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EMCfilters

General
Date: January2006
EPCOS AG 2006. Reproduction, publication and dissemination of this data sheet and the
informationcontainedthereinwithoutEPCOSpriorexpressconsentisprohibited.
General
EMCbasics
1 EMCbasics
1.1 Legalbackground
Electromagneticcompatibility(EMC)hasbecomeanessentialpropertyofelectronicequipment.In
viewoftheimportanceofthistopic,theEuropeanlegislatorissuedtheEMCDirectiveasearlyas
1996(89/336/EEC):ithassincebeenincorporatedatnationallevelbytheEUmemberstatesinthe
formofvariousEMClawsandregulations.
TheEUsnewEMCDirective(2004/108/ECofDecember15,2004)containsseveralsignificantin-
novationscomparedtotheversioninforcesince1996.Itwillbecomebindingonallequipmentput
onthemarketaftertheelapseofthetransitionalperiodinJuly2009.Themostimportantchanges
include:
Regulationsforfixedinstallations
Abolitionofthecompetentbody
Conformityassessmentmayalsobemadewithoutharmonizedstandards
Newdefinitionsofterms(equipment,apparatus,fixedinstallation)
Newrequirementsonmandatoryinformation,traceability
Improvedmarketsurveillance
Thedefinitionofapparatushasnowbecomeclearer,sothatitsscopeofvaliditynowcoversonly
apparatusthattheendusercanusedirectly.Basiccomponentssuchascapacitors,inductorsand
filtersaredefinitivelyexcluded.
Theessentialrequirementsmustbeobservedbyallapparatusofferedonthemarketwithinthe
EU.This ensures that all apparatus operate withoutinterferencesin its electromagnetic environ-
mentwithoutaffectingotherequipmenttoanimpermissibleextent.
1.2 DirectivesandCEmarking
ManufacturersmustdeclarethattheirapparatusconformtotheprotectionobjectivesoftheEMC
DirectivebyattachingtheCEconformitymarktoallapparatusandpackaging.Thisimpliesthatthey
assumeresponsibilityvis--visthelegislatorsforobservingtherelevantemissionlimitsandinterfe-
renceimmunityrequirements.
Theinterferenceimmunityrequirementsinparticulararebecomingincreasinglyimportantforthe
operatorsofapparatus,installationsandsystems,astheircorrectfunctioningcanbeensuredonly
ifsufficientEMCmeasuresaretaken.However,theneedforconstantfunctionalityalsoimplieshigh
availabilityofinstallationsandsystemsandthusrepresentsasignificantperformancefigureforthe
cost-effectiveoperationoftheequipment.
ItshouldbenotedthattheCEconformitymarknotonlyassertselectromechanicalcompatibilitybut
alsoconfirmstheobservanceofalltheEUDirectivesapplyingtotheproductconcerned.Themost
importantgeneraldirectivesapartfromtheEMCDirectiveincludetheLow-VoltageDirectiveand
theMachineryDirective.
SomeofthesedirectivesalsoincludeEMCrequirements.ExamplesaretheR&TTEDirective(for
radioandtelecommunicationsterminalequipment)andtheMedicalProductsDirective.TheEMC
Directivedoesnotapplytothoseproductswhicharecoveredbythesedirectives.
Themanufacturerisresponsiblefortakingthenecessarystepstoensurethatallapplicabledirec-
tivesareobserved.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 2
General
EMCbasics
1.3 EMCstandards
Dedicatedproductstandardsorproductfamilystandardsareavailableformanykindsofequipment
(seeSection1.9).AllequipmentnotcoveredbytheseEMCstandardsareassessedonthebasis
ofthegenericstandards.Specialrulesapplytolargerandmorecomplexinstallationswhichareas-
sembledonsiteandarenotfreelyavailablecommercially(seeChapterApplicationnotes).
1.4 BasicinformationonEMC
The term EMC covers both electromagnetic emission and electromagnetic susceptibility
(Figure1).
SSB0007-3-E
EME
CE
RE
CS
RS
EMS
EMC
Emission Susceptibility
Disturbed Interference Propagation
radiated
conducted
source equipment
Figure1 EMCterms
EMC = Electromagneticcompatibility
EME = Electromagneticemission
EMS = Electromagneticsusceptibility
CE = Conductedemission
CS = Conductedsusceptibility
RE = Radiatedemission
RS = Radiatedsusceptibility
Aninterferencesourcemaygenerateconductedorradiatedelectromagneticenergy,i.e.conducted
emission(CE)orradiatedemission(RE).Thisalsoappliestotheelectromagneticsusceptibilityof
disturbedequipment.
Inordertoworkoutcost-efficientsolutions,allphenomenamustbeconsidered,andnotjustone
aspectsuchasconductedemission.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 3
General
EMCbasics
EMCcomponentsareusedtoreduceconductedelectromagneticinterferencestothelimitsdefined
inanEMCplanorbelowthelimitsspecifiedintheEMCstandards(Figure2).Thesecomponents
maybeinstalledeitherinthesourceorinthedisturbedequipment.
RE
Source
equip-
RE
RE
CE
CE
RE
CE
CE
CE
CE
Powersupply
Signalline
Disturbed
ment
RE
Controlline
Electricfield
CE
Interferencecurrents
Filter
Interferencevoltages
RE Magneticfield
Electromagneticfield
SSB1685-G-E
Figure2 Susceptibilitymodelandfiltering
EPCOSoffersEMCcomponentswithawiderangeofratedvoltagesandcurrentsforpowerlines
aswellasforsignalandcontrollines.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 4
General
EMCbasics
1.5 Interferencesourcesanddisturbedequipment
Interference source
Aninterferencesourceisanelectricalequipmentwhichemitselectromagneticinterferences.We
candifferentiatebetweentwomaingroupsofinterferencesourcescorrespondingtothetypeoffre-
quencyspectrumemitted(Figure3).
Interference sources with discretefrequency spectra (e.g. high-frequency generators and micro-
processorsystems)emitnarrowbandinterferences.
Switchgearandelectricmotorsinhouseholdappliances,however,spreadtheirinterferenceenergy
overbroadfrequencybandsandareconsideredtobelongtothegroupofinterferencesourceshav-
ingacontinuousfrequencyspectrum.
Interferencesource(emission)
Discretefrequencyspectrum
(Sine-wave,lowenergy)
Continuousfrequencyspectrum
(Impulses,highenergy)
Psystems
RFgenerators
Medicalequipment
Dataprocessingsystems
Microwaveequipment
Ultrasonicequipment
RFweldingapparatus
RadioandTVreceivers
Switch-modepowersupplies
Frequencyconverters
UPSsystems
Electronicballasts
Figure3 Interferencesources
Switchgear(contactors,relays)
Householdappliances
Gasdischargelamps
Powersuppliesandbatterychargers
Frequencyconverters
Ignitionsystems
Weldingapparatus
Motorswithbrushes
Atmosphericdischarges
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 5
General
EMCbasics
Disturbed equipment
Electricalequipmentorsystemssubjecttointerferencesandwhichcanbeadverselyaffectedbyit
aretermeddisturbedequipment.
Inthesamewayasinterferencesources,disturbedequipmentcanalsobecategorizedcorrespond-
ingtofrequencycharacteristics.Adistinctioncan bemadebetweennarrowband andbroadband
susceptibility(Figure4).
NarrowbandsystemsincluderadioandTVsets,forexample,whereasdataprocessingsystemsare
generallycharacterizedasbroadbandsystems.
Disturbedequipment(susceptibility)
Narrowbandsusceptibility Broadbandsusceptibility
RadioandTVreceivers
Radioreceptionequipment
Modems
Datatransmissionsystems
Radiotransmissionequipment
Remote-controlequipment
Cordlessandcellularphones
Figure4 Disturbedequipment
Digitalandanalogsystems
Dataprocessingsystems
Processcontrolcomputers
Controlsystems
Sensors
Videotransmissionsystems
Interfaces
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 6
General
EMCbasics
1.6 Propagationofinterferences
Interferencevoltagesandcurrentscanbegroupedintocommon-modeinterferences,differential-
modeinterferencesandunsymmetricalinterferences:
as
V
(a)
s
V
(b)
us1
V
us2
V
(c)
Common-mode Differential-mode Unsymmetrical
propagation propagation propagation
SSB1465-P-E
Figure5 Propagationmodes
5(a)
Common-modeinterferences(asymmetricalinterferences):
occursbetweenalllinesinacableandreferencepotential;
occursmainlyathighfrequencies(approximately1MHzupwards).
5(b)
Differential-modeinterferences(symmetricalinterferences):
occursbetweentwolines(L-L,L-N);
occursmainlyatlowfrequencies(uptoseveralhundredkHz).
5(c)
Unsymmetricalinterferences:
Thistermisusedtodescribeinterferencesbetweenonelineandthereferencepotential.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 7
General
EMCbasics
1.7 Characteristicsofinterferences
InordertobeabletochoosethecorrectEMCmeasures,weneedtoknowthecharacteristicsofthe
interferences,howtheyarepropagatedandthecouplingmechanisms.Inprinciple,theinterferenc-
escanalsobeclassifiedaccordingtotheirpropagationmode(Figure6).Atlowfrequencies,itcan
beassumedthattheinterferencesonlyspreadsalongconductivestructures,athighfrequencies
virtuallyonlybymeansofelectromagneticradiation.IntheMHzfrequencyrange,thetermcoupling
isgenerallyusedtodescribethemechanism.
Analogously,conductedinterferencesatfrequenciesofuptoseveralhundredkHzismainlydiffer-
ential-mode(symmetrical),athigherfrequencies,itiscommon-mode (asymmetrical).Thisisbe-
causethecouplingfactorandtheeffectsofparasiticcapacitanceandinductancebetweenthecon-
ductorsincreasewithfrequency.
Xcapacitorsandsinglechokesoffereffectivedifferential-modeinsertionloss.Common-modein-
terferencescanbereducedbycurrent-compensatedchokesandYcapacitors.However,thisre-
quiresawell-designedEMC-compliantgroundingandwiringsystem.
Thecategorizationoftypesofinterferenceandsuppressionmeasuresandtheirrelationtothefre-
quency ranges is reflected in the frequency limits for interference voltage and interference field
strengthmeasurements.
SSB1466-X-E
Fieldstrength Interferencevoltage
Differentialmode
Xcap
Pcch.
Line Coupling
CCch.
Ycap
Ground
Commonmode
Shielding
Field
Field
Interference
characteristic
Interference
propagation
Remedies
Limits
10
_
2
10
_
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
MHz 10
3
f
Figure6 Frequencyrangeoverview
Pcch.= Ironpowdercorechokes,butalsoallsinglechokes
Xcap = Xcapacitors
Ccch.= Current-compensatedchokes
Ycap = Ycapacitors
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 8
General
EMCbasics
1.8 EMCmeasurementmethods
As previously mentioned, an interference source causes both conducted and radiated electro-
magneticinterferences.
Propagationalonglinescanbedetectedbymeasuringtheinterferencecurrentandtheinterference
voltage(Figure7).
Theeffectofinterferencefieldsontheirimmediatevicinityisassessedbymeasuringthemagnetic
andelectricfields.Thiskindofpropagationisalsofrequentlytermedelectricormagneticcoupling
(nearfield).
Inhigherfrequencyranges,characterizedbythefactthatequipmentdimensionsareintheorderof
magnitudeofthewavelengthunderconsideration,theinterferenceenergyismainlyradiateddirect-
ly(farfield).Conductedandradiatedpropagationmustalsobetakenintoconsiderationwhentest-
ingthesusceptibilityofdisturbedequipment.
Interferencesources,suchassine-wavegeneratorsaswellaspulsegeneratorswithawidevariety
ofpulseshapesareusedforsuchtests.
Powersupply Currentprobe
Source
Broadbanddipoleantenna
Lineimpedance
stabilization
int

int
V
E
int
Measuringreceiver
probe
Spectrumanalyzer
Storageoscilloscope
Transientrecorder
Voltage
network
Measuringreceiver
P
int
H
int
Rodantenna
Loopantenna
Measuringreceiver
Nearfieldcoupling
Measuringreceiver
SSB0016-2-E
Figure7 PropagationofelectromagneticinterferencesandEMCmeasurementmethods
H
int
= Magneticinterferencefields
E
int
= Electricalinterferencefields
P
int
= Electromagneticinterferencefields(radiatedemission)
I
int
= Interferencecurrent
V
int
= Interferencevoltage
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 9
General
EMCbasics
1.9 EMCstandards
New,harmonizedEuropeanstandardshavebeenissuedinconjunctionwiththeEUsEMCDirec-
tiveornationalEMClegislation.Thesespecifymeasurementmethodsandlimitsortestlevelsfor
boththeemissionsandimmunityofelectricalequipment,installationsandsystems.
