q=5, because beyond this
value blade length becomes too long.
A. Goto and H. Harada October (1998) [8] the
first time, a set of guidelines is presented for the
systematic design of mixed-flow and centrifugal
compressors and pumps with suppressed
secondary flows and a uniform exit flow field.
The paper describes the shape of the optimum
pressure distribution for the suppression of
secondary flows in the impeller with reference to
classical secondary flow theory. The feasibility
of achieving this pressure distribution is then
demonstrated by deriving guidelines for the
design specifications of a three dimensional
inverse design method, in which the blades are
designed subjected to a specified circulation
distribution or 2rV
The guidelines will define
the optimum choice of the blade loading or


and the stacking condition for the
blades. These guidelines are then used in the
design of three different low specific speed
industrial centrifugal compressor impellers. The
flows through all the designed impellers are
computed numerically by a three dimensional
viscous code and the resulting flow field is
compared to that obtained in the corresponding
conventional impeller. The results show
consistent suppression of secondary flows in all
cases. The design guidelines are validated
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

experimentally by comparing the performance of
the inverse designed centrifugal compressor
impeller with the corresponding conventional
impeller. The overall performance of the stage
with the inverse designed impeller with
suppressed secondary flows was found to be 5
percent higher than the conventional impeller at
the peak efficiency point. Exit flow traverse
results at the impeller exit indicate a more
uniform exit flow traverse results at the impeller
exit indicate a more uniform exit flow than that
measured at the exit from the conventional
E S Yoon, H W Oh, M K Chung, J S Ha

November 2 / (1998) [9] the mean streamline
analysis using the empirical loss models for
performance prediction of mixed-flow pumps
with high specific speeds. A new internal loss
model to describe the effect of flow separation
on the characteristic head-capacity curve with a
dip in the low flow range is developed and a
modified recirculation loss model for calculation
of parasitic loss due to flow recirculation at the
impeller exit is suggested in this study. The
prediction performance of the proposed method
here is tested against four sets of measured total
heads and efficiencies of mixed-flow pumps,
and it is also compared with that based on two-
dimensional cascade theory. Predicted results by
the present set of loss models agree very well
with experimental data for a variety of mixed-
flow pumps over the normal operating
conditions. H W Oh, K-Y Kim November 1 /
(2001) [10] A conceptual design optimization
code for mixed-flow pump impellers has been
developed to determine the geometric and fluid
dynamic variables under appropriate design
constraints. In the present study the optimization
problem has been formulated with a non-linear
objective function to minimize the fluid dynamic
losses. The optimal solution is obtained by
means of the Hooke-Jeeves direct search
method. Computations are performed using
mean streamline analysis and the present state-
of-the-art loss correlations. Changes in the
optimized efficiency and design variables of
mixed-flow pump impellers are presented in this
paper as a function of non-dimensional specific
speed in the range 1.9 N

and K. A. Jagadeesh
July (2006) [11] Design aids available today
might have helped the pump designers to bring
about theoretically the most efficient pumps, but
the production technology and quality control
during manufacture has not kept pace with such
achievements in realizing the goals of
developing energy efficient pumps. Pump
designers often face the problem of selecting and
optimizing a number of independent geometrical
parameters whilst aiming at the desired
efficiency from the pump. The only option is to
approximate the theoretical design with
experimental findings iteratively until the end
result is achieved. Tremendous development of
advanced manufacturing technology and
computer technology has made rapid
prototyping and computational fluid dynamics
(CFD) techniques the right alternative method of
reaching the target. Centrifugal pump impeller
geometry, which contributes maximum
complexity in flow during pump design, has
been analyzed in this work based on the
parameters derived through computer-aided
design (CAD) and CFD analysis. Using selective
laser sintering, technique the impeller designed
by CAD and two standard impellers
commercially available for the same duty
requirement is manufactured and their
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

performance is tested to know their hydraulic
efficiency. Results obtained from this work are
useful for standardizing pump impeller design
and for developing energy-efficient pumps.
B.P.M. van Esch J. Fluids Eng. May (2009)
[12] Many

centrifugal pumps have a suction
velocity profile, which is non uniform,

either by
design like in double-suction pumps, sump
pumps, and

in-line pumps, or as a result of an
installation close

to an upstream disturbance like
a pipe bend. This paper

presents an experimental
study on the effect of a non uniform

velocity profile on performance of a mixed-flow
pump and

hydrodynamic forces on the impeller.
In the experiments, a newly

dynamometer is used, equipped with six full
Wheatstone bridges

of strain gauges to measure
the six generalized force components.

