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ELECTRIC BIKE

(250 WATTS, 48 VOLTS)




ELECTRIC BIKE

PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF
ENGINEERING IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING




E-Bike
Better and Green Alternative







ABSTRACT

In the last 3 months of our work on Electric motorcycle we have done market
research of currently available options and their shortcomings. We have analyzed
that options present are not up to the mark as per requirements of the users. So we
have come up with ideas for the betterment of this section of vehicles so that the
use of electrical energy for personal transportation can be realized in a more
acceptable way.
We have managed to deliver a product which is successfully operating and can be
used for personal use and can be commercially produced and will deliver as an
outstanding electric bike and an alternative to present 100 CC internal combustion
( IC ) engine motorcycles.









INTRODUCTION
We plan to convert an already build Yamaha Rx-100 motorcycle from gasoline based to purely
electricity based motorcycle. The electric motorcycle after being built should not be in anyway
less than a Yamaha Rx-100 and should provide equal convince to consumer who uses it on
gasoline. The overall performance and cost should turn out equal to any present day 100 cc 4
stroke motorcycles and our electric motorcycle should be a competitive product for the 100cc
motorcycle market segment.
There is no equivalent product available in the market as first of all, no company is
manufacturing electric motorcycles in Indian market. We have electric scooters only which are
not preferred by most of the people. Secondly there is no electric two wheeler providing such a
great performance in the terms of power, pick-up, top speed and smooth ride. Thus it is like a
breakthrough for the present scenario.










BACKGROUND

Present 100 CC motorcycle market situations
This is the time when big players like Mahindra , Honda , bajaj are betting high on the Indian
100 CC motorcycle segment, this clearly shows the potential of this segment that it has in the
Indian market. It is clearly the most difficult section for a electric motorcycle to compete due to a
lot of factors and we believe that after successfully managing in making a mark in this segment,
all other segments will be much easier to conquer.
Present 100 CC motorcycle market facts
1) Big players like Honda are adding 100 CC bikes into this segment, betting high on the market
potential
2) Most number of bikes models are available in this section.
3) Almost 62 models are available in this section, which is far greater than models in any other
section.
4) The 100 cc gasoline running bikes has the greatest mileage as compared to any other segment
bikes. Generally due to the small size and light weight of the motorcycle.







CONSTRUCTION
Components Required:-
1) Chassis of a 100 cc motorcycle
2) A.C servo/ Brushless d.c motor
3) Dry lead batteries
4) A chain system
5) Insulation
6) Wiring and protection system
7) Controller
8) Converter
9) Bulbs, indicator and speedometer and other electrical components of a bike


1. SLA batteries
2. BLDC motor
3. Throttle
4. Fuse
5. Connecting wires


Fig. Various components used

Working And Specification Of Each Component:-

(1) Chassis And Suspension
We used a Yamaha RX- 100 chassis and suspension, the following are its specifications.
Frame type - Double Cradle Frame
Front Suspension Telescopic Oil Damped
Rear Suspension Coil Spring Oil Damped
Front tyre dimension 2/18 -4 PR
Rear tyre Dimension 3/18 4 PR


Fig. Frame of Yamaha RX-100
(2) Motor And Controller

Working of BLDC Motor
Construction and Operating Principle:-
BRUSH LESS DC (BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTORS are a type of synchronous motor. This
means the magnetic field generated by the stator and the magnetic field generated by the rotor
rotate at the same frequency. BRUSH LESS DC (BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTORS do not
experience the slip' that is normally seen in induction motors.
BRUSH LESS DC (BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTORS come in single-phase, 2 phase and 3-phase
configurations. Manufacturer manufactures 3 phase motors but input given to the motor is 230V
single phase only (carrier voltage) out of which only 170V single phase will be used to run the
motor.