ThesubdivisionoftheEuropeanstandardsintovariouscategories(seefollowingtable)makesit
easiertofindtherulesthatapplytotherespectiveequipment.Thegeneric standardsalwaysapply
toallequipmentforwhichthereisnospecificproduct family standardordedicated product stan-
dard.Thebasic standardscontaininformationoninterferencephenomenaandgeneralmeasuring
methods.
Thefollowingstandardsandregulationsformtheframeworkoftheconformitytests:
EMCstandards Germany Europe International
Genericstandards
definetheEMCenvironmentinwhichadeviceistooperateaccordingtoitsintendeduse.
Emissionresidential
industrial
DINEN61000-6-3
DINEN61000-6-4
EN61000-6-3
EN61000-6-4
IEC61000-6-3
IEC61000-6-4
Immunityresidential
industrial
DINEN61000-6-1
DINEN61000-6-2
EN61000-6-1
EN61000-6-2
IEC61000-6-1
IEC61000-6-2
Basicstandards
describephysicalphenomenaandmeasurementmethods.
Measuringequipment DINEN55016-1-x EN55016-1-x CISPR16-1-x
Measuringmethodsemission
immunity
DINEN55016-2-x
DINEN61000-4-1
EN55016-2-x
EN61000-4-1
CISPR16-2-x
IEC61000-4-1
Harmonics
Flicker
DINEN61000-3-2
DINEN61000-3-3
EN61000-3-2
EN61000-3-3
IEC61000-3-2
IEC61000-3-3
Immunityparameters
e.g. ESD
EMfields
Burst
Surge
InducedRFfields
Magneticfields
Voltagedips
DINEN61000-4-2
DINEN61000-4-3
DINEN61000-4-4
DINEN61000-4-5
DINEN61000-4-6
DINEN61000-4-8
DINEN61000-4-11
EN61000-4-2
EN61000-4-3
EN61000-4-4
EN61000-4-5
EN61000-4-6
EN61000-4-8
EN61000-4-11
IEC61000-4-2
IEC61000-4-3
IEC61000-4-4
IEC61000-4-5
IEC61000-4-6
IEC61000-4-8
IEC61000-4-11
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 10
General
EMCbasics
EMCstandards Germany Europe International
Productfamilystandards
definelimitvaluesforemissionandimmunity.
ISMequipment emission
immunity
DINEN55011
1)
EN55011
1)
CISPR11
1)
Householdappliances emission
immunity
DINEN55014-1
DINEN55014-2
EN55014-1
EN55014-2
CISPR14-1
CISPR14-2
Lighting emission
immunity
DINEN55015
DINEN61547
EN55015
EN61547
CISPR15
IEC1547
RadioandTV emission
equipment immunity
DINEN55013
DINEN55020
EN55013
EN55020
CISPR13
CISPR20
High-voltagesystems emission DINVDE0873 CISPR18
ITEequipment
3)
emission
immunity
DINEN55022
DINEN55024
EN55022
EN55024
CISPR22
CISPR24
Vehicles emission
immunity
DINEN55025

EN55025
2)
2)
CISPR25
ISO11451
ISO11452
Thefollowingtableshowsthemostimportantstandardsconcerningimmunity.
Standard Testcharacteristics Phenomena
Conductedinterferences
EN61000-4-4
IEC61000-4-4
5/50ns(singleimpulse)
2.5kHz,5kHzor100kHzburst
Burst
Cause:switchingprocesses
EN61000-4-5
IEC61000-4-5
1.2/50s(open-circuitvoltage)
8/20s(short-circuitcurrent)
Surge(high-energytransients)
Cause:lightningstrikesmainssupply,
switchingprocesses
EN61000-4-6
IEC61000-4-6
1;3;10V
150kHzto80MHz(230MHz)
High-frequencycoupling
Narrow-bandinterferences
Radiatedinterferences
EN61000-4-3
IEC61000-4-3
3;10V/m
80to1000MHz
High-frequencyinterferencefields
EN61000-4-8
IEC61000-4-8
upto100A/m
50Hz
Magneticinterferencefields
withpower-engineeringfrequency
1) Isgovernedbythesafetyandqualitystandardsoftheproductfamilies.
2) TheEUAutomotiveDirective(95/54/EC)alsocoverslimitsandimmunityrequirements.
3) SomeequipmentiscoveredbytheR&TTEDirective(Radio-andTelecommunicationsTerminals).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 11
General
EMCbasics
Standard Testcharacteristics Phenomena
Electrostaticdischarge(ESD)
EN61000-4-2
IEC61000-4-2
to15kV Electrostaticdischarge
Instabilityofthesupplyvoltage
EN61000-4-11
IEC61000-4-11
e.g.40%V
N
for150periods
0%V
N
for0,5periods
Voltagedips
Short-terminterruptions
EN61000-4-11
IEC61000-4-11
e.g.40%V
N
or0%V
N
(2sreduction,1sreducedvoltage,
2sincrease)
Voltagevariations
1.10 Propagationofconductedinterferences
InordertobeabletoselectsuitableEMCcomponents,thewayinwhichconductedinterferences
arepropagatedneedstobeknown.
Afloatinginterferencesourceprimarilyemitsdifferential-modeinterferenceswhicharepropagated
alongtheconnectedlines.Theinterferencecurrentwillflowtowardsthedisturbedequipmenton
onelineandawayfromitontheotherline,justasthemainscurrentdoes.
Differential-modeinterferencesoccurmainlyatlowfrequencies(uptoseveralhundredkHz).
Interference Disturbed
source equipment
Common-mode
interferencecurrent
p
C
p
C
R
Differential-mode
interferencecurrent
C
p
:Parasiticcapacitance
SSB0022B-E
Figure8 Common-modeanddifferential-modeinterferences
However, parasitic capacitances in interference sources and disturbed equipment or intended
groundconnections,alsoleadtoaninterferencecurrentinthegroundcircuit.Thiscommon-mode
interferencecurrentflowstowardsthedisturbedequipmentthroughboththeconnectinglinesand
returns to the interference source through ground. Since the parasitic capacitances will tend to-
wardsrepresentingashort-circuitwithincreasingfrequenciesandthecouplingeffectstheconnect-
ingcablesandtheequipmentitselfwillincreasecorrespondingly,common-modeinterferencesbe-
comedominantabovesomeMHz.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 12
General
EMCbasics
InEurope,thetermofanunsymmetricalinterferenceisusedtodescribetheinterferencevoltage
betweenonelineandareferencepotential.Itconsistsofsymmetricalandasymmetricalparts.
EPCOSspecifiescharacteristicvaluesofinsertionlossfortheindividualfiltertypesinordertofa-
cilitatetheselectionofsuitableEMCfilters.
1.11 Filtercircuitsandlineimpedance
EMCfiltersarevirtuallyalwaysdesignedasreflectinglowpassfilters,i.e.theyreachtheirhighest
insertionlosswhentheyareontheonehandmismatchedtotheimpedanceoftheinterference
sourceanddisturbedequipmentandontheotherhandmismatchedtotheimpedanceofthe
line.PossiblefiltercircuitsforvariousimpedanceconditionsareshowninFigure9.
Itis,therefore,necessarytofindoutthe impedancessothatoptimumfiltercircuitdesignsaswell
aseconomicalsolutionscanbeimplemented.
Theimpedancesofthepowernetworksunderconsiderationareusuallyknownfromcalculations
andextensivemeasurements,whereastheimpedancesofinterferencesourcesordisturbedequip-
mentare,inmostcases,notoronlyinadequatelyknown.
Forthisreason,itisimpossibletodesignthemostsuitablefiltersolutionwithoutEMCtests.Inthis
context,weofferourcustomersthecompetentconsultingofourskilledstaff,bothon-siteandinour
EMClaboratoryinRegensburg(seealsoEMCservices,Section7,EMClaboratory).
Line Impedanceof
impedance sourceofinterference/disturbedequipment
low high
high high
high high
unknown unknown
low low
low low
unknown unknown
SSB0042-Q-E
Figure9 Filtercircuitsandimpedancerelationships
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 13
General
Selectioncriteria
2 SelectioncriteriaforEMCfilters
Tocomplywithcurrentlyvalidregulations,afrequencyrangeof150kHzto1000MHzhastobe
takenintoconsideration,inmostcases,inordertoensureelectromagneticcompatibility;inaddition,
however,furtheraspectssuchaslow-frequencyphenomenashouldbeconsidered.
EMCfiltersmustthushavegoodRFcharacteristicsandareususallyrequiredtobeeffectiveover
abroadfrequencyrange.
Forindividualcomponents(inductors,capacitors)theRFcharacteristicsarespecifiedbystating
theimpedanceasafunctionoffrequency.
TheinsertionlossisusedasacriterionforselectingEMCfilters(seeSection3.1.17).
Ifthedeviceundertest(DUT)isterminatedonbothsideswithanohmicimpedanceof50,for
example,theresultofthemeasurementisreferredtoasbeingthe50-insertionloss.
Dependingontheparticularapplicationintended,prioritiesforconsiderationofthethreepossible
kindsofinsertionloss
common-mode(asymmetrical)
differential-mode(symmetrical)or
unsymmetrical
mustbedecidedupon.
Themeasuringmethodfor50-insertionlosshasbeenadaptedfromthefieldofcommunications
engineeringandisalsospecifiedintherelevantnationalandinternationalstandards.
Althoughitpermitsacomparisonofdifferentfilters,itprovidesonlylittleinformationontheefficiency
inpracticalapplications.
Thereasonisasalreadymentionedintheprevioussectionthatneithertheinterferencesource
ordisturbedequipmentnortheconnectedpowerlinesystemwillhaveanohmicimpedanceof50
atfrequenciesbelow1MHz.
Likewise,theattenuationofinterferencepulsescannotsimplybedeterminedonthebasisofthe
insertionlosscurve.Inthiscase,itisalsonecessarytotakethenon-linearresponseoftheEMC
chokesinthefiltersintoconsideration.
Wecanquotefilter-specificvaluesonrequestifyousendusthepulseshapesinquestion.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 14
General
Termsanddefinitions
3 Termsanddefinitions
3.1 Electricalcharacteristics
3.1.1 RatedvoltageV
R
TheratedvoltageV
R
iseitherthemaximumRMSoperatingvoltageattheratedfrequencyorthe
highestDCoperatingvoltagewhichmaybecontinuouslyappliedtothefilterattemperaturesbe-
tweenthelowercategorytemperatureT
min
andtheuppercategorytemperatureT
max
.Filterswhich
areratedforafrequencyof50/60HzmayalsobeoperatedatDCvoltages.
3.1.2 NominalvoltageV
N
ThenominalvoltageV
N
isthevoltagewhichdesignatesanetworkorelectricalequipmentandto
whichspecificoperatingcharacteristicsarereferred.
IEC 60038 defines the most widely used nominal voltages for public supply networks (e.g.
230/400V,277/480V,400/690V).Itisrecommendedthatthevoltageatthetransferpointsshould
notdeviatefromthenominalvoltagebymorethan10%undernormalnetworkconditions.
3.1.3 Differencebetweenratedandnominalvoltage
Forfilters,theratedvoltageisdefinedasareferenceparameter.Itspecifiesthemaximumvoltage
atwhichthefiltercanbecontinuouslyoperated(seeSection3.1.1).Thisvoltagemustneverbeex-
ceeded,asotherwisedamagemayoccur.
Onlysmalldeviationsaretolerated,suchasmayoccurwhenafilterwitharatedvoltageof250V
isoperatedatinanetworkwithanominalvoltageof230V(230V+10%=253V).Thisrelationship
isshowninFigure10.
Filter Network
V
253(V
N
+10%)
250
V
240
230
Ratedvoltage Nominalvoltage V
R N
V
V
N
220
210
207(V
N
10%)
200
0
SSB1592-S-E
Figure10 Differencebetweenratedandnominalvoltage
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 15
General
Termsanddefinitions
WhenEMCfiltersandotherEMCcomponentsareselected,careshallbetakentoensurethatthe
maximumlinevoltageineachcase,e.g.V
N
+10%,isnotexceeded.Shortvoltagesurgesareper-
mittedaccordingtoEN133200.
3.1.4 Networktypes
Thefiltersareapprovedforvariousnetworktypes(e.g.TN,TT,ITnetworks).Theyaredescribed
inSection7Powerdistributionsystems.
3.1.5 TestvoltageV
test
ThetestvoltageV
test
istheACorDCvoltagewhichmaybeappliedtothefilterforthespecifiedtest
durationatthefinalinspection(100%test).Ifnecessary,werecommendasinglerepetitionofthe
testatamaximumof80%ofthespecifiedvoltage.Therateofvoltageriseorfallmustthennotex-
ceed500V/s.Thetimeshallbemeasuredassoonas90%ofthetestvoltagepermissibleforthe
repeattesthasbeenreached.Duringthetest,nodielectricbreakdownmayoccur(theinsulation
wouldnolongerlimitthecurrentflow).Healingeffectsofthecapacitorsarepermissible.