It is
placed in between the shaft of the pump

and the
impeller and co rotates with the rotor system. A

high accuracy is obtained due to the
orthogonality of bridge

positioning and the
signal conditioning electronics embedded within
the dynamometer.

The suction flow distribution
to the pump is adapted using

a pipe bundle
situated in the suction pipe. Results of

measurements show the influence of the suction
flow profile and

blade interaction on pump
performance and forces. Among the most

important observations are a backward whirling
motion of the rotor

system and a considerable
steady radial force.
H.W.Oh February (2010)
[13] the effect of positive and negative curved
blade stacking on the cavitation of a mixed-flow
pump impeller has been investigated in the
present study. To this end, two types of pump
impellers with different blade stacking with no
significant difference in the non-cavitating
hydrodynamics were compared. A numerical
simulation based on the validated computational
fluid dynamics code has been carried out to
analyses the detailed flow dynamic phenomena
in the mixed-flow pump impeller. From the
predicted characteristic curves pertaining to both
the stacking conditions, superior suction
performance of the mixed flow pump impeller
with negative- curved blending has been
demonstrated over the normal operating flow
range. The computational analysis method and a
design parameter presented here in can be
effectively applied to the hydraulic design
optimization process of general-purpose
centrifugal and mixed- flow pump impellers.
The impeller of the francis type mixed flow
pump converts the mechanical rotation to the
velocity of the liquid. The impeller acts as a
spinning wheel in the pump. In spite of
extensive theoretical knowledge of fluid
dynamics and a great deal of research conducted
in the past, the design process for pumps still
relies heavily upon experimental data. There are
several reasons for it; one of the reasons is the
great variety of types, sizes, and services
demanded from them, which in turn requires a
great multiplicity of parameters to define the
design problem in hand. From Eulers
fundamental equation, we know that the total
head generated by a pump depends on many
variables like the peripheral velocity U
, the
meridional velocity C
outlet vane angle
, the
number of blades Z etc. A given head can be
developed by pump impeller designed with
various values of these variables. Though the
head developed may be approximately same, all
the designs may not be good from the point of
view of efficiency and cost of production. For
designing a new impeller, it is necessary to
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

assume some factors that give relationship
between the impeller total head and the capacity
at the design point. Optimal results of design are
obtained for a given operating conditions when
factors derived experimentally from available
high efficiency pumps are used.
Phases of pump design
A centrifugal pump design has to pass through
following phases:
Phase 01: Determination of dimensionless
parameters, which define the hydraulic flow
passage. The flow passage includes impeller
vanes and volutes.
Phase 02: Geometry of impeller, volute in
meridional and blade-to-blade planes.
Phase 03: Analysis of flow through the
hydraulic passages and prediction of
performance characteristics of pumps by
application of computational techniques such as
CFD packages.
Phase 04: Manufacture of prototype pump.
Phase 05: Testing and finalizing the design.
Various CFD packages are available to predict
the pump performance characteristics within the
acceptable limits. Above mentioned first two
phases are necessarily performed in order to
reach the third phase. My work is concerned
with the first two phases.
Design of impeller
Design of impeller includes the design of flow
passage parameters at the inlet and outlet. The
design procedure uses many dimensionless
factors: their values are based on experimental
observation rather than complete theoretical
analysis. These dimensionless factors have been
drawn against a single parameter i.e. specific
Speed of the pump. The variation of such
dimensionless number against specific speed
along with the basic mathematical relationship
for the passage of the pump gives many
parameters, which are required for drawing the
flow passage of the pump impeller [1].
Development of Vane
After determining the vane angles and
diameters, the next step in designing is to
construct the vane shape.
Vane shape should be such that the passage
should not be too long as it increases friction

Fig.4 :Velocities and vane angles plotted
against impeller radius
The velocity of the liquid relative to the impeller
W and the radial component of the absolute
velocity C
both at inlet and outlet edges of the
vanes are known and may be plotted against the
impeller radius. These points are connected by a
straight line or smooth curve, as shown in fig.
Intermediate values may be obtained from these
curves so as not to have any sudden changes to
disrupt the flow. When the values of C
and W
are known, a curve of may then be plotted
against R, since sin =C
a) Circular arc method
b) Point-by-point method
c) Hydrodynamic design method
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

