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INTRODUCTION

NOTE: Ford Motor Company reserves the right to discontinue models at any time, or change specifications or design
without notice and without incurring any obligation.
IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE
Appropriate service methods and procedures are essential for the safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles as well as
the personal safety of the individual doing the work. This manual provides general directions for performing service with
tested, effective techniques. Following them will help assure reliability.
There are numerous variations in procedure, techniques, tools and parts for servicing vehicles, as well as in the skill of
the individual doing the work. This manual cannot possibly anticipate all such variations and provide advice or cautions
as to each. Accordingly, anyone who departs from the instructions provided in this manual must first establish that they
compromise neither their personal safety nor the vehicle integrity by their choice of methods, tools or parts.
NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
As you read through the procedures, you will come across NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS. Each one is there for
a specific purpose. NOTES give you added information that will help you to perform a particular procedure.
CAUTIONS are given to prevent you from making an error that could damage the vehicle. WARNINGS remind you
to be especially careful in those areas where carelessness can cause yourself and others personal injury. The following
list contains some general WARNINGS that you should follow when you work on a vehicle.
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES FOR EYE PROTECTION.
KEEP SOLVENTS AWAY FROM IGNITION SOURCES. SOLVENTS MAY BE FLAMMABLE AND COULD IGNITE
OR EXPLODE IF NOT HANDLED CORRECTLY.
USE SAFETY STANDS WHENEVER A PROCEDURE REQUIRES YOU TO BE UNDER THE VEHICLE.
MAKE SURE THAT THE IGNITION SWITCH IS ALWAYS IN THE OFF POSITION, UNLESS OTHERWISE REQUIRED
BY THE PROCEDURE.
SET THE PARKING BRAKE WHEN WORKING ON THE VEHICLE. IF YOU HAVE AN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION,
SET IN PARK UNLESS INSTRUCTED OTHERWISE FOR A SPECIFIC OPERATION. IF YOU HAVE A MANUAL
TRANSMISSION, IT SHOULD BE IN REVERSE (ENGINE OFF) OR NEUTRAL (ENGINE ON) UNLESS INSTRUCTED
OTHERWISE FOR A SPECIFIC OPERATION. PLACE WOOD BLOCKS (4" X 4" OR LARGER) OR WHEEL CHOCKS
AGAINST THE FRONT AND REAR SURFACES OF THE TIRES TO HELP PREVENT THE VEHICLE FROM MOVING.
OPERATE THE ENGINE ONLY IN A WELL-VENTILATED AREA TO AVOID THE DANGER OF CARBON
MONOXIDE POISONING.
KEEP YOURSELF AND YOUR CLOTHING AWAY FROM MOVING PARTS WHEN THE ENGINE IS RUNNING,
ESPECIALLY THE DRIVE BELTS.
TO PREVENT SERIOUS BURNS, AVOID CONTACT WITH HOT METAL PARTS SUCH AS THE RADIATOR,
EXHAUST MANIFOLD, TAIL PIPE, THREE-WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTER AND MUFFLER.
DO NOT SMOKE WHILE WORKING ON A VEHICLE.
TO AVOID INJURY, ALWAYS REMOVE RINGS, WATCHES, LOOSE HANGING JEWELRY AND LOOSE
CLOTHING BEFORE BEGINNING TO WORK ON A VEHICLE.
WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO WORK UNDER THE HOOD, KEEP HANDS AND OTHER OBJECTS CLEAR OF
THE COOLING FAN BLADES!
TOOLS
Commercially available hand tools and equipment are used along with Essential Special Service Tools (ESST) and
Rotunda equipment. Power tools have become the acceptable industry standard and are used for disassembly only
where applicable, unless specified otherwise in the Workshop Manual. The only exception to this policy is installing
wheels in conjunction with the use of torque sticks, when possible.
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100-01-1 100-01-1 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Identification Codes
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Locator
The vehicle identification number (VIN) is a
17-digit alphanumeric code. The VIN is stamped on
a metal tab riveted to the instrument panel, top
upper left of the dash. The VIN number is also
found on the vehicle certification (VC) label.
Item Description
1 World manufacturer identifier (WMI)
2 Restraint-type code
3 Line, series, body type
4 Engine code
5 Computer-generated VIN check digit
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-01-2 100-01-2 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Line, Series and Body Type Code Item Description
6 Model year code
7 Assembly plant code
8 Production sequence number
Vehicle Identification Number
World Manufacturer Identifier (WMI)
Positions 5 through 7 indicate vehicle line, series
and body type.
T80 2-door coupe, base
T82 2-door coupe, GT
T84 2-door convertible, base
T85 2-door convertible, GT
T88 2-door coupe, Shelby
The first 3 vehicle identification number (VIN)
positions are the world manufacturer identifier
T89 2-door convertible, Shelby
(WMI).
Engine Code
1ZV Ford, USA, passenger car
Restraint-Type Code
The eighth VIN position is the engine displacement
and number of cylinders code.
The fourth VIN position is the vehicle restraint
H 4.6L, OHC, 3-valve, EFI, 8-cylinder
system type code.
N 4.0L, SOHC, EFI, 6-cylinder
F Active safety belts, all positions driver
S 5.4L, DOHC, 4-valve, EFI, 8-cylinder
and front passenger air bags
H Active safety belts, all positions driver
and front passenger air bags with side impact air
bags
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-01-3 100-01-3 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Computer-Generated Check Digit
The eleventh VIN position is the assembly plant
code.
5 Auto Alliance International (AAI) Flat
Rock, Michigan (USA)
Production Sequence Number
The ninth VIN position is a government-assigned,
computer-generated check digit code (0-9).
Model Year Code
The last 6 VIN positions are the production
sequence number. This number is also used as the
vehicle serial and warranty number.
100001-599999
The tenth VIN position is the model year code.
7 2007
Assembly Plant Code
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-01-4 100-01-4 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Vehicle Certification (VC) Label
Vehicle Certification (VC) Label Locator
The upper portion of the vehicle certification (VC)
label contains the manufacturer name, the month
and year of manufacture, the certification statement
and the vehicle identification number (VIN). It also
includes gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR). The
VC label is located on the LH door jamb.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-01-5 100-01-5 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Paint Codes
Paint codes may be listed as a 2-part code. The first
set of paint code letters/numbers listed indicate the
vehicle primary body color. The second set of paint
code letters/numbers listed (if applicable) indicate a
2-tone or accent body color. All colors are base
coat/clear coat.
