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8
th
Grade Science Resource Book
Unit 1: Chemistry





Mrs. Antkowiak and Mrs. Brevetti


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Table of Contents:
Life Principles 5
Classroom Code of Conduct 7
Blooms Taxonomy of Higher-Order Thinking 8
8
th
Grade Science Syllabus 9
Flinn Scientifics Middle School Science Safety Contract 11
Science Safety Symbols 12
ABCs of Graphing 13
EPS Recommended Science Lab Format 14
Its All About Me! 16
Testable Questions Lab 18
Testable Questions Practice 19
Experimental Design Planning Sheet 20
OCCT Review: Variables and Experiments 21
Cricket Chirp Investigation 23
B.1: Chemistry 26
Chemistry Unit Vocabulary Terms 27
Atomic Basics 28
Atomic Structure Sidewalk Chalking 30
Periodic Table of the Elements Reference Page 32
Periodic Table Basics 33
Colored Periodic Table 36
The Atoms Family Atomic Math Challenge 39
Atomic Changes 40
Energy Levels: Elements 1-20 41
Lewis Dot Diagrams: Elements 1-20 42
Video: Physical Science Series: Chemical Bonding 43
Chapter 11 Questions 44
Sunset in a Bag (Day 1) 45
Sunset in a Bag (Day 2) 47
Sunset in a Bag Follow-Up Questions (1) 48
Physical and Chemical Reactions Reading Questions 49
Endo and Exothermic Chemical Reactions 50

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Production of a gasControlling a Chemical Reaction 51
Substances & Chemical Formulas 55
Balancing Chemical Equations Challenge 58
Balancing Equations Practice 59
Got Gas? Lab 61
Take-Home Challenge: Alka Seltzer Poppers 66
Take-Home Challenge: Chromatography on Paper 68
Take-Home Challenge: Penny Sandwiches 70
Adopt an Element Research Project 71
Element Baby Book Research Project 75



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Life Principles
Responsibility making the choice to be reliable and dependable
Respect feeling honor
Self-discipline the ability to choose and control ones own actions
Honesty truthfulness
Integrity acting according to a sense of right and wrong
Courage strength to act even when afraid or uncertain
Compassion ability to persist or continue striving to the end
Loyalty faithfulness to another
Effort doing ones best in an endeavor
Friendship caring for and trusting others
Cooperation working together
Common Sense thinking before acting; using good judgment
Flexibility ability to make adjustments or alter plans
Initiative taking action; originating new ideas
Curiosity desire to learn, to explore, to investigate
Patience ability to wait calmly
Problem-Solving creating solutions; finding answers
Justice being fair, right, and upholding what is right
Commitment keeping a promise or a pledge
Esprit de Corps devotion among members of a group for each other and the groups purpose
Citizenship behaving in a responsible manner as a citizen of a community
Service giving of ones time and energies to help others
Fortitude strength of mind that enables a person to encounter danger or bear pain or adversity with
courage
Optimism an inclination to put the most favorable construction upon actions and happenings or to
anticipate the best possible outcome
Humanitarianism promotion of human welfare and social reform
Propriety standard of what is socially acceptable in conduct or speech
Courtesy consideration, cooperation, and generosity

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Temperance moderation in action, thought, or feeling
Dedication complete and wholehearted devotion, especially to a purpose, ideal, or role in life
Humility being humble, not proud or haughty, not arrogant or assertive
Empathy capacity for participating in anothers feelings or ideas
Forgiveness act of forgiving for an offense; pardoning
Sincerity honesty of mind; freedom from hypocrisy
Patriotism love for or devotion to ones country
Resiliency recovering from or adjusting easily to misfortune or change


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Classroom Code of Conduct


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Blooms Taxonomy of Higher-Oder Thinking


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8
th
Grade Science Antkowiak/Brevetti
Contact Information: Antkowiak ext. 4683 | Brevetti ext. 5507|
Learning Goals: (National Science Standards)
1. Learn how to identify and ask appropriate questions that can be answered through scientific
investigations.
2. Design and conduct investigations to collect the evidence needed to answer a variety of questions
3. Use appropriate equipment and tools to interpret and analyze data
4. Learn how to draw conclusions and think crucially and logically to create explanations based on
your evidence.
5. Communicate and defend your results to your peers and others
Daily Supplies: You are required to bring your composition notebook, your provided lab resource
manual, your science folder, and your pencil-case supplies daily. Do not bring or purchase a binder for
science class. You may purchase a pouch or pencil case in which to keep your scissors, glue, colored
pencils, pencils, and checking pens. These items are required to come to class DAILY.
Classroom Procedures: Choose your attitude. Treat everyone with courtesy and respect- as long as
thats handled, then have fun! Come prepared every day. All work must be neatly done. It is our
expectation that students will use complete sentences when writing and speaking. This will be modeled
for them by Mrs. A and Mrs. B.
Each day when you enter the room Be in your seat when class starts. There are no bells but our class
will start on time. The door will be closed and locked when it is time for class. The teacher will also keep
a record of your tardies. Check the board for instructions DAILY!
Tardies- 1
st
and 2
nd
: Warning
3
rd
and up: detention/parent contact
5
th
+: detention and further administrative action
Teacher Websites: Your most valuable resource is your teachers website. It will have any handouts,
notes, power points, etc. available to you. Extra copies of any handouts will not be made, and if yours is
lost you may download a new one. Expect to access the website daily for class information and updates.
If you do not have a computer at home, you may access the website during lunch or after school with a
teacher pass and print off what you need. You will be expected to check your grades weekly on PIV. It is
important that you identify any missing work that needs to be completed and get that work done within
the unit of study. If you do not have access to a computer at home you may print out grade reports in
the library.
Technology: Technology will play a big part in our class. We will use cameras, video-recorders, cell
phones (with teacher direction, support, and monitoring) on occasion.

