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ESCUELA SUPERIOR POLITCNICA DEL LITORAL

FINAL PROJECT OF MACHINIG PROCESS




CNC-FABRICATION CYCLES


NAME (ID number):
JOSU GAVILANES TRIVIO (200726388)

M.Sc. Gabriel Helguero

PROJECT DELIVERY DATE: 28/01/2011

II TERM YEAR 2010-2011






2


Contents
1) Objectives .................................................................................................................................... 4
2) Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 4
3) Principles ..................................................................................................................................... 4
3.1) Machining centers and turning centers .............................................................................. 4
3.2) Cutting conditions ............................................................................................................... 5
4) Process ......................................................................................................................................... 6
5) Machining guide .......................................................................................................................... 7
Piece 1 ............................................................................................................................................. 7
Piece 2 ............................................................................................................................................. 9
Piece 3 ........................................................................................................................................... 11
Piece 4 ........................................................................................................................................... 13
Piece 5 ........................................................................................................................................... 14
Piece 6 ........................................................................................................................................... 16
Piece 7 ........................................................................................................................................... 19
Piece 8 ........................................................................................................................................... 22
6) Results ....................................................................................................................................... 24
7) Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 27
8) Recommendations ..................................................................................................................... 28
9) Bibliography .............................................................................................................................. 28
10) Apendix ................................................................................................................................. 29
10.1) Material ......................................................................................................................... 29
10.2) Tool selections ............................................................................................................... 29
Turning process ......................................................................................................................... 29
Milling process .......................................................................................................................... 33
10.3) Selection of parameters ................................................................................................. 34
10.4) Piece 1 ........................................................................................................................... 36
10.1.1) Material selection and initial dimension ................................................................... 36
10.1.2) Machining time calculation ....................................................................................... 37
10.5) Piece 2 ........................................................................................................................... 40

3

10.2.1) Material selection and initial dimension ....................................................................... 40
10.2.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation ....................................................... 40
10.6) Piece 3 ........................................................................................................................... 43
10.3.1) Material selection and initial dimension ...................................................................... 43
10.3.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation ........................................................ 43
10.7) Piece 4 ........................................................................................................................... 46
10.4.1) Material selection and initial dimension ...................................................................... 46
10.4.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation ....................................................... 46
10.8) Piece 5 ........................................................................................................................... 49
10.5.1) Material selection and initial dimension ...................................................................... 49
10.5.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation ....................................................... 49
10.9) Piece 6 ........................................................................................................................... 58
10.6.1) Material selection and initial dimension ...................................................................... 58
10.6.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation ..................................................... 58
10.10) Piece 7 ........................................................................................................................... 68
10.7.1) Material selection and initial dimension ...................................................................... 68
10.7.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation ....................................................... 68
10.11) Piece 8 ........................................................................................................................... 76
10.8.1) Material selection and initial dimension ...................................................................... 76
10.8.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation ....................................................... 77
10.12) Calculation Unit Time .................................................................................................... 86
10.13) Budget ........................................................................................................................... 88
10.14) CNC Code ....................................................................................................................... 91








4

1) Objectives
1. To elaborate a fabrication cycle for each one of the die tool pieces. This means to choose
the machine tool and cutting tools for each process. Your cutting tool selection should
contemplate tool materials and geometries. Although it is recommended that you use on-
line Sandviks catalog, you can use whichever catalog as long as you include the selection
sheets on your work.
2. To generate a CNC Fabrication code for each piece of the die tool. This must be done using
INVENTORCAM Software. You should indicate which machine tool you are going to
use for each piece.
3. To prepare a budget for the whole process.
4. To return a written report of all process.

2) Introduction
In this project we will detail step by step how a mechanical element is made, piece by piece. For
that we start to draw the parts using the program Inventor. Then we choose the right material for
each of the parts, because depending on the property we need, more tenacity, endurance or higher
compression, we choose the kind of steel or bronze. Once ready we will prepare parts step by step
machining process for each, some only work on a CNC turn, other some work only in a CNC
milling, and another piece need be work in both. But to achieve all that we need to select tools work
properly, for each process, as there are for example to make a longitudinal turning different tools
used to make a profile turning That's why we use the Sandviks catalog. In the case of making a
turning process, we must choose the proper plate holder and plates as well as choose appropriate
mill to work on the milling machine. The next step is go to Ivan Bohman, where we quote both the
materials and tools you'll use, if there is no tool that initially had planned to use, we should choose
one with similar characteristics. From here we turn to the selection of the parameters of cutting
speed and feed on the lathe, where we have to be careful because choosing a bad combination of
these parameters we will have a poor surface finish, I even make both the lathe and the cutter
working on a RPM which were not designed. Once we have properly chosen parameters, is just
simply use the formulas found the book to calculate the machining time. Finally we use the program
InventorCAM to generate CNC code manufacture of each piece, where we have to indicate that we
will use parameters for each machining process of each piece. All this must be clearly detailed in
tables that include all processes.