D3 Colorado Red
G2 Redfire
G5 Alloy Gray
G9 Vista Blue
HP Performance White
Item Description
P3 Windveil Blue
1 Exterior paint color code
T8 Tungsten Silver
2 Region code
TL Satin Silver
3 Special order code
DSO domestic special order U3 Valencia
FSO foreign special order
UA Ebony
PTO paint, tire option special order
4 Interior trim code Interior Trim Codes
5 Tape/paint stripe code
6 Radio type code
7 Axle ratio code
8 Transmission code
9 Spring code
10 Powertrain calibration code
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-01-6 100-01-6 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Radio Codes
The interior trim codes are listed as a 2-part code.
The first character listed is the interior fabric. The
second character listed is the interior color.
5 Cloth seats with logo GT
F Preferred suede leather California Edition
G No grain mini perforation Shelby
J Verona leather seats Base
K Nudo/Aberdeen leather seats GT and
Base
P Cloth seats Base
The interior trim colors are:
The radio type codes are:
2 Light Graphite
4 Charcoal Black/Chamois 5 Premium electronic AM/FM stereo with
compact disc (CD) player and clock
C Charcoal Black/Camel
9 CDX6+, AM/FM stereo with 6-disc CD
D Charcoal/Dove
changer, MP3 and speed-sensing volume control
H Camel Tan
Axle Ratio Codes
R Midnight Black/Crimson Red
W Charcoal Black
Tape/Paint Stripe Codes
The axle ratios are:
BG 3.31 non-limited slip, base vehicle with
manual or automatic transmission
The tape and paint stripe codes are:
CD 3.55 limited slip, GT with manual
1 Black
transmission
2 Oxford White
CG 3.31 limited slip, GT with automatic
transmission
3 Light Pearl Gold
4 Performance White
6 Tungsten
7 Silver
8 Vista Blue
X Satin Black
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-01-7 100-01-7 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Transmission Codes
CC 4R33-5310-CA
DD 4R33-5310-DA
FF 4R33-5310-FA
GG 4R33-5310-GA
Rear Springs
AA 5R33-5560-AA
BB 5R33-5560-BA
CC 5R33-5560-CA
DD 5R33-5560-DA
EE 5R33-5560-EB
FF 5R33-5560-FA
The transmission codes are:
GG 5R33-5560-GA
E 6-speed manual (T56) Shelby
HH 5R33-5560-HA
F 5-speed manual (T5OD/TR3150) Base
JJ 7R3V-5560-JB
K 5-speed manual (TR3650) GT
KK 7R3V-5560-KB
L 5-speed automatic (5R55S) Base/GT
LL 7R3V-5560-LA
Spring Codes
MM 7R3V-5560-MA
Powertrain Calibration Information
The spring code portion of the vehicle certification
(VC) label identifies both the front and rear springs.
The first set of characters listed indicate the front
spring code. The second set of characters indicate
the rear spring code.
Front Springs
AA 4R33-5310-AA
BB 4R33-5310-BA
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-01-8 100-01-8 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Protocol 2
NOTE: Powertrain calibration information is limited
to a maximum of 5 characters per line on the
Vehicle Certification (VC) Label. Because of this,
calibration identification consisting of more than 5
characters will wrap to the second line on the VC
label.
Powertrain calibration information is printed in the
lower right corner of the Vehicle Certification
Label. Only the base calibration information is
printed. Revision levels will not appear, however,
this information can be found in the On Line
Automotive Service Information System (OASIS).
For the current model year, Ford Motor Company is
using 3 different protocols which describe
Item Description
powertrain base calibration. These protocols are
1 Model year (model year in which
designed to provide worldwide standardization for
calibration strategy was first
vehicle calibration. If the electronic calibration
introduced)
strategy has been used since 1998 and carried into
2 Engine code
the current model year, Protocol 1 will be used.
3 Transmission code Refer to Protocol 1 below. If the electronic
calibration strategy has been used since 1999 and is
4 Emission standard (designates the
carried into the current model year, Protocol 2 will specific country emission standard)
be used. Refer to Protocol 2 below. For new
5 Design level (design level assigned to
electronic calibration strategies introduced since the the engine)
2000 model year, use Protocol 3. Refer to Protocol
3 below.
Protocol 3
Protocol 1
Item Description
Item Description
1 Model year (model year in which
calibration strategy was first
1 Model year (model year in which
introduced)
calibration strategy was first
introduced)
2 Vehicle code
2 Engine code
3 Transmission code
3 Engine revision level
4 Unique calibration (designates different
hardware to similar vehicles). Example:
tires, drive ratios, etc.
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100-01-9 100-01-9 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Item Description
5 Not assigned
5 Fleet code (describes fleet to which the
6 Evaporative emissions
vehicle belongs). Example: 6 -
7 MACAA
evaporative emissions
8 On-board diagnostics (OBD) 6 Certification region (lead region where
multiple regions are included in one
9 Not assigned
calibration). Example: A - U.S. federal
Certification Region
7 Revision level (will advance as
revisions occur). Not printed on label
5 U.S. 50 states
A U.S. federal, including altitude, may include
Canada and/or Mexico
Protocol 3
B U.S. California standard, includes U.S. green
The following offers a more detailed explanation of
states
the coding strategy used for Protocol 3.
C Canada
Model Year
D China
Y 2000
E European Community (Austria, Belgium,
1 2001
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
2 2002
Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal,
Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom)
3 2003
F Extended European Community (E plus
4 2004
Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,
5 2005
Norway, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation,
6 2006
Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Yugoslavia)
7 2007
G Gulf Cooperative Council (Bahrain, Kuwait,
Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE)
Vehicle Line
H Hong Kong
ZF Mustang
J Japan
Transmission
K Korea
1 Automatic transmission
L Malaysia
2 Manual transmission
M Mexico
Unique Calibration
N New Zealand
The Emissions/CAFE/CO2 Compliance Department
is responsible for assigning these calibration P Australia
numbers. Unique calibration identifications are
Q South America (Brazil)
assigned to cover similar vehicles to differentiate
S Singapore
tires, drive configurations, final drive ratios and
T Taiwan
other calibration-significant factors.
U South America (unleaded fuel regions)
These 2 characters are chosen by the analyst to
provide easily identifiable information unique to
V Vietnam
each calibration. For example, using the number 2
X Rest of world (ROW)
to denote a 2-valve engine versus using the number
Y Military
4 to denote a 4-valve engine.
Z Israel
Fleet Code
Revision Level (not printed on label)
1 HDGE/Dyno
91-99 Hardware certification levels
2 Fast AMA, U.S.
01-04 Preliminary levels
3 ADP, U.S.
00 Job 1 production (initial certification)
4 Not assigned
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-01-10 100-01-10 Identification Codes
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
05-09 Pre-job 1 revisions to calibrations 0B Durability test level
10-89 Post-job 1 revisions to calibrations BD On-board diagnostics (OBD) intermediate
level (pre-05)
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-02-1 100-02-1 Jacking and Lifting
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
To jack the front end, lift at the pinch welds located
Jacking
at the front opening of the rocker panels.
