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Unit 1. Food and health

1. The foods we eat every day make up our diet.
2. We need food to:
a. Grow.
b. Give us energy so that we can move and work.
c. Keep our bodies warm.
d. Repair damage to the bodies.
e. Keep the bodies healthy.
3. We can classify food into:
a. Carbohydrates.
b. Proteins.
c. Fats.
d. Vitamins.
e. Minerals.
4. There are two things that also important for our diet:
a. Fibre or roughage.
b. Water.
5. Foods with carbohydrates give us energy. Example:
a. Foods contain starch:

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b. Foods contain sugar:
Sugar cane.
Soft drink.
6. Test for Starch:
a. Use iodine solution.
b. If starch is present, the iodine turns a blue-black
7. One bottle of soft drink at least has nine teaspoons of
8. Proteins are used for:
a. Growth and repairing damage to the body.
b. Our energy if the body does not have enough
carbohydrates or fats.
9. Proteins come from:
a. Plants: beans, leafy green vegetables, soya beans, and
b. Animal: milk, cheese, fish, meat, and egg white.
10. The child who does not enough proteins cannot growing
properly with the disease called kwashiorkor.
11. Test for proteins:
a. Use biuret test.
b. Drops a few of biuret reagent to the food.
c. Biuret reagent is blue.
d. The colour becomes purple if protein is present.
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12. Fats gives us energy more than carbohydrates.
13. Fats divided into:
a. Solids: fatty meat, nuts, butter, margarine.
b. Liquids: egg yolk, cooking oil.
14. Milk contains cream. The cream is mainly fat. Milk wit a
lot of fat is called full cream milk.
15. Milk with most of the cream is removed is called skimmed
16. Test for fats and oils:
a. Rub a little of the foos on filter paper.
b. A translucent marks forms if fats or oils present.
17. Some people who live in a very cold place will eat food
that is rich in fats, such as:
a. Whale meat.
b. Fish.
c. Fish oil.
18. The fats help to keep them warm.
19. Vitamins protects us from illness.
20. Vitamin A keeps our skin and eyes healthy:
a. Milk
b. Butter
c. Green vegetables.
d. Carrots.
e. Fish liver oil.

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21. Vitamin C keeps us from colds and flu and keeps our
teeth and gums healthy:
a. Orange.
b. Lemon.
c. Papaya.
d. Tomato.
e. Green vegetables.
22. Vitamin D is needed to make strong bones and teeth:
a. Milk
b. Eggs
c. Cheese
d. Butter
e. Fish liver oil
23. Minerals:
a. Iron
Keep our body healthy.
Making a substance that carries oxygen around the
Red meat, liver, sehellfish, green vegetables.
b. Calcium
Help us to make strong bones and teeth.
Green vegetables, eggs, milk, and milk products such
as cheese.

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c. Fluoride
Help preventing tooth decay.
Fluoride is in your toothpaste.
In many countries, fluoride is added to drinking
water to prevent tooth decay.
24. Fibre comes from plants wich helps food to move through
the body:
a. Fruits,
b. vegetables,
c. cereals or grains: rice, wheat, corn
d. brown rice has more fibre than white rice.
25. Most foods contain some water.
26. We got water from foods and drinks.
27. Green vegetables and fruits are important in our diets
because they contain water, proteins, vitamins, minerals,
fibre, and a little fat.
28. Over 90% of the weight of many fruits and vegetables is
29. For our bodies to be healthy, we need a balanced diet.
30. A balanced diet contains the right kinds of foods.
31. A balanced diet must also include water and fibre.
32. We can show a balances diet using a food pyramid .
33. A balanced diet includes all the foods in the food

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34. We must eat fewer foods from the top of the pyramid.
35. We must eat more foods at the bottom of the pyramid.
36. A diet with too much or too little of one kindof food is
37. Fast food is often unbalanced.
38. It has too much fat and carbohydrate, and not enough
proteins, vitamins, minerals, and fibre.
39. Too much sugar in the blood will cause a disease called
40. A person suffering from diabetes has to take regular
insulin injections.
41. If we eat too much food with a lot of sugar and fat, we
can become overweight, that is called obesity.
42. Obesity causes health problems such as heart disease
because the heart has to work harder.
43. A diet with too much sugar will cause teeth decay.
44. Proteins are needed for growth and if we do not eat
enough foods with proteins, we will lose weight and
become very thin.
45. A diet with too much sugar will cause teeth decay.