3) Principles
3.1) Machining centers and turning centers
A machining center is a highly automated machine tool capable of performing multiple machining
operations under CNC control in one setup with minimal human attention. Typical operations are
those that use a rotating cutting tool, such as milling and drilling. The features that make a
machining center such a productive machine includes:
Automatic tool changing. To change from one machining operation to the next, the cutting
tool must be changed. This is done on machining center under NC program control by an
automatic tool-changer designed to exchange cutters between the machine tool spindle and
a tool storage drum. Capacities of these drums commonly range from 16 to 18 cutting tools.
Pallets shuttles. Some machining centers are equipped with two or more pallet shuttles
which can be automatically transferred to the spindle to machine the workpart. With two
shuttles, the operator can be unloading the previous part and loading the next part while eh
machine tool is engaged in machining the current part. This reduces nonproductive time on
the machine.

5

Automatic workpart positioning. Many machining centers have more than three axes. One
of the additional axes is often designed as a rotary table to position the part at same
specified angle relative to the spindle. The rotary table permits the cutter to perform
machining on four sides of the part in a single setup.

3.2) Cutting conditions
Turning

Turning
Rotational speed(N)


Final diameter(


Lineal travel rate(


Machining time(Tm)



Milling (Face milling)


Milling
Rotational speed(N)


Lineal travel rate(


Approach distance(A)
a)


b)

6

Machining time(Tm)



Drilling and related operation

Drilling and related operation
Rotational speed(N)


Lineal travel rate(


Machining time(Tm), in a thought hole


Machining time(Tm), in a blind hole




4) Process
i) Draw each of the pieces in the program Inventor.
ii) With the help of Ivan Bohmans guide, we choose the material and the initial dimensions of
each piece of work. For that we must considerer the properties that we require for each
piece, in some cases we will need a higher toughness, or a higher ductility. Once chosen the
material, let the tables to see the dimensions that are in stock, always trying to get the
dimensions are slightly larger than the final piece, so we reduced material waste and
reduced machining time.
iii) The next step is to select the procedure to reach the final form of a single piece for example
will be worked around, one in router, and one will be worked around in two and one on a
wire cutter.
iv) Select the tools to make operation of the lathe. For that we use Sandvik, as specified in this
type of combination of insert and insert holder required for each operation. For example for
a longitudinal turning operation require a slide insert with a position angle of 75 and a
square insert. It is recommended that each insert it chooses not to finish, and for roughing,
but medium, to give a better versatility to our tool.
v) Also we will repeat the above procedure for choosing strawberries to help us in milling. In
this case we will choose strawberries universal.
vi) We chose not to use the drilling on the mill going to perform all operations related to
drilling, so just choose a strawberry to make the holes.
vii) From here we will ask for a quote with all materials and tools we used in the machining
process. In the case that no one tool or the size of the material we had originally planned,
we will exchange them for others of similar characteristics.

7

viii) Once you have all the tools we select all the cutting parameters for each of the processes.
For that too in the same guide Sandvik going to select the parameters depending on the tool
that we have chosen, the type of material we are working, and resistance quality of each
insert. All these values were found in the tables at the end of the guide. It is recommended
that the turning process is chosen small advances high speeds to give a better finish and in
turn we are removing material.
ix) With the parameters chosen, we began the machining process, calculating the machining
time of each piece, taking into account the different processes that will be submitted each
piece to reach its final form. The calculations are very important to take into account is that
the maximum value of N for is around 2500RPM, and 3500RPM strawberry. If the
calculations we show a higher value than this, then we will have to repeat step 7, only this
time we choose parameters that we fulfill this condition.
x) Since we have all the values, the next step is to guide, where practically all of the above
detail.
xi) From here we will use the program InventorCAM, where we simulate the different
processes of turning, milling and that we will execute to reach the final shape. For that we
have to put the necessary tools for each process, and the parameters for it. The program will
give us InventorCAM CNC code for machining each piece.

5) Machining guide
Piece 1

A-B
# Process Description Tool holder
Cutter conditions
Measurer v(mm/s) N(RPM) f(mm/rev) d(mm)
1


Facing turning
Side A

DDJNL 2020K 15


Calibrator

255


1803.75


0.1

1


8

2

Center point
Side A

--------------------




--------------------


60


--------


-------


-----


3 Facing turning
Side B


DDJNL 2020K 15



Calibrator


255 1803.75 0.1 1
4 Center point
Side B

----------------

----------------- 60 --------- -------- ------
5
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=188mm
DDJNL 2020K 15



Calibrator


255 1804.67 0.1 1.5
6
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=167mm
DDJNL 2020K 15
Calibrator

255 1932.6 0.1 2
7
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=135mm
DDJNL 2020K 15

Calibrator

255 2136.02 0.1 2
8
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=135mm
DDJNL 2020K 15
Calibrator