Organization: Please have your supplies with you daily. Students and parents will be notified either via
email, on the class website or in the classroom of any deadlines or due dates within a unit of study. All
late or absent daily work/labs/late assignments/ will not be accepted after the unit of study has been
completed.
Taking Work Home: The best policy is get the work totally done to your best ability in class. If you are
having trouble with your school work we want you in for help. It is very important you have a strong
grasp of science skills and content. There will be few assignments this year that will not be completed in
class. Alternate assignments or make-up lab work will most likely require at-home completion.

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8
th
Grade Science pg. 2 Antkowiak/Brevetti
Quiz/Test Re-Take Options: Students will have 5 school days from the time they are notified of their
grade on an assessment to obtain and complete the retake form and make an appointment for
reassessment. The teacher and the student will agree upon a time that works for both of themselves to
retake the assessment. The student will receive the higher of the two grades. If a student waits more
than one week after the assessment has been given he/she will not be granted a retake of the
assessment and will keep the grade earned.
Students are responsible for taking their own initiative and printing off their own copy of the retake form
and fully completing this form (i.e. get it signed by a parent or guardian) before the teacher will give an
opportunity for a retake.
Lab Attitude: Lab is a privilege. If you cannot participate appropriately there will be an alternative
assignment that will address the same standards and content of the lab. There will be NO HORSEPLAY.
The data that you get from the lab is shared by partners. Predictions, evaluations, and conclusions
should be done in your own words with your own thoughts, in complete sentences.
You will be expected to clean up before you leave class. If you want to avoid after school
detention/cleaning time be sure that you dont leave your group stranded at the end of a lab. You will
be released by your teacher when your lab station is clean.

Making Up Labs: There will be notice given for any lab or lab activities done in the classroom and if
students are absent on a given lab day, they will be given an alternative assignment that addresses the
same concepts covered in the lab. If the first day of a lab is missed, but not others, it is at the teachers
discretion to insert student into an already formed lab team, or assign the alternate assignment.
Class Grades: Class grades this year will be standard-based. Please see your class website for further
details on specific power standards being assessed throughout the school year.
Projects: Will be announced ahead of time and planned by the 8
th
grade science teachers. Dont wait till
the last minute to get your materials needed for the project. Project deadlines will be set along the way,
and most projects will include a grade that assesses the students ability to meet these deadlines.
Safety Test/Safety Contract: Students are required to complete, sign and return safety contracts AND
take and pass a safety test with higher than a 90% before they will be allowed to participate in any
classroom lab. Our first lab this year will take place within the first 5 days of school. Therefore, Safety
Contracts and any make-up tests will need to be completed the deadline set by your childs science
teacher. Those not in compliance will be given an alternative assignment until both requirements have
been met.



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Science Safety Symbols


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ABCS OF GRAPHING 8
TH
GRADE SCIENCE

Steps to making a line graph
1. Write your name, block and date of assignment at the upper right hand corner of
paper.
2. Never use marker on a graph, only use pencil/colored pencils. Use a straight edge in
your work.
3. Label the X and Y axis. The X axis is the cause/horizontal/independent variable.
The Y axis is the effect/vertical/dependent variable.
4. Give your Graph a title. The title should include the independent and dependent
variable. Make sure your title is very descriptive and tell the cause/effect in it so
the reader can understand what the graph is about.
5. Label the units both for the independent and dependent variables.
6. Break up the graph and find your highest value that you have to put down for both
your Y and X. Divide that value by the number of boxes you have to work with.
(Dont worry; youll rock on this eventually!)
7. The X is always the independent variable (treatment/cause) and the Y is always the
dependent variable (result of the experiment/effect)
8. Use the entire page of graph paper, make the line graph as large as possible, it is
easier to read and understand.
9. Line graphs are used for data that WILL CHANGE OVER TIME AND NOT STAY
THE SAME!

Lab Clean Up Check List BEFORE LAB
All of these must be done before everything off your lab table
TAKING OFF YOUR GOGGLES! Only have lab notebook out
Put away lab equipment/supplies Tie back hair
SPIT OUT GUM!
Clean and dry lab station Closed toed shoes!
Clean and dry floor around lab station everything out of the aisles
Wash your hands with soap and water Goggles on!
All group members back to the station * If goggles dont fit or are uncomfortable move away
ONLY AFTER ALL OF THESE HAVE BEEN DONE from your lab station, go by the door
THEN RAISE YOUR HAND FOR PERMISSION TO and adjust them!
TAKE OFF YOUR GOGGLES. (Removal from the lab may occur if you do not follow these specific
directions )

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Edmond Public Schools
Recommended Science Laboratory Format
The following format may vary based on grade level, experiment, and level of inquiry.

Title

Observations: What did you see? Both Qualitative and Quantitative.

Problem or Question: Derived from observations

Research- Questionable information which may arise from observing a phenomenon that
requires more scientific support before designing the investigation.