3.1.6 RatedcurrentI
R
TheratedcurrentI
R
isthemaximumACorDCcurrentatwhichthefiltercanbecontinuouslyoper-
atedundernominalconditions.
AbovetheratedtemperatureT
R
,theoperatingcurrentshallasarulebereducedinaccordancewith
thederatingcurves(seeSection10).
For2and3-linefilters,theratedcurrentisspecifiedforthesimultaneousflowofacurrentofthis
valuethoughallthelines.For4-linefilters(e.g.filterswiththreephaselinesandoneneutralline),
thesumcurrentoftheneutrallineisassumedtobeclosetozero.
HigherthermalloadsmayoccurduringACoperationduetonon-sinusoidalwaveforms.Thesemust
betakenintoaccountwherenecessary.
ThetemperatureriseoftheEMCfiltersatratedcurrentandtemperatureistestedwithaconnection
viatestcross-sectionsasspecifiedinUL508:Aug22,2000"IndustrialControlEquipment",Table
43.2,Table43.3(broadlysimilartoEN60947:1999).
3.1.7 Overloadcapability
Theratedcurrentmaybeexceededforashorttime.Detailsofpermissiblecurrentsandloaddura-
tionsarespecifiedinthevariousdatasheets.
3.1.8 Pulsehandlingcapability
Saturationeffects(e.gintheferritecoresused)mayoccurwhenhigh-energypulsesareappliedto
thecomponentsandthesemayleadtoimpairedinterferencesuppression.Themaximumpermis-
siblevoltage-timeintegralareaisusedtocharacterizethepulsehandlingcapabilityofchokesand
filters.Forstandardcomponentsarangefrom1to10mVscanbeassumed.Morespecificdatacan
beobtaineduponrequest.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 16
General
Termsanddefinitions
3.1.9 CurrentderatingI/I
R
Atambienttemperaturesabovetheratedtemperaturestatedinthedatasheet,theoperatingcur-
rentofchokesandfiltersmustbereducedaccordingtothederatingcurve(seeSection10).
3.1.10 RatedinductanceL
R
The rated inductance L
R
is the inductance which has been used to designate the choke, as
measuredatthefrequencyf
L
.
3.1.11 StrayinductanceL
stray
ThestrayinductanceL
stray
(alsotermedleakageinductance)istheinductancemeasuredthrough
bothcoilswhenacurrent-compensatedchokeisshort-circuitedatoneend.Thisaffectsdifferential-
modeinterferences.
L
stray
SSB1593-L-E
Figure11 Strayinductance
3.1.12 InductancedecreaseL/L
0
The inductance decrease L/L
0
isthe drop in inductance ata given current relativetothe initial
inductance L
0
measured at zero current.Thedata sheets specify this asa percentage.Thisde-
creaseiscausedbythemagnetizationofthecorematerial,whichisafunctionofthefieldstrength,
asinducedbytheoperatingcurrent.Generallythedecreaseislessthan10%.
3.1.13 DCresistanceR
typ
,R
min
,R
max
TheDCresistanceistheresistanceofalineasmeasuredusingdirectcurrentatatemperatureof
20C,wherebythemeasuringcurrentmustbekeptwellbelowtheratedcurrent.
R
typ
typicalvalue
R
min
minimumvalue
R
max
maximumvalue
3.1.14 Windingcapacitance,parasiticcapacitanceC
p
ParasiticcapacitancesC
p
,whichimpairtheRFcharacteristicsofthefilters,arerelatedtothefilter
geometry.Thesecapacitancesmayaffectthelinesmutually(differential-mode)aswellastheline-
to-groundcircuit(common-mode).ThedesignofallEMCfilterssuppliedbyEPCOSminimizesthe
parasiticeffects.Duetothis,ourfiltershaveexcellentinterferencesuppressioncharacteristicsright
uptohighfrequencies.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 17
General
Termsanddefinitions
3.1.15 QualityfactorQ
ThequalityfactorQisthequotientoftheimaginarypartoftheimpedancedividedbytherealpart,
measuredatfrequencyf
Q
.
3.1.16 Measuringfrequenciesf
Q
,f
L
f
Q
isthefrequencyforwhichthequalityfactorQofachokeisspecified.
f
L
isthefrequencyatwhichtheinductanceofachokeismeasured.
3.1.17 Insertionloss
TheinsertionlossisameasurefortheefficiencyofEMCcomponents,asmeasuredbyusingastan-
dardizedtestsetup(Figure12).
Referencemeasurement
Z Z 1
V = V = V
0
.
2Z
=
2
V
0 20 10
V
0
~
10
V
Z
V
20
Z=50 = 20 log
|V
20
|
= 20 log
|V
0
|
|V
2
| 2|V
2
|
V
0
A
12
A
22
DUT
Z
~
V
1
A=
A
11
A
21
Z
V
2
V
2
= V
1
.
A
11
() =V
0
.

1
( )
Insertionlossmeasurement
SSB1464-G-E
Figure12 Definitionofinsertionloss
Theinputterminalsofthedevice(circuit)areconnectedtoanRFgeneratorwithimpedanceZ(usu-
ally50).Attheoutputofthecomponent,thevoltageismeasuredusinganRFvoltmeterhaving
thesameimpedanceZ.Theinsertionlossisthencalculatedfromthequotientofhalftheopen-cir-
cuitgeneratorvoltageV
0
andthefilteroutputvoltageV
2.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 18
-------------
General
Termsanddefinitions
TestsetupsforinsertionlossmeasurementusedforEMCfilters
a) Differential mode (symmetrical insertion loss measurement)
Transmitter Filter Receiver
50
~
~
~
0
V
1:1
Figure13 Symmetricalinsertion
lossmeasurement
toCISPR17(1981)Fig.B5
1:1
2
V
50
SSB0183-Y-E
V
0
Insertionloss=20lg
2 V
2
-[dB]
b) Common mode (asymmetrical measurement, branches connected in parallel)
Transmitter Filter Receiver
~
~
~
0
V
50
2
V
50
Figure14 Asymmetricalmeasurement
toCISPR17(1981)Fig.B6
SSB0184-7-E
Common-modemeasurementwithlinesconnectedinparalleliswidelyusedintheUnitedStates.
Some diagrams in this data book show the results ofthis measurement in addition to those ob-
tainedaccordingtoa)andc).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 19
General
Termsanddefinitions
c) Unsymmetrical measurement, adjacent branch terminated
Transmitter Filter Receiver
~
~
~
0
V
50
2
V
50
50 50 Figure15 Unsymmetricalmeasurement
toCISPR17(1981)Fig.B7
SSB0185-F-E
Theterminationoftheadjacentlinewithadefinedresistancevaluehasnotyetbeenstandardized.
As far as this data book contains insertion loss characteristics determined by other measuring
arrangements,thedeviationsareindicatedwheretherelevantdiagramsareshown.
3.1.18 Leakagecurrent
Adetaileddescriptionoftheleakagecurrenttogetherwithmeasurementcircuitsandsafetyhints
maybefoundinSection8,Leakagecurrent.
3.1.19 Dischargeresistor
Dischargeresistorsaremeanttoensurethattheenergystoredinthecapacitorsisreducedtolow
levelswithinashortperiod,sothatthevoltageattheequipmentterminalsdropstobelowpermis-
siblemaximumvalues(seealsoSection6,Safetyregulations).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 20
General
Termsanddefinitions
3.2 Mechanicalproperties
3.2.1 Potting(economypotting,completepotting)
Wedistinguishbetweeneconomypottingandcompletepotting.
Economypottingisusedtofixthevariouspartsofthefilterinthecase.Thisisaneconomicaltech-
niquewhichallowsasingleresin-castingproceduretobeused.ManyEMCfiltersfromEPCOSare
thusproducedbythismethod.
Completepottingisrequiredonlyiftheheatdissipationofeconomypottingisinadequateorinthe
caseofspecialcustomerrequirements.
3.2.2 Typesofwinding
EMCfiltersfromEPCOSusechokeswithoutstandingtechnicalproperties.Allchokeshaveexactly
reproducible and optimized RF characteristics and are matched to the relevant application (e.g.
saturationcharacteristicwithrespecttopulses).Bothforthisreasonandbecauseoftheirdesign,
thefiltershavereproducibleproperties(suchasinsertionloss).
Chokes with different types of winding are used depending on the respective technical require-
ments.Thedifferenttypesofwindingleadtodifferentchokecharacteristics,especiallyathighfre-
quencies.
Single-layer winding:
Incomparisontoallothertypesofwinding,thistypeofwindingleadstothelowestpossiblecapac-
itancesandthusthehighestresonancefrequencies.
Multi-layer winding:
Incomparisontoallothertypesofwinding,thistypeleadstothehighestcapacitancesandthusthe
lowestresonancefrequencies.
Random winding:
Thismethodofwindingacoildoesnotpermitthefinalpositionofaturntobepredeterminedexactly.
Thecross-sectionofthistypeofwindingclearlyshowsadisorderly,randomarrangementofthe
turns.Thisleadstotheparasiticcapacitancesbeingonlyminimallygreaterthanthoseachievedby
single-layerwinding,andtheresonancefrequenciesarecomparabletothoseachievedbysingle-
layerwinding.
RFcharacteristicsofvarioustypesofwinding
Figure16showsimpedanceasafunctionoffrequencyfortwochokesofequalinductance.Oneof
the chokes has a 2-layer winding and the other is randomly wound. The choke with random
windingshasaconsiderablyhigherfirstresonancefrequency.Thesecondaryresonancesarevery
muchhigherthan10MHz.Theimpedanceatfrequenciesabovethefirstresonancefrequencyis
approximatelyfivetimeshigher.Thisleadstobetterinterferencesuppressionathighfrequencies.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 21
General
Termsanddefinitions
10
6
Randomwinding
2-layerwinding
SSB0948-Q-E

| Z|
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10 10
1
10
2
10
3
kHz 10
4
f
Figure16 Impedance|Z|versusfrequencyf
comparisonbetween2-layerwindingandrandomwinding
TheRFcharacteristicsofallchokessuppliedbyEPCOSarereproducible,asthewindingprocesses
whichwehavedevelopedforsingle-layer,multi-layerandrandomwindingensurethatthecharac-
teristicsoftheinductorsproduceddisplayverylittlevariation.
The reproducibility of electrical characteristics of chokes is mainly determined by the production
techniqueused.AtEPCOS,coilsarewoundmainly byautomaticmachines (either fullyor semi-
automated). This permits even complicated winding patterns to be produced in large production
runswithverylittlevariationinproductcharacteristics.
0
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 22
General
Termsanddefinitions
3.2.3 Recommendedtighteningtorquesforscrewconnections
Screwmounting
MostEPCOSEMCfiltershavemetallichousings.Thescrewmountingisusedformechanicalfixing
andatthesametimesetsupthelarge-areaconnectiontothereferencegroundviathehousingcon-
tact(seealsoSection"Mountinginstructions).Adistinctionmustbemadebetweenthefunctions
ofmechanicalmounting,groundconnectionandPEconnectionforprotectionagainstshock.
Forstandardscrewconnectionsforthefiltermounting,werefertothestateoftheart,asthetight-
eningtorquesdependontheratedsize,length,strengthcategory,corrosionprotectionandlubri-
cant.Incaseoffrontalself-clinchingnuts,especiallyforEMC-compliantmounting,itshouldbenot-
ed that additional fixing is required for filter weights exceeding 10kg. The installer must always
checkthestrengthoftheconnectionwithrespecttostresses(suchasvibrationsandshock).
Unlessotherwisespecifiedinthedatasheets,werecommendthetighteningtorqueslistenedinthe
followingtables.
Recommendedtighteningtorquesforself-clinchingnuts:
Rateddimensionofself-clinchingnut TorqueinNm
(tolerancespecificationsforsettingvalues)
M 4 1.5( 1.43 1.58)
M 5 3.0( 2.85 3.15)
M 6 5.1( 4.90 5.40)
M 8 12.6(12.0013.20)
Screwconnectionsviathreadedbolts
Tighteningtorquesforfeedthroughcomponentsarespecifiedseparatelyintheintroductiontothe
Chapteron"1-linefiltersfeedthroughcomponents".
Forcurrent-carryingandPEterminalscontactedviathreadedbolts,werecommendthefollowing
tighteningtorques:
Rateddimensionofthreadedbolts TorqueinNm
(tolerancespecificationsforsettingvalues)
M 4 1.2( 1.10 1.30)
M 5 2.0( 1.90 2.10)
M 6 3.0( 2.85 3.15)
M 8 6.0( 5.70 6.30)
M10 10.0( 9.0011.00)
M12 15.5(14.0017.00)
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 23
General
Termsanddefinitions
Screwconnectionsofbusbars
ForEMCfilterswithratedcurrents>100A,copperbarsmaybeusedascontactelements.Werec-
ommendthefollowingmaterialsforbusbarscrewconnections.