255 2387 0.1 2

9

9
Turning: Curve
chamfering

A-B, R=2mm
DDJNL 2020K 15

---------

180 1909.86 0.1 -------
10
Longitudinal
turning

B-A, L=11 mm
DDJNL 2020K 15


-------- 255 1932 0.1 2

Piece 2

A-B
# Process Description Tool holder
Cutter conditions
Measurer v(mm/s) N(RPM) f(mm/rev) d(mm)
1


Facing turning
Side A

DDJNL 2020K 15


Calibrator

255


1159.55


0.1

1


10

2

Center point
Side A

--------------------




--------------------


60


--------


-------


-----


3 Facing turning
Side B


DDJNL 2020K 15



Calibrator


255 1159.55 0.1 1
4 Center point
Side B

----------------

----------------- 60 --------- -------- ------
5
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=35mm
DDJNL 2020K 15



Calibrator


255 1159.55 0.1 1
6
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=25mm
DDJNL 2020K 15
Calibrator

255 1193.66 0.1 3
7
Milling: End
Milling

ap=15mm
R216.33-15030-AC26P

Dc=15mm


Calibrator

100 2122.06
0.054
mm/tee
1
8
Milling: End
Milling

ap=20mm
R216.33-06030-Ak22P

Dc=6mm


Calibrator

50 2652.58
0.014
mm/tee
1

11

9 Wire-EDM

ap=20mm
------
Calibrator

365(Job/s) ------ ----- -----

Piece 3

A-B
# Process Description Tool holder
Cutter conditions
Measurer v(mm/s) N(RPM) f(mm/rev) d(mm)
1


Facing turning
Side A

DDJNL 2020K 15


Calibrator

180


2046.27


0.1

1

2

Center point
Side A

--------------------




--------------------


-------


--------


-------


-----


3
Facing turning


Side B


DDJNL 2020K 15



Calibrator


180 2046.27 0.1 1

12

4 Center point
Side B

----------------

----------------- ------ --------- -------- ------
5
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=85mm
DDJNL 2020K 15



Calibrator


180 2046.28 0.1 1.5
6
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=79mm
DDJNL 2020K 15
Calibrator

180 2291.83 0.1 2.5
7 Contour turning

A-B; L=40.23mm
DDJNL 2020K 15

Calibrator

180 2228.16 0.1 1
8 Contour turning

A-B; L=48.96mm
DDJNL 2020K 15
Calibrator

180 2228.16 0.1 1
9 Contour turning

A-B; L=48.96mm
DDJNL 2020K 15

Calibrator

180 2228.16 0.1 2
10
Peripheral
Milling: Slab
milling

ap=35mm
R216.34-20050-AK38P



Calibrator

100 1591.55 0.078 1


13

Piece 4


# Process Description Tool holder
Cutter conditions
Measurer v(mm/s) N(RPM) f(mm/rev) d(mm)
1


Facing turning

Side A

SDJCL 2020K 11


Calibrator

120


830.37


0.15

1

2
Facing turning


Side B


SDJCL 2020K 11




Calibrator


120 830.37 0.15 1
3
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=44mm
SDJCL 2020K 11



Calibrator


120 830.37 0.15 1

14

4
Longitudinal
turning

A-B; L=22mm
SDJCL 2020K 11

Calibrator

120 868.12 0.15 2
5
Longitudinal
turning

B-A; L=12mm
SDJCL 2020K 11

Calibrator

120 868.12 0.15 2
6
Longitudinal
turning
(internal)

B-A; L=44mm
SDJCL 2020K 11
Calibrator

120 1123.45 0.1 2

Piece 5

# Process Description Tool holder
Cutter conditions
Measurer v(mm/s) N(RPM) f(mm/tee) d(mm)
1
Partial and
End milling
Side A(Up)

Side B(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1.5


15

2
Partial and
End milling
Side B(Up)

Side A(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1.5

3


Partial and
End milling
Side C(up)

Side D(down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm
Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

4

Partial and
End milling
Side D(up)

Side C(down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

5
Partial and
End milling
Side F(Up)

Side G(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=84mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=7mm
6
Partial and
End milling
Side G(Up)

Side F(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=84mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=7mm
7
Pocket
milling

Side A(Up), =8mm
R216.33-08030-AK28P
Dc=8mm

Calibrator

80 3183.09 0.02
Ap1=8mm
Ap2=8mm
Ap3=6mm


16

8
Pocket
milling

Side A(Up), =20mm
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100 2652.58 0.036
Ap1=8mm
Ap2=8mm
Ap3=6mm

9
Pocket
milling

Side A(Up), =40mm
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=8mm
Ap2=8mm
Ap3=6mm

10 Tapping

Side A(up), =8mm
T110M8 -------------- 60 ----- ------ 22

Piece 6


17

# Process Description Tool holder
Cutter conditions
Measurer v(mm/s) N(RPM) f(mm/tee) d(mm)
1
Partial and
End milling
Side A(Up)

Side B(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1.5

2
Partial and
End milling
Side B(Up)

Side A(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1.5

1


Partial and
End milling
Side C(up)