WARNING: Never run the engine with one
wheel off the ground, such as when changing a Jacking Points Rear
tire. The wheel still on the ground could cause
NOTE: RH side shown, LH side similar.
the vehicle to move.
CAUTION: The jack provided with the
vehicle is intended to be used in an emergency
for changing a deflated tire. To avoid damage to
the vehicle, never use the jack to lift the vehicle
for any other purpose. Refer to the owner guide
when using the jack supplied with the vehicle.
CAUTION: Under no circumstances should
the vehicle ever be lifted by the suspension arm
brackets, rear stabilizer, differential housing or
convertible cross brace. Severe damage to the
vehicle could result.
To jack the rear end, lift at the pinch welds located
CAUTION: Do not attempt to use jack
at the rear opening of the rocker panels.
pressure on either the front bumper or the rear
bumper of any vehicle. Damage to the bumper
covers will occur.
Jack the vehicle using the jacking points shown in
this section.
Jacking Points Front
NOTE: RH side shown, LH side similar.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-02-1 100-02-1 Jacking and Lifting
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
NOTE: Convertible shown, coupe similar.
Lifting
CAUTION: Do not allow the lift adapters
to contact the steering linkage, suspension arms,
stabilizer arms, or to compress the lower
suspension arm stabilizer bar insulator. Damage
to the suspension, exhaust and steering linkage
components may occur if care is not exercised
when positioning the hoist adapters prior to
lifting the vehicle.
CAUTION: Never use the differential
housing as a lift point. Damage to the differential
housing and cover may occur.
CAUTION: To prevent possible damage to
the underbody, do not drive the vehicle onto the
drive-on lift without first checking for possible
interference. Check for interference between the
upright flanges of the hoist rails and the
underbody. If an interference exists, modify the
hoist flanges or build up the approach ramps as
necessary to provide clearance.
CAUTION: Adapters may be necessary to
clear vehicle components to lift the vehicle safely.
The adapters must be placed at the 4 designated
contact points. Position the adapters so they are
centered on the adapter contact area.
Lift the vehicle at the applicable lift points.
CAUTION: Do not position lift pads under
the crossmembers, body damage may occur.
CAUTION: Do not lift vehicle on
convertible cross brace. Body damage may occur.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-03-1 100-03-1 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Special Operating Condition
Maintenance Schedule Gasoline
Requirements
Engines
When towing a trailer or using a camper or
The maintenance schedule is designed to protect
car-top carrier:
against major repairs resulting from neglect or
inadequate maintenance and to prolong the life of
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter
the vehicle.
every 4,800 km (3,000 miles) or 3 months.
Inspect and rotate tires every 4,800 km (3,000
General Maintenance Information
miles).
NOTE: This is a generic maintenance schedule for
Change automatic transmission fluid (not required
all Ford, Lincoln and Mercury vehicles. There may
on 6R60 transmission), lubricate rear wheel drive
be items listed that do not apply to all vehicles.
(RWD) front wheel bearings, install new grease
The Normal Schedule applies to operation of the
seals and adjust bearings every 48,000 km (30,000
vehicle under typical, everyday driving conditions.
miles). If equipped, change the in-line service
The maintenance frequency in this schedule typifies
installed transmission fluid filter.
what the vast majority of vehicles will require. The
Change transfer case fluid every 96,000 km
listed services should be carried out at specified
(60,000 miles).
mileage intervals. There are, however, additional
services required that only the noted vehicles Change manual transmission fluid as required.
require.
Inspect and lubricate U-joints and halfshafts as
If the vehicle is operated in one or more of the required.
following special operating conditions, those
During extensive idling and/or low speed driving
additional services will be required. The special
for long distances, as in heavy commercial use
operating conditions are:
such as delivery, taxi, patrol car or livery:
towing or carrying heavy loads.
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter
extensive idling and/or driving at low speeds for every 4,800 km (3,000 miles) or 3 months or 200
long distances. hours of engine operation.
driving in dusty conditions. Inspect and rotate tires every 4,800 km (3,000
miles).
off-road operation.
Lube front lower control arm and steering linkage
use of E85 fuel 50% of the time or greater (flex
ball joints with zerk fittings (if equipped) every
fuel vehicles only).
4,800 km (3,000 miles) or 3 months.
There are also exceptions to the Normal Operating
Inspect brake system and check battery electrolyte
Schedule which will require more frequent
level every 8,000 km (5,000 miles).
maintenance for some components. Those
exceptions are: Install a new fuel filter every 24,000 km (15,000
miles) (not required for Fusion and Milan).
standard vehicle axle maintenance and
Change automatic transmission fluid (not required
lubrication.
on 6R60 transmission), lubricate RWD front
police and taxi vehicles maintenance and
wheel bearings, install new grease seals and adjust
lubrication.
bearings every 48,000 km (30,000 miles). If
engine oil and Motorcraft Premium Gold coolant
equipped, change the in-line service installed
time-based and mileage-based intervals.
transmission fluid filter.
change brake fluid every 2 years (Class A
Install new spark plugs and change transfer case
Motorhome).
fluid every 96,000 km (60,000 miles).
Install a new cabin air filter as required (if
equipped).
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-03-2 100-03-2 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Checks and Services When operating in dusty conditions such as
unpaved or dusty roads:
Certain basic maintenance checks and inspections
should be carried out at specified intervals. Any
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter
recognized adverse condition should be corrected as
every 4,800 km (3,000 miles) or 3 months.
soon as possible.
Install a new fuel filter every 24,000 km (15,000
miles) (not required for Fusion and Milan). Multi-Point Inspection
Change automatic transmission fluid (not required
The following inspections are recommended at
on 6R60 transmission), check air filter restriction
every service interval:
gauge and install a new filter as required (Focus
Check and top off brake, coolant, manual and
engine only) every 48,000 km (30,000 miles). If
automatic transmission (if equipped with a
equipped, change the in-line service installed
underhood fluid level indicator), power steering
transmission fluid filter.
and window washer fluids.
Change rear axle lubricant every 80,000 km
Inspect tires for wear and correct air pressure,
(50,000 miles) (E-450 and F-450/550 only).
including spare tire.
Change transfer case fluid every 96,000 km
Check exhaust system for leaks, damage, loose
(60,000 miles).
parts and foreign material.
Install a new engine air filter as required.
Check battery performance.
Install a new cabin air filter as required (if
Check operation of horn, exterior lamps, turn
equipped).
signals and hazard warning lights.