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Unit 2. Human Body System
1. Systems in human body:
a. The digestive system.
b. The movement system.
c. The transport system.
d. The skeletal system.
e. The muscular system.
2. The system in your body work together to help you to:
a. Grow.
b. Stand upright.
c. Move
d. Breathe
e. Reproduce
f. Respond to changes.
3. The parts of our body that help us to breathe are called
the breathing system.
4. You body needs air to stay alive.
5. The breathing system is also called the respiratory
6. Breathing in and out is called respiration.
7. The main parts of breathing system:
a. Nose
b. Windpipe
c. Lungs
d. Diaphragm.
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8. Most of the time, ypu breathe through your nose and
sometimes you breathe through your mouth.
9. Air then goes to your windpipe aand then to your lungs.
10. Around the lungs are blood vessels.
11. Te breathe in and out, a muscle moves the lungs, its
called diaphragm.
12. We breathe about 13 or 14 times a minute.
13. The body uses oxygen to get energy from the food we
14. When you breathe in, air enters your lungs.
15. The oxygen in part of the air goes into the blood vessels.
16. The blood carries the oxygen to all parts of the body.
17. When you breathe out, the carbon dioxide is removed
from the lungs.
18. The breathing system is important because it:
a. Takes oxygen into the body.
b. Removes carbon dioxide from the body.
19. Dolphins are mammals and have lungs.
20. They breathe through a hole in their heads.
21. Fish breathe through gills.
22. The water has dissolved air.
23. This air moves into the blood vessels in the gills.
24. Crabs and shrimps also use gills.

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25. Frogs breathe with lungs and through the skin.
26. A tadpole breathe using gills.
27. Some insects like the grasshoppers breathe through rows
of small holes along their bodies.
28. Earthworms breathe through a moist skin.
29. Air pullution and cigarette contain substances that harma
the lungs.
30. Some ways to keep the lungs healthy:
a. Exercise makes the lung stronger.
b. Wear a mask if there is a lot of air pollution.
c. Do not smoke.
31. Strong lungs are better in taking the air the body needs.
32. The smoke causes coughing, breathing problems, and lung
33. There are many germms around us that can cause lung
infections such as clods and the flu.
34. Germs are micro-organisms that cause disease.
35. Some ways to keep your lungs healthy:
a. Washing hands with soap and water .
b. Get enough sleep to fight infections.
36. The breaking down of food is called digestion.
37. Fibre in food is not digested but it helps food to move
through digestive system easily.

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38. The journey of the food.
a. The mouth.
The journey begins from your mouth.
Your teeth chew the food and cut it into small
Saliva makes the food soft and moist and easy to
The saliva starts to digest the food.
b. The gullet.
The food moves from the mouth down the gullet into
your stomach.
c. The stomach.
The food is broken down into even smaller pieces.
After some time, it looks like a thick soup.
The food then moves into the small intestine.
d. The small intestine.
Digestion is compeleted here.
The food is now in very small pieces.
These pieces move through the walls of the small
intestine into the blood.
The blood takes the digested food to all parts of
the body.
e. The large intestine.
Some food is not digested but goes into the large
Water is removed from the food.
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The food left is waste.
It moves into the rectum.
f. The rectum
The waste is stored in the rectum.
When you go to the toilet, the waste passes out of
the body through the anus.
39. Inside the large intestine, there are many bacteria.
40. They eat undigested food and produce gases which come
out the body through the anus.
41. Some ways to make food soft and moist so it will be move
easily through the digestive system.
a. Drink plenty of water to get food moist.
b. Eat food with fibre, such as fruits, vegetables, and
c. Exercise.
42. Some sharks do not need to chew food.
43. Germs in food and water can make us sick, such as A boy
buying food and drinks from a dirty shop.
44. Disease caused by food and water are cholera and food
45. Some ways to keep our digestive system healthy:
a. Drink boiled water. Boiling kills germs in water.
b. Eat cooked food.
c. Wash all fruits and vegetables before you eat them.
d. Seafood must be well-cooked before it is eaten.
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46. Substances need to be carried around the body using
transport system.
47. To transport means to carry things from ane place to
48. The transport system is also called circulatory system.
49. The transport system carries digested foos, water, and
oxygen to all parts of the body and wastes carries away
from the body to be removed.
50. The transport system is made up of three parts:
a. The heart.
Made of strong muscles.
Works like a pump.
Pumps blood to all parts of the body.
b. Blood vessels.
c. Blood.
51. When you are resting, your heart beats about 72 times a
52. Two kinds of blood vessels are arteries and veins.
a. Arteries carry blood from the heart to all parts of the
b. Veins carry blood from the body to the heart.
53. The blood carries substances such as digested food,
water, oxygen, and carbondioxide.
54. These substances are carried around the body.
55. Blood flows in blood vessels. Blood contains red blood
cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
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56. Red blood cells contain a substance called haemoglobin.
57. Haemoglobin combines with oxygen and carries it around
the body.
58. The red blood cells are bright red when they carry
59. To make haemoglobin, it needs mineral iron.
60. Platelets help blood to clot when we have a cut and bleed.
61. White blood cells help to kill harmfull bacteria that enter
the body.
62. How blood flow around the body is called the circulation
of the blood.
a. In the lungs, the blood collects oxygen from the air we
breathed in. the blood then flows to the heart.
b. The heart pumps this blood to all parts of the body.
The body uses the oxygen and produces carbon
c. The blood pumps this blood to the lungs. The carbon
dioxide passes into the lungs. We breathe out the
carbon dioxide.
d. The blood, with the carbon dioxide, returns to the
63. Blood rich in oxygen is dark red in colour. This is shown in
64. Blood rich in carbon dioxide is light red in colour. This is
shown in blue.