Side D(down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm
Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

2

Partial and
End milling
Side D(up)

Side C(down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1


18

5
Partial and
End milling
Side F(Up)

Side G(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=84mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=7mm
6
Partial and
End milling
Side G(Up)

Side F(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=84mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=7mm
7
Pocket
milling

6 hole: =8mm
Side A(Up)
R216.33-08030-AK28P
Dc=8mm

Calibrator

80 3183.09 0.02
Ap1=5mm
Ap2=5mm
8
Pocket
milling

6 hole: =11mm
Side B(Up)
R216.33-11030-AC22P

Dc=11mm

Calibrator

100


2893.3


0.036

Ap1=5mm
Ap2=5mm
Ap3=2mm

9
Pocket
milling

1 hole: =12mm
Side A(Up)
R216.24-08050EAK19P

Dc=12mm

Calibrator

100


2652.58


0.036

Ap1=8mm
Ap2=8mm
Ap3=6mm


19

10
Pocket
milling

1 hole: =40
Side A(Up)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=5mm
Ap2=5mm
Ap3=2mm

11
Pocket
milling

1 hole: =44
Side B(Up)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=5mm
Ap2=5mm
12 Tapping

Side A(up): =12
T110M12 -------- 60 ---- ---- 22

Piece 7

# Process Description Tool holder
Cutter conditions
Measurer v(mm/s) N(RPM) f(mm/tee) d(mm)

20

1
Partial and
End milling
Side A(Up)

Side B(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

2
Partial and
End milling
Side B(Up)

Side A(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

3


Partial and
End milling
Side C(up)

Side D(down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm
Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

4

Partial and
End milling
Side D(up)

Side C(down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

5
Partial and
End milling
Side F(Up)

Side G(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=130mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=5mm
6
Partial and
End milling
Side G(Up)

Side F(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=130mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=5mm

21

7 Pocket milling

6 hole
Side A(Up), =12mm
R216.24-12050-GAK26P
Dc=12mm

Calibrator

100 2652.58 0.036
Ap1=8mm
Ap2=8mm
Ap3=7mm

8 Pocket milling

Side A(Up), =38mm
R216.24-20050IAK38P
Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100

1591.54


0.078

Ap1=8mm
Ap2=8mm
Ap3=7mm

9 Pocket milling

Side A(Up), =62mm
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=8mm
Ap2=8mm
Ap3=7mm

10 Tapping

Side A(up), =12mm
T110M12 -------------- 60 ----- ------ 22


22

Piece 8

# Process Description Tool holder
Cutter conditions
Measurer v(mm/s) N(RPM) f(mm/tee) d(mm)
1


Partial and
End milling
Side A(Up)

Side B(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

2

Partial and
End milling
Side B(Up)

Side A(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

3
Partial and
End milling
Side C(up)

Side D(down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm
Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1


23

4
Partial and
End milling
Side D(up)

Side C(down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=250mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

1

5
Partial and
End milling
Side F(Up)

Side G(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=130mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=5mm
6
Partial and
End milling
Side G(Up)

Side F(Down)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

L=130mm


Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=5mm
7
Pocket
milling

6 hole
Side A(Up), =12mm
R216.24-12050-GAK26P
Dc=12mm

Calibrator

80 3183.09 0.02
Ap1=6mm
Ap2=6mm
Ap3=6mm
Ap4=5mm
8
Pocket
milling

2 hole: =38mm
Side A(Up)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=5mm
Ap2=5mm
Ap3=3mm


24

9
Pocket
milling

2 hole: =42mm
Side B(Up)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=5mm
Ap2=5mm
10
Pocket
milling

1 hole: =15mm
Side A(Up)
R216.33-15030-AC26P

Dc=15mm


Calibrator

100 2122.06
0.054

Ap1=5mm
Ap2=5mm
Ap3=3mm

11
Pocket
milling

1 hole: =68mm
Side B(Up)
R216.24-20050IAK38P

Dc=20mm

Calibrator

100


1591.54


0.078

Ap1=5mm
Ap2=5mm

6) Results
Piece 1
Process Tf(min) Taux(min) Trl(min) Ts/n(min) Tu c/p(min)
1 0,125 0,01875 0,03125 6 6,175
3 0,125 0,01875 0,03125 6 6,175
5 1,04 0,156 0,26 6 7,456
6 0,865 0,12975 0,21625 0 1,211
7 0,635 0,09525 0,15875 0 0,889
8 0,55 0,0825 0,1375 0 0,77
9 0,0164 0,00246 0,0041 0 0,02296
10 0,055 0,00825 0,01375 6 6,077
Tu total 28,77596

Piece 2
Process Tf(min) Taux(min) Trl(min) Ts/n(min) Tu c/p(min)
1 0,301 0,04515 0,07525 6 6,4214