Part Recommendation
Busbar Copper
Screw Strengthcategory8.8orhighertoISO898T1,
corrosionprotectiontZn(hot-dipgalvanized)
Nut Strengthcategory8orhighertoISO898T2,
corrosionprotectiontZn(hot-dipgalvanized)
Springelementonthescrewandnutside ConicalspringwashertoDIN6796T2,corrosion
protected
Lubricant MoS
2
-based
In order to ensure the required surface pressure, we recommend the following tightening
torques:
Rateddimensionofthreadedbolts TorqueinNm
M8 15
M10 30
M12 60
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 24
General
Termsanddefinitions
3.3 Climaticcharacteristics
3.3.1 UpperandlowercategorytemperatureT
max
undT
min
The uppercategorytemperatureT
max
andthelowercategorytemperatureT
min
aredefinedasthe
highestandthelowestpermissibleambienttemperature,respectively,atwhichthefiltercanbeop-
eratedcontinuously.
3.3.2 RatedtemperatureT
R
TheratedtemperatureT
R
isdefinedasthehighestambienttemperatureatwhichthefiltermaybe
operatedatratedcurrent.
3.3.3 Referencetemperatureformeasurements
AccordingtoIEC60068-1,Section5.1,atemperatureof20Cisspecifiedasthereferencetem-
peratureforallelectricalmeasurements,unlessthedatasheetsspecificallydefineothervalues.
3.3.4 Climaticcategory
The usability of components in various climates is defined by the climatic category according to
IEC60068-1,AnnexA.Itismadeupofthreeparametersdelimitedbyslashes.
Theseparametersrepresentthestresstemperaturesforthetestswithcoldanddryheatandthe
durationindaysofthestresswithsteady-statedampheat.
Example: 40/085/21
40C
+85C
21days
1stparameter:
AbsolutevalueofthelowercategorytemperatureT
min
asatesttemperaturefor
testAa(cold)toIEC60068-2-1
2ndparameter:
AbsolutevalueoftheuppercategorytemperatureT
max
asatesttemperaturefor
testBa(dryheat)toIEC60068-2-2
testduration:16h
3rdparameter:
Stressdurationindays.
TestCab(dampheat,steady-state)toIEC60068-2-7
at(933)%relativehumidity(r.h.)and40Cambienttemperature
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 25
General
Termsanddefinitions
Ourfiltersarealsosubjectedtothefollowingtypetests:
RapidtemperaturecyclingtoEN133200
Temperaturechangeinair(testNa).
Severityofthetest,e.g.:
T
A
=25C,T
B
=100C,5cycles
Dwelltime:1h
TemperatureincreasetoEN133200
Determinationofthefiltertemperaturewitharatedcurrentatthemaximumpermissibleambient
temperature(ratedtemperature).
We also examine compliance with respect to other environmental influences at the customers
request.
Theseinclude:
SalinevaportesttoIEC60068-2-11
NaClsolution5%
Testduration96h
NoxiousgastesttoIEC60068-2-60,method4
4Kclimate:0,01ppmH2S;0,01ppmCl2;0,2ppmSO2;0,2ppmNO2;25C/75%r.h.
Dampheat,cyclictoIEC60068-2-30
between25C/97%r.h.and55C/96%r.h.,24hpercycle
Specializedtestlaboratoriesareavailablefortestingtheclimaticeffects.
3.3.5 Transportandstoragetemperature
EPCOSEMCfiltersshouldideallybestoredattemperaturesintherangefrom25to+55Cas
specifiedforclass1K4byIEC60721-3-1:1997.Pleasecontactourspecialistsifyoufacetougher
requirementssuchasairhumidityorcondensationsothatthepackagecanbeadaptedtoitsre-
quiredpurpose.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 26
General
Termsanddefinitions
3.4 Termsrelatingtolegislationanddirectives
TheEUDirectivesandthenationallawsderivedfromthemmakeuseofimportantterms,someof
which differfromtheirmeaningineverydaylanguage.Forthisreason,themostimportantterms
fromEMCDirective2004/108/ECofDecember15,2004aswellasfromtheBlueGuide(Guide
totheImplementationofDirectivesbasedontheNewApproachandtheGlobalApproach)ofthe
EUaresummarizedhere.FurthertermsandexplanationscanbefoundintherelevantEUDirec-
tivesorintheBlueGuide.
3.4.1 Equipment(EMCDirective)
Thetermequipmentmeansanyapparatusorfixedinstallation.
3.4.2 Apparatus(EMCDirective)
The term apparatus means any finished appliance or combination thereof made commercially
availableasasinglefunctionalunit,intendedfortheenduserandliabletogenerateelectromagnet-
icdisturbance,ortheperformanceofwhichisliabletobeaffectedbysuchdisturbance.
ThefollowingarealsodeemedtobeanapparatusinthesenseoftheEMCDirective:
a) Componentsorsubassembliesincludedforincorporationintoanapparatusbytheenduser,
whichareliabletogenerateelectromagneticdisturbance,ortheperformanceofwhichisliable
tobeaffectedbysuchdisturbance;
b) Mobileinstallations,definedasacombinationofapparatusand,whereapplicable,otherde-
vices,intendedtobemovedandoperatedinarangeoflocations.
3.4.3 Fixedinstallation(EMCDirective)
Fixedinstallationmeansaparticularcombinationofseveraltypesofapparatusand,whereappli-
cable,otherdeviceswhichareassembled,installedandintendedtobeusedpermanentlyatapre-
definedlocation.
3.4.4 Manufacturer(BlueGuide)
AmanufacturerinthemeaningoftheNewApproachisthepersonwhoisresponsiblefordesigning
andmanufacturingaproductwithaviewtoplacingitontheCommunitymarketonhisownbehalf.
ThemanufacturerhasanobligationtoensurethataproductintendedtobeplacedontheCommu-
nitymarketisdesignedandmanufactured,anditsconformityassessed,totheessentialrequire-
mentsinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheapplicableNewApproachdirectives.
Themanufacturermayusefinishedproducts,ready-madepartsorcomponents,ormaysubcon-
tractthesetasks.However,hemustalwaysretaintheoverallcontrolandhavethenecessarycom-
petencetotakeresponsibilityfortheproduct.
Apersonwhoproducesnewequipmentfromalreadymanufacturedend-productsorsignificantly
changes,reconstructsoradaptsequipmentwithrespecttoitselectromagneticcompatibility,also
countsasamanufacturer.
3.4.5 Placingonthemarketandtakingintoservice(BlueGuide)
PlacingonthemarketistheinitialactionofmakingaproductavailableforthefirsttimeontheCom-
munitymarketwithaviewtodistributionoruseintheCommunity.Makingavailablecanbeeither
forpaymentorfreeofcharge.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 27
General
Termsanddefinitions
PuttingintoservicetakesplaceatthemomentoffirstusewithintheCommunitybytheenduser.
However,theneedtoensure,withintheframeworkofmarketsurveillance,thattheproductsarein
compliancewiththeprovisionsofthedirectiveswhenputintoservice,islimited.
AproductmustcomplywiththeapplicableNewApproachdirectiveswhenitisplacedontheCom-
munitymarketforthefirsttimeandputintoservice.
PlacingonthemarketthenreferstoasingleitemofequipmenttowhichthisDirectiveapplies,irre-
spectiveofthetimeandplaceofitsmanufacture,andirrespectiveofwhetheritwasmanufactured
asanindividualunitorinseries.Placingonthemarketexcludessettingupanddisplayingtheprod-
uctatexhibitionsandtradefairs.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 28
General
Termsanddefinitions
4 Safetyapprovalmarks
NowthatthevariousnationalstandardsinEuropehavebeensuperseded,filtersareonlytestedto
thecurrentEuropeanstandardEN133200
1)
forfilters. Afterapprovalhasbeenassignedbyanau-
thorizedtestcenter,thefiltersareautomaticallyapprovedintheothermemberstatesoftheEUwith
nofurthertesting.Thefilterthenbearsthesafetyapprovalmarkissuedbytheauthorizingcenter.
OurfiltersareapprovedbyVDEandthusbeartheENECmarkwithidentificationnumber10ofthe
VDECertificationInstitute.
ManyofourfiltersbeartheULor CSAapprovalmarkforuseintheNorthAmericanmarket.Afilter
additionallytestedfortheCanadianmarketbyUScertificationauthorityULbearsthecULapproval
markorthecombinedcULustestmark.
Thesafetyapprovalmarksgrantedforfiltersarelistedinthedatasheets.
Atthetestorganizations,ourfiltersarelistedunderthefollowingfilenumbers:
Certificationinstitute Filenumber Standard
VDE 40405-4730-* EN133200
1)
UL E70122 UL1283
CSA LR54258 CSAC22.2No.8
Europe:
ENEC10
NorthAmerica:
UL CSA cUL cULus
USA Canada Canada USA/Canada
1)InfutureEN60939-2(identicalwithIEC60939-2:2000-02)
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 29
General
Termsanddefinitions
5 CEconformitymark
5.1 WhatistheCEmark?
TheCEmarkisaconformitymarkvalidwithintheEuropeanEconomicArea(asformulatedinvar-
iousdirectives).Itdeclarestheconformityofaproducttothedirectivesapplicablewithinthesingle
Europeanmarket.
Inthefirstinstance,itmustbemadeclearwhattheCEmarkisnot:
TheCEmarkisnotanapprovalmark
TheCEmarkisnotacertificationmark
TheCEmarkisnotasafetymark
TheCEmarkisnotissuedbyathirdindependentbody.
Withanumberofexceptions,theCEmarkisattachedtotheproductbythemanufacturerathisown
responsibility after conformity with the protection objectives stipulated by the EC Directives has
beendetermined.
Inlinewiththenewapproach,theECDirectivescontainonlythegeneraldefinitionoftheprotection
objectivestobeobserved.Themainobjectiveistoavoidjeopardizingthesafetyofpeopleandan-
imalsorthemaintenanceofphysicalassets(Low-VoltageDirective,Article2).
5.2 NoCEmarkforcomponents
PurchasersofelectroniccomponentshaverepeatedlycalledfortheintroductionofaCEmark.Itis
erroneouslyassumedthattheuseofCE-markedindividualpartsofferstheassurancethatCE-com-
pliantequipmentwillbemanufacturedsothatverificationof equipmentconformitycanbeeithercom-
pletelyavoidedoratleastsignificantlysimplified.Thewishtodonothingwrongalsoleadstoacall
forCE-markedcomponentsattimes.
Thisattitudeoverlooksthefactthatdespiteallduecareandefforts,thecomponentmanufacturer
cannotensurecompliancewiththerequiredprotectionobjectivesofthedirectiveseveninthecase
ofcomponentscertifiedbyathirdparty(EMCcapacitors,inductorsandfilters).Thetestspermitonly
thesafetyofthecomponentsunderstandardizedtestconditionstobeassessed,whichinthenature
ofthingscanonlycoverpartofthestressesoccurringinpractice.Theycanneverrevealfaultsin
thedesignofanitemofequipmentorinitsproductionphase.
Thissituationinevitablyresultsinthemanufacturersresponsibilityforanitemofequipmentdirectly
usablebytheenduser.Healonecanassessitsconformity,testitandultimatelyconfirmit.This
meansthatanymarkingofindividualcomponentsisnotrelevanttothedeclarationofconformityof
theendproduct.
Thefreeavailabilityofpartsbyeveryonefromwholesaleandretailsourcesisoftengivenasacri-
terionformarking.Thisiscertainlycorrectformanyfreelyavailableproducts,asthesemaybeused
directlybythebuyer(=enduser),forinstancedomesticappliances,electricaltools,extensionparts
forequipmentsuchasgraphicscardsorharddisksforPCs.
However,thisargumentdoesnotapplytoelectroniccomponents,asthebuyercannotusethem
directly.Theyareusedeitherassparesforrepairsorforconstructingnewequipment(byhobbyists
oramateurradiooperators).Inanycase,however,thereisnoneedtotakeanyactionasregards
safetyinthesenseofthesedirectivesaslongasthecomponentsarenotfurtherprocessed.These
activitiesareunequivocallydesignatedintheEUDirectivesasmanufacturing,i.e.aprivateperson
actingasahobbyistorrepairtechnicianisregardedinthissenseasamanufacturerandmustcon-
sequentlytesttheresulting(newormodified)productstoensuretheirconformity.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 30
General
Termsanddefinitions
5.3 Conclusions
Alltheargumentspresentedhere,aboveallthespiritofthelawwhichreflectstheintentionsofthe
foundersoftheCEmarkingandofthedirectives,supporttheconvictionofthecomponentsindustry
thatitisimpermissibletoapplyCEmarkstothefollowingcomponents:
passivecomponents(suchascapacitors,inductors,resistors,filters)and
semiconductors(suchasdiodes,transistors,triacs,GTOs,IGBTs,integratedcircuitsandmicro-
processors).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 31
General
Safetyregulations
6 Safetyregulations
Ourconsistentgoalinmanufacturingourcomponentsistosatisfythehighestsafetystandards.As
aresultofthediverseapplicationsofourcustomers,however,certainrequirementsaremutually
exclusive.Thus some applications require high insulation resistance (e.g. insulation monitoring),
whereasothersrequireresidualvoltagestobekeptwithinpermissiblelimits.