When operating in off-road conditions:
Check radiator, coolers, heater and air
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter
conditioning hoses.
every 4,800 km (3,000 miles) or 3 months.
Inspect windshield wiper spray and wiper
Inspect and rotate tires every 4,800 km (3,000
operation.
miles).
Check windshield for cracks, chips and pitting.
Change automatic transmission fluid every 48,000
Inspect for oil and fluid leaks.
km (30,000 miles). If equipped, change the in-line
Inspect air cleaner filter.
service-installed transmission fluid filter.
Inspect halfshaft dust boots (if equipped).
Change rear axle lubricant every 80,000 km
(50,000 miles) (E-450 and F-450/550 only). Check shocks, struts and other suspension
components for leaks and damage.
Change transfer case fluid every 96,000 km
(60,000 miles). Inspect steering and linkage.
Install a new cabin air filter as required (if Inspect accessory drive belt(s).
equipped).
Inspect clutch operation (if equipped).
Inspect and lubricate U-joints and halfshafts.
In-Line, Service-Installed Transmission
Inspect and lubricate steering linkage ball joints
Fluid Filter
with zerk fittings.
Some vehicles may be equipped with an in-line,
Use of E85 fuel 50% of the time or greater (flex
service-installed transmission fluid filter. This filter
fuel vehicles only):
is installed in the transmission fluid cooler return
line. If equipped, install a new in-line filter during
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter
transmission fluid change intervals.
every 4,800 km (3,000 miles), 3 months or 200
hours of engine operation (whichever occurs first).
Maximum Oil Change Interval (Normal
Fill the fuel tank with regular gasoline (non E85)
Schedule)
once every 3,000 miles.
8,000 km (5,000 miles) or 6 months (whichever
occurs first).
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100-03-3 100-03-3 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Maximum Oil Change Interval (Special Normal Schedule
Operating Conditions)
NOTE: Rotate tires and inspect for wear at 5,000
miles, 15,000 miles and every 15,000 miles is
4,800 km (3,000 miles), 3 months or 200 hours of
required thereafter. At other 5,000-mile intervals,
engine operation (whichever occurs first).
rotation is recommended for optimal life.
Monthly Checks
The following check procedures should be carried
Check each of the following items every month:
out for all cars, minivans, light trucks, sport utilities,
vans, four wheel drive (4WD) and natural gas
All interior and exterior lights for correct
vehicles.
operation.
Retighten the wheel nuts to the specified torque at
Tires for wear and correct air pressure, including
800 km (500 miles) after any wheel disturbance
spare tire.
(tire rotation, changing a flat tire or wheel
Engine oil fluid level.
removal).
Windshield washer solvent fluid level.
On vehicles equipped with dual rear wheels,
retighten the wheel nuts to the specified torque at
Six Month Checks
160 km (100 miles) and again at 800 km (500
Check each of the following items at least every 6
miles) of new vehicle operation or after any wheel
months:
disturbance (tire rotation, changing a flat tire or
Lap/shoulder belts and seat latches for wear and wheel removal).
function.
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
External mounted spare tire is stowed correctly
8,000 Km (5,000 Miles)
(tight to body).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Power steering fluid level.
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Washer spray, wiper operation and clean all wiper
blades (install new wiper blades as necessary).
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Parking brake for correct operation.
16,000 Km (10,000 Miles)
Lubricate all hinges, latches, door check straps
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
and outside locks.
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Lubricate upper and lower sliding door tracks (if
optimal tire life.
equipped).
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Clean sliding door contact switches (if equipped).
Lubricate door rubber weatherstrips.
24,000 Km (15,000 Miles)
Clean body and door drain holes.
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Safety warning lamps (brake, ABS, air bag, safety
Inspect automatic transmission fluid level (if
belt) for correct operation.
equipped with an underhood fluid level indicator).
Coolant system fluid level and correct strength.
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
Battery connections. Clean if necessary.
lines, hoses and parking brake system (adjust
parking brake if required).
Clutch fluid level, if equipped.
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
Inspect steering linkage, ball joints, suspension
and if equipped, halfshafts, driveshaft and
U-joints.
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
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100-03-4 100-03-4 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Lubricate halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints. Install new climate controlled seat cushion filters
(if equipped) (Navigator, Freestar, Monterey and
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Expedition).
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
Inspect and lubricate 4WD front axle shaft
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
U-joints (F-250/350/450/550).
Lubricate the 4WD front axle shaft U-joints (if
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
equipped) (F-250/350/450/550).
32,000 Km (20,000 Miles) Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
56,000 Km (35,000 Miles)
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
optimal tire life.
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
optimal tire life.
40,000 Km (25,000 Miles) Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
64,000 Km (40,000 Miles)
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
optimal tire life.
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
optimal tire life.
48,000 Km (30,000 Miles) Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
72,000 Km (45,000 Miles)
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
lines, hoses and parking brake system (adjust
Inspect automatic transmission fluid level (if
parking brake if required).
equipped with an underhood fluid level indicator).
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
lines, hoses and parking brake system (adjust
Inspect exhaust system and heat shields.
parking brake if required).
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball joints
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
and, if equipped, halfshafts, driveshaft and
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
U-joints.
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball
Install a new engine air filter (not required for
joints.
Focus).
Inspect halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints (if
Install a new fuel filter (not required for Fusion
equipped).
and Milan).
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
Change automatic transmission/transaxle fluid on
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
all vehicles equipped with the TorqShift
Lubricate the 4WD front axle shaft U-joints (if
transmission. Install a new remote filter if
equipped) (F-250/350/450/550).
equipped with a TorqShift transmission. Inspect
automatic transmission fluid level using the fluid Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
level on all other vehicles (if equipped with an
underhood fluid level indicator). Change the
in-line service-installed transmission fluid filter (if
equipped).
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-03-5 100-03-5 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
80,000 Km (50,000 Miles)
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Lubricate rear wheel drive (RWD) front wheel
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
bearings, install new grease seals and adjust
optimal tire life.
bearings (if equipped with serviceable bearings).
Change rear axle fluid (Class A Motorhome).
Lubricate the four wheel drive (4WD) front axle
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
shaft U-joints (if equipped) (F-250/350/450/550).
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
88,000 Km (55,000 Miles)
104,000 Km (65,000 Miles) Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
optimal tire life.
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
optimal tire life.
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
96,000 Km (60,000 Miles)
112,000 Km (70,000 Miles) Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
lines, hoses and parking brake system (adjust
optimal tire life.
parking brake if required).
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
120,000 Km (75,000 Miles)
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Inspect exhaust system and heat shields.
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball
joints.
Inspect automatic transmission fluid level (if
equipped with an underhood fluid level indicator).
Inspect halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints (if
equipped).