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65. Some ways to keep your heart healthy;
a. Exercise.
b. Eat a variety of healthy foods. Do not eat food with a
lot of fat or sugar.
c. Dont smoke because it can damages the heart and
blood vessels.
d. Dont become overweight cause it makes heart has to
work very hard.
66. If a large vessel gets blocked and the heart stops
beating, it is called heart attack.
Blood Type Blood Type each can receive
A A or O
B B or O
AB All types of blood
67. Systems work together:
a. Gema is doing exercises.
The skeletal system and the muscular system work
The breathing system provides the air she needs.
The transport system takes the oxygen she
breathes to the all pasrts of her body.
b. Susilo feels hungry and eats some foods.
The food is digested in the digestive system.
The transport system takes the digested food to
the all parts of his body.
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Unit 3.Plants and Food
1. To get food, plants make their own food.
2. Sun is important for plant to make food.
3. The leaves in a plant are like food factories where making
food for a plant.
4. The process by which plants do to make food using light
5. The word photo means light and synthesis means putting
6. For photosynthesis, leaves use water, carbon dioxide,
and energy from the sunlight.
7. The process of photosynthesis:
a. Water from the soil is absorbed by the roots and
carried up to the leaves.
b. Carbon dioxide is a gas in the air. It enters the
leaf through tiny openings (holes) on the surface of
the leaf that is called STOMATA.
c. The leaves contain green substances called
chlorophyll which absorbs light.
d. The light energy changes the water and carbon
dioxide into sugar which is the food for the plant
and oxygen which released into the air through
8. The food produced during photosynthesis is carried to all
other parts of the plants.
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9. The food provides the plant with energy to carry out its
life processes such as growth and producing flowers,
fruit, and seeds.
10. Photosynthesis is important for all living things for two
a. Plants make food and animals eat plants to get
b. Plants produce oxygen and animals use the oxygen
for breathing.
11. If a plant produces more sugar than it needs, the extra
sugar is stored in different parts of the plant.
12. Many plants change the sugar into starch because starch
is easier to store.
13. The stored food is used when the plant cannot make
enough food.
14. The examples of foods we eat that come from different
parts of a plant:
a. Leaves: lettuce, spinach, kangkung.
b. Roots: carrot, sweet potato, taro, cassava.
c. Stems: lotus root, potato.
d. Fruits: tomato, mango, papaya.
e. Seeds: peanut, bean.
15. The animals that eat plants are called HERBIVORE.
16. The animals that eat other animals are called

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17. The source of energy in all food chains is THE SUN.
18. Plants use the CARBON DIOXIDE produced by animals
to do photosynthesis.
19. Animals use the OXYGEN produced by plants for