6.1 Protectionfromresidualvoltages
IEC60204and/orEN50178stipulatethatallactivepartsmustbedischargedtoavoltageof
lessthan60V(or50C)withinaperiodof5s.Ifthesestipulationscannotbeobservedasaresult
of the mode of operation, the danger zone must be marked in a clearly visible way. This shall
be donebyattachingasuitabletextaswellasgraphicalsymbols,suchasHazardousVoltage
(417-IEC-5036) or Warning (7000-ISO-0434). In the case of exposed conductors, a discharge
timeof1sshallbeobservedorprotectiongradesIP2XorIPXXB(IEC60529)shallbeassured.
The safety requirements Ensuring protection by limiting the discharge energy stipulated in the
Annex toEN 50178 must also be observed.The limit value of 50C lies below the threshold of
ventricularflutter.
For active parts which are liable to being touched, the values specified in EN501178, Annex
A.5.2.8.2tableA1determinedbythecapacitorvoltageV
C
andthecapacitanceCshallbeapplied
(seetablebelow).Calculationsand/ormeasurementsmustbeperformedtocheckthesevalues.
Values of capacitance and load voltage liable to touching (pain threshold):
CapacitorvoltageV
C
CapacitanceC
nF
70 42400
78 10000
80 3800
90 1200
100 580
150 170
200 91
250 61
300 41
400 28
CapacitorvoltageV
C
CapacitanceC
nF
500 18
700 12
1000 8
2000 4
5000 1.6
10000 0.8
20000 0.4
40000 0.2
60000 0.133
TheserequirementsareasaruleobservedbecausetheEMCfiltersareinmostcasesconnected
totheinstallationandthustootherlow-impedanceloads.
Themanufactureroftheinstallationorequipmentisobligedtochecktheconditionsoftheapplica-
tionandtotakeappropriateactionwherenecessary.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 32
General
Safetyregulations
6.2 Dischargeresistors
The EMC filters manufactured by EPCOS are supplied with internal high-ohmic discharge
resistors(unlessotherwiserequestedbythecustomers).Althoughthismeasurealonedoesnotas
arule satisfy thestipulationsofalltherelevantstandards,regulations andspecifications,itdoes
dischargethecapacitancewithinacertainperiodoftime.
Filterswhicharenotpermanentlyconnected(e.g.whenthetestvoltageisappliedtothefilteratthe
incominggoodsinspection)mustbedischargedafterthevoltagehasbeenturnedoff.Circuitvari-
antswithastarconfigurationoftheXcapacitorsandconnectionofYcapacitorsfromavirtualstar
pointarealsousedtoreducetheleakagecurrents.Inthiscase,dischargemayproduceinternal
chargeshiftsbetweenthecapacitors,i.e.avoltage>60Vmayexistbetweenthephaseandthe
caseorPE.Toavoidthisproblem,alow-ohmicconnectionshouldbesetupimmediatelyafterthe
dischargestartingatthecaseorPEterminaltotheliveterminalsofthefilter.Therelevantsafety
specificationsmustbeobserved.
Incustomer-specificfilters,dischargeresistorsmayalsobeincorporatedbetweenthephaseand
thecaseifrequired.Ifthevoltagesandcurrentsexceedratingclass3
1)
,specialdischargeresistors
areusedwhichsatisfytherequirementsoftheKUvalues
2)
forsafety-relevantcomponents.There-
quiredKUvalueof6(DINVDE0800-1)isthenachievedfortheoverallsystem.However,highin-
sulationresistancecannolongerbeensuredinthiscase.
1) Theratingclassisarangeofcurrentsandvoltagesfromwhichthesamephysiologicalvaluescanbeexpectedin
acontactcircuit(DINVDE0800-1).
2) TheKUvalue(symbolKU)isaclassificationparameterofsafety-referredfailuretypesdesignedtoensureprotec-
tionagainsthazardousbodycurrentsandexcessiveheating(DINVDE0800-1).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 33
General
Safetyregulations
6.3 EMCcapacitors
ForoperationatAClinevoltages,EMCfiltersfromEPCOScontainEMCcapacitorstoEN132400.
Thesecapacitorsaresubdividedintotwoclasses(classXandclassY).
ClassXisdesignedforapplicationswherecapacitorfailurewouldnotleadtothedangerofelectrical
shock(typicallycapacitorsbetweenthephases).ClassXissubdividedintosubclassesX1,X2and
X3accordingtothepeakpulsevoltageinoperation.
Class Dielectric
strength
Peakpulsevoltage
inoperation
Application Pulsetest
X1 4.3V
R
2.5kV< V
s
4.0kV Useforhighpeakvoltages 4.0kV
1)
X2 4.3V
R
V
s
2.5kV Generalpurpose 2.5kV
1)
X3 4.3V
R
V
s
1.2kV Generalpurpose none
Forapplicationsinwhichcapacitorfailurecouldresultinadangerouselectricalshock,capacitors
ofclassYareused(typicallylocatedbetweenphaseandcase).Dependingonthetypeofbridged
insulationused,therangeofratedvoltagesandthepeakvalueofthevoltage,asubdivisionismade
intosubclassesY1,Y2,Y3andY4.
Class Typeofbridgedinsulation Dielectricstrength Pulsetest Ratedvoltagerange
Y1 Doubleorreinforcedinsulation 4.0kVAC 8.0kV V
R
500V
Y2 Basicorsupplementaryinsulation 1.5kVAC 5.0kV 150V<V
R
300V
Y3 Basicorsupplementaryinsulation 1.5kVAC none 150V<V
R
250V
Y4 Basicorsupplementaryinsulation 0.9kVAC 2.5kV V
R
< 150V
1) ForC
R
1F,seealsoEN132400.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 34
General
Safetyregulations
6.4 InstallingandremovingEMCfilters
Werecommendthattherulesgenerallyapplicablefortheoperationofelectricalequipmentbe
observedwheninstallingandremovingourEMCfilters.Thisincludesestablishingandsecuringa
no-voltageconditionwhileobservingthefivesafetyrulesdescribedinEN50110-1.
Thefollowingstepsshouldbeperformedinthespecifiedsequence,unlessimportantreasonsmake
itnecessarytodivergefromit:
Clearallconnections
Secureagainstturn-on
Checkno-voltagecondition
Groundandshort-circuit
1)
Coverorsafeguardadjacentliveparts.
1) Thegroundingandshort-circuitstepsmaybeobviatedinsmallandlow-voltageinstallationsunlessthereisarisk
thattheinstallationmaybemadelive(e.g.secondinputetc.).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 35
General
Powerdistributionsystems(networktypes)
7 Powerdistributionsystems(networktypes)
IEC60364-4-41describesvariousdistributionsystemsforsettinguppowerinstallationswithnom-
inalvoltagesupto1kV.
Thedistributionsystemsreleasedforourfiltersfromthedatabookrangearespecifiedintheselec-
torguide.
Theoperatingconditionsmustbecarefullychecked,especiallywiththeuseoffiltersindistri-
butionsystemsdivergingfromthespecifiedtypeofpowernetwork!Thisincludestestingtheline-to-
linevoltagesandtheline-to-groundvoltagesatpossibleoperatingconditionssuchasfaultlessop-
eration,earthfaultsaswellassingleandmulti-phaseovercurrentswitch.Forexample,fortheerror
cases of one or two-pole tripping of the overcurrent protective device from surge currents, care
shouldbetakentomaintainthepermissibleline-to-linevoltagesandline-to-groundvoltages.Incas-
esofdoubt,pleasecontacttheEPCOStechnicalstaff,whowilladviseyouonyourspecificfilter
application.
7.1 Designationofthedistributionsystems
T N ( - C - S )
Supply
I: insulated
T: grounded
Installation(body)
N: connectedtoPE
T: directlygrounded
-S: Apartofthesystemisalso
designed with separate N
andPElines
NandPE
-C: connected
-S: separated
7.2 Groundedphaseconductor
Insystemsinwhichonephaseisgrounded,theratedvoltageofthefiltersisreducedtotypically
1/ 3 timesthespecifiedratedvoltage.
Deviationsshouldbeapprovedafteracheckhasbeenmadewithourdevelopmentdepartmentfor
EMCfilters.
7.3 TNsystem
InTNsystems,onepointisdirectlygrounded.Thebodiesoftheelectricalinstallationareconnected
tothispointviaPE.Adistinctionismadebetweenthreesubsystems:
TN-Ssystem
TN-Csystem
TN-C-Ssystem
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 36
General
Powerdistributionsystems(networktypes)
IntheTN-Ssystem,aseparatedPEisusedintheentiresystem.
TN-Ssystem,4-line TN-Ssystem,3-line
L1
PE
L1
L2 L2
L3 L3
N PE
SSB1594-9-E SSB1595-H-E
Figure17 SeparatedneutralandPE Figure18 Separated(grounded)phase
intheentiresystem; andPEintheentiresystem;
groundedstarpoint groundedphase
IntheTN-Csystem,thefunctionsoftheneutralandPEarecombinedinasinglelinefortheentire
system.
IntheTN-C-Ssystem,thesefunctionsaresplitupinapartofthesystem.
TN-Csystem TN-C-Ssystem
L1
PEN
PE
L1
L2 L2
L3 L3
PEN N
PE
SSB1596-Q-E SSB1597-Y-E
Figure19 NeutralandPE Figure20 NeutralandPEinapart
intheentiresystem(combined) ofthesystem(combined)
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 37
General
Powerdistributionsystems(networktypes)
7.4 TTsystem
IntheTTsystem,onepointisdirectlygrounded.Thebodiesoftheelectricalinstallationarecon-
nectedtogroundpointswhichareelectricallyseparatefromthegroundpointsusedtogroundthe
system.
TTsystem,4-line TTsystem,3-line
N
SSB1598-7-E
L1
L2
L3
SSB1599-F-E
L1
L2
L3
Figure21 Groundedstarpoint Figure22 Groundedphase
7.5 ITsystem
In the IT system, either all active parts are separated from ground or one point is connected to
groundviaahighimpedance(R
is
).Thebodiescanbegroundedsinglyorjointlyaswellastogether
withthesystemground.
ITsystem,4-line ITsystem,3-line
N
SSB1600-M-E
L1
L2
L3
ins
R
SSB1601-V-E
L1
L2
L3
ins
R
Figure23 High-impedancegrounded Figure24 High-impedancegroundedphase
starpoint
Thesystemmaybeseparatedfromground;theneutrallinemaybutneednotbedistributed.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 38
General
Powerdistributionsystems(networktypes)
7.6 SpecialfeaturesinITsystems
In the IT system, a phase line may be continuously short-circuited to ground (conditions
anddurationasdetailedintheequipmentspecification)inordertocompletearunningprocess(for
instanceanewspaperprintingmachine).Thisshortcircuitisdescribedasthefirstfaultcase.
WhenEMCfiltersareused,twopossibleproblemsmaythenoccur:
Ifthefirstfaultcaseoccursbetweenthefeed(lineside)andthefilter,oneoftheXcapacitorsinthe
filter is connected to ground and thus in parallel tothe Y capacitor caused bythe externalshort
circuit (see Figure26). The shift of the star point leads to an increase of the voltage across the
remainingXcapacitorsandthecombinedX/Ycapacitor.Thecapacitorsmaythenbeoverloadedif
thefilterisnotratedforthisstress.
OurfiltersapprovedforITsystemsaredesignedforthisfirstfaultcase.
L1
Y
V
Y
C
V
LE
X
V
LOAD
3C
X
V
Y
=0V
L2
V
X
=V
LE
Independentof C
X
undC
Y
L3
R
ins
SSB1602-4-E
Figure25 Regularoperation
L1
L2
( V
Y
increases)<( V
X
increases)
V
X
and V
Y
dependonC
X
andC
Y
L3
R
ins
=0
V
Y
Y
C
X
C
2
V
X
LOAD
C
X
SSB1603-C-E
Figure26 Firstfaultcase(onelineshortedtoground)
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 39
General
Powerdistributionsystems(networktypes)
However,ifthefirstfaultcaseoccursbetweentheconverterandthemotor,theoutputvoltageis
shorteddirectlytogroundandthustotheYcapacitorsofthefilter(seeFigure27).Asaresultofthe
highdv/dtoftheconverteroutput(severalkV/s),whichalsoexistsinno-faultoperation,thecurrent
throughtheYandXcapacitorscanbecomeveryhighandconsequentlydamagethefilter.Damage
mayalsooccurwithregenerativeconvertersintheeventofanearth faultontheconverterinput
side.