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
lines, hoses and parking brake system (adjust
Install a new engine air filter (not required for
parking brake if required).
Focus).
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
Install a new fuel filter (not required for Fusion
and Milan).
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball
joints.
Change automatic transmission/transaxle fluid on
all vehicles equipped with the TorqShift or 4F27E
Inspect halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints (if
transmissions. Install a new remote filter if
equipped).
equipped with a TorqShift transmission. Inspect
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
automatic transmission fluid level on all other
Check air filter restriction gauge, install a new
vehicles (if equipped with an underhood fluid
filter as necessary (Focus only).
level indicator). Change the in-line
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball service-installed transmission fluid filter (if
joints (if equipped zerk fittings). equipped).
Lubricate the 4WD front axle shaft U-joints (if Change automatic transmission fluid on all
equipped) (F-250/350/450/550). vehicles equipped with a CVT transmission and
install a new high-pressure case filter and O-rings.
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Install new climate controlled seat cushion filters
(if equipped) (Navigator, Freestar, Monterey and
Expedition).
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-03-6 100-03-6 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
128,000 Km (80,000 Miles)
Lubricate the 4WD front axle shaft U-joints (if
equipped) (F-250/350/450/550).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
optimal tire life.
152,000 Km (95,000 Miles)
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
136,000 Km (85,000 Miles)
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
optimal tire life.
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
optimal tire life.
160,000 Km (100,000 Miles)
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
144,000 Km (90,000 Miles)
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Inspect accessory drive belt(s).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Install new spark plugs.
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Change rear axle fluid (F-450/550, E-450 and
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
Class A Motorhome).
lines, hoses and parking brake system.
Change Premium Gold coolant or change at 6
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
years, whichever comes first.
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
Install a new external PCV on all cars and light
Inspect exhaust system and heat shields.
trucks under 6,000 lb Gross Vehicle Weight
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball
(GVW) (except 3V engines).
joints.
Change manual transmission fluid (if equipped)
Inspect halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints (if
(except Escape).
equipped).
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Install a new engine air filter (not required for
168,000 Km (105,000 Miles)
Focus).
Install a new fuel filter (not required for Fusion
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
and Milan).
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
Inspect automatic transmission fluid level (if
Change automatic transmission/transaxle fluid on
equipped with an underhood fluid level indicator).
all vehicles equipped with TorqShift
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
transmissions. Install a new remote filter element
lines, hoses and parking brake system (adjust
on vehicles equipped with the TorqShift
parking brake if required).
transmission. Inspect automatic transmission fluid
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
level on all other vehicles (if equipped with an
underhood fluid level indicator). If equipped,
Inspect engine coolant system and hoses.
change the in-line service-installed transmission
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball
fluid filter.
joints.
Install new climate controlled seat cushion filters
Inspect halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints (if
(if equipped) (Navigator, Freestar, Monterey and
equipped).
Expedition).
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-03-7 100-03-7 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Lubricate the 4WD front axle shaft U-joints (if Change automatic transmission fluid on all
equipped) (F-250/350/450/550). vehicles equipped with a CVT transmission and
install a new high-pressure case filter and O-rings.
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Install new climate controlled seat cushion filters
176,000 Km (110,000 Miles)
(if equipped) (Navigator, Freestar, Monterey and
Expedition).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Lubricate RWD front wheel bearings, install new
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
grease seals and adjust bearings (if equipped with
optimal tire life.
serviceable bearings).
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
184,000 Km (115,000 Miles)
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
Lubricate the 4WD front axle shaft U-joints (if
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
equipped) (F-250/350/450/550).
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
optimal tire life.
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
200,000 Km (125,000 Miles)
192,000 Km (120,000 Miles)
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
optimal tire life.
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
lines, hoses and parking brake system.
208,000 Km (130,000 Miles)
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Inspect exhaust system and heat shields.
optimal tire life.
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
joints.
216,000 Km (135,000 Miles)
Inspect halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints (if
equipped).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Install a new engine air filter (not required for
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Focus).
Inspect automatic transmission fluid level (if
Install a new fuel filter (not required for Fusion
equipped with an underhood fluid level indicator).
and Milan).
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
lines, hoses and parking brake system (adjust
parking brake if required).
Install a new external PCV valve on all cars and
light trucks over 6,000 lb GVW (except 3V
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
engines).
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
Change automatic transmission/transaxle fluid on
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball
all vehicles equipped with TorqShift or 4F27E
joints.
transmissions. Install a new remote filter element
Inspect halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints (if
on the vehicles equipped with the TorqShift
equipped).
transmission. Inspect automatic transmission fluid
level on all other vehicles (if equipped with an Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
underhood fluid level indicator). If equipped,
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
change the in-line service-installed transmission
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
fluid filter.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-03-8 100-03-8 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Lubricate the 4WD front axle shaft U-joints (if Change rear axle fluid (Class A Motorhome).
equipped) (F-250/350/450/550).
Install a new accessory drive belt(s) (if a new belt
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended). has not been installed within the last 100,000
miles).
224,000 Km (140,000 Miles)
Install new climate controlled seat cushion filters
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
(if equipped) (Navigator, Freestar, Monterey and
Expedition).
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
optimal tire life.
Install a new climate controlled seat back filter
(MKZ only).
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Inspect PVC for flow (3V engines).
232,000 Km (145,000 Miles)
Lubricate steering linkage, suspension and ball
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
joints (if equipped with zerk fittings).
Inspect tires for wear. Rotation recommended for
Install new non-sealed RWD front wheel bearings
optimal tire life.
and seals (if new bearings and seals have not
been installed in the last 100,000 miles).
Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Lubricate the 4WD front axle shaft U-joints (if
240,000 Km (150,000 Miles)
equipped) (F-250/350/450/550).
Change engine oil and install a new oil filter.
Change front axle lubricant (4WD only).
Rotate tires and inspect for wear.
Change transfer case fluid (4WD only).
Inspect brake pads, shoes, rotors, drums, brake
Change automatic transmission/transaxle fluid on
lines, hoses and parking brake system.
all vehicles equipped with a 4F50N, 5R44E,
5R55E, 5R555, TorqShift and CD4E
Inspect wheel ends for end play and noise.
transmission/transaxle. Install a new remote filter
Inspect engine cooling system and hoses.
if equipped with a TorqShift transmission. Inspect
Change Motorcraft Premium Gold coolant (see
automatic transmission fluid level using the fluid
Exceptions To Normal Schedule and Mileage
level indicator on all other vehicles (if equipped
Base).
with an underhood fluid level indicator). Change
Inspect exhaust system and heat shields. the in-line service-installed transmission fluid
filter (if equipped).