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Unit 4. Adaptation for Survival
1. The features an organism has that help it survive are
called adaptations.
2. The organisms are said to be adapted to their habitat.
3. Organisms that are well adapted are able to:
a. Get food, water, and light.
b. Protect themselves from enemies.
c. Survive in wet or dry places.
d. Survive in hot or cold places.
4. Organisms have two kinds of adaptations:
a. Structural adaptations.
b. Behavioral adaptations.
5. Structural adaptations are parts of the organism that
help it to survive.
6. Behavioral adaptations are the ways an organism behaves
to survive.
7. Adaptations of water animals:
a. Blowholes
b. Skin
c. Gills
d. Air bubbles
e. Air tubes
8. Water mammals such as whales and dolphins breathe
through a blowhole on the top of their heads which allows
them to breathe when most of the body under water.
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9. Amphibians such as frog can live out of the water use the
skin to breathe.
10. Most water animals such as fish, shrimps, and tadpoles
have gills to take the oxygen in and giving out the carbon
11. The water beetle and the water boatman swim under
water to get food.
12. The water beetle and the water boatman use hairs on
their bodies to trap air bubbles and breathe this air when
under the water.
13. The larva and nymphs live in muddy water. They breathe
through air tubes that stick out above the water surface.
14. Mangrove plants live in muddy water and the roots usually
get air from the soil.
15. In some mangroves, parts of the roots stick out the
water surface to get air.
16. The lungfish has both gills and lungs.
17. Adaptations for moving in water:
a. Streamlined body shape.
b. Fins.
c. Tail.
18. A shape that allows for easy movement in water and air is
called streamlined.
19. Many water animals have long, smooth bodies which allow
them to move quickly through water.
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20. Instead of arm and legs, water animals have fins and a
tail to move in the water.
21. Seals and sea turtles do not have fins and tail but they
have flippers to move in the water.
22. Ducks and penguins have webbed feet to help the move in
the water and on the land.
23. Most fish have a swim bladder inside their bodies.
24. A swim bladder is a balloon of air which helps them to
25. Adaptations for moving in air:
a. Wings.
b. Streamlined body shape.
c. Feathers.
d. Hollow bones.
26. ll flying animals have wings and light in weight.
27. Birds have a streamlined body shape.
28. Birds are the only animals with feathers which keep birds
warm and light.
29. Birds have bones that are hollow but strong.
30. Feather and hollow bones reduce the birds weight to
make flying easier.
31. Some birds do not fly such as chickens, penguins, and
ostriches. They have small wings or bodies that are
32. Bats are mammals that can fly.
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33. Bats wings like a human arm and hand with a thin skin
between the hand and the body, and between each finger
34. Some insects can move or beat their wings 1 000 times a
35. Organisms that catch and eat other animals are
36. The adaptations of the predators which allow them to
catch their food:
a. Good senses.
b. Speed.
c. Strong Jaws, claws, horns and beaks.
d. Hunting in groups.
37. Predators often have a good sense of sight, hearing and
smell to find their prey.
38. The good senses of the predators useful when night-time
and when prey is small and camouflaged. Example:
a. Owls have large eyes and good hearing to see and hear
their prey.
b. Bats have poor eyesight but very well in hearing.
c. Reptiles such as snakes and lizards have a good sense
of smell with flicking their tongue to smell prey.
39. The predators run fast and they have strong legs.
40. Fast predators are often smaller and lighter in weight.
41. The fastest land animal is cheetah.
42. Cheetah can run in 120 km an hour.
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43. The fastest bird is falcons.
44. Some falcons can dive in over 300 km an hour.
45. Most predators have strong jaws and claws to hold their
prey tightly. Example:
a. Hawks holding their preys with their claws.
b. Eagles.
c. Lions holding their preys in their jaws.
d. Tigers.
e. The jaws of snakes are adapted to swallow whole body
of their prey.
46. Birds also have beaks to get the food they need.
a. The hummingbird has a long thin beak that is good for
getting liquid nectar from flowers.
b. Eagles have a sharp, curved beak that is good for
tearing meat.
47. Soma animals work in groups to hunt food such as:
a. Ants feeding on a dead cricket.
b. Killer whales.
c. A pack of Wolves feeding on a deer.
48. Soma plants are adapted to eat animals, such as the
Venus Fly trap and Pitcher Plants.
49. The plants using their colour and sweet-smelling nectar to
attract small animals such as insects.
50. Soma animals have colours or shapes that make them
difficult to see which is called camouflage.
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51. Adaptation of some animals to prevent predators from
eating them:
a. Camouflage.
b. Shells, scales, spikes, and horns.(Body coverings).
c. Poisons.
d. Living in groups such as elephant.
52. The fur of some animals changes colour in different
seasons, such as the fur of the Arctic Fox is BROWN in
summer but WHITE in winter.
53. Shells, scales, spikes, and horns are hard and strong
which is difficult for predator to eat animals that have
them. For example:
a. Most reptiles and fish have scales.
b. Some reptiles also have shells such as tortoises and
c. Hedgehogs have sharp spikes.
d. Goats and deer have horns.
54. Shells, scales, spikes, and horns are useful for animals
that move slowly to escape from predators.
55. Snakes, insects and spiders have stings and bites that
contain poison.
56. Poison used to kill prey and protecting from predators.
For example:
a. Bees use stings.
b. The skin of poison dart frog.

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57. Soma ways for adapting to get sunlight:
a. Trees have thick, strong stems to hold up their
branches and leaves upright to get sunlight.
b. Vines such as grapes, have thin, weak stems, and
cannot grow upright; they climb up walls, fences, or
other plants.
c. Ferns have large leaves to get much sunlight.
58. Surviving in hot places:
a. Camel.
The camels hump stores fat that provides energy.
Camel is able to drink a lot of water in one time.
Camel stores water in its blood.
Camel sweats very little.
b. Elephant
Have large ears to lose heat quickly.
c. Prairie dogs
Stay under the ground or in the shade during the
Come out at night to hunt for food.
d. The cactus plant:
Stores water in its stems.
Many roots to absorb water when it rains.
Leaves like needles to reduce water loss and prevent
animals from eating it.

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59. Surviving in the cold places:
a. The seals and whales have a layer of fat under the
b. The polar bear has both fur and a thick layer of fat.
c. Some trees lose their leaves and remain inactive.
d. Pine and fir trees remain green because they have
needle-like leaves which reduce water loss.
1. Upright stems
2. Climbing on supports
1. Leaves that float on
2. Leaves with air spaces.
1. Less sweating
2. Large ears.
3. Hide in shade or
1. Special stems, roots, and
1. Fur
2. Feathers
3. Fat
4. Winter rest
5. migration
1. Loss of leaves.
2. Needle-like leaves.

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Unit 5. Changes in Matter
1. There are two kinds of changes:
a. Physical changes.
b. Chemical changes.
2. Physical changes:
a. When gold is heated, it is melting. It looks different
but it is the same substances.
b. Ice melts to form water. Cooling the water changes it
to ice again.
3. Chemical changes:
a. Iron rusts when exposed to the air. Rust is a new
substance or poduct. Its difficult to change the rust
back into iron.
4. Physical changes involve changes of state and easy to
reverse, it is also called temporary changes.
5. Chemical changes are difficult to reverse, it is also called
permanent changes.
6. In most physical and chemical changes, there are also
changes in energy:
a. Changes involving heat.
b. Changes involving light.
c. Changes involving electricity.