L1
L2
L3
SSB1604-K-E
Y
C
C
I
Highdv/dt
Converter
C 3
X
M
Figure27 Firstfaultcasebetweenconverterandmotor
Ourfiltersarenotdesignedtohandlethisorotherfaultcases.However,ifalltheboundarycondi-
tionsareknown,somefilterscanbeapprovedforcertaincasesbytheEPCOSfilterdevelopment
department.
7.7 ITsystemsuitabilityoffilters
The filters ofthe B84143B*S024 series can be used in IT systems as long as the operating
conditionsspecifiedinthedatabookareobserved.
ThesefilterscontinuetobeoperableinanITsystem
intheeventthatonephaseonthelinesideshortstoground(withtheexceptionofregenerative
converters),
ataspecifiedoperatingvoltage(seeratedvoltageinthedatasheetaswellasthemarkingon
thefilter)and
usualpower-linequality(seeEN50160).
ToobtaininformationaboutthefunctionalreliabilityofthefiltersinaparticularITapplication,the
possibleboundaryconditionsofoperationandthefaultcasesmusteitherbeknownexactlyorelse
specifiedbytheuser.AstherequirementsofanITsystemdiffergreatlydependingontheapplica-
tion(e.g.shortcircuitattheconverteroutput),wecannotmakeanystatementswhicharegenerally
andbroadlyapplicable.However,wewillbepleasedtosupportandadviseourcustomersinthe
eventofanyspecialrequirements.
Also,wecanonlyassesstherisksinvolvedintheuseoffiltersandequipmentifweknowthebound-
aryconditions.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 40
General
Powerdistributionsystems(networktypes)
Onlyasinglehigh-ohmicconnectionispermissibleinanITsystem.AneffectiveEMCfilteralready
setsupthispermissibleconnectiontogroundduetoitsYcapacitors(seealsoEN61800-3,Annex
D.2).
OurITsystemfilterscanhandletheline-sideshortcircuitofonephasetoground.Allotherfaults
canresultindamagetotheinstallationandthefilter.
The following factors are relevant for the approval or development offilters designed for special
applicationconditions:
specificationsofthedv/dtvaluebetweenlinesaswellasbetweenlinesandground,
theduration,frequencyandcombinationofthefaultcases,and
thetypeofinstallation.
Theleakagecurrentsfromthefilterscantriggeranearth-faultmonitoringevenintheabsenceofa
fault.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 41
General
Leakagecurrent
8 Leakagecurrent
8.1 Generaldefinition
Leakagecurrent(inaninstallation):thecurrentwhichflowstogroundortoanexternalconducting
partinafaultlesscircuit.
ThisdefinitioncontinuestobefoundintheGermanstandardsDINVDE0100-200(terms)andan-
nex.Unfortunatelythetermsleakagecurrent,touchcurrentandprotective-earthcurrentarenolon-
gerdefinedinthestandards.
Ingeneral,leakagecurrentisthegenerictermforthefollowingtypesofcurrent:
Touch current I
T
(electric current passing through a human body that touches one or several
partspermittingcontacttotakeplace);itissubdividedamongitsmaineffectsofperception,reac-
tion,let-goandburn.
ProtectiveearthcurrentI
PE
(currentflowingtoprotectiveearthduringcorrectoperation).
Insulationsub-currentI
IT
(currentflowingviatheinsulation).
Exceptfortheintroduction,EN60950-1andtheassociatedmeasuringprocedureEN60990cover
onlythecontactandprotective-earthcurrents.
8.2 Definitionoffilterleakagecurrent
Thefollowingdefinitionappliestoallspecificationsinthedatabook:
ThefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
isthecurrentwhichflowsviatheprotectiveearthterminalofthefilter
tothePE(grounding)pointoftheinstallation(asarulethroughtheEMCcapacitorsconnectedto
ground).Thespecifiedfilterleakagecurrentrefersexclusivelytothefilteranddiffersfromthelea-
kagecurrentoftheequipmentorinstallation.
Inthedatasheets, the filterleakagecurrent isknown inbriefastheleakage currentI
leak
.Itis specified
asatypicalvalueattheratedvoltageforstandardpowersystems.Itdoesnotrepresentamaximum
valuewhichtakesintoaccountallpossiblecasessuchaslinevoltagetolerances,voltageasymme-
try,harmonicsandmaximumcomponenttolerances.
8.3 MeasurementcircuitsforthefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
PleasenotethatthefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
isaddedtotheleakagecurrentsoftheotherloads
(e.g.parasiticcapacitancesofcables,motorwindingsetc.)presentintheequipmentorinstallation!
Thefollowingmeasurementcircuitsarebasedonthosepublishedinthestandards.Duringmeasu-
rementofthefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
,noloadsareconnectedtothefilteroutput.
ThefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
ismeasuredwithanamperemeterP1.Thisshouldpreferablybea
low-resistancemultimetercoveringthemArange.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 42
General
Leakagecurrent
8.3.1 Measurementcircuitfora2-linefilter
Figure28 Measurementcircuitfora2-linefilter
Forthedurationofthemeasurement,switchS1isopened(openprotectiveearthcircuittoPE).The
highestvalueofthefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
isspecifiedwhichresultsfrommeasurementsmade
inpositions1and2ofswitchS2.
8.3.2 Measurementcircuitfora3-linefilter
SSB1605-T-E
Powerline
Isolatingtransformer
A
P1
EMCfilter
S1
S2
PE
SSB1606-2-E
Isolatingtransformer
Powerline
N
L1
L2
L3
A
P1
S1
EMCfilter
PE
Figure29 Measurementcircuitfora3-linefilter
Forthedurationofthemeasurement,switchS1isopened(openprotectiveearthcircuittoPE).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 43
General
Leakagecurrent
8.3.3 Measurementcircuitfora4-linefilter
Powerline
SSB1607-A-E
Isolatingtransformer
L1
L2
L3
A
P1
S1
EMCfilter
PE
N
Figure30 Measurementcircuitfora4-linefilter
Forthedurationofthemeasurement,switchS1isopened(openprotectiveearthcircuittoPE).
8.3.4 Measurementcircuitfora2-linefilterinanITnetwork
Isolatingtransformer
Powerline
N
SSB1608-I-E
L1
L2
L3
A
P1
S1
EMCfilter
S2
Figure31 Measurementcircuitfora2-linefilterinanITnetwork
Forthedurationofthemeasurement,switchS1isopened(openprotectiveearthcircuittoPE).The
highestvalueofthefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
isspecifiedwhichresultsfrommeasurementsmade
inpositions1,2and3ofswitchS2.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 44
General
Leakagecurrent
8.3.5 Measurementcircuitfora3-linefilterinanITnetwork
Powerline
SSB1609-R-E
Isolating
tarnsformer
L1
L2
L3
A
P1
S1
EMCfilter
S3
S4
S5
S2
N
Figure32 Measurementcircuitfora3-linefilterinanITnetwork
Forthedurationofthemeasurement,switchS1isopened(openprotectiveearthcircuittoPE).The
highestvalueofthefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
isspecifiedwhichresultsfrommeasurementsmade
inpositions1to4ofswitchS2togetherwiththe8possiblecombinationsresultingfromswitchpo-
sitionsS3toS5(atotalof32combinations).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 45
General
Leakagecurrent
8.3.6 Measurementcircuitfora4-linefilterinanITnetwork
Powerline
SSB1610-U-E
Isolating
transformer
L1
L2
L3
A
P1
S1
EMCfilter
S3
S4
S5
S6
S2
N
Figure33 Measurementcircuitfora4-linefilterinanITnetwork
Forthedurationofthemeasurement,switchS1isopened(openprotectiveearthcircuittoPE).The
highestvalueofthefilterleakagecurrentI
leak
isspecifiedwhichresultsfrommeasurementsmade
inpositions1to4ofswitchS2togetherwiththeeightpossiblecombinationsresultingfromswitch
positionsS3toS6(atotalof64combinations).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 46
General
Leakagecurrent
8.4 Safetynotesonleakagecurrents
Itshouldbenotedthatthemaximumleakagecurrentoftheentireelectricequipmentorinstal-
lationislimitedforsafetyreasons.Thelimitsapplicabletoyourapplicationshallbeobtainedfrom
therelevantspecifications,regulationsandstandards.
Asarule,thefollowingprinciplesapply.However,differingrequirementsmayalsoexistasaresult
ofcertainequipmentspecificationsandmayinsomecasesvarybetweencountries.Besuretofind
outthespecificrequirementsforyourapplication.Wewillbepleasedtosupportyouwithprofes-
sionaladviceinthismatter.
Beforeputtingtheinstallationintooperation,firstofallconnectthefiltercasetoprotectiveearth.
TheprotectiveearthconnectionshallbesetupasspecifiedinDINVDE0100-540.
ForleakagecurrentsI
L
1)
10mA,afixedconnectionmustbesetupbetweenprotectiveearth
andthe loadnetwork.This connectionmay notbe set upviaplug connectors.The protective
measureagainstexcessivetouchcurrentmusthaveaKUvalueof6
2)
.
KU=6withrespecttointerruptionsisachievedforstationarycableconnection10mm
2
where
thetypeofconnectionandlayingcorrespondtotherequirementsforPENconductorsasspeci-
fiedinDINVDE0100-540.
ForstationaryequipmentofprotectionclassI(viaindustrialconnectorsorafixedconnection)
anda leakagecurrent I
L
1)
<10mA,aKUvalueof4.5
2)
shallbeattainedfortheprotectiveearth
connection.
AvalueofKU=4.5withrespecttointerruptionsisattained:
withapermanentlyconnectedprotectiveearthcircuit1.5mm
2
for a protective earth contact 2.5 mm
2
connected via plugs for industrial installations
(IEC60309-2,EN60309-2).
Ifearthleakagecircuitbreakersareused,theleakagecurrentoftheentireequipmentorinstal-
lationmustnotexceedhalftheratedtriggercurrentoftheprotectiondevice.
8.5 Leakagecurrentlimits
Fortouchcurrents,thelimitsforperceptionandreactionareusuallyofmajorimportance,asthe
valuesfor let-go and burn are as a rule higher. When measuring protective-earth currents, care
shouldbetakentoassurealowimpedanceofthemeasuringequipmentaswellasnon-arithmetical
summation of the protective-earth currents of the various components in the ramified grounding
system.
Twoexampleswillnowbeshownfromstandardscontainingleakagecurrentlimits.Inallcases,the
standardsandspecificationsrelevanttotheapplicationmustbeobserved.Thus,standardsforme-
dicalequipmentoftencontainlowerlimitlevels.
1) I
L
=Leakagecurrentlet-go
2) TheKUvalue(symbolKU)isaclassificationparameterofsafety-referredfailuretypesdesignedtoensureprotection
againsthazardousbodycurrentsandexcessiveheating(DINVDE0800-1,800-8,800-9).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 47
General
Leakagecurrent
8.5.1 ElectricalequipmentfordomesticuseandsimilarpurposestoEN60335-1
Protectionclass Equipmenttype;
connectiontype
(Leakagecurrent
1)
)
Touchcurrentperception
andreaction
Class Explanation
0 Equipmentwithbasicinsulation
withoutaprotectiveearth
.5 mA
0I Equipmentwithbasicinsulation
withoutaprotectiveearth,butwith
aPEterminal
.5 mA
I Equipmentwithaprotectiveearth Moveableappliances 0.75mA
Stationarymotor-opera-
tedappliances
3.5mA
Stationaryheating
appliances
0.75mA
or
0.75mA/kWratedcurrent,
max.5mA
II Equipmentwithdouble
orreinforcedinsulation
withoutaprotectiveearth
.25 mA
III Equipmentwithsafetyextralow
voltage(SELV)
.5 mA
0
0
0
0
8.5.2 Requirementsforequipmentandinstallationswitharatedfrequencyof50or60Hz
toEN61140
Current-usingequipment Operatingcurrent
ofequipment
Maximumprotective
current
With connectors 32 A 4 A 2mA
7 A but 10 A 0.5mAperA
oftheratedcurrent
10A 5mA
Withconnectors>32A
or
permanentlyconnectedorfixed
(withnospecialmeasures
fortheprotectiveearth)
7 A 3.5mA
> 7 A but 20 A 0.5mAperA
oftheratedcurrent
20A 10mA
Permanently connected with protective earth
10 mm Cu (or 16 mm Al)
or
connectionoftwoprotectiveearthsviasepa-
rateclamppointswithstandardcross-section
5% oftheratedcurrent
oftheexternalconductor
1)ToEN60990Fig.4:Measuringcircuitfortouchcurrent,evaluatedforperceptionandreaction.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 48
General
Leakagecurrent
8.6 Notesonhandlingthetopicofleakagecurrentinaccordancewithpractice
UsersofEMCfiltersinapplicationsoftenneedtoknowhowtoevaluatethefilterleakagecurrent
specified in the data sheets. At the beginning of Section 8, the term leakage current (I
leak
) was
describedforEPCOSEMCfilters.AsthestandardsforEMCfilterscontainnodefinitionorman-
datoryproceduralnotesforthespecificationoftheleakagecurrent,thisdefinitiondependsonthe
respectivemanufacturer.Asimulationoftheleakagecurrentsunderthespecificapplicationcondi-
tions(voltageasymmetry,harmonics,voltagelevel)maybeperformeduponrequest.