Inspect steering linkage, suspension and ball
joints. Carry-out multi-point inspection (recommended).
Inspect halfshafts, driveshaft and U-joints (if
Exceptions To Normal Schedule
equipped).
Maximum Oil Change Interval
Install a new fuel filter (not required for Fusion
and Milan).
Normal schedule: 8,000 km (5,000 miles) or 6
Install a new engine air filter (not required on months, whichever occurs first.
Focus).
Special operating conditions: 4,800 km (3,000
Check air filter restriction gauge, install a new air miles), 3 months or 200 hours of operation,
filter as necessary (Focus only). whichever occurs first.
Install a new cabin air filter (if equipped).
Motorcraft Premium Gold Coolant
Change automatic transmission/transaxle fluid
Change Motorcraft Premium Gold coolant at 6
(except CVT transmission).
years or 160,000 km (100,000 miles) of the
Change automatic transaxle filter (except CVT,
vehicles life, whichever occurs first.
Five Hundred and Montego equipped with a
After the initial change, change coolant every 3
6-speed automatic transaxle).
years or 80,000 km (50,000 miles) thereafter.
Change rear axle lubricant on all RWD vehicles.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-03-9 100-03-9 Maintenance Schedule
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Normal Vehicle Axle Maintenance
The axle lubricant should be changed anytime an
axle has been submerged in water.
Rear axles and transfer case/power transfer unit
(PTU) units containing synthetic lubricant and light
E and F-450 and 550 Series Axle
duty trucks equipped with Ford-design axles are
Maintenance
lubricated for life. These lubricants are not to be
Replace rear axle lubricant every 100,000 miles
checked or changed unless service is required, or if
under normal driving conditions on all E and F-450
a leak is suspected or the axle assembly has been
and 550 series applications. For E and F-450 and
submerged in water.
550 series vehicles operated at or near maximum
The axle and transfer case/PTU fluid should be
Gross Vehicle Weights, the rear axle lubricant
changed anytime they have been submerged in
should be replaced every 50,000 miles.
water. Non-synthetic rear axle lubricants should be
In addition, the 50,000 mile schedule should be
replaced every 4,800 km (3,000 miles) or 3 months,
observed when the vehicles are operated under the
whichever occurs first, during extended trailer tow
Special Operating Conditions.
operation above 21C (70F) ambient and wide
open throttle for extended periods above 45 mph.
Class A Motorhome
The 3,000 mile lube change interval may be waived
Every 2 years change brake fluid.
if the axle was filled with 75W-140 synthetic gear
Every 48,000 km (30,000 miles) change the
lubricant. Add 4 ounces of additive friction modifier
automatic transmission fluid and the transmission
for complete refill of Traction-Lok rear axles.
remote filter element.
The axle lubricant should be changed anytime an
Change rear axle fluid at 80,000 km (50,000
axle has been submerged in water.
miles), 160,000 km (100,000 miles) and 240,000
Police and Taxi Vehicle Axle Maintenance
km (150,000 miles).
Replace rear axle lubricant every 160,000 km
(100,000 miles). Rear axle lubricant change may be
waived if the axle was filled with 75W-140
synthetic gear lubricant. Add 4 ounces of additive
friction modifier for complete refill of
Traction-Lok rear axles.
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100-04-1 100-04-1 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
GENERAL PROCEDURES
5. Tighten the muffler connection.
Exhaust System Neutralizing
6. Tighten all the exhaust hanger clamps and
WARNING: Exhaust gases contain carbon
flanges (tighten the exhaust manifold flange
monoxide, which is harmful to health and
joint last).
potentially lethal. Repair exhaust system leaks
Verify there is adequate clearance to prevent
immediately. Never operate the engine in an
grounding at any point in the system. Make
enclosed area.
sure that the catalytic converter and heat
shield do not contact the frame rails.
WARNING: Exhaust system components
After neutralization, the rubber in the
are hot.
exhaust hangers should show some
NOTE: Neutralize the exhaust system to relieve
flexibility when movement is applied to the
strain on mounts which can be sufficiently bound up
exhaust system.
to transmit vibration as if grounded.
With the exhaust system installed securely
and cooled, the rear hanger should be angled
1. WARNING: The electrical power to
forward.
the air suspension system must be shut off
prior to hoisting, jacking or towing an air
7. Lower the vehicle.
suspension vehicle. This can be accomplished
by turning off the air suspension switch.
8. Test the exhaust system for normal operation.
Failure to do so can result in unexpected
inflation or deflation of the air springs,
which can result in shifting of the vehicle
during these operations.
CAUTION: Make sure the system is
warmed up to normal operating temperature,
as thermal expansion can be the cause of a
strain problem.
With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. Loosen all exhaust hanger attachments and
reposition the hangers until they hang free and
straight.
3. Loosen all exhaust flange joints.
4. Place a stand to support the muffler parallel to
the vehicle frame with the muffler pipe bracket
free of stress.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-1 100-04-1 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
The diagnosis and correction of noise, vibration and
Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH)
harshness concerns requires:
Noise is any undesirable sound, usually unpleasant
in nature. Vibration is any motion, shaking or a road or system test to determine the exact
trembling, that can be felt or seen when an object nature of the concern.
moves back and forth or up and down. Harshness is
an analysis of the possible causes.
a ride quality issue where the vehicles response to
testing to verify the cause.
the road transmits sharply to the customer.
repairing any concerns found.
Harshness normally describes a firmer than usual
response from the suspension system. Noise,
a road test or system test to make sure the
vibration and harshness (NVH) is a term used to
concern has been corrected or brought back to
describe these conditions, which result in varying
within an acceptable range.
degrees of dissatisfaction. Although, a certain level
Glossary of Terms
of NVH caused by road and environmental
conditions is normal. This section is designed to aid
Acceleration Light
in the diagnosis, testing and repair of NVH
An increase in speed at less than 1/2 throttle.
concerns.
Acceleration Medium
Acceptable Noise, Vibration and
An increase in speed at 1/2 to nearly full throttle,
Harshness
such as 0-97 km/h (0-60 mph) in approximately 30
seconds. All internal combustion engines and drivelines
produce some noise and vibration; operating in a
Acceleration Heavy
real world environment adds noise that is not
An increase in speed at 1/2 to full throttle, such as
subject to control. Vibration isolators, mufflers and
0-97 km/h (0-60 mph) in approximately 20 seconds.
dampers reduce these to acceptable levels. A driver
Ambient Temperature who is unfamiliar with a vehicle can think that
The surrounding or prevailing temperature. some sounds are abnormal when actually the sounds
are normal for the vehicle type. For example,
Amplitude
Traction-Lok differentials produce a slight noise
The quantity or amount of energy produced by a
on slow turns after extended highway driving. This
vibrating component (G force). An extreme
is acceptable and has no detrimental effect on the
vibration has a high amplitude. A mild vibration has
locking axle function. As a technician, it is very
a low amplitude.
important to be familiar with vehicle features and
Backlash know how they relate to NVH concerns and their
Gear teeth clearance. diagnosis. For example, if the vehicle has
automatic overdrive, it is important to test drive the
Boom
vehicle both in and out of overdrive mode.