25

3 0,301 0,04515 0,07525 6 6,4214
5 0,301 0,04515 0,07525 6 6,4214
6 0,209 0,03135 0,05225 0 0,2926
7 0,0436 0,00654 0,0109 6 6,06104
8 0,179 0,02685 0,04475 6 6,2506
Tu total 31,86844

Piece 3
Process Tf(min) Taux(min) Trl(min) Ts/n(min) Tu c/p(min)
1 0,068 0,0102 0,017 6 6,0952
3 0,068 0,0102 0,017 6 6,0952
5 0,41 0,0615 0,1025 6 6,574
6 0,34 0,051 0,085 0 0,476
7 0,18 0,027 0,045 0 0,252
8 0,219 0,03285 0,05475 0 0,3066
9 0,22 0,033 0,055 0 0,308
10 0,0208 0,00312 0,0052 6 6,02912
Tu total 26,13612

Piece4
Process Tf(min) Taux(min) Trl(min) Ts/n(min) Tu c/p(min)
1 0,048 0,0072 0,012 6 6,0672
3 0,048 0,0072 0,012 6 6,0672
5 0,353 0,05295 0,08825 6 6,4942
6 0,169 0,02535 0,04225 0 0,2366
7 0,0291 0,004365 0,007275 6 6,04074
8 0,261 0,03915 0,06525 0 0,3654
Tu total 25,27134

Piece 5
Process Tf(min) Taux(min) Trl(min) Ts/n(min) Tu c/p(min)
1 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
2 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
3 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
4 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
5 1,596 0,2394 0,399 6 8,2344
6 1,596 0,2394 0,399 6 8,2344
7 0,516 0,0774 0,129 6 6,7224
8 0,057 0,00855 0,01425 0
0,0798

26

9 2,038 0,3057 0,5095 0
2,8532
Tu total 56,161


Piece 6
Process Tf(min) Taux(min) Trl(min) Ts/n(min) Tu c/p(min)
1 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
2 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
3 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
4 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
5 1,596 0,2394 0,399 6 8,2344
6 1,596 0,2394 0,399 6 8,2344
7 0,236 0,0354 0,059 6 6,3304
8 0,18 0,027 0,045 6 6,252
9 0,057 0,00855 0,01425 6 6,0798
10 1,504 0,2256 0,376 0 2,1056
11 1,65 0,2475 0,4125 6 8,31
Tu total 75,5834

Piece 7
Process Tf(min) Taux(min) Trl(min) Ts/n(min) Tu c/p(min)
1 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
2 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
3 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
4 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
5 2,4 0,36 0,6 6 9,36
6 2,4 0,36 0,6 6 9,36
7 0,36 0,054 0,09 6 6,504
8 1,36 0,204 0,34 0 1,904
9 1,12 0,168 0,28 0 1,568
Tu Total 58,7328

Piece 8
Process Tf(min) Taux(min) Trl(min) Ts/n(min) Tu c/p(min)
1 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
2 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
3 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092
4 1,078 0,1617 0,2695 6 7,5092

27

5 2,4 0,36 0,6 6 9,36
6 2,4 0,36 0,6 6 9,36
7 0,36 0,054 0,09 6 6,504
8 1,32 0,198 0,33 6 7,848
9 0,935 0,14025 0,23375 6 7,309
10 0,037 0,00555 0,00925 6 6,0518
11 1,07 0,1605 0,2675 6 7,498
Tu total 83,9676



7) Conclusion
The manufacture of a simple plate of steel or other material is a simple process that is
simple dresses, but as we demonstrated in this project is the result of a complex process that
starts from the choice of material of the piece, after by the size of it. Later is one of the most
important parts of the process, choosing the tools that help to give me the way I want.
Because if I choose a tool not suitable for that material or geometry of the workpiece at
work I can create the piece is not head out on surface finish or desire to directly influence
the machining time, making it take longer than expected and causing economic losses.
This value of time that leaves us to manufacture all the parts is worth more than if you had
made on a lathe and milling machine manual. But the difference is that for a mass
production process CNC lathe and CNC milling machine is the best solution, because I
offered almost equal parts with each other, so we are ensuring a quality product to our
buyers.
It is very important to take steps to develop the process of turning and milling in an
appropriate way to better efficiency for the transformation of the piece.
By using the program InventorCAM we realize that times that comes with running the
program with the times that we come to calculate the formulas are different, one could say
that up to 50% error. That's because of two reasons, first is that the program calculates the
time InventorCAM both when working on the board, and the time that the tool is moved to
another job. In contrast to the formulas to calculate and add all those days we only take into
account the time working on the piece. And the second is because in some calculations as in
the holes, to calculate the perimeter of the spiral only use approximations, which lead to
errors in calculations.
The proper selection of parts is a fundamental relationship with the machining time, but this
is hardly reflected in the economic part. This is because we can make a tool confronted with
a diameter 15 and compared with the time it takes to make it confronted a 20 in diameter.
No doubt the diameter 20 is going to take longer, and simple inspection would be the best
tool for the job, seeing it from the standpoint of expediency, but now is about the
economics and to buy a cutter 20 is much more expensive than buying a 15, and if the job