Lowleakage-currentfiltercircuitsareusedinmanyEPCOSfiltersasfarastechnicallyfeasibleand
meaningful.Thesecircuitsrepresentatechnicallyoptimizedsolutionfortheuser,e.g.inathree-
phasecurrentTN-Ssystem,theleakagecurrentisclosetozero(onlyinsulationcurrents)forthe
samephase-groundvoltagesandexactlyidenticalcapacitancevalues.Inpractice,ofcourse,the
capacitorshaveacapacitancetolerance.However,EPCOSusesEMIsuppressioncapacitorsfrom
leadingmanufacturerswhosetechnologieshaveminimizedthescatterwidthofthecapacitanceto-
lerance.Accordingtothedefinitionofthefeaturesinpublicpowerutilities(EN50160)thevoltage
differencebetweenphasesandneutraldoesnotexceed6%for95%ofthetime(2%unbalanceof
thepositive-sequencesystem).
Themagnitudeofafiltersleakagecurrentdependsnotonlyonthecircuitandthenominalcapaci-
tance values, but also on the unbalance and the harmonic content in the power network at the
measurementtimeaswellasonthecapacitancetoleranceanditsdistributioninthecircuit.Sothe
measuredvalueappliesonlytothismeasuredfilterattheparticularmeasuringtime.Thesecurrents
throughtheY-capacitorsdependnotonlyonthepropertiesofthefilterbutalsoontheenvironment,
i.e.theequipment,installationsorsystems.Inconverterapplicationsinparticular,thelow-frequen-
cyleakage-currentcomponentlosessignificancecomparedwiththeasymmetricalcurrentcaused
bytheswitchedoutputvoltage.
Althoughtheleakagecurrentwasdefinedforafault-freecircuit(seeSection8.1),itsmagnitudeis
alsoacriterionforthedangertohumanbeingsexistingintheeventofinterruptionofaprotective
earthconnectionwhenlivepartsaretouched.Dependingonthemagnitudeoftheleakagecurrent
asmeasuredinadefinedmanner,certainmeasuressuchassuitablydesignedprotectiveearthsof
higherreliabilityarethereforerequired.SeealsothepreviousSection8.4Safetynotesonleakage
currents.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 49
General
Leakagecurrent
Thefollowingexampleshowsmeasureddatafrom3EMCfiltersfromvariousproductionseriesof
theB84143B0050R110typeinanindustrialTN-Spowersystem400V/230V50Hzandinasynthe-
ticpowersystem(freeofharmonics).
Systemsupply
andtimeofmeasurement
Measurementof3filtersfromdifferentproductionlots
1)
Databook
TouchcurrenttoEN60990 Difference
current
2)
Filter
leakage
currentI
leak
asperdata
sheet
Unweighted Perception
andreaction
Let-go
mA mA mA mA mA
Industrialsystemtime1 2.142.22 1.821.86 1.561.58 12.0512.50 <14
Industrialsystemtime2 2.142.18 1.761.82 1.441.50 11.8212.27
Industrialsystemtime3 2.062.10 1.721.76 1.401.44 11.36
Syntheticpowersystem 0.220.28 0.200.27 0.200.27 0.300.41
The example shows thatthe tolerance ofthe filtervalues fromthree production lots is very low,
whichishighlyindicativeofthequalityoftheEPCOSEMCfilters.Duetotheharmoniccomponents
intheindustrialpowersystem,differencestothesyntheticpowersystemofalmostapoweroften
wererecorded.Thevaluesofthedifferencecurrent(measurementbysummationcurrenttransfor-
merareclosesttotheleakagecurrentspecifiedinthedatabook,astheyhavesimilardefinitions.
Thedata-bookspecificationofthefilterleakagecurrentareintendedforuserinformati-
ononly.Thespecificapplicationmustbetestedonthebasisofapplicablestandardsforob-
servanceofthelimitsinconjunctionwithallpartsofthesystem!Forpermanentlyconnected
equipment with protective earth currents >10mA, a fixed protective earth with at least
10mmCu(or16mmAl)ortwoprotectiveearthwireseachwithastandardcross-section
connectedtoseparateclamppointsarerequired.
1) Measurementbytestlaboratory.
2) Vectorsumofthemomentaryvaluesofthecurrentsflowingatthepower-sidefilterinputthroughallactiveconductors
(L1,L2,L3);evaluatedasafunctionoffrequency(measuredwithaleakagecurrentmeter5SZ9300fromSiemens).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 50
General
Voltagederating
9 VoltagederatingforEMCfilters
9.1 General
EMCfiltersaredesignedtooperateattheratedvoltageandfrequencyspecifiedinthedatasheet.
Thisassumesthatthelinevoltageisalmostsinusoidalanditsharmonicsliewithinthelimitspermit-
tedbythepowerutilities.
Voltagederatingmayberequiredtodealwithanyhighervoltageswhichmayoccurinoperationat
frequenciesexceedingtheratedfrequency.Thesemaybecausedbylow-frequencysupply-current
reactions or overvoltages resulting from system resonances, such as those originating from the
switchingfrequencyofaconverterinthepowerline.
9.2 Theoreticalrelationships
Voltage
f
SSB1611-3-E
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
Hz
Ratedvoltage
ofthefilter
V
Corona
discharge
Breakpoint
Heatingofthedielectric
f
K
Figure34 Theoreticalrelationshipsofvoltagederatinginfilters
Themaximumpermissiblevoltageatthefilterdependsparticularlyontwolimitingphenomena:
Thehorizontallineintherangeuptof
K
representsthelimitingeffectduetothecoronadischarge.
Abovef
K
,thepermissiblevoltagedeclines withfrequencyandthecurverepresentsthemaxi-
mumpermissiblevoltageforeachsingularfrequency.Ifthevoltageliesexactlyonthecurve,the
maximumpermissibleinherentheatingof10Kisattained.
Inpractice,thefilterissubjectedtoseveralfrequencies(e.g.harmonicsoftheswitchingfrequency).
Inordertocalculatethetotalheatingeffectandthustodeterminewhetherthefilterisstillbeingop-
eratedinthepermissiblerange,allvoltageamplitudesatthevariousfrequenciesshallbecalculated
asdescribedbelow.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 51
----------------------------
-------------------------
General
Voltagederating
9.3 Calculatingthepermissiblestress
Theentireadditionalheatingofthedielectricmustnotexceed10K.
Theadditionalheatingforaparticularfrequencypointiscalculatedbythefollowingformula:
T
n
=
10 (V
Mn
)
2
- [ ] K
(V
Gn
)
2
V
Mn
=Valuemeasuredatafrequencyf
n
V
Gn
=Limitvalueforafrequencyf
n
T
n
=Calculatedheatingofthedielectricforafrequencyf
n
f
n
=Chosenfrequency
Formula1
Thisshouldbecalculatedforallvaluesf
n
f
K
whichactuallyoccurandshouldthenbesummed.
m m
K K T
ges
=

T

=

10 (V
M
-
)
2
[ ] 10[ ] Formula2
= 1 = 1
(V
G
)
2
V
M
=Valuemeasuredatafrequencyf

V
G
=Limitvalueforafrequencyf

T
ges
=Calculatedheatingofthedielectricforallfrequencies
f

=Frequency(withindex1m)
9.4 Estimatingtheactualstress
Theactualstressonafilterbyhigher-frequencyvoltagescanbedeterminedbyusingtheprocedure
describedabovetocalculatethetemperatureincreaseonthebasisofthemeasuredvoltages.
TheRMSvalueofthevoltageatthelinesideofthefiltermustinitiallybemeasuredatallactually
occurringfrequencies(higherthanf
K
).Thiscanbedonemostsimplywithanetworkanalyzerwhich
candisplaythevaluesdirectlyattheindividualfrequencies,orbymeasuringthetimefunctionand
thenperformingaFouriertransform.
Thismeasurementshallbeperformedforallline/lineandline/PEcombinationsandconvertedto
thetemperatureincreaseforallthesecases.Thelimitvaluesarereadofffromtherelevantdiagram
(Chapter9.7)atthecorrespondingfrequencyandusedintheformulatogetherwiththemeasured
value.Alltemperaturevaluesaresubsequentlysummedforeachcase.Ifthissumisbelow10K,
thereisnodanger.Ifitishigher,appropriatemeasuresmustbetakentoreducethevoltagetoper-
missiblevalues.
Importantpoint:
Thevoltagesmustalwaysbemeasuredwiththefiltersconnectedunderratedoperatingconditions.
Anyequipmentinthevicinitymustalsobetakenintoaccount.Measurementswithoutfilterscanat
bestserveasaroughguide.Thusparameterssuchastheresonancesresultingfromthecircuitry
(compensationcapacitors,serieschokes,transformers,cables)canbechangedconsiderablyby
theincorporationofafilter.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 52
General
Voltagederating
9.5 Exampleofpermissiblestress
A filter oftype B84143B*S021may be stressedwith anrms line-linevoltage of760V AC(rated
voltage 690VAC+10%)andmaximumpermissibleharmonicsuptothe25thorderaccordingto
EN50160.
9.5.1 Line/linestress
Forthisexample,themaximumpermissiblevaluesoftheharmonicsspecifiedbyDINEN50160are
used,i.e.thisrepresentsakindofworst-caseconditionforlow-voltagenetworks.
n
Mn
(V) Frequency(Hz) T(K)
2 8.8 100 0.0040
3 21.9 150 0.0270
4 4.4 200 0.0013
5 26.3 250 0.0582
7 21.9 350 0.0538
9 6.6 450 0.0065
11 15.4 550 0.0470
13 13.2 650 0.0433
17 8.8 850 0.0325
15,21 2.2 750.1050 0.0043
19,23,25 6.6 9501250 0.0844
6,8,1024 2.2 3001200 0.0172
Total225 0.3795
V
There is a temperatureincrease of around 0.4 K caused by all maximum permissibleharmonics
(EN50160)calculatedbyformula2cametoaround0.4K(10Kispermissible).Itshouldbenoted
thatthetotalvalueoftheharmoniccontentmustnotexceedthe8%specifiedbythestandard.The
aboveexampleyieldsaTHD(TotalHarmonicDistortion)ofover11%withallmaximumvalues.
TheexampleshowsthatEMCfiltersfromEPCOSaresecurelydimensionedandensuresufficient
distance to the permissible limit values under normal conditions of use and under typical inter-
ferenceaspects.
It should be noted that every component, even if it is dimensioned with a high safety margin,
has physical limits which may be reached in cases such as large higher-frequency voltages or
resonances.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 53
General
Voltagederating
9.6 Exampleofimpermissiblestress
Useofafilterwitharatedvoltageof440/250Vataconverter.
Duringoperation,aconverterwithanon-optimaldesign(resonances)generatesvariousimpermis-
siblehigher-frequencyvoltages.
9.6.1 Line/groundstress
n
Mn
(V) Frequency(Hz) T(K)
1 7.34 2350 0.11
2 18.92 2400 0.77
3 29.31 2450 2.03
4 8.13 2500 0.16
5 14.32 4600 0.93
6 56.89 4650 15.98
7 65.33 4700 22.05
8 3.45 4750 0.07
Total 42.10
V
For example, point 6 from the table yields a V
Gn
value of 45V when transferred to the derating
diagram(Figure36)for440/250V.
Thecalculationwith formula2yieldsatemperatureincreaseof15.98Kspecificallyforthisfrequency.
Thesummedvalues(T)cometo42K.
9.6.2 Line/linestress
n
Mn
(V) Frequency(Hz) T(K)
1 5.23 2350 0.11
2 21.47 2400 2.00
3 27.32 2450 3.24
4 13.39 2500 0.81
5 9.73 4600 0.87
6 73.12 4650 55.64
7 64.83 4700 46.70
8 23.73 4750 6.70
Total 116.06
V
In this case, point 7 from the table yields a V
Gn
value of 30V when transferred to the derating
diagram(Figure36)for440/250V.
Thecalculationbyformula2yieldsatemperatureincreaseof46.7Kspecificallyforthisfrequency.
Thesummedvalues(T)cometo116K.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 54
General
Voltagederating
9.7 Generaldataonvoltagederating
Thederatingcurvesshownbelowaretypicalformanyfiltersandshouldberegardedasanorien-
tationaidforthevariousfiltergroups(2,3and4-linefilters).Thevaluesforparticularfiltersmay
deviatefromthese figures.Thisis becausethevoltage handlingcapabilityathigherfrequencies
dependsonseveralparameters:
Thevoltagederatingofthecapacitorsused.
Theconfigurationofthecapacitorsinthefilter
e.g.severalcapacitorsinseries,inastarcircuit,orinadeltacircuit.
Theratedvoltageofthefilter(line/lineandline/PE).