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7. Two physical changes involving heat you already know are:
a. Changes of state such as melting and boiling:
When water is heated it is changing from liquid to
b. Expansion and contraction.
Solid expands when heated such as the steel bridge
exppands on hot day.
8. Two chemical changes that involve heat:
a. When sugar is heated, it decomposes (breaks down) to
form a black solid which is called carbon.
b. Burning. Heat is given out and new substances are
formed such as when charcoal burns, carbon dioxide is
9. Two chemical changes involving light.
a. Photosynthesis. Plants change carbon dioxide and
water into sugar using light and sugar as a new
substance is formed.
b. Photography. When light falls onto a photographic film,
a chemical change take place and produces dark areas
on the film.
10. The image produced on photographic film is called a
11. Light causes chemical changes in the skin, produce a tan
and sunburn and vitamin D for the growth of healthy
bones and teeth.

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12. Changes involving electricity:
a. Electricity passes through the filament of the light
bulb ang becomes hot and gives out heat and light.
b. A gold-plated watch, a copper plated key, a silver-
plated cup is done using electricity which is called
13. The slow decomposition of plants or animals is called
decay or rotting.
14. Physical and chemical changes in matter happen when
substances are mixed:
a. Dissolving salt in water (Physical changes).
b. Fruits salts fizzing in water.
15. Micro-organisms are very small organisms.
16. We need microscope to see micro-organisms.
17. Bacteria and some fungi cause chemical changes in
18. Mould is a fungus which grows on food such as fruit and
19. Mould decomposes the food into other substances.
20. The slow decomposition of plants or animals is called
decay or rotting.
21. Bacteria and fungi decompose dead plants and animals and
cause food decay.
22. The substances that have been made by the
decomposition is useful for plants as the substances for
their growth.
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Unit 6. Types of Force
Friction and Gravity
1. The force of friction is a force that acts when two
surfaces rub against each other.
2. The surfaces may be solids, liquids or gases.
3. Friction does three things:
a. Slows down or stops a moving object (friction as an
opposes movement).
Friction between the golf ball and the grass slows
down and stops the golf ball.
b. Friction produces heat such as rub your hands
together quickly.
c. Friction wears away materials.
The wind blows sand against the rock which wears
away the rock.
4. Many years ago, people used friction to make fire by
rubbing a hard stick on a soft stick.
5. Friction is not the same on different surfaces.
a. It is more difficult to move a box an a rough surface.
b. It is easier to move a box on a smooth surface.

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6. Friction is useful, example:
a. To walk or run, we need friction between our feet and
the ground. Without friction we slip and fall over.
b. Air rubs against the inside of the parachute so the
parachute fall slowly.
c. Friction holds the lid on a jar.
d. The bottom of sports shoes are rough to increase
friction between the shoes and the ground and
prevents people from slipping.
e. When you write with a pencil, friction between the
paper and the pencil lead rubs off small pieces of lead.
f. Friction between the water and the moving ship slows
down the ship.
g. Friction has worn away the rubber on the tire.
7. Friction can be a problem because it slows down moving
objects and wears away objects.
8. Friction can also cause moving parts in a machine to
become very hot.
9. The ways to reduce friction:
a. Smoothen surfaces.
b. Lubrication.
c. Streamlining.
d. Wheel, rollers, and balls.

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10. The streamlined shape:
a. Reduce friction between water and the animals.
b. Making aero planes to move easier through air.
c. Making boats to move easier through water.
11. Small metal balls called ball bearings are placed between
moving parts.
12. Ball bearings are used in wheels of cars, bicycles, and
13. A force that does not touch the object is a non-contact
14. The force of gravity is the force that pulls object down
to the earth.
15. Some effects of gravity:
a. The apple falls down.
b. The diver is pulled towards the earths surface.
c. Change the speed of skier who goes down the hill.
d. Water flows down.
16. The pull of gravity on an object is called weight.
17. We measure weight using spring balances.
18. Some spring balances the spring stretches and others
19. Mass is the amount of matter an object has.
20. Weight is a force. Mass is not a force.

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Unit 7. Types of Forces
1. Most magnets are made from steel.
2. Magnets have different size and shape:
a. Rod magnet.
b. Bar magnet.
c. Ring magnet.
d. Button magnet.
e. Horseshoe magnet.
f. U-shaped magnet.
3. A rock that is natural magnet was found in China 400
years ago, it is called lodestone.
4. When a magnet pulls an object towards it, we say that
the magnet attracts the object.
5. A magnet attracts these objects:
a. Thumbtacks.
b. Metal paper clips.
c. Stapler.
d. Scissors.
e. Metal ruler.

