A starter to Sambahsa

Sambahsa’s orthographical and accentual system is quite elaborate; this is because it tries
to respect the forms that loanwords have in the source languages, especially WestEuropean languages where orthography plays a key role.
Nevertheless, those rules are entirely regular, and can be mastered through repetition. To
ease the learning of those rules, a simpler phonetic transcription system, the Sambahsa
Phonetic Transcription (SPT), is used. Words written in SPT are always between brackets [
]. Be sure to fully understand the SPT before going further.
[a] = like “a” in “car”
[ä] = like “e” in “bed”, but often a bit longer
[b] = as in English
[c] = as “sh” in “shoe”
[d] = as in English
[e] = as in Italian or Spanish. Listen to it: http://tts.imtranslator.net/4Fxa
[ë] = as “e” in “the”
[f] = as in English
[g] = as “g” in “give”
[h] = as “h” in “hope”
[i] = as “i” in “bit”
[j] = as “si” in “vision”
[k] = as in English
[l] = as in English
[m] = as in English
[n] = as in English
[o] = as in English
[ö] = as “u” in “burn”, but slightly longer
[p] = as in English
[q] = the “ach-laut” of German or the “jota” of Spanish. It is written “kh” in the Sambahsa
orthography. Listen to “khako” (“I’m not able to”: [qAko]: http://tts.imtranslator.net/4Fxf
[r] = its pronunciation varies from region to region. Nevertheless, “rr” and “rh” have to be
pronounced rolled, as in Spanish.
[s] = as “s” in “say”
[t] = as in English
[u] = as “oo” in “book”
[ü] = the “u” of French or the “ü” of German. According to various rules, it can be written
with “u” or “y”. Listen to “styr” (steering wheel): http://tts.imtranslator.net/4Fxk
[v] = as in English

[w] = as in English
[x] = it is the “ich-laut” of German. Is written “sh” in the Sambahsa orthography. Listen to
“ghianshiek” (rock, stone): http://tts.imtranslator.net/4Fxt
[y] = as “y” in “you”
[z] = as “z” in “zero”
[§] = as “th” in “thin”
Stressed vowels are written in capital letters in polysyllabic words, and a [:] following a
vowel indicates that this one has to be lengthened. Letters in italics can be left
unpronounced.

1st lection
An important (and irregular) Sambahsa verb is habe [hab] = “to have”. As in English, it
serves to build a special tense with the past participle. However, the Sambahsa
“composed past” refers to an action that took place in the past and that is now over (even
if its consequences are still going on) while the English “present perfect” can refer to an
unfinished action. Therefore, this Sambahsa tense will be rendered by the English past
time.
Learn by heart the present tense conjugation of Sambahsa habe. On the contrary to
English, nearly all conjugated verbs of Sambahsa can drop personal pronouns for their
endings already indicate which person is referred to.
Ho – has – hat – hams/habmos [hAbmos] – yu habte [habd] – hant/habent [hAbënt]
Sambahsa distinguishes between the familiar 2 nd person (in Old English : “thou”) and the
polite form, which uses the plural : yu = “you”.
There are two endings for the past participles of Sambahsa, with no difference of
meaning : -t & -(e)n. Since the latter is easier, we'll only use this one in the first lessons.
Ho voten – I voted
Ho copien – I copied
Ho preparen – I prepared
Ho visiten – I visited
Ho deciden – I decided
Ho refusen – I refused
Ho protesten – I protested

Habte yu voten ? Did you vote ?
Habte yu copien ? Did you copy?
Habte yu preparen ? Did you prepare ?
Habte yu visiten ? Did you visit ?
Habte yu deciden ? Did you decide ?
Habte yu refusen ? Did you refuse ?
Habte yu protesten ? Did you protest ?

Ho formen – I formed Habte yu formen ? Did you form ?
Ho reserven – I reserved Habte yu reserven ? Did you reserve ?
Sambahsa uses the same word for the definite article (the) and the 3° person pronoun
(he/she/it). For things (“the neuter gender”), the pronoun is id.
Id cofie = the coffee
Id dinner = the dinner
Id classe = the class
Id salat = the salad
Id soup = the soup
Id meja = the table (for meals)
Id lection = the lesson
Id dessert = the dessert
Id vesper = the evening
hovesper = tonight (adverb)
pro = for.
Conversation
Habte yu preparen id lection ? (Did you prepare the lesson ?)
Ya, ho preparen id lection.
Habte yu preparen id lection hovesper ?
Ya, ho preparen id lection hovesper.
Habte yu copien id lection ?
Ya, ho copien id lection.
Habte yu copien id lection pro id classe ?
Ya, ho copien id lection pro id classe.
Habte yu preparen id salat pro id dinner ?
Ya, ho preparen id salat pro id dinner.
Habte yu preparen id soup pro Paul hovesper ?
Ya, ho preparen id soup pro Paul hovesper.
Habte yu reserven id meja pro Paul hovesper ?
Ya, ho reserven id meja pro Paul hovesper.