Hypothesis: If.. then. because (What is your explanation for something that you
observed that you did not expect to see? Write what you expect for the outcome of your
test. )

Variables: Independent, Dependent, Control, and Constants
Write your independent and dependent variables. Your independent variable is what you as
a scientist are changing. Your dependent variable is what you observe during the
experiment and /or measure that happens as a result of the independent variable. It
depends on the independent variable. Also, write about what other possible variables
could occur that you will control in order to ensure a fair test.

Materials and Safety
Procedures What will you do to test your explanation? Write in one sentence how you will
test your explanation. Then write a procedure.

Data Collection: Tables, Graphs, Charts, Diagrams, Photos, etc.
Create a data table? Draw sketches? You need to decide before you start your experiment.
Create some table to be able to record you data during your experiment. Make sure you
record observations and perhaps draw some sketches to collect as much information as you
can during your test.

Data Analysis, Conclusion, and Communicate (Report and Reflect): Students
should draw conclusions from their data and explain what it says about their experiment.
Further explanation of how it supports or does not support the hypothesis and why or why
not is also important.
What did you find in your experiment? What did you learn? Create a graph or visual to help
you analyze your experiment. Did your predicted outcome occur? Is your hypothesis
supported or unsupported? Do you need to revise your hypothesis? What would you do
differently next time? What will you tell others about your experiment? What contributions
can be made based on what you learned from you work?

Extension: Future testing or further research

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Edmond Public Schools
Recommended Science Laboratory Format

College Board Recommends:
It is important for all students to keep record of their laboratory experiences in a lab
notebook as evidence of their experiences in a laboratory course.
The recommended components and skills of the labs should include:
Understanding Problems
Developing Hypotheses
Design and implement controlled experiments
Identify independent and dependent variables
Analyze Data
Draw Conclusions
Think Analytically
Communicate Results with appropriate data tables and graphs.

All of the components above can be easily supported by our middle school and high school
science course through different levels of inquiry. All of our current high school courses are
considered laboratory credit for graduation and students should be practicing good
laboratory skills by keeping a record of their laboratory experiences through lab reports or
lab notebooks.

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Its all About Me !
Directions: The first day of school is always stressful for everyone.especially the teacher Today we
are going to learn a few things about you by drawing. Follow the directions below to come up with a self
portrait that tells so many things.
1. DO NOT WRITE YOUR NAME ON YOUR PIECE OF PAPER !
2. You will follow the key and draw a picture of yourself using the symbols that identify you as a
person.
3. When you get done, place your picture in the basket provided by your teacher.
4. Your job is to take a picture that is not your own and meet someone you DONT already know in
class. When you finish meeting that person sit down next to that person in your seat and be
ready to start our next assignment. You will need a ruler and a pencil.
KEY
Facial Structure
If you are male, draw a circle. If you are female, draw an oval

Month of your birth date/Hair:
1. You will draw hair on your head for the month of your birth date.
2. Ex: One piece of hair for January will be drawn. February 2 strands of hair etc.

For the Day that you were born/Freckles:
What ever day of the month you were born, that is how many freckles you will have on your pictures
face. You may spread out the freckles so that they are even. Be sure that they are dark enough to see
on your picture.
Eyes-
What grade to you expect or think you will get in this class.
4= 3= 2= 1=


Ear Lobes-
Social Not social

Eye Brows-
Thin Eyebrows- Play a sport Thick Eyebrows- dont play a sport

Dimples-
Dimples - you play an instrument No dimples - you dont play an instrument

Eye Lashes-
Number of brothers or sisters you have. You can spread them out so that the eyes have even lashes

Nose-favorite subject in school
Math English Science Reading History


Hair Color- Favorite color
Mouth- Attitude towards science
Sad Face- Dont like science Happy Face- Like Science Scared Face- Scared of Science


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Neutral Face- Neutral about science could go different ways depending on the teacher

Body of your character- Draw a body for your picture the best way you can. I know that not everyone is an
artist but try to put in three things about yourself in your drawing. If you skate maybe draw a body with a
skate board. If you love your cell phone and are always on it you may draw a picture of yourself talkingif you
are a speedy Olympic texting genus you get my picture Use colored pencils and markers to make your
picture stick out. Remember; dont put your name on this assignment.


Part 2
Once you have finished your assignment and are waiting on other students, get out a piece of graph
paper, write you full heading (name, hour and date at the upper right hand corner of the page) and find
good pencil and a ruler. We will be using this activity for the next one ahead.

Class Total

Boys Girls Total Number
Percentage
(number/total
number)
Happy Science Attitudes



Sad Science Attitudes



Neutral Science Attitudes



Scared Science Attitudes





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Testable Questions Lab
8
th
Grade Science
Part 1
1. OBSERVE the beaker of water. Record your observations about the water in your planning
sheet. Make sure the observations are organized in some way.

2. Ask as many questions as you can about the beaker of water in your lab group. Record your
questions on the planning sheet. Be sure your questions are clear and complete. Your teacher
will let you know how long you have to do this.

3. Using the materials on your desk/tray/lab station continue asking more questions about your
water. Be sure to put these questions in your notebook.

4. Pick one of your questions that you like the most and be ready to share it with the class.

5. After all groups questions are sorted into testable and not-testable, use the question
assigned to YOUR group to design your OWN experiment! It must be testable in 20 minutes.
When doing the experiment, be sure to write down the following information and be ready to
share your findings. You will have 20 min to do the experiment tomorrow, clean up and explain
your results.