28

does not require much use of that Strawberry would have to choose the bit that takes longer
but will eventually be economically viable for us.
8) Recommendations
When choosing the inserts to work on the lathe, it is preferable to choose carries negative
inserts for machining a slide outside and positive inserts to work internally.
When choosing cutting tools for turning process, it is preferable to choose a tool that allows
me to rough while giving a surface finish to the workpiece.
By choosing an appropriate combination of port inserts and inserts in the process of turning,
always choose to give us a better versatility, some processes to work with our tool.
For the milling, it is preferable to choose a universal cutter; with this we are giving you
more versatility to various types of milling work.
It is very important to read the guide machining of each part follow the instructions on the
slides to be turning and milling in an appropriate way the relevant part.
By choosing the parameters of speed and progress in the case of the lathe to give a better
finish and also remove material, it is necessary to choose a high speed and a small advance.
While we are the milling process is important that although the ap is high, not giving more
ago to 8 mm and that would decrease the lifetime of the tool.
When choosing the parameters of cutting speed, it is important to note whether the value of
N exceeds the case around the 2500 RPM and in the case of the router 3500 RPM, if this
happens it is necessary to choose a lower speed value.
To choose appropriate setting time, Ts, it is necessary to ask several operators as the
estimated time of placing a piece for each operation, for our calculations we choose a value
of 6 minutes.
To select the appropriate number of tools to buy, we need to look at the time of using it,
since the catalog is based on a life of 15 min. To spend this time this tool no longer works,
so we would have to use another.
When we make a hole in the plates with the dams is necessary to go down in a few passes
to get to the depth of cut.
When choose the mill to work in the milling machine is better to choose those that have
four teeth because it can ensure a quicker and better work surface finish.

9) Bibliography
http://www.unibague.edu.co/sitios/imecanica/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=72:f
abricacion-de-piezas-i&catid=6:semestre-vi&Itemid=17
https://www.serina.es/empresas/cede_muestra/301/TEMA%20MUESTRA.pdf
http://www2.coromant.sandvik.com/coromant/downloads/catalogue/ENG/MC_2009_Klick_ENG_A
.pdf
http://centraltrust.net/ivanbohman/productopdf/acero%20al%20carbono%20para%20maquinarioa.pd
f



29

10) Apendix
10.1) Material
AISI 4340
We chose this material in this piece because we need to have a great resistance to fatigue.
In turn, this material combines high strength with good toughness. This material is use in
the piece 1.

AISI 4140
We chose this material in this piece because it has a high resistance for parts that are small,
in turn also has good resistance to fatigue, abrasion and impact. This material is use in the
piece 2,3.
SAE 40
Bronze was chosen because this is going to be a part of the sacrifice of our array, which
will wear and it is best to wear the most expensive. Although it has good mechanical
strength and is used for parts that are subjected to high loads. This material is use in the
piece 4.

AISI 1045
Carbon steel unalloyed careful manufacturing, with good toughness. Feature is its high
uniformity performance. Can supply used condition or treatment thermal quenching and
tempering. This material is used in the piece 5, 6, 7 and 8.

10.2) Tool selections
Turning process
In the piece that required longitudinal turning exterior we use the next port insert and insert
recommendation, this is following the instructions of the Sandviks Guide.

30





As shown in Fig.1, we will require more multi-purpose in our process, because so we allow
the insert will also serve to a facing and profiling turning. The catalog tell us that the best
combination for this is choose a holder with a rhombic 55 insert and a 93 entering angle.
Port insert
Now we will find the tool to hold our insert. We have to choose one that indicates the
catalog to match the insert to produce a better turning. So look for one with a 93 entering
angle.

Is very important that in us order code, is specified the code 2020K.
Fig.1: Recommendations for
longitudinal turning

31


I nserts
We go to the part of the catalog where the inserts are. We choose a negative insert, with a
rhombic 55. And choose an insert that will help us to finish and rough, so we chose a
middle ground, Medium. The size must be the same that the sizes in the port insert. In this
case is 15.



Now, when we do a longitudinal turning internal, we need change the tool:In this case we must
choose a port insert that can be utilized in a longitudinal turning external and internal. The
kind of tool CoroTurn 107 may work in both.




32


In both cases the best combination between port insert and insert is a holder with a rhombic
55 insert and a 93 entering angle.

Port insert

I nsert

33


Milling process
In the case of milling, select the correct mill; first go to the Sandviks catalog, to choose an
appropriate mill for this process.

Like we need more kind of method for work with our mill, the best cutter is the first, with a helix
angle 50, in the case that there is not any mill whit 50 we can chose another whit a helix angle
different. For the process of milling, we will use mill of 6, 8,11,12, ,15 and 20 mm of diameter.