Sentence-forming exercise
For practice combine the words below to form as many sentences as you can. Just be
sure to use words from each of the columns in every sentence you form.
1

2

3

Ho copien

id lection

pro id classe

Habte yu copien ?

id meja

pro Paul

Ho reserven

id soup

pro id dinner

Habte yu reserven ?

id salat

hovesper

Ho preparen

id cofie

Habte yu preparen ?

id chay (tea)
id dinner
Exercise in translation

Translate the following English sentences into Sambahsa. Write out each sentence in
Sambahsa, using out the columns above as a guide. After you have written out each
sentence, check with the correct translation below this exercise.
1. I copied the lesson for the class.
2. Did you reserve the table for Paul ?
3. Did you copy the lesson for Paul ?
4. I copied the lesson for Paul.
5. I prepared the lesson tonight.
6. I prepared the salad for Paul.
7. Did you prepare the dinner tonight ?
8. Yes, I prepared the dinner tonight.
9. Did you prepare the dinner for Paul ?
10. Yes, I prepared the dinner for Paul.
11. Did you prepare the soup ?
12. Yes, I prepared the soup.
Solution :
1. Ho copien id lection pro id classe.
2. Habte yu reserven id meja pro Paul ?
3. Habte yu copien id lection pro Paul ?

4. Ho copien id lection pro Paul.
5. Ho preparen id lection hovesper.
6. Ho preparen id salat pro Paul.
7. Habte yu preparen id dinner hovesper ?
8. Ya, ho preparen id dinner hovesper.
9. Habte yu preparen id dinner pro Paul ?
10. Ya, ho preparen id dinner pro Paul.
11. Habte yu preparen id soup ?
12. Ya, ho preparen id soup.
2nd lection
Words to remember
Sambahsa

SPT

English

in

[in]

in

museium

[müzeyum]

museum

theatre

[§ëatrë]

theatre

concert

[kontsert]

concert

garden

[gardën]

garden

kino

[kino]

movies' theater

bureau

[büro:]

office, bureau

auto

[aoto]

car, automobile

crovat

[krovat]

bed

grippe

[grip]

grippe, flu

radio

[radyo]

radio

un

[un]

a(n)

arrogant

[arrogant]

arrogant

khauris

[qaoris]

good, charming

gohd

[go:d]

good, well-made

meg

[meg]

very

fantastic

[fantastic]

fantastic

film

[film]

film, movie

no

[no]

no

est

[est]

is

hotel

[hotel]

hotel

quer

[ker]

where

ne

[në]

not

On the contrary to English, the Sambahsa negation “ne” is generally put before the verb.
Conversation
Est Charles in id hotel ? = Is Charles in the hotel ?
No, Charles ne est in id hotel. = No, Charles is not in the hotel.
Quer est Charles ?
Charles est in id park (park).
Est Charles arrogant ?
No, Charles ne est arrogant. Charles est khauris.
Est Charles intelligent (intelligent)
Ya, Charles est meg intelligent.
Hat Charles un auto ?
Ya, Charles hat un auto.
Hat Charles un radio in id auto ?
Ya, Charles hat un radio in id auto.
Est Fred in id kino ?
No, Fred ne est in id kino.
Quer est Robert ?
Robert est in id crovat.
Hat Robert id grippe ?
Ya, Robert hat id grippe.
Est id film gohd ?
Ya, id film est meg gohd. Id film est fantastic.
Reading exercise
Try to read aloud these sentences below, then check with the SPT solutions underneath.
Continue reading those sentences aloud until you pronounce them well.

1. Charles ne est in id hotel. 2. Charles est khauris. 3. Charles hat un auto. 4. Robert
hat id grippe. 5. Quer est Sylvia ? 6. Ya, ho un radio.
Solutions in SPT : 1. [tcarls në_est in id hotel]. 2. [tcarls est qaoris] 3. [tcarls hat un auto]
4. [robërt hat id grip] 5. [ker est sülvya ?] 6. [ya, ho un radyo]
Translation
Try to translate the following sentences into Sambahsa :
1. Charles is not in the museum. 2. Fred is not in the movies' theater. 3. Where is
Fred ? 4. Fred is at the office. 5. The film is fantastic.
Solution : 1. Charles ne est in id museium. 2. Fred ne est in id kino. 3. Quer est Fred ? 4.
Fred est in id bureau. 5. Id film est fantastic.
Answer the following questions in sambahsa :
Example : 1. Est Charles in id hotel ? Ya, Charles est in id hotel.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Est Peter in id museium ? Ya,
Est Maria intelligent ? Ya,
Est Charles in id kino ? Ya,
Hat Charles un radio ? Ya,
New important words.