PART 2
Put this information in your comp notebook when setting up your experiment:
Heres some Information to help you In Your Quest..
A. Testable question- Write out the question you picked and underline AND label the independent
and dependent variables.
B. Procedure/Plan (Control Variables and Mistakes) Write out your game plan-identify the
variable that has to be changed, things that must be kept the same and what to look for when
you are trying to measure the result.
a. Materials Needed
b. Independent and Dependent Variables
c. Controlled Variables
d. Step-by-Step Procedure
C. Prediction- What do you think will happen?
D. Hypothesis- attempt to give an explanation . If.then ..because.
E. Observations (qualitative and quantitative)-identify differences and similarities
F. Interpret Results- Compare findings with earlier results, notice relationships between changes
in one variable an another, identify patterns or trends, draw conclusions that are consistent with
evidence that you find, recognize that your conclusions can change if there is new evidence.
G. Communicate Findings- Draw, Write, Model, Talk Freely, Listen to Others ideas and look at
their results, make tables, graphs, charts


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Testable Questions Practice


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Experimental Design Planning Sheet
Use this design to help guide you in your experiment.
The question we are investigating is:




Our prediction is:



Materials we will use are
(including measurement
tools):







Our controlled variables (things
we kept the same in our
experiment) are:
Hypothesis:




Independent Variable:




Dependent Variable:




Step by Step Procedures:





































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OCCT REVIEW: Variables and Experiments
Answer each Multiple Choice question, AND complete the information in the box to the right of each question.

Write the testable question:

How does _______________

effect _________________?
What is being measured?

_______________________
What is being changed?

_______________________

Independent Variable:

_______________________
Dependent Variable:

_______________________
Write the testable questions:

How does _______________ effect________________?

What is being measured?

_______________________

What is being changed?

_______________________

Independent Variable:

_______________________

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Write the testable question:

How does _______________

effect _________________?
What is being measured?

_______________________
What is being changed?

_______________________

Independent Variable:

_______________________

Dependent Variable:

_______________________
Write the testable questions:

How does _______________ effect________________?

What is being measured?

_______________________

What is being changed?

_______________________

Independent Variable:

_______________________
Dependent Variable:

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Cricket Chirp Investigation
8
th
Grade Science
Testable Question:
How does _______________________________effect_____________________________________?

Independent Variable:
Dependent Variable:
Procedure: (http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~jmahaffy/courses/s00a/math121/labs/laba/q3v1.htm )
1)
2)
3)
4)
Data:
Cricket Temperature in F # of Chirps
A
B
C
D

Bar Graph









Why wont a bar graph work with our investigation?
Graph Check List:
-title
-x & y axis labeled
-independent/
dependent variables
labeled
-data represented


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Cricket Chirp Investigation Cont.
8
th
Grade Science
Try this formula!
(.21)(# of cricket chirps in 60 seconds) + 40.4 = Temperature in F
Use your data table from Day 1 to complete temperature calculations. SHOW YOUR WORK.
Cricket A Calculation Cricket B Calculation
Cricket C Calculation Cricket D Calculation
Put your calculations in your data table from page 1.
Line Graph












Conclusion plus sources of possible error:


Graph Check List:
-title
-x & y axis labeled
-independent/
dependent variables labeled
-data represented


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B.1: Chemistry:

Atomic Structure (Chapter 10.1)
Periodic Table of the Elements (Chapter 10.2-10.3)
Bonds & Compounds (Chapter 11.1-11.3)
Chemical Reactions (12.1 & 12.3)
Conservation of Matter (12.2)
pH (see notes)







*It is the expectation of 8
th
grade science students to get missing notes or information from a friend, the
website, or the corresponding sections of the textbook. Class notes will occasionally come from the
textbook, however not all information used is from this resource. PowerPoints used in class are posted
on the class website.

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Chemistry Unit Vocabulary Terms:
Atomic Structure
Proton
neutron
electron
subatomic particles
oribital/energy levels
Nucleus
atom
isotope
matter
atomic mass
atomic number

Periodic Table of the Elements
Period
family
noble gasses
halogens
alkali metals
alkaline earth metals
reactivity
atomic mass
atomic number
Mendeleev
valence electrons

Bonds & Compounds
Ion
cation
anion
outer energy level
ionic bond
valence electrons
covalent bond

Chemical Reactions
Mixture
evaporation
settling
sifting
sorting
centrifuge
electricity
magnetism
physical change
chemical reaction
compound
production of gas
release of energy
precipitate
unexpected color change
endothermic
endothermic

Conservation of Matter
Matter
molecule
atom
coefficient
subscript
compound
balancing Equations
pH
meutral
acidic
basic
pH scale
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Atomic Structure Sidewalk Chalking
1. Fill out the following information using the element provided to you by your teacher.
Element Name __________________________Element Symbol ___________
Atomic Number ______ Mass Number _______Number of Protons ____________
Number of Electrons _________ Number of Neutrons______________
Energy Level Rules
Energy Level 1 can hold up to ____ electrons
Energy Level 2 can hold up to _____ electrons
Energy Level 3 can hold up to ______ electrons
2. Draw a picture of your element and have the teacher check your work.
Include the following: Nucleus, # of Protons (correct placement), # of Electrons (correct place and
distribution), # of Neutrons (correct place), Energy Levels (with electrons in the correct place),
Element Name and Element Symbol
RAISE YOUR HAND WHEN YOU ARE READY TO BE CHECKED AND THEN USE YOUR NOTES IN YOUR SCIENCE NOTEBOOK
TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS USING COMPLETE SENTENCES.
3. Who came up with the Atomic Theory? _____________________________________

4. Define: Atomic Number__________________________________________________

5. Define: Mass Number ____________________________________________________

6. If you had an element, like Oxygen, which has 8 protons, would the atom still be oxygen if you added a
proton? Explain using one or more complete sentences.