Stator
The stator of our BRUSH LESS DC(BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTOR consists of stacked steel
laminations with winding placed in the slots that are axially cut along the inner periphery.
Traditionally, the stator resembles that of an induction motor. However, the windings are
distributed in a different manner. Most BRUSH LESS DC(BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTOR have
three stator winding connected in star fashion. Each of these windings is constructed with
numerous coils interconnected to form a winding. One or more coils are placed in the slots and
they are interconnected to make a winding. Each of these windings is distributed over the stator
periphery to form an even numbers of poles. We offer all motors with 8 pole winding.
There are two types of stator windings variants:
Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal motor.

This differentiation is made on basis of the interconnection of coils in the stator windings to give
the different types of back Electromotive Force. (EMF)Circular Core with rectangular magnets
inserted into the rotor core.

Fig. Structure of a BLDC motor
Rotor
The rotor is made of permanent magnet and can vary from two to eight pole pairs with alternate
North (N) and South (S) poles; we have 8 magnets on rotor and eight poles windings on Stator.
Based on the required magnetic field density in the rotor, proper magnetic material is chosen to
make the rotor.
Circular core with rectangular magnets inserted into the rotor core
Unlike a brushed DC motor, the commutation of a BLDC / AC Servo is controlled electronically.
To rotate the BLDC / AC Servo motor, the stator winding should be energized in a sequence. It
is important to know the rotor position in order to understand which winding will be energized
following the energizing sequence. Rotor position is sensed using Hall effect sensors embedded
into the stator.









THEORY OF OPERATION
(A) AC Servo motor used for Position Mode mainly, also with Torque Mode & Velocity Mode
have magnets on rotor as per designed poles of stator, for example if stator has 8 poles winding,
the rotor will have 8 magnets on its rotor. Here high frequency pulse is injected in the stator, i.e.
in 2 phases out of 3 phase winding, to from + & - on the stator. This gives magnets fitted on the
rotor a starting push, the position of stator winding is achieved by (3 hall sensors) encoder fitted
on non drive end of rotor, the servo motor, which is driven by a servo drive detects the
positioning of rotor and accordingly gives pulse in all two phases out of three, where 1 phase is
floating, i .e. if 'R' & 'Y' are given + & - pulse respectively 'B' is floating, if 'B' & 'Y' are given +
& - pulse respectively 'R' is floating. Similarly in case of 'B' & 'R' given + & - pulse respectively
'Y' is floating. See Figure-5.
The position of 3 phases is sensed by Hall Effect sensors, which gives position of stator winding
excitement with pulse, which is sensed by Hall Effect sensors fitted at 120 degree, i.e. each at 60
degree from another. 8 poles motor will have weight small magnets fitted on dice to pass through
(over) these sensors to give signal to panel for injecting pulse, i.e. supply.
(B) The above motor is also called BRUSH LESS DC (BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTOR in
technical terminology because commutation of this is taken care by encoder as designed in AC
Servo motors because 3 phase AC winding given on stator is also called 3 phase AC servo motor
& because commutation is achieved by encoder. Therefore it is also called BRUSH LESS DC
(BLDC) / AC SERVO MOTORS.






Energizing sequence of the windings:-

Fig. Energizing sequence








Torque / Speed Characteristics
Figure shows an example of torque / speed characteristics. There are two torque parameters used
to define a BLDC / SERVO motor, peak torque (TP) and rated torque (TR). (Refer to Table B +
Figure B: Typical Motor Technical Specification for a complete list of parameters).
During continuous operations, the motor can be loaded up to the rated torque remains constant
for a speed range up to the rated speed. The motor can be run up to the maximum speed, which
can be up to 150% of the rated speed. But the torque starts dropping.
Applications, that have frequent starts and stops and frequent reversals of rotation with load on
the motor, demand more torque than the rated torque. This requirement comes for brief period,
especially when the motor starts from a standstill and during acceleration. During this period,
extra torque is required to overcome the inertia of the load and the rotor itself. The motor can
deliver a higher torque, maximum up to the peak torque, as long as it follows the speed torque
curve.