Remember that Sambahsa uses the same words for the definite article (the) and the 3°
person pronoun. Sambahsa has 4 genders, i.e. one more than English : masculine,
feminine, neuter (for things & abstractions) and undetermined. The last one is used for
nouns whose gender is unknown.
Sambahsa nouns and pronouns work with 4 cases. The first one is the nominative, which
represents the case of the subject of the verb. Here are the four words you must
remember :
Sambahsa
Gender
is

masculine

ia [ya]

feminine

id

neuter

el

undetermined

Thus, Sambahsa says :
Ia hat un auto = She has a car
Ia gwen hat un auto = The woman has a car.

3t lection

Read aloud the following sentences :
Id cap est un mems [id kap est un mems]
Id brakh est un mems [id braq est un mems]
Id hand est un mems [id hand est un mems]
Id jamb est un mems [id jamb est un mems]
Id ped est un mems [id ped est un mems]
Un rose est un flor [un roz est un flor]

Un menexi [un mëneksi]
Un menexi est un flor [un mëneksi est un flor]
Quod est un banane ? [kwod est un banan ?]
Un banane est un fruit [un banan est un frwit]
Quod est un piano ? [kwod est un pyano ?]
Un piano est un music instrument. [un pyano est un muzik instrümënt]
Quod est id cap ? [kwod est id kap ?]
Id cap est un mems [id kap est un mems]
Est id jamb un mems ? [est id jamb un mems ?]
Ya, id jamb est un mems [ya, id jamb est un mems]
Est id menexi un mems ? [est id mëneksi un mems ?]
No, id menexi est un flor [no, id mëneksi est un flor]

4t lection
Sambahsa

SPT

English

buk

[buk]

book

lection

[lëktyon]

lesson

tennis

[tennis]

tennis

ghitarr

[gitarr]

guitar

englisch

[englic]

English

con

[kon]

with

euco

[öko]

I learn

Eucte yu ?

[ökt_yu?]

Do you learn ?

bahm

[ba:m]

I speak

Bahte yu ?

[ba:t_yu?]

Do you speak ?

Leiso

[leyzo]

I read

Leiste yu ?

[leist_yu?]

Do you read ?

Danso

[danso]

I dance

Danste yu ?

[danst_yu?]

Do you dance ?

Snahm

[sna:m]

I swim

Snahte yu ?

[sna:t_yu?]

Do you swim ?

Kano

[kano]

I make music

Kante yu ?

[kant_yu?]

Do you make music ?

Leiko

[leyko]

I play

Leicte yu ?

[leykt_yu]

Do you play ?

Ne danso

[në_danso]

I don't dance

Ne snahm

[në_sna:m]

I don't swim

Sambahsa only uses personal pronouns with verbs when it's necessary to indicate the
person (as in English), or for questions (then, the order is inverted).
Conversation
Eucte yu Sambahsa in id classe ? Do you learn Sambahsa in the class ?
Ya, euco Sambahsa in id classe. Yes, I learn Sambahsa in the class.
Leiste yu in id lection in id classe ?
Ya, leiso id lection in id classe.
Leicte yu tennis ?
Ya, leiko tennis.
Leicte yu tennis con Fred ?
Ya, leiko tennis con Fred.
Kante yu ghitarr ?
Ya, kano ghitarr.
Notice the difference between leiko = “I play (a game, ex: tennis)” and kano = “I play (a
music instrument; ex: guitar)”.
Reading exercise
Read these sentences aloud then check on the solutions beneath. Read them until it's
correct.
1. Euco Sambahsa in id classe. 2. Euco id lection in id classe. 3. Leicte yu tennis con
Fred ? 4. Kante yu ghitarr ?