7. The mass number contains what particles? ____________ and ______________
8. If an atom, like oxygen has 8 protons, how many electrons would it need to be neutral or not charged?
Explain.

9. Electrons are found outside of the nucleus. Why do you think that electrons orbit the nucleus? What
keeps them hanging around?


10. Explain how you would find the number of neutrons in any atom.
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11. Lets say that little Susie draws a picture of an atom with electrons inside of the nucleus, can you explain
what is wrong with this picture and why this picture is incorrect? (Think about the charge of the subatomic
particles)

12. In comparison to the other subatomic particles, would you say electrons are smaller or larger than protons
and neutrons?

13. In comparison, which is larger, a proton or an atom? Explain your answer and give reasoning.

14. True/False (circle) All elements on the periodic table have the same type of atoms
with the same exact number of protons.
15. True/False (circle) If you had a solid gold ring, all the atoms in that ring would be identical.

16. True/False (circle) The number of protons in an element is what makes it unique.

Fill out the following table
Subatomic Particle Charge Location in Atom
Proton





Neutron






Electron






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Colored Periodic Table
On your blank periodic table, you must do the following things:
Checklist:
Find, color, and label the Halogens
Find, color, and label the Noble Gasses
Find, color, and label the Alkaline Earth Metals
Find, color, and label the Alkali Metals
Find, color, and label the Transition Metals
Find, color and label the Rare Earth Metals
Above each group/family, write the number of Valence Electrons found in those elements
For each family on the periodic table draw ONE Lewis Dot Structure in its correct elements location
Label the MOST reactive families on your table by putting a DOT in the UPPER LEFT CORNER of the
elements in the family
Label the LEAST reactive family on your table by putting a DOT in the LOWER LEFT CORNER of the
elements in the family
Somewhere in the blank space on your periodic table, DEFINE REACTIVITY
Use a dark solid line to outline the METALLOIDS on the periodic table
Put a STAR in the UPPER RIGHT CORNER of each GAS on the periodic table
*you do NOT have to label the individual elements on the table; just identify the families
Before you consider yourself finished with your project, use the following checklist to make sure your work
measures up to the expectation:
Checklist:
Is my table COLORFUL, and did I color in the lines?
Is any writing on my periodic table legible and neat?
Do I have 6 different colors to represent the 6 required regions?
Does my periodic table have a title?
Is my first and last name on the project in a visible location?
Is my poster neat and visually appealing?
SCORING(for the type of grade your teacher will determine)
4 ALL requirements met, AND table is neat, legible, and colored CORRECTLY with NO
omissions or errors
3 Table is neat, legible, and ALL requirements met with less than 5 errors. NO omissions
2 Table is neat, legible, and MOST requirements met with less than 10 errors. Maximum
of 5 omissions
1 Table is NOT neat, and more than 5 omissions.
0 Table does NOT meet expectations. Either it is not legible, not colored, missing more
than 10 required items.

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VIDEO: Physical Science Series: Chemical Bonding (18:46)

Why are substances so strong? What two things do you need to have?


What is a chemical bond?


What two subatomic particles are in the nucleus?


What particles orbit the nucleus?


What is the overall charge of an atom?

What must happen for the charge of the atom to be NEUTRAL? Explain


You find what type of subatomic particle on energy levels?

The electron on the outside energy levels are called ___________________ electrons.

Valence electrons are important in determining how an atom will ________________ with other atoms.

Matter in higher energy states are ______________________.

Valence electrons determine what two things? ___________________ and __________________

How many electrons does Helium have on the outside energy level? ______ Is it stable? _______
Explain your answer.


Define: Ionic Bond


Bonding is influenced by ____________________ electrons.

The fuller the outer energy level is, the more _____________________ an atom is.

Ionic bonds happen when ______________________________________________________

An ____________________ is an atom that is either positively charged or negatively charged.

Covalent bonds happen when atoms ____________________________ electrons.




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Chap 11 Questions from your Textbook
Define: Ionic Bond




Draw a picture of an ionic bond






Define: Covalent Bond





Draw a picture of a covalent bond

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Sunset In a Bag (Day 1)
8
th
Grade Science
Chemists gather evidence by observing.
In this activity, youll try to determine
whether or not a chemical change has taken place
by investigating the question,
What indicates the occurrence of a chemical change?
Careful observations will help you gather evidence.
Safety: Goggles on entire time until you have cleaned up and washed your hands, Hair Tied Back, closed toed
shoes.
Exploration: Part 1
Read all of Part 1. Then design a data collection sheet on which you can record what you do and what you
observe. Be sure that it is in a format that is easy to follow and can be shared with other. Then do the activity.
Part 1
Materials:
Sodium Bicarbonate
Calcium chloride
Phenol red indicator
Quart size Ziplock Bag
Safety Goggles
Graduated cylinder
Water
Plastic Spoon
Ruler
Colored Pencils
Camera (optional)

Procedures Part A:
1. Put on goggles
2. Add 20 mL of water into a bag
3. Add 10 drops of phenol red indicator and
seal the bag.
4. Gently slosh to mix.
5. Make Observations
Make a Data Table. Include the following
information:
1. What was mixed
2. Results: Physical or Chemical Change- include
explanation of which one
3. Drawing: Use color and draw a picture of your
experiment/Label.
Procedures Part B:
6. Add a spoonful of calcium chloride and seal
the bag.
7. Gently slosh to mix
8. Make observations of the bag and its
contents.