Circular arc method
In this method, the impeller is arbitrarily divided
into number of concentric rings between the
radius R
and R
. The vane may be defined by
one or two arcs of a circle. Two arcs method
give better results as compared to the single arc

Fig 5: single arc method of profile

The single arc method is illustrated in fig. From
point O which is centre of rotation of impeller,
draw a line OK at an angle (
) from the line
OB. Extend the line BK to meet the ring of
radius R
at point A. From B draw a line at an
such that it intersects the bisector of line
BA at point G. An arc of a circle of radius and
centre G gives the desired vane profile. The
radius may be calculated from the formula
( )
1 1 2 2
cos * cos * * 2



In the two arc method, the vane shape is
constructed by joining arcs of two circles drawn
through points A and B.
Point-by-point method
This method of obtaining the vane shape is
given by C. Pfleiderer. It is based on the
assumption that the transition of
on the radius R and on determining the central
angle for a given Rand . The values of R and
constitute polar coordinates for a given point
in the vane surface. A smooth curve drawn
joining all such points gives the central line of
the vane.
Let be the vane angle at radius R. Then for
very small increments in radius dR we have

d R =

tan * R
d =

Where is measured in radians. Integrating
from R
to any radius R,

tan *

If is measured in degrees, then

tan *

Above equation is solved by tabular integration
assuming finite increment R.
Vanes are generally made of constant thickness
allowing certain thickness at the inlet. A thin
sharp edge will give high efficiency when the
vane angle matches with the direction of fluid
flow. But at other angular positions it drops
rapidly. An inlet edge which is generally
rounded gives somewhat lower maximum
efficiency when the vane angle matches to flow
direction but it does not drop so rapidly at other
Design Problem
In this thesis a computer program has been
developed to design a Francis type mixed flow
pump impeller for the following data:
1) Head 20 meters
2) Discharge 0.25 m
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

3) Rotational speed of the impeller is 1450
4) Allowable torsional shear stress for the
shaft material is 45.7 kg/cm

Calculation of the major parameters for the one
1. Actual speed(N
2. Power required P= x Q x H/ x 75
Where Power Q = Discharge (m
= Overall efficiency.
H = Head (m)
3. Diameter of Shaft
The shaft diameter depends upon the power it
has to transmit and the maximum permissible
deflection of the shaft. Assuming that only
torque is acting, the diameter of shaft may be
calculated by the equation.

Where p=76.36 Hp
1. Hub diameter(dh) =1.35*dsh;
2. At the back hub diameter is
3. Theoretical head Hth=h/h
4. Theoretical discharge
5. specific speed
6. Average inlet velocity Com=
7. Calculation of Outlet Diameter (D2)

8. Calculate C
= K

9. Calculate inlet velocity through eye Inlet
^ (1/2)

10. Width of impeller at inlet
11. Tangential velocity at inlet
12. Inlet vane angle
/ W)
13. Outlet vane angle

14. Average exit velocity
15. Outlet tangential velocity
16. Impeller width at outlet
/ (H)

17. Relative velocity at inlet
18. Relative velocity at outlet
/ Sin
19. Calculate Cu2= U
20. Calculate degree of reaction
r= 1- (C
/ 2* U
After calculating the main dimensions of
impeller the vane shaping is being done. For this
a linear variation in C
is assumed given by

2 1
2 1 1 2
2 1
2 1
* *
r r
r C r C
r r
m m m m

A linear variation for relative velocity can not be
assumed for two reasons:
1) There exists a large variation in relative
velocity at inlet and relative velocity at
2) A linear variation in W will restrict to the
generation of a single shape only.
Hence, for the above said reasons the variation
in W is given by the following equation

q q
q q
q q
r r
r W r W
r r
2 1
2 1 1 2
2 1
2 1
* *

Various vane shapes can be obtained by giving
various values of q, either positive , negative
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
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or decimal; except zero because for q = 0
becomes an undefined quantity.