BLDC Motor Advantages:
High Speed Operation A BLDC motor can operate at speeds above 10,000 rpm under
loaded and unloaded conditions.
Responsiveness & Quick Acceleration Inner rotor Brushless DC motors have low
rotor inertia, allowing them to accelerate, decelerate, and reverse direction quickly.
High Power Density BLDC motors have the highest running torque per cubic inch of
any DC motor.
High Reliability - BLDC motors do not have brushes, meaning they are more reliable
and have life expectancies of over 10,000 hours. This results in fewer instances of
replacement or repair and less overall down time for your project.


SPECIFICATIONS OF MOTOR USED
Voltage Rating 48 V
Rated Power 250 W








CONTROLLER
The controller is the brain of the bike. It controls the drive operation. It regulates the speed,
provides the interconnection circuit for feedback and has the power modulator for the BLDC
motor drive. The sensing unit is also within this controller itself.
The throttle is connected to this controller which ultimately controls the speed of the motor. The
rider operates the throttle which sends electric feedback to the controller which in turn regulates
the speed of the motor as required.
The controller is specially designed for every type of use of the drive. Here we have used the
BLDC motor used in electric rickshaws and thats why the controller for this motor is from the
same manufacturer.

SPECIFICATIONS OF CONTROLLER USED
Max Current 35 A
Under Voltage 42 + OR 0.5 %
Phase Angle - 120 degree







3) CHAIN SYSTEM
We have used a chain driven rear wheel mechanism as we are not having any hub motor as
conventionally used in electric scooters. Just similar to conventional petrol bike, its chain system
is simple and single gear operated.
We choose to make a single gear system as it suits best with electric motors which already have a
high starting torque as compared to ICs and it also avoids complexity of gears and clutch.
Including gears would have created space problems for special setup and complex mechanism.
Thus we used a single gear system of which the gear were of sizes 15 spokes and 47 spokes on
motor shaft and rear tyre respectively. We got the original RX 100 15 spoke gear wielded by
bronze wield on the shaft of the motor and used a customized 47 spoke gear on the rear wheel to
increase the starting pick up of the bike. A suitable customized chain was used for the system.











4) BATTERIES
We have used four used batteries from the manufacturer - Amptec. Each battery is with rated
voltage of 12V and 24Ampere-hours.Thus those four batteries connected in series give us a total
of 48V.
The batteries are dry Lead batteries and together weigh 30kilograms. They have a full charging
time of 6 hours and give us a range of 40 45 kms on a full charge.



Figure showing the internal structure of SLA battery used

The current supplied to batteries at the time of charging is 3 A and we have used a Hero Electric
scooter charger for charging.

The advantages of SLA batteries are mentioned below:-
a) Sealed/Maintenance-Free
The valve regulated, spill-proof construction of these batteries allows trouble-free and safe
operation in any position. There is no need to add electrolyte, as gases generated during over-
charge are recombined in a unique oxygen cycle.

b) Design Flexibility
Batteries may be used in series and/or parallel to obtain choice of voltage and capacity. Due to
recent design breakthroughs, the same battery may be used in either cyclic or standby
applications.

c) Deep Discharge Recovery
Special separators, advanced plate composition, and a carefully balanced electrolyte system have
greatly improved the ability of recovering from excessively deep discharge.

d) Economical
SLA batteries are economical in their class.

e) Easy Handling
No special handling precautions are required due to the leak-proof construction.
Those batteries are classified as non-hazardous commodity.
f) Compact- The high energy density results in superior power/volume and power/weight ratios.
g) High Discharge Rate
Low internal resistance allows discharge currents of up to ten times the rated capacity of the
battery. Relatively small batteries may thus be specified in applications requiring high peak
currents.

h) Wide Operating Temperature Range
These batteries may be discharged over a temperature range of -40C to +60C (-40F to
+140F) and charged at temperatures ranging from -20C to +50C (4F to +122F).
i) Rugged Construction: The high impact resistant battery case is made either of non-
conductive ABS plastic or styrene. Large capacity batteries frequently have polypropylene cases.
All of these case materials impart great resistance to shock, vibration, chemicals and heat.
j) Long Service Life: Under normal operating conditions, four or five years of dependable
service life can be expected in stand-by applications, or between 200-1000 charge/discharge
cycles depending on average depth of discharge.