Solutions : 1. [öko samba:sa in id klas]. 2. [öko id lëktyon in id klas]. 3. [leykt_yu tenis kon
fred ?]. 4. [kant_yu gitarr ?]
Translation exercise
Translate the following sentences in Sambahsa (solutions below).
1. I speak Sambahsa in the class. 2. I don't dance in the class. 3. I read the book. 4. I
play tennis with Maria. 5. I play guitar.
Corrections : 1. Bahm Sambahsa in id classe. 2. Ne danso in id classe. 3. Leiso id buk. 4.
Leiko tennis con Maria. 5. Kano ghitarr.
The present tense
Unlike many European languages, Sambahsa verbs are not indicated under their infinitive,
but their verbal stem, because it indicates how the verb is to be conjugated. Note that the
English progressive present (“to be + -ing”) can be rendered by a Sambahsa present too.
Sambahsa can have a progressive present, but it is less used as in English.
Verbs ending with a vowel stressed sound follow the model of snah (swim):
snahm, snahs, snaht, snahm(o)s, yu snahte, snahnt
[sna:m, sna:s, sna:t, sna:m(o)s, yu_sna:t, sna:nt]
Verbs ending a consonant sound after a stressed vowel follow the model of euc (learn):
euco, eucs, euct, eucmos, yu eucte, eucent
[öko, öks, ökt, ökmos, yu_ökt, ötsënt]
If the stem ends with -g or -k and if the following ending begins with -s or -t, the former
letters turn to -c-, as it is the case with leik (play)
leiko, leics, leict, leikmos, yu leicte, leikent
[leyko, leyks, leykt, leykmos, yu leikt, leykënt]
Exercise
Give the present tense of these verbs : kan, bah.
Solution :

kano, kans, kant, kanmos, yu kante, kanent
bahm, bahs, baht, bahm(o)s, yu bahte, bahnt

Sambahsa

5t lection
SPT

English

Id rogv est jamile

[id rogv est jamil]

The dress is pretty

Id lection est facil

[id lëktyon est fatsil]

The lesson is easy

Pauline est jamile

[paolin est jamil]

Pauline is pretty

Id cravat est jamile

[id kravat est jamil]

The necktie is pretty.

rudh

[rud]

red

Habte yu kaupen ?

[habd_yu kaopën ?]

Did you buy ?

Habte yu inviten ?

[habd_yu invitën?]

Did you invite ?

do

[do]

(in)to

Another way to form questions in Sambahsa is to add the word “kwe” [kwe] at the
beginning of the sentence, without any inversion. (Look at the first sentence in
“Conversation”)
Why is there a difference of accentuation between “facil” and “jamile” ? It's because the
unpronounced “e” of “jamile” shifts the stress on the preceding syllable.
Conversation
Kwe Susanne est jamile ? Is Susanne pretty ?
Ya, Susanne est jamile.
Kwe id rogv est rudh ?
Ya, id rogv est rudh.
Habte yu kaupen un rogv ?
Ya, ho kaupen un rogv.
Habte yu inviten Philip do id kino ?
Ya, ho inviten Philip do id kino.
Sentence-forming exercises
Id lection
Id rogv

est

facil
jamile

Id cravat

rudh

Susanne

meg jamile.
Translation exercise
Translate into Sambahsa the following sentences :

1.
2.
3.
4.

Is the lesson easy ?
Yes, the lesson is very easy.
The necktie is very pretty
It's good.

Solution : 1. Kwe id lection est facil ? / Est id lection facil ? 2. Ya, id lection est meg facil.
3. Id cravat est meg jamile. 4. (Id) est gohd/khauris.

6t lection
The present tense of verbs whose last letter is an unstressed (and often unpronounced)
“e” follow the model of studye (study) :
io studye – studyes – studyet – studyems – yu studyet – studyent
[yo studyë, studyës, studyët, studyëms, yu studyët, studyënt]
As the 1° person singular has no ending, the use of the personal pronoun “io” is
necessary.
Words to remember
baygh

[bayg]

Much, a lot

hemi

[hemi]

At home

Suadanst Maria ?

[swadanst marya]

Does Maria dance well ?

To express “well” with a verb, Sambahsa uses the verbal prefix “sua-” (with or without an
hyphen).
Conversation
Kwe Fred studyet Sambahsa ? Does Fred study Sambahsa
Ya, Fred studyet Sambahsa. Yes, Fred studies Sambahsa.