34


The process for select another mill whit different helix angle is the same.
10.3) Selection of parameters
Turning process
For choose the correct parameters, is necessary use the following table (this table is in function of
the resistance of the insert). These are in the final of the Sandviks guide. The cutting speed and
feed rate are in function of the grade for general turning and the depth of cut that we chose must be
between the value that are specified in the table.

This table change with work with another kind of material:


35

Exist other table, this table tell us the maximum and minimum ap that we can work in each
process.

Milling process
In the last part of the Sandviks guide we can find the correct parameters necessary for the milling
process. By general the product between the ap and ae always is more than the diameter of the mill.
The following parameters are in function of the diameter of the mill (Dc), the hardness of the work
material, ap and ae.

Tapping process

36


10.4) Piece 1
10.1.1) Material selection and initial dimension

Piece 1
Material Weight
AISI 4340(705) 2.812 Kg
We chose this material in this piece because we need to have a great resistance to fatigue. In turn,
this material combines high strength with good toughness.

37


10.1.2) Machining time calculation

Process #1: Facing (face A)



Process #3: Facing (face B)



Process #5: Longitudinal turning

38




Process #6: Longitudinal turning


Process #7: Longitudinal turning (first pass)



39



Process #8: Longitudinal turning (second pass)


Process #9: Turning: Curve chamfering


Process #10: Longitudinal turning

40



10.5) Piece 2
10.2.1) Material selection and initial dimension

Piece 2
Material Weight
Steel AISI 4140(709) 1.1174 Kg
We chose this material in this piece because it has a high resistance for parts that are small, in turn
also has good resistance to fatigue, abrasion and impact.
10.2.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation
Process #1: Facing (face A)



41



Process #3: Facing (face B)



Process #5: Longitudinal turning



Process #6: Longitudinal turning


42


Process #7: Pocket milling


Process #8: Pocket milling



43



10.6) Piece 3
10.3.1) Material selection and initial dimension

Piece 3
Material Weight
Steel AISI 4140(709) 0.4176 Kg
10.3.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation
Process #1: Facing (face A)



Process #3: Facing (face B)



Process #5: Longitudinal turning

44




Process #6: Longitudinal turning


Process #7: Contour turning (first pass)



45


(



Process #8: Contour turning (second pass)




Process #9: Contour turning (third pass)



46



Process #10: Slab Milling


10.7) Piece 4

10.4.1) Material selection and initial dimension
Piece 4 Material Weight
Bronze SAE 40 0.51 Kg

10.4.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation
Process #1: Facing (face A)

47



Process #3: Facing (face B)



Process #5: Longitudinal turning



Process #6: Longitudinal turning

48



Process #7: Longitudinal turning


Process #8: Longitudinal turning (internal)



49




10.8) Piece 5
10.5.1) Material selection and initial dimension

Piece 4 Material Weight
AISI 1045 4.22 Kg


10.5.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation
Process #1: Partial and end milling
Side A (Up)

Side B (Down)


End milling:

50


Partial milling, w=4mm


Process #2: End and partial milling
Side B (Up)

Side A (Down)


End milling:



51


Partial milling, w=4mm



Process #3: Partial and end milling
Side C (up)

Side D (down)


End milling:



52


Partial milling, w=5mm


Process #4: Partial and end milling
Side D (up)

Side C (down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=5mm

53


Process #5: Partial and end milling
Side F(Up)

Side G(Down)



End milling:


Partial milling, w=2mm

54



Process #6: Partial and end milling
Side G(Up)

Side H(Down)




End milling:



55


Partial milling, w=2mm




Process #7: Pocket milling

6 hole: =8mm
Side A(Up)



56



Process #8: Pocket milling

1 hole: =20mm
Side A(Up)


Process #9: Pocket milling

1 hole: =40
Side A(Up)

57




58

10.9) Piece 6
10.6.1) Material selection and initial dimension

Piece 4 Material Weight
AISI 1045 4.22 Kg

10.6.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation
Process #1: Partial and end milling
Side A (Up)

Side B (Down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=4mm

59


Process #2: End and partial milling
Side B (Up)

Side A (Down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=4mm




60


Process #3: Partial and end milling
Side C (up)

Side D (down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=5mm



61


Process #4: Partial and end milling
Side D (up)

Side C (down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=5mm




62

Process #5: Partial and end milling
Side F(Up)

Side G(Down)



End milling:


Partial milling, w=2mm



63



Process #6: Partial and end milling
Side G(Up)

Side H(Down)




End milling:


Partial milling, w=2mm




64



Process #7: Pocket milling
Side A(Up)

6 hole: =8mm



Process #8: Pocket milling
Side B(Up)

65


6 hole: =11mm



Process #9: Pocket milling
Side A(Up)

1 hole: =12mm



66


Process #10: Pocket milling
Side A(Up)

1 hole: =40



Process #11: Pocket milling

67

Side B(Up)

1 hole: =44



68

10.10) Piece 7
10.7.1) Material selection and initial dimension

Piece 4 Material Weight
AISI 1045 6.38 Kg

10.7.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation
Process #1: Partial and end milling
Side A (Up)