5) WIRING AND PROTECTION SWITCH
We have used a standard 1 sq mm wire for signal connections of controller and for power
connections we have used a 1.5 sq mm wire made by Finolex. All batteries are connected in
series and then to the motor.


Fig.-Wiring Diagram
A 48 V dc to 12 V dc converter is also attached to supply power to all the 12 V system like the
head light, indicator switch , speedometer connections etc.
We have connected a 20 A MCB in series with the 48 V circuit to provide protection in case of
any short circuit. This MCB also is used as a ON / OFF switch the whole circuit. There is a 5A
fuse in the lightening wiring for the protection of lightening and converter circuit.



6) INSULATION
For providing insulation to the body from batteries and any other electrical connections we have
used rubber sheets to cover the batteries and have covered the body panel with bubble wrap.
Every connection is properly insulated from other conductors and the body of the bike.
In order to ensure further safety of electric safety we have used MCB and fuse which will
prevent any damage in case of insulation breakdown or short circuit.

EXPERIMENTATIONS AND THEIR RESULTS

Maximum charging time of the battery from zero level to full charge 6 hours
Maximum speed of the bike 45 km /hr
Runs 50 kms after a full charge
Pick-up : Zero to 40 km/hr in 10sec (With a load of 60kgs)
Maximum speed with two riders- 40km/hr
Noise free and smooth run
Excellent braking combination of electric and mechanical braking





EVALUATION

COMPARISON OF OUR E MOTORCYCLE WITH GASOLINE RUN
MOTORCYCLE

Specifications of a gasoline run 100 CC motor cycle

1) The price of a 100CC bike at present is around Rs 45,000 to 50,000 .
2) A 100 cc engine generally gives a power output of 6 KW at max at around 7000 rpm or more.
3) It gives mileage of about 50km /ltr and with a tank capacity of 6-7. It gives the bike a range of
300 kms with a full tank.
4) With the current fuel prices ( 70 Rs / ltr) , the running cost of the bike comes around Rs 1.4
Rs 1.5 per km.( excluding oil and regular maintenance charges)
5) Maintenance charge ( oil change per 5000kms etc ) is around 250 per every 1000 km OR RS
0.25 PER KM
6) The life of an 100 cc gasoline engine is around 1,00,000 kms OR 8-10 YEARS

FORMULA FOR CALUCUATING RUNNING COST OF GASLOINE RUN MOTORCYCLE
FOR ITS LIFETIME

Maintenance charges per EVERY 1000 KM ( in R.s) * 100 + running cost per Km * 100000


CALCUALTION
Rs 0.25 * 1,00,000 km = Rs 25000 = A = Maintenance cost
Rs 1.5 per km *1,00,000 = R.s 1,50,000 = B= Fuel cost
Rs 50,000 ( approx) = C = Cost of purchasing bike
Total cost =D =A+B+C = 2,25,000 for 1,00,000 kms.

NOTE We are not calculating the endless harm done by the emission through these gasoline
running bikes to the environment and to ourselves and the endless amount of medical expense
we had to pay for because of the health problems we and our society suffer from due to the
harmful gases and pollutants coming out of the combustion of fossil fuels. This is done to
effectively compete the already well marketed product on the grounds of market forces which do
not take into account the environmental aspect of a product but the effectiveness of the product.
Thus to compete with a gasoline running bike in all aspect of its specification , we intended not
to add the harm done by the pollutants coming out of the exhaust of these bikes.