Kwe Fred studyet hemi ?
Ya, Fred studyet hemi.
Suasnaht Fred ?
Ya, Fred suasnaht.
Kwe Fred kant ghitarr ?
Ya, Fred kant ghitarr.
Reading exercise
1. Fred studyet baygh. 2. Fred suadanst. 3. Kwe Fred leict tennis ? 4. Albert leict
tennis con Maria.
Solution : 1. [fred studyët bayg]. 2.[fred swadanst]. 3.[kwe fred leykt tenis] 4.[albërt leykt
tenis kon marya].
Conjugation exercise : Conjugate in the present tense the verb gwehm (come). [gwe:m].
As you can see, it ends with a consonant after a vowel sound.
Solution : It follows the model of “euc”.
Gwehmo, gwehms, gwehmt, gwehmmos, yu gwehmte, gwehment
[gwe:mo, gwe:ms, gwe:mt, gwe:mmos, yu gwe:mt, gwe:mënt]
7im lection
Comparative & superlative.
Sambahsa uses words which function as in English : meis = “more”, meist = “most”, minter
[mintër], mins = “less”, quem = “than”
If it doesn't change the accentuation, the endings “-(t)er” (for the comparative) and “-st” (for
the superlative) can be used.
Numbers :
The cardinals are, from 1 to 10 : oin, dwo, tri, quar [kwar], penk(we), six, sept(a), oct(o),
nev, dec.
Teens are obtained by suffixing “-dem”. Ex: septdem [septdëm] = “17”

Tenths are obtained by suffixing “gim”. Ex: octgim [oktdjim] = “80”.
First is “prest”, or “preter” when there are only two elements. Second can be “second”
[sëkond] or “dwot” (“dwoter” when referring to a pair). Other ordinals suffix “-t”, or “-im”
when it's incompatible. Ex: “dwodemt” [dwodëmt] = “12th”.

Sambahsa

Vocabulary
SPT

English

wer

[wer]

Spring (season)

bell

[bell]

beautiful

saison

[säzon]

season

France

[frants]

France

land

[land]

country

Januar

[janwar]

January

srig

[srig]

cold

munt

[munt]

month

dien

[dyen]

day

hoyd

[hoyd]

today

sabd

[sabd]

Saturday

charitable

[tcaritablë]

charitable

Pater

[patër]

father

mien

[myen]

my

capitel

[kapitël]

chapter

interessant

[intëresant]

interesting

trist

[trist]

Sad (when referring to a
thing)

Exercise
Translate into Sambahsa the following sentences :
1. Spring is the most beautiful season. 2. France is a beautiful country. 3. January is
the coldest month. 4. What day is today ? 5. Today is Saturday, the seventh day. 6.
My father is very charitable. 7. The first chapter is less interesting than the second
(of two). 8. The ninth chapter is very sad.
Solution : 1. Wer est id meist bell saison. 2. France est un bell land. 3. Januar est id meist
srig saison. 4. Quod dien est hoyd ? 5. Hoyd est sabd, id septim day. 6. Mien pater est
meg charitable. 7. Id preter capitel est minter/mins interessant quem id dwoter. 8. Id nevt
capitel est meg trist.

8im lection
How to form words
English and Sambahsa share a large amount of nouns ending in “-ation”. Most of them
correspond to Sambahsa verbs ending with an unstressed “e”. Ex:
presentation > presente (“to present”).
Plural
Learn by heart those nominative plural forms :
Singular

Plural

is

ies [yes]

ia

ias [yas]

id

ia

el

i [i]

The undetermined plural can serve for groups containing elements of different genders.
Most Sambahsa nouns mark their plural as in English, i.e., they add a final “-s”, when it's
phonetically compatible. Ex :
id tiquet [tikët] > ia tiquets [tikëts] (the ticket / the tickets).
Conversation
Hat Paul inviten Susanne do id club [klub] ? Did Paul invite Susanne to the club ?
Ya, Paul hat inviten Susanne do id club. Yes, Paul invited Susanne to the club.
Hat Susanne accepten id invitation ?
Ya, Susanne hat accepten id invitation.
Hat Susanne dansen id valz [valdz] con Paul ?
Ya, Susanne hat dansen id valz con Paul.
Hat Robert reserven un meja pro id dinner ?
Ya, Robert hat reserven un meja pro id dinner.
Habte yu dansen id valz ?

Ya, ho dansen id valz.
Sentence-forming exercise
Ho

dansen

id valz

Ia hat

accepten

con Paul

Habte yu ?

refusen

id invitation

Hat is ?

inviten

Robert

Hat ia ?

hovesper

Hat Paul ?

con Susanne

Paul hat

do id club.
Translation Exercise :
Translate the following sentences into Sambahsa :

1. Paul invited Susanne to the club. 2. Susanne accepted the invitation. 3. Did Paul
invite Susanne to the theatre ? 4. Did she invite Paul to the club ? 5. I prepared
dinner for Paul. 6. Did you copy the lesson ? 7. He invited Pauline to the movies'
theater. 8. Is the dress red ?
Solution : 1. Paul hat inviten Susanne do id club. 2. Susanne hat accepten id invitation. 3.
Hat Paul inviten Susanne do id theatre ? 4. Hat ia inviten Paul do id club ? 5. Ho preparen
dinner pro Paul. 6. Habte yu copien id lection ? 7. Is hat inviten Pauline do id kino. 8.
Habte yu copien id lection ? 8. Kwe id rogv est rudh ?