Low frequency or low pitched noise often
accompanied by a vibration. Also refer to
Diagnostic Theory
drumming.
The shortest route to an accurate diagnosis results
from: Bound Up
An overstressed isolation (rubber) mount that
system knowledge, including comparison with a
transmits vibration/noise instead of absorbing it.
known good system.
Brakes Applied
system history, including repair history and usage
When the service brakes are applied with enough
patterns.
force to hold the vehicle against movement with the
condition history, especially any relationship to
transmission in gear.
repairs or sudden change.
knowledge of possible sources.
using a systematic diagnostic method that divides
the system into related areas.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-2 100-04-2 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Item Description Buffet/Buffeting
Strong noise fluctuations (less than 1000 Hz) caused
1 Positive caster
by gusting winds. An example would be wind gusts
2 True vertical
against the side glass.
3 Steering axis
Buzz
A low-pitched sound (200-5000 Hz) like that from a
Chatter
bee. Often a metallic or hard plastic humming
A pronounced series of rapidly repeating rattling or
sound. Also describes a high frequency (200-800
clicking sounds.
Hz) vibration. Vibration feels similar to an electric
razor. Chirp
A short-duration high-pitched noise associated with
Camber
a slipping drive belt.
The angle of the wheel in relation to the true
vertical as measured looking from the front of the Chuckle
vehicle. Camber is positive when the wheel angle is A repetitious low-pitched sound. A loud chuckle is
offset so that the top of the wheel is positioned usually described as a knock.
away from the vehicle.
Click
A sharp, brief, non-resonant sound, similar to
actuating a ball point pen.
Clonk
A hydraulic knocking sound. Sound occurs with air
pockets in a hydraulic system. Also described as
hammering.
Clunk/Driveline Clunk
A heavy or dull, short-duration, low-frequency
sound. Occurs mostly on a vehicle that is
accelerating or decelerating abruptly. Also described
as a thunk.
Coast/Deceleration
Caster
Releasing the accelerator pedal at cruise, allowing
The angle of the steering knuckle in relation to the
the engine to reduce vehicle speed without applying
true vertical as measured looking from the side of
the brakes.
the vehicle.
Coast/Neutral Coast
Placing the transmission range selector in
NEUTRAL (N) or depressing the clutch pedal while
at cruise.
Constant Velocity (CV) Joint
A joint used to absorb vibrations caused by driving
power being transmitted at an angle.
Controlled Rear Suspension Height
The height at which a designated vehicle element
must be when driveline angle measurements are
made.
Coupling Shaft
The shaft between the transfer case and the front
drive axle or, in a 2-piece rear driveshaft, the front
section.
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100-04-3 100-04-3 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
CPS Drivetrain
Cycles per second. Same as hertz (Hz). All power transmitting components from the engine
to the wheels; includes the clutch or torque
Cracks
converter, the transmission, the transfer case, the
A mid-frequency sound, related to squeak. Sound
driveshaft and the front or rear drive axle.
varies with temperature conditions.
Drivetrain Damper
Creak
A weight attached to the engine, the transmission,
A metallic squeak.
the transfer case or the axle. It is tuned by weight
and placement to absorb vibration.
Cruise
Constant speed on level ground; neither accelerating
Drone
nor decelerating.
A low frequency (100-200 Hz) steady sound, like a
freezer compressor. Also described as a moan.
Cycle
The process of a vibrating component going through
Drumming
a complete range of motion and returning to the
A cycling, low-frequency (20-100 Hz), rhythmic
starting point.
noise often accompanied by a sensation of pressure
on the ear drums. Also described as a low rumble,
Decibel
boom or rolling thunder.
A unit of measurement, referring to sound pressure
level, abbreviated dB.
Dynamic Balance
The equal distribution of weight on each side of the
Drive Engine Run-Up (DERU) Test
centerline, so that when the wheel and tire assembly
The operation of the engine through the normal rpm
spins, there is no tendency for the assembly to
range with the vehicle standing still, the brakes
move from side-to-side (wobble). Dynamically
applied and the transmission engaged. This test is
unbalanced wheel and tire assemblies can cause
used for noise and vibration checks.
wheel shimmy.
Driveline Angles
Engine Imbalance
The differences of alignment between the
A condition in which an engines center mass is not
transmission output shaft, the driveshaft and the rear
concentric to the rotation center, causing excessive
axle pinion centerline.
motion.
Engine Misfire
When combustion in one or more cylinders does not
occur or occurs at the wrong time.
Engine Shake
An exaggerated engine movement or vibration that
directly increases in frequency as the engine speed
increases. It is caused by non-equal distribution of
mass in the rotating or reciprocating components.
Flexible Coupling
A flexible joint.
Float
Driveshaft
A drive mode on the dividing line between cruise
The shaft that transmits power to the rear axle input
and coast where the throttle setting matches the
shaft (pinion shaft). In a 2-piece driveshaft, it is the
engine speed with the road speed.
rearmost shaft.
Flutter
Mid to high (100-2000 Hz) intermittent sound due
to air flow. Similar to a flag flapping in the wind.
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100-04-4 100-04-4 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Frequency Neutral Engine Run-Up (NERU) Test
The rate at which a cycle occurs within a given The operation of the engine through the normal rpm
time. range with the vehicle standing still and the
transmission disengaged. This test is used to identify
Gravelly Feel
engine related vibrations.
A grinding or growl in a component, similar to the
feel experienced when driving on gravel. Neutralize/Normalize
To return to an unstressed position. Used to
Grind
describe mounts. Also refer to bound up.
An abrasive sound, similar to using a grinding
wheel, or rubbing sand paper against wood. Outboard
Away from the centerline of the vehicle.
Hiss
Steady high frequency (200-800 Hz) noise. Vacuum Ping
leak sound. A short duration, high-frequency sound, which has a
slight echo.
Hoot
A steady low frequency tone (50-500 Hz), sounds Pinion Shaft
like blowing over a long neck bottle. The input shaft in a driving axle that is usually a
part of the smaller driving or input hypoid gear of a
Howl
ring and pinion gearset.