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6. A magnet does not attract these objects.
a. Exercise books.
b. Plastic water bottle.
c. Plastic lunch box.
d. Pencils.
e. Sticky tape.
f. Eraser.
g. Plastic ruler.
7. Materials that are attracted to a magnet are called
magnetic materials such as iron and steel.
8. Materials that are not attracted to a magnet are called
non-magnetic materials such as paper, plastic, glass,
wood, and rubber.
9. Most metal are non-magnetic materials such as gold,
aluminum, copper, and tin.
10. Properties of magnet:
a. Attract magnetic material.
b. Have two poles: N-POLE and S-POLE.
c. Point in a north-south direction when freely hanging.
d. Like poles repel and unlike poles attract.
e. Magnetic force can pass through non-magnetic
The force of a magnet can pass through a thin
plastic sheet.
11. The two ends of a magnet are called the poles.
12. All magnets have two poles.
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13. The magnetic force is strongest at the two poles.
14. The N-pole (North Pole) of a magnet is sometimes
coloured BLUE and the S-pole (South Pole) is RED.
15. Two north poles or south poles are called like poles.
16. One north pole and one south pole are called unlike poles.
17. When we place two north poles near each other, they
push each other away, they push each other away, we say
they repel.
18. When we place the north pole of one magnet near the
south pole of another magnet, they pull each other
together, we say they attract.
19. Therefore like poles repel and unlike poles attract.
20. There are several ways to make magnets:
a. Stroking method.
b. Electrical method.
c. Induction method.
21. Stroking method;
a. Stroke a steel nail with one pole of a bar magnet.
b. Start from one end of the nail.
c. Move the magnet along the nail.
d. Then bring it up high above the nail and back to the
starting point.
e. Do this about 20 times.
f. Bring the steel nail near some paper clips and the steel
nail will attract the paper clips.
g. The steel nail become a magnet.
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22. With stroking method, the nail remains a magnet for a
long time which is called permanent magnet.
23. Changing a steel nail into a magnet is a physical change.
24. Electrical method:
a. Wind a piece of covered wire about 20 times around a
steel nail.
b. Remove the covering from the ends of the wire.
c. Join the ends of the wire to a battery. Leave it for a
few minutes.
d. Bring the steel nail near some paper clips. The steel
nail attracts the paper clips.
e. The steel nail becomes a magnet.
25. A magnet made using electricity is also called an
26. Induction method:
a. Hold a steel nail near some paper clips.
b. Now bring one pole of a bar magnet to the nail.
c. The steel nail attracts the paper clips.
d. The steel nail has become a magnet.
27. The nail becomes a magnet without being touched or
stroked which is called induced magnetism.
28. The steel nail is only temporary magnets.

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29. Uses of magnets:
a. Compass.
b. Magnetic buttons.
c. Loudspeakers.
d. Door stoppers.
e. Separating materials.
f. Electric motors.
g. Maglev trains.
30. A compass has a needle which is magnet.
31. The needle points in a north-south direction.
32. The compass is used to find the direction.
33. A loudspeaker has a strong magnet which is used to make
the cone vibrate and produce sound.
34. Very strong electromagnets are used to separate iron and
steel objects from non-magnetic materials.
35. Maglev trains are a new kind of train that floats above
the track because strong magnet lift the train.

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Unit 8. Simple Machines
1. Machines makes work easier.
2. There are machines that are less complex which is called
simple machine.
3. There are different kinds of simple machines:
a. Lever.
b. Inclined plane.
c. Wheel and axle.
d. Pulley and gears.
4. Levers make it easier to move or lift objects.
5. A lever is made of a rod that turns about a fixed point.
6. A lever usually has one rod.
7. The example of lever:
a. Scissors.
b. A wheelbarrow.
c. A bottle opener.
d. A claw hammer.
e. A nutcracker.
8. An inclined plane or ramp is a flat surface at an angle.
9. It is easier to move a heavy object up an inclined plane
than to lift it vertically.
10. Uses of inclined plane:
a. Stairs make it easier to climb.
b. Moving a heavy load into the van.
c. A zig-zag road up a mountain.
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11. A wedge has two inclined planes.
12. A wedge is used to push things apart such as a chisel and
an axe.
13. A screw is a special kind of inclined plane.
14. A screw moves with a turning movement.
15. Uses of screws:
a. Holding one material into another.
b. A car jack has a screw to lift a car easily.
c. A vice to hold something tightly.
d. A corkscrew to remove corks from bottles.
16. A vice is used in workshops to hold materials such as
wood firmly.
17. Gears are wheels with teeth.
18. When one gear turns, it makes the other gear turn.
19. Gears also change the speed of a turning wheel.
20. When the large gear turns faster and in the opposite
21. Uses of gears:
a. A bicycle has two gear wheels joined by a chain.
b. Gears in a watch.
c. A toy car with gears.
22. Uses of pulley:
a. To raise the flag.
b. To open and close curtains.
c. To lift a load.
d. A crane use pulleys to lift the log.
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e. Sailing boats use pulleys to raise the sails.
f. To lift the engine out of the car.
23. Wheel and axle is a wheel joined to an axle.
24. The wheel and axle helps object turns easily.
25. The examples of wheel and axle:
a. A door handle.
b. A rolling pin to flatten the food.
c. A screwdriver.
d. Cars and trucks use wheel and axles.
e. A bicycle pedal.
f. The handle of the water tap.
26. Combinations of simple machines:
a. A bicycle.
The handlebars are kind of wheel and axle.
The brake handles are levers.
A bicycle also has gears.
b. Scissors consist of a lever and a wedge.
c. A door consists of a lever and a wheel and axle.