9t Lection
Elements of pronunciation.
In Sambahsa, “c” is pronounced [k], but turns to [ts] before e, i or y.
Likewise, “g” is pronounced [g], but turns to [dj] before the same letters.
“u” is pronounced [u] but turns to [ü] if one of the two following letters is “e”.
At the end of a word, the “e” in “-es” is only pronounced if it helps to distinguish the “s”
from the preceding sound.
Between two consonants, “w” becomes [u] but is never stressed.

“too, also”.
In Sambahsa, this word is “yaschi” [yaci]. With a pronoun, the “ya” can disappear and the
“schi” is suffixed to the pronoun. Ex: “yuschi” = “you too”.

“want, would like to”
In Sambahsa, the general verb “eiskw” can express a desire, an intention. Here is its
conjugation in the present tense :
eiskwo, eiskws, eiskwt, eiskwm(o)s, yu eiskwte, eiskwnt
[eyskwo, eyskus, eyskut, eyskum(o)s, yu eyskut, eyskunt]
With another verb, it can be reduced to “-skw” and suffixed to that other verb if it doesn't
alter its accentuation.
Ex: leik + -skw = leicskw “want to play”.

The infinitive
Many languages have an infinitive, an indeclinable form of a verb, which behaves
sometimes like a noun. In English, there is no true infinitive, but it corresponds to the forms
of “to + verb”, or when a verb (with or without -ing) is used with another verb.
For verbs ending with an unstressed “e”, there is no change. Ex: invite = “to invite”.
For the other verbs, if their stressed vowels are “eu” or “ei”, those ones respectively turn to
“u” and “i”, and “-es” is suffixed. Ex:
leis > lises [lizës] = “to read”
euc > uces [ütsës] = “to learn”
The remaining verbs add “-e” if it doesn't alter their accentuation. Ex: rhalte + e = rhalte “to
make mistakes”.
Vocabulary
Sambahsa

SPT

English

ghehd

[ge:d]

Can, to be able to

rhalt

[rhalt]

To be mistaken, to make
mistakes

mehn

[me:n]

to think

daskal

[daskal]

teacher

inkap

[inkap]

to begin

almen

[almën]

pupil

orbat

[orbat]

(to) work

aun

[aon]

without

sweurgh

[swörg]

sorrow

Translation exercise :
Translate into Sambahsa the following sentences (remember that groups of persons can
include both genders) :
1. We can make mistakes. 2. I think (that) the teachers make mistakes too. 3. The
pupils want to begin to study Sambahsa. 4. You can work without (any) sorrow.
Solution : 1. Ghehdmos rhalte. 2. Mehno ischi (i + [ya]schi) daskals rhaltent. 3. I almens
inkapskwnt studye Sambahsa. 4. Yu ghehdte orbate aun sweurgh.

10t lection
The present tense of “to be”.
It is, like “habe”, an irregular verb: som, es, est, smos, ste, sont.
The infinitive is ses.
To express “there is/are”, ter “there” is optional in Sambahsa.
“Of”
Sambahsa uses a special word for “of the”. Like “of” alone, it follows the gender and
number of the noun after it.
(Singular/Plural)
« of »
« of the »
Masculine

Os/om

Ios/iom

Feminine

As/am

Ias/iam

Neuter

Os/om

Ios/iom

Undetermined

Es/em

Al/im
Vocabulary

Sambahsa

SPT

English

citad

[tsitad]

(big) city

maung

[maong]

Many, much

orkester

[orkestër]

orchestra

ed

[ed]

and

prispehc

[prispe:k]

attend

albud

[albud]

swan

ep

[ep]

id

gwah

[gwa:]

To go to (doesn't need a
preposition)

restaurant

[rëstaorant]

restaurant

touriste

[tu:rist]

tourist

nav

[nav]

ship

ex

[eks]

From (within)

or

[ao]

or

Translation Exercise :
Translate the following sentences into Sambahsa :
1. Hamburg is a very beautiful city. 2. There are many beautiful parks in Hamburg. 3.
The orchestra plays music of Mozart, Beethoven and Bach. 4. I attend many
concerts. 5. Beautiful swans swim on the Alster. 6. The tourists go to the
restaurants. 7. The ships come from America, Africa or India.
Solution : 1. Hamburg est un meg bell citad. 2. Sont maung bell parks in Hamburg. 3. Id
orkester kant music om Mozart, Beethoven ed Bach (all of them were males !) 4.
Prispehco maung concerts. 5. Bell albuds snahnt ep id Alster. 6. I touristes gwahnt ia
restaurants. 7. Ia navs gwehment ex America, Africa au Hind.