Add to your Data Table:
1. What was mixed
2. Results: Physical or Chemical
3. Drawing: Use color and draw a picture of your
experiment/Label.
Procedures Part C:
9. After the calcium chloride has dissolved, mix in
one teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate. QUICKLY
SEAL THE BAG !!!! If the bag gets too full, be
prepared to crack it open to prevent it from
bursting.
10. Gently slosh to mix.
11. Make observations
Add to your Data Table:
1. What was mixed
2. Results: Physical or Chemical
3. Drawing: Use color and draw a picture of your
experiment/Label.


46

Sunset in a Bag (Part 1)
8
th
Grade Science
In your science Notebook, you will need to set up the following for a lab report.
Testable Question: How does ____________________________effect __________________________?
Independent Variable: Dependent Variable:

Safety:
Hypothesis:
Procedures:
Materials:
Observations:
Qualitative Quantitative








(Draw a picture or paste a picture into your notebook)
Data Table: (You might need to have 3 separate data tables)
Conclusion: (Restate what happened)
Reflection: (what you learned, what you liked)



47

Sunset In a Bag (Day 2)
8
th
Grade Science


Choose Option A or B below to continue your investigation.
Design a new data-collection sheet for that option.
Be ready to share your results and data with the class.

Option A:
Predict what would happen if you tried the experiment again but left out one of the chemicals.
Test your prediction. Record what you did and what you observed.

Repeat this experiment, leaving out a different chemical

Option B:
Predict what would happen if you varied the amount of one of the chemicals.
Test the prediction. Record what you did and what you observed.

Repeat this experiment, varying a different chemical

You will need to re-set-up this entire lab as per the instructions on the previous page. Answer the
following summary questions completely and thoughtfully using proper sentences and capitalization.
Summary:
1. Analyze and summarize the results of your experiments on your data-collection sheets.
2. List any questions you still have on your data collection sheets.
3. Describe what you have discovered about chemistry from this activity.




48

Sunset in a Bag Follow-Up Questions (1)
Answer the following questions on the bottom of this paper. Make sure to answer the questions using
complete sentences
1) Put the following into two columns to separate the Qualitative from the Quantitative observations.
Purple
Hairy
Twenty-Seven Lines
19 grams
Smells like rotton eggs
Made smoke
Bounced 2 times
Circular
Bubbled and fizzed
Blue and red stripes
Scored 6 goals
Ate a handful of peanuts
Two cups of juice
4 days later
Grew ten millimeters
Half the class
Polka-dots
Made me sneeze
2) Write 3 of your own Qualitative observations and 3 of your own Quantitative observations about the
lab table at which you are seated.
3) You are camping with your family in the desert in the middle of August. Using those surroundings,
construct a table that lists the following:
Your observation
Whether its Qualitative or Quantitative
A brief explanation defending your choice
You should have 3 of EACH type of observation on your table (at least 6 items total).

49

Physical and Chemical Reactions Reading Questions
8
th
Grade Science
Read pages 393-396 in your science textbook. When you are through reading, copy the following
questions in your science notebook and answer them with complete sentences.

1. There are 5 common signs that a chemical change has occurred. Your textbook lists 4 of them. Name
each one and give an example



2. Explain the difference between a reaction occurring because of heat, and heat occurring because of a
reaction. Which one is chemical? Which one is physical?



3. Explain what a phase change is. What type of change is occurring?


4. Describe the process of water undergoing a physical change.


5. Describe the process of water undergoing a chemical change.


6. What do molecules have to do with a physical change? What do molecules have to do with a
chemical change?

50

Endo and Exothermic Chemical Reactions

The following picture is of an ENDOTHERMIC reaction.
1) Label the direction the energy is flowing using ARROWS.
2) Circle the words by the picture that best describes the temperature.
3) Use ALL 3 of the following words to explain what two things are happening in an
ENDOTHERMIC reaction:
temperature; energy; chemical reaction





Explanation:



The following picture is of an EXOTHERMIC reaction.
1) Label the direction the energy is flowing using ARROWS.
2) Circle the words by the picture that best describes the temperature.
3) Use ALL 3 of the following words to explain what two things are happening in an
ENDOTHERMIC reaction:
temperature; energy; chemical reaction





Explanation:



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52



53



54




55



56



57



58



59



60



61

Got Gas?

Testable Question: In a closed system (Erlenmeyer flask with balloon attached),
will the mass remain the same after a chemical reaction takes place?


Materials: Graduated Cylinder, Erlenmeyer flask, vinegar, balloon, plastic spoon, baking soda,
funnel, triple beam balance or digital scale and weighing paper

Clean Up: All balloons in trash, all chemicals down the sink with plenty of water, wash out and dry
glassware and wipe down table tops and floors

Procedure - Part 1:
1) Using your graduated cylinder, measure 45 mL of vinegar.

2) Add the vinegar to your 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask.

3) Stretch your balloon out for about a minute so that it will inflate easily.

4) Using the white plastic spoon, add 3 level teaspoons of baking soda to your balloon. Use the paper
funnel to avoid spilling.

5) While keeping all the baking soda in the balloon, carefully place the mouth of the balloon over the
opening of the Erlenmeyer flask to make a tight seal. The balloon will hang to the side of the flask.
Record/draw observations.