Thus, this insight into the cost and specification for a 100CC bike sets as a bench mark for our
project which aims to build a bike of similar class but running totally on electricity.







Specifications of the electric bike we build
1) The engine will be replaced by a 250 W motor with high starting torque.
2) We have a range of 50km per charge.
3) The top speed of electric bike is around 44km / hr
4) The cost of manufacturing the electric motorcycle is around R.s 30,000
5) Cost of running the bike for a full ranges i.e 50 km (approx) will be Rs o.38/km
6) If installed with branded batteries then the battery pack will work for 1.5 to 2 years. Thus a
after span of 2 years one has to invest Rs 10,000 again on the battery pack.
7) Zero monthly maintenance
8) The motor has a life of 10 to 15 years.











CALCULATIONS FOR ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLE FOR ITS LIFETIME

Maintenance cost for 100000 kms = 2000 time charging to be done if the range is 50 kms = 3
battery packs = 2 extra battery packs = Rs 20,000 ( a )
Running cost = 220 v * 3 a = 660 w * 6 hours = 3960 kwh= 3.96 units
1 unit = Rs 4.80
Cost of running for 50 kms = 3.96 units * 4.80 = Rs 19.00

Cost of running per Km = R.s 0.38
Cost of running 1,00,000 Kms = 38,000 ( B)

Total cost of running 1,00,000 kms = A + B = 20,000 + 38,000= Rs 58,000
Cost of purchasing the bike = Rs 35,000 ( approx) ( C )

Total cost occurred after 100,000 kms = A + B + C = Rs 93,000 (D )



COMAPRING THE TOTAL COST OF ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLE WITH GASOLINE
RUN MOTORCYCLE WE HAVE MANGED TO SAVE
Rs ( 2,25,000 93,000) = Rs 1,32,000

SHORTCOMINGS OF OUR PROJECT

1) Instead of using steel bars and an old chassis of RX 100 we could have used aluminum for
building a light weight chassis. Thus by reducing the weight of the chassis we can improve the
performance of the bike.
2) The battery pack is an old used battery pack and thus if we would have used new batteries like
Li-Po batteries which would have given a great back up with less space and weight. Even if we
dont use Li-Po batteries due to high price, we could use new good quality high capacity
batteries.
3) The bike can be made smarter by installing sensors and adding many new functions for
convenience of the biker.
4) A BLDC / A.C servo motor of higher rated capacity could have been installed. We have used
250 Watts motor because of our budget. Higher rating of the motor would have resulted in still
better performance.
5) Lack of knowledge of working on gear system and mechanical expertise.








SUGGESTIONS

Awareness needs to be created among people regarding the use and benefits of electric
bikes.

There are only few advertisements in newspapers and TVs. Thus maximum
advertisements need to be put up in these Medias so that they reach wider audience.

The price of the electric bikes needs to be decreased. It can be done by
adopting sophisticated technologies and carrying out mass productions or some
discounts on price or offers should be given in order to increase the sales.

More number of service centers need to be opened at least in major areas to cater to the problems &
needs of the customers when needed.

As most of the people prefer high speed, the speed of the electric bikes needs to be
improved so as to increase the sales of the E-Bikes.

We need to have more number of dealers covering major urban areas and the distribution network should
be made strong.







CONCLUSION
Through the experience gained by this project we can now say that a lot of work has been done
in this field and still there is lot more to be done. For various causes well understood like
environment concerns, deteriorating fuel reservoirs and need to conserve fuel for future those
areas must be explored and developed. Steps should be taken to achieve mentioned targets and
analyze present situation.
Here we have shown a small step to do the same and mentioned the futuristic improvements
possible. This is a demonstration of what the pace of time requires and if we as students can do a
bit along that way then a lot more can be expected from the industries and thinkers. With more
contribution and emphasis on research and development by the industry this seems to be a
possible endeavour in near future.













REFERENCES
www.wikipedia.org
www.theinstructables.com
www.eco-wheelz.com