11t lection.
The near future.
To express the near future (Eng. To be going to + verb.), Sambahsa uses a special verb
“vah-” (with the normal endings; therefore, it conjugates like snah-) + infinitive. Ex:

Ne vahm orbate = I am not going to work.
The future tense
Likewise, for the future tense, Sambahsa uses a special verb, sie- (+ the conjugational
endings) + the infinitive. There is even a negative future auxiliary (like Eng. “won't”) which
is nie.
Examples : Siem tolke ad Paul = I will talk to Paul.
Niem tolke ad Paul = I won't talk to Paul.
There is a synthetic future for sie too. Take the 2° sing. Present conjugated form, add -ie- +
the required ending. Example :
Phone + s = phones; + ie + m = Phonesiem [fonëzyem] = “I will phone”.
The forms for “ses” and “habe” are irregular; respectively “sessie-” and “habsie-”.

Sambahsa

Vocabulary
SPT

English

Tolk ad

[tolk ad]

Talk to

Phone ad

[fon ad]

Phone to

todegher(n)

[todegër(n)]

This morning

client

[kl(i)yent]

Client, customer

brev

[brev]

Letter (to be sent)

dicte

[dikt]

dictate

buksteiv

[buksteyv]

Letter (of alphabet) ; to spell
(a word)

Conversation
Vahte yu orbate todeghern ? Are you going to work this morning ?
Ya, vahm orbate todeghern.
Siete yu phone ad un client todeghern ?
No, niem phone ad un client todeghern.
Vahte yu dicte id brev in id bureau ?
No, ne vahm dicte id brev in id bureau.
Siete yu danse hovesper ?

No, niem danse hovesper. Gwahsiem (id) kino.
Translation exercise
Translate the following sentences into Sambahsa :
1. I am not going to dictate the letter this morning. 2. I won't work. 3. I'm going to
reserve a table. 4. I won't prepare the lesson this evening.
Solution : 1. Ne vahm dicte id brev todeghern. 2. Niem orbate. 3. Ne vahm reserve un
meja. 4. Niem prepare id lection hovesper.

12t lection
The past participle in “(e)n” of verbs with ablaut.
“Ablaut” means “vowel mutation” in German. This phenomenon happens to some verbs in
Sambahsa :
– Verbs whose stressed consonants is “ei”/”eu” change it to respectively “i/u” before
adding the ending.
– Likewise, “eh”, followed by one or several consonants, turns to “oh” before adding
the ending.
Examples :
leik (to play) > liken
euc (to learn) > ucen
myehrs (to forget) > myohrsen

Sambahsa

Vocabulary
SPT

English

gnoh

[nyo:]

To know

an

[an]

If (introducing an
interrogation)

prokwem

[prokwëm]

near

ma

[ma]

why

change

[tcandj]

To change

Denars (plural in Sambahsa)

[dënars]

money

niter

[nitër]

Down here, lower

bankautomat

[bankaotomat]

Cash dispenser

neud

[nöd]

To use

credit

[kredit]

credit

carte

[kart]

card

way

[way]

Unfortunately, alas

myehrs

[mye:rs]

To forget

Dialogue
- Gnohte yu an est un bank prokwem ?

- Do you know if there's a bank near ?

- Ma ?

- Why ?

- Eiskwo change denars.

- I want to change money.

- Niter est un bankautomat quer yu ghehdte
- Down here (lower) (there) is a cash
nudes un credit carte
dispenser where you can use a credit card.
- Way, ho myohrsen id hemi.

- Unfortunately, I've forgotten it at home.

Translation exercise:
Translate into Sambahsa the following sentences :
1. I'm going to change money in the bank. 2. I will go down here with my father.

Solution : 1. Vahm change denars in id bank. 2. Gwahsiem (or Siem gwahe) niter con
mien pater.
13t lection
The accusative
We've already seen the nominative which is the case used for subjects of the verb.
Another case is the accusative which is the case of the direct object, i.e. the noun
concerned directly by the verbal action. Ex: in “I accuse you !”, “you” is the direct object, for
it's the target of the action. Furthermore, in Sambahsa, the accusative is used after nearly
all prepositions. This is important for pronouns, which are declined in Sambahsa. Here is
below a full table of Sambahsa pronouns in nominative and accusative. Remember that :
– The nominative of personal pronouns is only used in Sambahsa when the ending
doesn't indicate the person, for interrogations (then the pronoun is put after the
verb) or simply in other to stress who's acting (like in English “I do + verb”)/
– The same word is used for the definite article (“the”) and the 3 rd person pronoun.