6) Using your Triple Beam Balance (TBB), find the mass of the closed system. (Flask, vinegar, balloon,
and baking soda) Record the mass in the data table.

7) While the balloon is still attached to the flask, lift the balloon so that the baking soda falls into the
flask and combines with the vinegar. Swirl gently.

8) Record/draw all observations.
My Observations:

Before Chemical Reaction



During Chemical Reaction Completion of Chemical Reaction







62

Mass of system Start (g)

Mass of System End (g) Mass of System Gas Released (g)




Procedure - Part 2:

1) Using your TBB, find the mass of the closed system once the chemical
reaction has completed. Be sure to keep balloon attached.

2) Record the info into the data table above.

3) Carefully remove the balloon and let all the gasses escape.

4) Place the deflated balloon back onto the Erlenmeyer flask.

5) Find the mass again using your TBB.

6) Record your info into the data table above
Before
Chemical ReactionuAnalysis and Results:
1) Look at the chemical equation below and fill in the table below:
* *NaHCO3 + CH3COOH NaOOCCH3 + H20 + CO2

Baking Soda + Vinegar Sodium Acetate + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Reactants Products Gas Produced









2. How was the mass of the flask different after the balloon came off? Explain in complete
sentences.





63

3. Were any new elements introduced into the closed system? Where did the gas come from? Explain in
complete sentences.









4. What evidence did you observe to indicate that a chemical reaction took place? Explain in complete
sentences.









5. After the gas was released, what happened to the mass of the system and why? Explain in complete
sentences.








6. Restate the law of conservation of mass into your own words. Do your results support this
statement? Why/Why Not? Explain in complete sentences.









7. Conclusion: In 2-3 complete sentences, explain what you learned in this experiment. ring




64

Vocabulary
Chemical Reaction

Conservation of Matter



Class Discussion

Label the pictures : Closed System, Open System


Closed System


Open System

Before Chemical Reaction After Chemical Reaction


____g ______g



Reactants Yield Products


Synthesis
After doing the experiment would you say that the number of atoms stay the same, change,
increase or decrease? Use what you have seen, apply it and answer in complete sentences
below. Underline major vocabulary




65




Write your own testable question for the experiment that you performed today. After you
write the testable question, underline the independent and dependent variable in the question.
Label the independent and dependent variables.

Testable Question: ______________________________________________________________



What are some reasons that students may not have gotten accurate results at the conclusion of
this experiment. List at least 3 things that could have gone wrong to cause you to get inaccurate
results. Write this in complete sentences.








Stephanie mixed two chemicals in an open container. She noticed that the chemicals started to
react. Finish the story below and write a story with complete sentences that reflects evidence
of a chemical reaction. Underline each part of the story that shows evidence for a chemical
reaction. Use complete sentences. (There should be at least 5 examples) Be ready to share with
the class.















66





67



68



69



70


71

Adopt an Element- Chemistry
Research
RESEARCH DETAILS
1. Complete an Adopt an Element Information Sheet.
______ Provide at three different resources
_______Information sheets must be written in black ink, neat, and contain all the information
requested.
________You also need to provide a list of your sources on the back of your information sheet.
2. Goal: Create an advertisement for your element. The advertisement must include:
____ elements name ______ symbol _____atomic number _____ atomic mass _____cost
_____advertisement slogan that describes one or more of its important uses
3. You may add pictures or drawings that illustrate the various uses for your element
4. You will be given a piece of white typing paper to complete your project on. You may design
your project on white paper only. The project may be written or done with a computer.
5. Periodic table sites available on The Science spot http://science spot.net
Go to Kid Zone, then choose chemistry links














72


Name _________________________________________hr_______
Adopt an Element Rubric
Advertisement

4 3 2 1 0 Score
Advertisement
More
information is
provided than
asked for
Information
asked for
One two
items missing
More
than 2
items
missing
Advertisement
not done

Slogan
Slogan and
pictures very
creative
Slogan and
pictures
relevant
Slogan and
pictures not
relevant

Followed
directions
Exceptionally
neat, correct
spelling/format
Neat,
correct
spelling and
format
One-two items
that are lacking
in
spelling/format
Three-
four
issues
with
spelling
or
format
More than five
issues with
spelling or
format


Information
Sheet
4 3 2 1 0 Score
Basic
Information
Included more
than 10 items
9-7 items
included
6-5 items
included
4 or less
items
included
Incomplete
and missing

Other
Information
Included more
than 6 items
All
information
included
1-2 missing
items
More than
3 missing
items
Incomplete
and missing

Format
All formatting
covered
One
formatting
item
missing
Two
formatting
items missing
Three or
more
formatting
items
missing
None of the
formatting
requirements
were followed

Reference
More than 3
different
references
provided, required
info provided in
MLA format
3 different
references
provided,
required
information
provided in
MLA
format
2 different
references
provided,
information
not in MLA
format
1 resource
provided,
not in
MLA
format
References
not provided
for this project





73

Fact Sheet
Symbol_______ Atomic Number _________ Atomic Mass_________ # of Protons_________
# of Neutrons ___________ # of Electrons _______ Melting Point _______ Boiling Point _______
Normal Phase ________
Classification: _______ Non Metal ______ Metal _______ Metalloid
My element belongs to the ________________________________________ family
Origin of Name ___________________________________________________________
Discovered by ___________________________________________________________________
Interesting Information: May include important uses, interesting facts, common compounds, etc.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.