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Unit 9. Light
1. Things that give off light are sources of light.
2. Our main source of light energy is THE SUN.
3. The sun is a star which is 150 kilometers from the earth.
4. Sources of light:
a. The sun.
b. Fires.
c. Electricity.
5. Without light energy, plants would not grow and the
earth would always be dark, there would be no life on
6. We get light when electricity is changed to light energy.
7. Some insects give out light of their own such as fireflies
and glow-worms.
8. How light travels:
a. Light travels fast.
b. Light travels in straight lines.
9. Light which is traveling in a straight line make shadow.
10. Long time ago, people used sundials to tell the time.
11. The light reflects off the water which is called the
reflection of light.
12. the reflection of light happens when:
a. We see things.
b. Images in a mirror.
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13. The moon doesnt produce the light but we can see the
Moon because the Moon reflects the light from the sun.
14. Therefore, we can see objects if:
a. It is a source of light.
b. It reflects light.
15. What we see in a mirror is called an image.
16. Periscopes in submarines are using two mirrors to see
above the surface of the sea.
17. White light is a mixture of colours.
18. We can separate the colours using a glass prism.
19. The White light which passes through the prism will make
seven colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo,
and violet, which is called the spectrum of light.
20. A rainbow forms when sunlight passes through the drops
of water.
21. Materials that allow light to pass through them are called
transparent such as glass and clear plastic.
22. Materials that do not allow light to pass through them
are called opaque such as wood, metal, rubber, cardboard,
clay, and some plastics.
23. Materials that allow some light to pass through them are
called translucent.

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Unit 10. Rocks and Soil
1. Structure means the parts of something made of and how
the parts are connected to each other.
2. Structure of the earth:
a. The crust (The Outer Layer).
Made of solid rock.
It is between 5 km and 50 km thick.
Human live on the crust.
b. The mantle.
About 3 000 km thick.
Made of rocks.
The inner mantle is hot liquid rock called magma.
c. The core.
The centre of the earth.
About 3 400 km thick.
It is very hot and contains a lot of iron.
The core has two parts:
The outer core, very hot liquid.
The inner core, hot solid.
3. Properties of rocks:
a. Colour: white, black, grey, mixture colour.
b. Presence of crystal.

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c. Hardness
If a rock can be scratched by a finger nail, it is very
If a rock can be scratched by a nail, it is soft.
If a rock cannot be scratched by a nail, it is hard.
d. Texture: rough or sooth.
4. Kinds of rocks:
a. Igneous.
b. Sedimentary.
c. Metamorphic.
5. Igneous rock is the rock which is form when molten rock
from volcanoes cools down such as granite and pumice.
6. Igneous rock:
a. Hard.
b. Contain crystals of various size and colour.
7. Pumice can be float on water.
8. Pumice contains many small spaces which make them light
enough to float.
9. Sediment is material that falls to the bottom of the sea.
10. The weight from the top layers pushes the lower layers
together to form rock which is called sedimentary rock,
such as limestone (Chalk).
11. Sedimentary rocks:
a. Soft.
b. May show layers.
c. Sometimes contain fossils.
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12. Metamorphic (means change) rocks are the rocks which
are form when igneous or sedimentary rocks are heated
or compressed together and change, such as marble which
is formed from limestone.
13. Metamorphic rocks:
a. Very hard.
b. May show layers.
c. Sometimes smooth and shiny.
14. Rocks will slowly break up into smaller pieces in three
a. By weathering.
b. By abrasion.
c. By the growth of plants in rocks.
15. Weathering is the breaking down of rocks into smaller
pieces by the action of the weather, for example:
a. The force of waves.
b. Change in temperature which is common in the deserts.
c. Water can get into rocks which is common on
16. Rivers, the, sea, and the wind can carry very small pieces
of solid which rub against the rocks and slowly wear them
17. Sometimes the action of plants on rocks is included as
18. Plants often grow in the cracks of rocks and as the roots
grow down into the cracks, they force the rock apart.
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19. Weathering and erosion are not the same: Weathering is
just the breaking down of rocks but erosion is the
movement of rocks and soil from one place to another.
20. In erosion by abrasion, both weathering and erosion occur
because there is both wearing down of rocks into smaller
pieces and movement.
21. The rocks which broke down into smaller pieces will
become soil.
22. Soil has two main parts: rock particles and humus.
23. Soil with larger particles is called sand.
24. Soil with very small particles is called clay.
25. Many soils are a mixture of sandy and clay soil, which is
called loam such as garden soil.
26. Soil with particle size between sand and clay is called silt.
27. Different types of soil are suitable for different plants:
a. Grass and root vegetables can grow well in sandy soil.
b. Clay soil is suitable for small plants with shallow roots
such as shrubs like the rose and lantana.
c. Loam is suitable for growing most plants.
28. Soil contains humus which is the matter formed when
plants and animals die and decay.
29. Humus provides the plants with minerals.
30. Dark soil contains a lot of humus and good for plant to
31. Soil contains air, water, minerals, and living things such as
bacteria and fungi.
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32. Bacteria and fungi change the dead plants and soil into
33. Earthworms live in moist soil to loosen the soil so the
roots of plants get food, air, and water.