Person

Nominative

Accusative

1st person singular

Ego (when stressed), io

me

2nd person singular

tu

te

3rd person singular
masculine

is

iom

3rd person singular feminine

ia

iam

3rd person singular neuter

id

id

3rd person singular
undetermined

el

el

1st person plural

wey

nos

2nd person plural

yu

vos

3 person plural masculine

ies

iens

3 person plural feminine

ias

ians

3rd person plural neuter

ia

ia

3rd person plural
undetermined

i

i

quayt

Vocabulary
[kwayt]

How many

Ferias (Sambahsa plural)

[feryas]

Holidays

lient

[lyent]

summer

nun

[nun]

now

ghim

[gim]

winter

ambh

[amb]

around

Natal

[natal]

Christmas

semper

[sempër]

always

hevd

[hevd]

week

man

[man]

To stay

her

[her]

here

swehd

[swe:d]

To have the habit to

spend

[spend]

To spend (time)

parent

[parënt]

parent

rd

rd

- Quayt feriadiens has tu ?

Dialogue
- How many vacation days do you have ?

- In lient ?

- In summer ?

- No, nun, in ghim.

- No, now in winter.

- Ambh Natal, ho semper dwo hevds ferias

- Around Christmas, I have always two
weeks (of) holidays

- Mans tu her ?

- Do you stay here ?

- Swehdo spende Natal con mien parents.

- I have the habit to spend Christmas with
my parents.

- Te hant inviten ?

- They have invited you ?

- Ya, ed eiskwo ses con i.

- Yes, and I want to be with them.

Translation exercise:
Translate into Sambahsa the following sentences :
1. Summer is a charming season. 2. How many days are there in a week ? 3. There
are seven days in a week.
Solution : 1. Lient est un khauris saison. 2. Quayt diens sont (ter) in un hevd ? 3. Sont
sept(a) diens in un hevd.
14t lection
The reflexive pronoun
3rd person singular Sambahsa pronouns use a special pronoun to express “oneself” in the
accusative : “se”. The corresponding possessive pronoun is “sien” (one's).
The present participle
Just add the ending “(e)nd” to the verbal stem. Ex: join + end = joinend (“joining”).
The euphonic vocalisation.
This is a set of endings used to avoid awkward combinations of sounds between two
neighbouring words, or when “s” cannot be used for a plural (if it couldn't be distinguished
from the precedent sound). Ex: “glehdj” [gle:dj] has “glehdja” as a plural, for in *glehdjs, the
final “s” would be confused with the “j” before. The adjectives “vasyo” (“all the”, mostly
used in the plural) and “alyo” (“another”) always use those endings. They cannot be used if
they modify the word's accentuation.

Nominative
singular

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Undetermined
(used only with
living beings)

-(o)s

-a

-o, -um

-is

Accusative
singular

-o, -um

-u

-o, -um

-em

Genitive singular

-(io)s

-(ia)s

-(io)s

-(e)s

Nominative
plural

-i

-as

-a

-i

Accusative plural

-ens

-ens

-a-

-ens

Genitive plural

-en

-en

-en

-en

Vocabulary
Sambahsa

SPT

Englisch

nordpole

[nordpol]

North pole

glehdjbenk

[gle:djbënk]

Pack ice

leus

[lös]

To lose

surface

[surfats]

surface

unte

[unt]

During, within the space of

yar

[yar]

year

ob

[ob]

Because (of)

accelere

[aktseler]

To accelerate

warmen

[warmën]

warm-up

Gronland

[gronland]

Greenland

preswed

[preswëd]

Fresh water

hol

[hol]

Whole, entire

continent

[kontinënt]

continent

join

[joyn]

To join

saldwed

[saldwëd]

saltwater

ocean

[otsëan]

ocean

You can now understand the first lines of that documentary movie subtitled in Sambahsa :
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xgjpgp_ghom-part-10-in-sambahsa_shortfilms
“Ghom” (part 10 in Sambahsa).
Ambh id Nordpole, id glehdjbenk hat lusen
30% os sien surface unte 30 yars.

Around id North Pole, the pack ice has lost
30% of its surface during 30 years.

Ed ob id acceleren warmen os Gronland,

And because of the accelerated warm-up of
Greenland,

Id preswed uns hol continent est joinend id
saldwed iom oceans.

The fresh water of a whole continent is
joining the saltwater of the oceans.