q q
q q
q q
r r
r W r W
r r
2 1
2 1 1 2
2 1
2 1
* *

In this computer program Point-by-Point method
is used for generating the vane shape.
Increments in radius are calculated
r r
m m 1 2

where n is the number of
steps. The results are being tabulated as shown
in the following table 1.
is the span angle. A
plot of R and generates the required vane
The results of the design problem with the
following input data are tabulated and results of
manual calculation and calculation made by the
program are compared, and the vane shape along
the mean streamline is generated.
Table 1: Input and Output data
Input data:
Head =20 m
Discharge Q =0.25 m
Rotational speed N=1450 rpm
Allowable torsional stress T
=45.7 kg/cm
Output data:

Parameter Symbol Result

Specific speed



Overall Efficiency



Hydraulic Efficiency



Volumetric Efficiency





79.365079 HP

Shaft diameter


0.0351 m

Hub Diameter


0.047385 m

Inlet diameter


0.209211714 m

Blade angle at inlet



Impeller inlet velocity


5.0513 m/sec

Outlet diameter


0.3087 m

Breadth at Outlet


0.065197 m

Impeller Outlet Velocity


3.9552 m/sec

Outlet blade angle



Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
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Point by Point Method
Where, n=10, q=1
Table 2: Point by Point Method
R(m) Theta
0.104605857 20.89763017 0
0.109582746 21.37106615 6.887127038
0.114559635 21.8901151 13.30250383
0.119536542 22.46176359 19.27842529
0.124513413 23.09451736 24.84259985
0.129490303 23.79884256 30.01878883
0.134467191 24.58777372 34.82730866
0.13944408 25.47776528 39.28542254
0.144420969 26.48991416 43.40763424
0.149397853 27.65175743 47.20589536
0.154374747 28.99999998 50.689725

Fig. 6 : Vane Profile
Main dimensions of the francis type mixed flow
pump was calculated by using the computer
program developed in c++ and the vane shapes
have been plotted by taking value of q = 1 and
it can be seen from this plots that for positive
values of q the variation in relative velocity
from inlet to outlet is gradual but the span angle
is large indicating a large length of vane and
hence a higher head loss due to friction and
increased hydraulic losses.
1. Stepanoff .A.J. (1967), Centrifugal and
Axial Flow Pumps John Wiley, New York.
2. Lal J. and Church C. (1973), Centrifugal
Pumps and Blowers, Metropolitan Book
Company, Delhi.
3. Neumann B. (1991), The interaction
Between Geometry and Performance of a
centrifugal Pump, Mechanical Engineering
Publications London
4. Gahlot V.K. and Nyiri A. (1993), Impeller
Pumps, Theory and Design,
M.A.C.T., Bhopal.
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN 0976-7916
JERS/Vol.II/ Issue I/January-March 2011/37-48

5. Chandraker A.L. (1996), A user friendly,
interactive, visual C++ based design code
for centrifugal pump, Proceedings of 23

National Conference on Fluid Mechanics
and Fluid Power.
6. Panwalkar A.S. and Bhaskar C.
(1996),Computer aided design of radial and
Mixed flow Pump, Proceedings of 30
National Conference on Fluid Mechanics
and Fluid Power.
7. Das S., Das P.K., Maiti B. (1998), CAD of
centrifugal pump impeller with blades of
single curvature, Proceedings of 25

National Conference on Fluid Mechanics
and Fluid Power.
8. A. Goto and H.Harada oct (1998) On the
design criteria for supperession of secondary
flows in centrifugal and mixed flow
impellers. J. Turbomach.Oct1998
Volume 120,
9. E . S. yoon,HWOh,M K Chung, J S ha Nov
2(1998) Performance perdiction of mixed
flow pump. Dept of Thermal and Fluid
System Korea instituted of machinery and
10. H W Oh, K-Y Kim November 1/(2001))
Mean streamline performance analysis of
mixed-flow fan impellers covering the low
flowrate characteristics. Proceedings of the
Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A
Journal of Power and Energy
11. Rajenthirakumar and K. A. Jagadeesh

July(2006) Analysis of interaction between
geometry and efficiency of impeller pump
using rapid prototyping. Department of
Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of
Technology, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, 641
004, Tamil Nadu, India.
B.P.M. van Esch May (2009) Performance
and Radial Loading of a Mixed- Flow Pump
Under Non-Uniform Suction flow. J. Fluids
Engg. May 2009 Volume 131.