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Unit 11. Water
A Natural Resource
1. There is water in rivers, lakes, the sea, and the air.
2. Water covers two-thirds of the Earths crust.
3. The importance of water:
a. Water for living things.
Green plants need water for photosynthesis.
Water is needeD for human life process.
Water is needed to carry materials in plants and
Water habitats.
b. Water in the home.
For cooking.
For washing the dishes.
For watering plants.
For washing hands.
For cleaning.
c. Water outside the home.
We use ice to preserve fish and other food.
Hydroelectric power stations use water from rivers
and lakes to generate electricity.
Rice needs a lot of water to grow.
We use water for swimming, sailing boats, and
Water is used to make drinks.
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Water is used to put out fire.
4. To make food, plants need water, carbon dioxide, and
light energy.
5. The roots of a plant absorb water and minerals from the
6. The minerals are dissolved in the water.
7. The water and minerals pass from the roots to the rest
of the plant.
8. Water is needed for human life processes:
a. About 65% of our body weight is water.
b. Blood is mainly water.
c. Digested food and oxygen dissolve in the water.
d. Blood carries the substances to all parts of the body.
e. When we exercise, we get hot and the body loses
water as sweat which helps us to keep us cool.
9. Water is a renewable resources which is moving in a cycle
called the water cycle.
10. The water cycle occurs because water can change from
one state to another.
11. Water also evaporates from the ground, plants, and the
bodies of animals.
12. if water cycle broke down:
a. Animals die without water.
b. Food does not grow and people may starve.
c. People have to walk a long way for water.

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13. Water is commonly wasted:
a. An old leaking tap.
b. A leaking hose.
c. Children playing water games.
14. We must try to conserve water.
15. We can conserve water by using water carefully and not
wasting it.
16. Ways to reduce and reuse water at home:
a. Reduce:
Turn off the tap while you are brushing your teeth.
Dont use the washing machine to wash only a few
Repaired a dripping tap.
Use a bucket of water to clean the car.
b. Reuse:
Dont throw the water away if you can use it for
watering plants.
Cleaning shoes in a basin not under a running tap.
17. Dirty water or waste water can be changed into pure
water ands used again.
18. When dirty water is heated, the water evaporates to
form water vapour but not the dirt.

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Unit 12. Human Impact in The Environment
1. The human activities that are harming the environment
a. Deforestation.
b. Pollution.
2. Deforestation is removing trees from forests.
3. Trees are usually removed by cutting them down or by
burning them.
4. Trees are cut down for wood.
5. Wood is a material that used to make paper and to build
houses and furniture.
6. People also burn down forests to clear land for
agriculture and to build towns, roads, and factories.
7. Agriculture is the production of plants and animals food
on farms.
8. Deforestation has harmful effects on the environment:
a. Loss of habitats.
b. Loss of medicines.
c. Soil erosion.
d. Air pollution.
e. Effects on photosynthesis and the water cycle.
9. Without habitats, organisms are in danger of becoming
10. Examples of endangered plants and animals in Indonesia
are the orang utan and pitcher plants.
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11. Without trees, soil is blown away by wind and washed
away by rain.
12. Soil erosion causes floods, landslides, and crops do not
grow well.
13. Smoke from the forest fires pollutes the air.
14. Smoke contains substances that make the air dirty and
unhealthy to breathe and causes breathing problem in
15. Pollution because of human activities:
a. Air pollution.
b. Land and water pollution.
16. The main source of air pollution is the burning of fuels in
power stations, factories, and vehicles.
17. The burning fuels produce some harmful gases.
18. Soma gases from the burning of fuels dissolve in rain
water to form acid rain.
19. Acid rain can:
a. Kill trees, plants, and animals.
b. Damage buildings and statues made of concrete,
limestone, and marble.
20. Acid rain is not harmful for humans but it affects our
21. To reduce pollutants from cars, many new cars have
catalytic converters.

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22. Land and water pollution:
a. Rubbish.
b. Oil spills.
c. Human waste.
d. Factory waste.
23. Many sea animals die when they try to eat the plastic or
get caught in it such as sea turtles and dolphins.
24. Solid and liquid waste from homes, factories, and
buildings is called sewage.
25. The example of poisonous substances of factory waste
water are mercury and lead.
26. The temperature of the Earth slowly increasing is called
global warming.
27. Global warming caused by Carbon dioxide gas which is
increasing in the air traps heat from the sun and make
the temperature of the Earth rising.
28. Effects of global warming:
a. More rain in some places which causes flood.
b. Less rain in some places which causes droughts and
turning farmland into desert.
c. The polar ice is melting and sea levels are rising.

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29. Saving the environment:
a. Dispose of rubbish properly:
Do not throw rubbish onto the ground or into water.
Put rubbish into rubbish bins or recycling bins.
Practice doing 3Rs.
Join cleaning campaigns.
b. Treat sewage.
c. Reduce the use of fuels.
d. Use clean energy sources.
e. Replant trees and protect forests.
30. Sewage often contains harmful micro-organisms and
posinous substances.
31. Engines that use less fuel are said to be fuel-efficient.
32. To reduce air pollution, we can get energy from the wind,
the Sun, and moving water instead of burning fossil fuels,
for example:
a. The panel of solar cells produces electricity using light
energy from the Sun.
b. Wind turbines produce electricity cleanly.
33. National parks are protected areas wher people are not
allowed to cut down trees or kill animals there such as
The Rinjani National Park on Lombok Island.