Iftheinherentheatingofthecapacitorscalculatedwiththeformulasgivenabovecomescloseto
thelimitsofthepermissiblevalues,youshouldrequestexactdataforthefilterinquestion.
9.7.1 2-linefilters
10
3
SSB2168-1-E
V
V
RMS
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Hz 10
4
f
Figure35 Deratingcurvesfor2-linefiltersat250V.
Line/PE
Line/line
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 55
General
Voltagederating
9.7.2 3and4-linefilters
10
3
Line/PE
Line/line
SSB2169-9-E
10
3
Line/PE
Line/line
SSB2170-C-E
V V
V
RMS
V
RMS
10
2
10
2
10
1
10
1
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Hz 10
4
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Hz 10
4
f f
Figure36 Deratingcurvesfor Figure37 Deratingcurvesfor
3and4-linefiltersat440/250V 3and4-linefiltersat480/275V
10
3
Line/PE
Line/line
SSB2171-K-E
10
3
Line/PE
Line/line
SSB2172-T-E
V V
V
RMS
V
RMS
10
2
10
2
10
1
10
1
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Hz 10
4
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Hz 10
4
f f
Figure38 Deratingcurvesfor Figure39 Deratingcurvesfor
3and4-linefiltersat500/290V 3and4-linefiltersat520/300V
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 56
General
Voltagederating
10
3
Line/PE
Line/line
SSB2173-2-E
10
3
Line/PE
Line/line
SSB2174-A-E
V V
V
RMS
V
RMS
10
2
10
2
10
1
10
1
10
0
10
0
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Hz 10
4
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Hz 10
4
f f
Figure40 Deratingcurvesfor
Figure41 Deratingcurvesfor
3and4-linefiltersat690/400V
3and4-linefiltersat760/440V
9.8 Hazardscausedbyoverloadingthefilters
Experiencehasshownthatasarulelow-voltagepowernetworkscontainnocriticalhigher-fre-
quencyvoltages.Capacitoroverloadandanyassociatedhazardscanthereforebeexcluded.The
maximumpermissiblevaluesforthe2ndto25thharmonicsofthelinefrequencyspecifiedinthe
EN50160standardcanbeseenasakindofworstcase.
However,careshouldbetakentoensurethatnocircuitscapableofgeneratingresonancesoc-
cur,forinstanceasaresultofuncoordinatedcompensationcapacitors,transformers,capacitive
componentsofthefiltersorcables.
Specialcaremustbetakenwhenusingfrequencyconverterstoensurethatpossibleresonant
frequenciesdonotcoincidewiththeswitchingfrequencyoftheconverteroritsharmonics.
Ifthepermissiblelimitsforthehigher-frequencyvoltagesatthefilterareexceeded,thefiltermay
bedamagedordestroyed.
Animpermissibleoverloadleadstostrongheatingofthedielectricsinthecapacitors,whichcanre-
sultinarc-oversandshortcircuits.Suchshortcircuitscanasarulecarryveryhighfollow-currents
whicharefedbytheenergystoredinthefiltercapacitorsordirectlyfromtheconnectedpowersup-
ply.Thesecurrentsourceshaveanextremelylowimpedanceinbothcases,thusproducinghigh
followcurrents(severalkA).
The follow-currents generated by the power supply are not turned off until the fuse is triggered.
However,thisisneveraneffectiveprotectionforthefilterandthecapacitorswhichitcontains.
Dependingontheambientconditions(e.g.mountinginequipmentoraswitchcabinet)andthede-
signofthefilter,subsequentdamagemayalsooccurinthefilteritselfandintheenvironment.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 57
----
General
Currentderating
10 Currentderating
10.1 Currentderatingatambienttemperaturesexeedingtheratedtemperature
EMCfiltersfromEPCOSaredimensionedforcontinuousoperationattheratedvoltageandfre-
quency.Theyaredesignedforoperationatthefullratedcurrentuptothespecifiedratedtempera-
ture(asarule40Cor60C).WhentheyareoperatedatambienttemperaturesT
A
whichexceed
thistemperature,themaximumpermissiblecontinuousoperatingcurrentisobtainedbymultiplying
theratedcurrentbythecorrespondingderatingfactor(Figure42).Non-observanceofcurrentder-
atingmayleadtooverheatingandconsequentlyrepresentafirehazard.
1.2
40/085
Ratedtemperature/
uppercategorytemperature
40/100
60/085
60/100
Example
SSB2182-1-E
Formula3
I
I
I
R
1
I
max
(T
A
)
= I
R


-

0.91
I
R
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Figure42 CurrenthandlingcapabilityI /I
R
asa
0
functionofambienttemperatureT
A
20 30 40
50
60 70 80 90 C 110
T
A
Thefollowingcurvesapplyforthespecifiedconditions:
Curve RatedtemperatureT
R
UppercategorytemperatureT
max
1)
40/085 40C 85C
40/100 40C 100C
60/085 60C 85C
60/100 60C 100C
1) Secondparameterofclimaticcategory(e.g.25/085/21;25/100/21)seechapter3.3.1and3.3.4.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 58
General
Currentderating
Example:
Giventhefollowing:
FilterB84143B0320S020(I
R
=320A)
Switchcabinetwithamaximuminternaltemperatureof50C
Maximumcontinuousrmscurrentattheconverterinputof280A
Solution:
FromthedatasheetofthefilterB84143B0320S020:
Ratedcurrent320Aata
ratedtemperatureof40C
Uppercategorytemperature100C(climaticcategory25/100/21)
Fromthecurrentderatingcurves:
Selecttherelevantcurve40/100
ReadofftheassociatedcurrenthandlingcapabilityI/I
R
=0.91atanambienttemperatureof50C
320 A
.
0.91=291A(maximumpermissiblecontinuouscurrentat50C)
291A>280A
Thisresultshowsthatinthisparticularexamplethefiltermaybeusedwithamaximumcontinuous
currentof280Aandisthuscorrectlydimensioned.
10.2 Currentderatingof4-linefilterwithneutrallineloading
For4-linefilters(3phaselines+1neutralline),thespecificationoftheratedcurrentrefersto3-
phaseloadingwithasumcurrentoftheneutrallineclosetozero.Significantloadingofthetotalline
istobeexpectedspecificallyinapplicationswithclockedpowersuppliessuchascomputers,elec-
tronicballastsetc.Intheleastfavorablecase,itcanexceedthemagnitudeofthephasecurrents.
The4-linefiltershallthenbedimensionedforaratedcurrentgreaterthantheexpectedoperating
current.Whenthecurrentoftheneutrallinehasthesamevalueasthephaseline,theresultisa
deratingfactorofI/I
R
=0.85.
Example:
Giventhefollowing:
I
L1
=I
L2
=I
L3
=I
N
=36A
Selectedfilter,e.g.B84144A0050R000whereI
R
=50A
I
Lx
=currentthroughlineL1L3
I
N
=currentthroughneutralline
Solution:
Permissibleloading3-phase+Nline:
I = 0.85 l
R
= 0.85 50A = 42 A
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 59
General
Mechanicaltests
11 Mechanicaltests
Dependingontheapplicationandthemountingposition,thevariousvibration,shockorbumptests
mustbesatisfied.
11.1 Passivefiltersforsuppressingelectromagneticinterferences
The sectional specification EN133200 and EN 60068-2-* (IEC60068-2-*) stipulate the following
testconditions:
a) Vibration(testFctoEN60068-2-6;IEC60068-2-6)
Vibrationstressshallbeappliedwithaglidingfrequency.Thepreferredseveritylevelsareshown
below:
0.75mmdisplacementor98m/s
2
.
Theloweramplitudeappliesinoneofthefollowingfrequencyranges:
10 Hzto 55Hz,
10Hzto 500Hz,
10Hzto2000Hz.
Thepreferreddurationis6h,i.e.2hforeachaxisofvibration.
Thedetailspecificationmustdefineboththeseveritylevelandthemodeofattachment.
b) Shocks(testEatoEN60068-2-27;IEC60068-2-27)
Themodeofattachmentandtheseveritylevelmustbedefinedinthedetailspecification.The
followingseveritylevelsarepreferred:
Pulseform:half-sinusoidal
Peakvalueofacceleration
m/s
2
(g)
Associatedpulseduration
ms
49( 5) 30
294( 30) 18
490( 50) 11
981(100) 6
c) Continuousshocks(testEbtoEN60068-2-29;IEC60068-2-29)
Themodeofattachmentandtheseveritylevelmustbedefinedinthedetailspecifications.Pref-
erenceshouldbegiventothefollowingseveritylevels:
Totalnumberofshocks: 1000or4000
Acceleration
m/s
2
(g)
Associatedpulseduration
ms
390( 40) 6
98( 10) 16
Thevaluesspecifiedabovecanbemetonlywithfilterswhicharefullypottedandasarulealso
small(<1kg).
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 60
General
Mechanicaltests
11.2 Filtersforconvertersornon-pottedfilters
Becausethesetendtobehighlycomplex,mechanicallyresonantfiltersthegeneralspecifications
accordingtoEN60068-2-*(IEC60068-2-*)doapply.However,verymuchlessrigorousseverity
levelsareappliedthaninEN133200.(Insomecases,themeasuredresponsespectrumshowed
resonanceincreasesuptoafactorofseven.)
a)Vibration TestFctoEN60068-2-6(IEC60068-2-6):
packagedorunpackaged
asarule2g,max.
Frequencyrange10500Hz.
b)Shocks TestEatoEN60068-2-27(IEC60068-2-27):
Acceleration 5gmax.
Pulseduration 30ms
Sixdirections 18shocksaltogether
Inspecialcases,thefollowingadditionaltestsareperformed:
c)Drop TesttoEN60068-2-31:
Unpackaged100mmheight,
1 aroundeachbaseedge.
d)Topple TesttoEN60068-2-31:
1 aroundeachbaseedge
e)Freefall TesttoEN60068-2-32:
Unpackaged100mm,
Transportpackaged500mm,
2ontothebasearea.
11.3 Mountingpowerandtelecommunicationslinefiltersinspecialprotectiverooms
InGermany,theconditionslaiddownbytheGermanFederalMinistryforRegionalPlanning,Build-
ingandUrbanDevelopmentapplyinthiscase.Themostimportantparametersareknownasrule
classes.
Ashocksafetyclassisdefinedbytheshockpolygon(V
max
,a
max
,s
max
,r
max
).Theparametersofthe
safetyclasssimultaneouslydefinetheminimumvaluesoftheshocktestparametersandthepa-
rametersusedtocalculatethestabilityanddeformationverification.
Theparametercombinationslistedinthefollowingtablearedefinedasruleclassesforprotected
rooms.
Ruleclass Mainparameters Secondaryparameters
V
max
a
max
s
max
r
max
Rk0.63/ 6.3 0.63m/s 6.3g =10cm = 1.5g/ms
Rk1.0 /10 1.0 m/s 10 g =16cm = 2.5g/ms
Rk1.6 /16 1.6 m/s 16 g =25cm = 4.0g/ms
Rk2.5 /25 2.5 m/s 25 g =40cm = 6.3g/ms
Rk4.0 /40 4.0 m/s 40 g =63cm =10 g/ms
AvalueofRk1.6/16isusuallyselectedforattachingthefilterstoceilingsandwalls.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 61
General
Mechanicaltests
11.4 Militaryapplications
InGermany,militaryapplicationsarelargelysubjecttotherequirementsoftheFederalOfficefor
DefenseTechnologyandProcurement(BWB).Thetestcentermusthavetheapprovalofthisau-
thorityinordertoconductthetests.
ThetestsaredefinedbytheBWBdependingonthemountingposition.Thelayoutandpresentation
ofthetestreportarespecified.
Extractfromtherequirementsfortheshaketest:
S
0
(mm) a
0
m/s
2
f1/s
0.63 4 231.5
1.0 6.3 240
1.6 10 250
2.5 16 263
ShocksafetyclassesAtoC,aswellasset-uprangesIIIIaredefinedfortheshocktests.The
shockpatternmaybetriangular,rectangularorsinusoidal.Insomecases,militaryspecifications
(e.g.MIL810)areapplied.Bumptestsarealsoincluded.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 62
General
Identification
12 IdentificationofEMCfilters
EMCfiltersfromEPCOSusuallybearthefollowingmarkings:
Manufacturersnameorlogo
Orderingcode
Approvalmarks
Ratedvoltage;ratedfrequency
Ratedcurrent;ratedtemperature
Climaticcategory
Dateofmanufacture(coded)
General: CYCWD
Example:
05102 => 05=Calendaryear2005
10=Calendarweek10
2=2nddayoftheweek=Tuesday
=8thMarch2005
SIFIseries,feedthroughfiltersandcapacitors: MM.YY
Example:
03.05 => 03=MonthofMarch
05=Calendaryear2005
=March2005
Differentmarkingsmaybeusedatthecustomersrequest.
PleasereadImportant notes
andCautions and warnings.
01/06 63