74

References
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.


75

Element Baby Book Project

Element Baby Book Cover Due: _________Final Project Due: ____________
In this project you will adopt an element from the periodic table. The element that you choose must
have an atomic number from 1 20. As a proud parent of your element you will create a baby book to
remember each stage of your elements life.
Sources of Information:
Websites to help you in your search (I will provide these.) The periodic table in your book will give you
some information. There will be two due dates: one for the cover so that it can be laminated, and one
for the final project. I will bind each baby book. You may create your book on the computer, but it is not
necessary.

Requirements:
(Check each one as you complete it.)
_____Cover page
_____Name of element and your name
_____Decorative cover

_____Page 1 This should be written in paragraph form using complete sentences.
(You may type this if you want)
____Name of element (Give your element a first name)
____Nickname of element (Symbol)
____Birth date (date element was discovered)
____Birth weight (atomic mass)
____Birth height (atomic number)
____Attending physician (Discoverer)
____Gender (state of matter at room temperature)
____Place of birth (country of discovery)
____Personality (emotions: boiling point and melting point)

_____Page 2
_____Picture of element
_____# of protons is body
_____# of neutrons is legs
_____# of electrons is arm
_____Atomic number is head

_____Page 3
Poem about element

_____Page 4
Family Name (family or group)
Brothers and Sisters (Names of family members)
Use

_____Page 5
Picture of element (Bohr model) and Lewis Dot Structure drawn correctly for that element

____Page 6-8 * Not required Research MSDS sheet and include information from this document in your project.
Use your creativity to make it appropriate for your project. Write in complete sentences and paragraph form. Attach
MSDS to the back of your research sheet.


76




Rubric

4 3 2 1 0 Score
Cover Page
All information
included went
above and
beyond in
decorating cover
All information
included, cover
neatly done
One element
missing, cover
sloppy
More than one
element
missing, cover
sloppy
Cover
Missing

Page 1
All 9 elements
covered, no missing
information, written in
paragraph form with
complete sentences.
Included extra
information. Went
above requirement
9 elements
covered, no
missing
information, written
in paragraph form
with complete
sentences.
Any of the
following:
Missing elements
-8-5 covered
Not in paragraph
form.
Not in complete
sentences
Any of the
following missing:
4-1 elements
covered. Not in
paragraph form.
Not in complete
sentences. A lot
of information not
covered in this
section.
Page 1 not
complete or
missing in
this project

Page 2
Picture of element
includes all
information and is
formatted based on
the directions. Shows
4 parts of the body
required.
Picture of element
missing 1 part of
the elements body.
Picture of element
missing 2 parts o
the body.
Picture of the
element missing 3
or more parts of
the body.
Page 1
missing or
not
complete.

Page 3
Poem 4 paragraphs
long with five
complete sentences
in each paragraph.
Creative, funny and
appropriate.
Poem 3
paragraphs long
with five complete
sentences in each
paragraph.
Creative, funny and
appropriate.
Poem 2
paragraphs long
with five complete
sentences in each
paragraph. Lacks
preparation and
may not be
appropriate for
assignment.
Poem 1
paragraph long
with five complete
sentences in each
paragraph. Lacks
preparation and is
not appropriate for
assignment.
Poem
missing form
project.

Page 4
All information
required. This page is
decorated, creative,
and shows thought.
Pictures included.
All information
required. Page is
decorate, creative
One item missing
from this page.
Two or more
items missing
from this page.
Not
completed

Format
All directions
covered. Baby book
shows complete
sentences, correct
grammar/punctuation
, capitalization and
spelling.
All directions
covered. Baby
book written with
complete
sentences. A few
problems with
grammar/punctuati
on, capitalization
and spelling.
Some directions
not followed. Baby
book lacking
complete
sentences and
there are a few
problems with
grammar/punctuat
ion, capitalization
and spelling.
Most directions or
all directions not
followed.
Complete
sentences not
written. Many
problems with
grammar/punctuat
ion, capitalization
and spelling.
Did not
follow any of
the directions
for this
project.
Major issues
with
sentence
structure and
grammar.

Neatness

Book neatly done.
Student went above
and beyond the
requirements for this
project.
Project neatly done
but does not show
that student went
above/beyond the
requirements.
Project has some
issues with
neatness. One-
two locations in
project that show
sloppiness.
Several issues
with neatness in
project. Project
does not appear
to be ready for
deadline.
Several
issues with
neatness.
Project
turned in
unfinished
and is poorly
done.

Punctuality
Student turned in
project on time.
1 day late 2 days late 3 days late
4 or more
days late.




Created by Lisa Curry - 2003


77

Element Baby Book
Research Page:

1. Name of element:_________________________________________
2. Element symbol:_________________________________________
3. Atomic number:__________________________________________
4. Atomic mass:____________________________________________
5. # of protons:_____________________________________________
6. # of electrons:___________________________________________
7. # of neutrons:____________________________________________
8. Date of discovery:________________________________________
9. Discoverer:______________________________________________
10. Country of Discovery:____________________________________
11. Boiling Point:___________________________________________
12. Melting Point:___________________________________________
13. State of matter:__________________________________________
14. Family name:____________________________________________
15. Names of family members:________________________________
17. Uses for element (career):_________________________________
18. Type of element:_________________________________________

Websites for Use

1.__________________________________________________________

2.__________________________________________________________

3.__________________________________________________________

4.__________________________________________________________

5.__________________________________________________________

6.__________________________________________________________