Side B (Down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=4mm

69


Process #2: End and partial milling
Side B (Up)

Side A (Down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=4mm




70


Process #3: Partial and end milling
Side C (up)

Side D (down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=5mm



71


Process #4: Partial and end milling
Side D (up)

Side C (down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=5mm




72

Process #5: Partial and end milling
Side F(Up)

Side G(Down)



End milling:


Partial milling, w=2mm



73



Process #6: Partial and end milling
Side G(Up)

Side H(Down)



End milling:


Partial milling, w=2mm



74




Process #7: Pocket milling

6 hole: =12mm
Side A(Up)


Process #8: Pocket milling


75

1 hole: =38
Side A(Up)



Process #9: Pocket milling

1 hole: =62mm
Side A(Up)



76




10.11) Piece 8

10.8.1) Material selection and initial dimension

Piece 4 Material Weight
AISI 1045 6.38 Kg


77

10.8.2) Machining time and other parameters calculation
Process #1: Partial and end milling
Side A (Up)

Side B (Down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=4mm


Process #2: End and partial milling
Side B (Up)

78


Side A (Down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=4mm


Process #3: Partial and end milling
Side C (up)

79


Side D (down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=5mm


Process #4: Partial and end milling
Side D (up)

80


Side C (down)


End milling:


Partial milling, w=5mm



Process #5: Partial and end milling
Side F(Up)

81


Side G(Down)



End milling:


Partial milling, w=2mm




82

Process #6: Partial and end milling
Side G(Up)

Side H(Down)




End milling:


Partial milling, w=2mm



83




Process #7: Pocket milling

6 hole: =12mm
Side A(Up)



Process #8: Pocket milling

1 hole: =38

84

Side A(Up)



Process #9: Pocket milling

1 hole: =42
Side B (Up)



85




Process #10: Pocket milling



86

Process #11: Pocket milling

1 hole: =68
Side B (Up)



10.12) Calculation Unit Time



87

Well calculate for each process, and for each piece. The following calculation is an example like
we do that:
For the piece 2 I have the following machining time:
Process Tf(min)
1 0,301
3 0,301
5 0,301
6 0,209
7 0,0436
8 0,179

In the process 2 and 4 I do not have machining time, because in this process we do the center of
the material in both faces.
Now we calculate the auxiliary time for the process 1:


The other auxiliary time is doing the last, but with each respective machining time. Once calculate
all the auxiliary time, we have that:
Process Taux(min)
1
0,04515
3
0,04515
5
0,04515
6
0,03135
7
0,00654
8
0,02685
We do the same for calculate the



Process Taux(min)
1
0,07525
3
0,07525
5
0,07525
6
0,05225
7
0,0109
8
0,04475

88


After we have to calculate the

, this time is a average, we chose 6 minute, that is the time in put


the piece in the correct position for do the each process. For example if in the process 2 I need to
change the position of the workpiece the

is:


But in the process 3, I dont move the workpiece the

is:


Process Ts(min)
1
6
3
6
5
6
6
0
7
6
8
6

After we add the Ts, Taux, Tm and Ts for each process:


Process Ts(min)
1
6,4214
3
6,4214
5
6,4214
6
0,2926
7
6,06104
8
6,2506
Finally add all the unit time for obtain the unit time what we use for give the final shape of each
piece:
Piece 1: Tu=31, 87 min

10.13) Budget
Tool
Quantity Code Description Unit price Total price

89

1 DDJNL 2020K 15

$100 $100
1 SDJCL 2020k 11

$110 $110
1 DNMG 150412-PM

$13 $18
1 DCET 11T304-UM

$18 $18
5
R216.24-
20050IAK38P


$620 $3100
1
R216.33-15030-
AC26P


$275 $275
1
R216.24-
12050GAK26P


$247 $247
1
R216.33-11030-
AC22P


$170 $170
1
R216.33-06030-
Ak22P


$82 $82
1
T110M8


$352 $352

90

1
T110M12


$638 $638
Total $5110


Amoun
t
Material Kind Unit
Price
Total
Price
1 Acero AISI 4340(705) Redondo(=46mm) 14,06 14,06
1 Acero AISI 4140(709) Redondo(=70mm) 3.91 3.91
1 Acero AISI 4140(709) Redondo(=28mm) 1.65 1.65
1 Bronce SAE 40 (Calidad BS 1400 LG-
2)
Barra perforada (46 x
34)mm
6,21 6,21
2 Acero AISI 1045(760) Platina (25 x 250) mm 27.76 55.52
2 Acero AISI 1045(760) Platina (25 x 250) mm 18.36 36,72
Total $117.97


Cost of labor
Total Hour Cost per hour Cost
6.44 $3.75/h $24.15

Rental machine
Total Hour Cost per hour Cost
6.44 $30/h* $193.2
*This price contains the rental of turning machine and milling machine.









91

10.14) CNC Code