A mid-range frequency (200-800 Hz) noise between
drumming and whine. Also described as a hum. Pitch
The physical quality of sound that relates to its
Hum
frequency. Pitch increases as frequency increases
Mid-frequency (200-800 Hz) steady sound, like a
and vice versa.
small fan motor. Also described as a howl.
Pumping Feel
Hz
A slow, pulsing movement.
Hertz; a frequency measured in cycles per second.
Radial/Lateral
Imbalance
Radial is in the plane of rotation; lateral is at 90
Out of balance; heavier on one side than the other.
degrees to the plane of rotation.
In a rotating component, imbalance often causes
vibration.
Inboard
Toward the centerline of the vehicle.
Intensity
The physical quality of sound that relates to the
strength of the vibration (measured in decibels). The
higher the sounds amplitude, the higher the
intensity and vice versa.
Isolate
To separate the influence of one component to
another.
Knock Item Description
A heavy, loud, repetitious sound, like a knock on
1 Lateral runout
the door.
2 Radial runout
Moan
A constant, low-frequency (100-200 Hz) tone. Also
Rattle
described as a hum.
A random and momentary or short duration noise.
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DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Ring Gear Static Balance
The large, circular, driven gear in a ring and pinion The equal distribution of weight around the wheel.
gearset. Statically unbalanced wheel and tire assemblies can
cause a bouncing action called wheel tramp. This
Road Test
condition will eventually cause uneven tire wear.
The operation of the vehicle under conditions
intended to produce the concern under investigation. Tap
A light, rhythmic, or intermittent hammering sound,
Roughness
similar to tapping a pencil on a table edge.
A medium-frequency vibration. A slightly higher
frequency (20 to 50 Hz) than a shake. This type of Thump
vibration is usually related to drivetrain components. A dull beat caused by 2 items striking together.
Runout Tick
Lateral runout means measuring the movement or A rhythmic tap, similar to a clock noise.
wobble of a wheel or tire at the sidewall. Radial
Tip-In Moan
runout means measuring the out-of-round at the
A light moaning noise heard during light vehicle
tread surface.
acceleration, usually between 40-100 km/h (25-65
Rustling mph).
Intermittent sound of varying frequency (100-2000
TIR
Hz), sounds similar to shuffling through leaves.
The acronym for total indicated runout is TIR.
Shake
Tire Deflection
A low-frequency vibration (5-20 Hz), usually with
The change in tire diameter in the area where the
visible component movement. Usually relates to
tire contacts the ground.
tires, wheels, brake drums or brake discs if it is
vehicle speed sensitive, or engine if it is engine
Tire Flat Spots
speed sensitive. Also referred to as a shimmy or
A condition commonly caused by letting the vehicle
wobble.
stand while the tires cool off. This condition can be
corrected by driving the vehicle until the tires are
Shimmy
warm. Also, irregular tire wear patterns in the tire
An abnormal vibration or wobbling, felt as a
tread resulting from wheel-locked skids.
side-to-side motion of the steering wheel in the
driveshaft rotation. Also described as waddle.
Tire Force Vibration
A tire vibration caused by variations in the
Shudder
construction of the tire that is noticeable when the
A low-frequency vibration that is felt through the
tire rotates against the pavement. This condition can
steering wheel or seat during light brake application.
be present on perfectly round tires because of
Slap variations in the inner tire construction. This
A resonance from flat surfaces, such as safety belt condition can occur at wheel rotation frequency or
webbing or door trim panels. twice rotation frequency.
Slip Yoke/Slip Spline Transient
The driveshaft coupling that allows length changes A noise or vibration that is momentary, a short
to occur while the suspension articulates and while duration.
the driveshaft rotates.
Two-Plane Balance
Squeak Radial and lateral balance.
A high-pitched transient sound, similar to rubbing
Vibration
fingers against a clean window.
Any motion, shaking or trembling, that can be felt
Squeal or seen when an object moves back and forth or up
A long-duration, high-pitched noise. and down.
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DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Whine
A constant, high-pitched noise. Also described as a
screech.
Whistle
High-pitched noise (above 500 Hz) with a very
narrow frequency band. Examples of whistle noises
are a turbocharger or airflow around an antenna.
Wind Noise
Any noise caused by air movement in, out or
around the vehicle.
WOT
The acronym for wide open throttle is WOT.
Item Description
1 EVA screen
Tools and Techniques
2 Frequency mode displayed in rpm or
Vibration Analyzer (EVA)
Hz
The vibration analyzer (EVA) is a hand-held
3 Active sensor input (A or B)
electronic scan tool which will assist in locating the
4 Current active mode
source of unacceptable vibrations. The vibration
sensor can be remotely mounted anywhere in the 5 G force indicators or the strongest
frequencies in descending strength of
vehicle for testing purposes. The unit displays the 3
each vibration
most common vibration frequencies and their
6 Strength of each vibration corresponding amplitudes simultaneously. A bar
graph provides a visual reference of the relative
7 Frequency in rpm/Hz of each vibration
signal strength (amplitude) of each vibration being
displayed and its relative G force. The keypad is
The EVA allows for a systematic collection of
arranged to make the EVA simple to program and
information that is necessary to accurately diagnose
use. Some of the functions include the ability to
and repair NVH problems. For the best results,
average readings as well as record, play back and
carry out the test as follows:
freeze readings. The EVA has a strobe balancing
function that can be used to detect imbalance on
a. Test drive the vehicle with the vibration sensor
rotating components such as a driveshaft or engine
inside the vehicle.
accessories.
b. Place the sensor in the vehicle according to
feel.
If the condition is felt through the steering
wheel, the source is most likely in the front
of the vehicle.
A vibration that is felt in the seat or floor
only will most likely be found in the
driveline, drive axle or rear wheels and
tires.
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DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
c. Record the readings. Also note when the Provide a photo-tachometer for operation of the
condition begins, when it reaches maximum driveshaft balancing function
intensity and if it tends to diminish
Provide a strobe output capable of driving a
above/below a certain speed.
standard timing light
Frequencies should be read in the
Contain a real time clock circuit that provides
average mode.
time and date information which is used for
Frequencies have a range of plus or minus tagging test data
2. A reading of 10 Hz can be displayed as
Have the capability to print to an external printer
an 8 Hz through 12 Hz.
and interface with a PC
Frequencies with a reading of 0.06 Gs or
Can be powered from a variety of power sources:
less, are barely perceptible NVH levels. No
cigarette lighter, AC power or the internal battery
corrective action is necessary.
pack
d. Place the vibration sensor on or near the
The MTS 4000 and the 4100 NVH analyzers have 4
suspect area outside the vehicle.
main operating modes. The first is for vibration
e. Continue the road test, driving the vehicle at diagnosis. This mode measures data from 1 or 2
the speed the symptom occurs, and take another accelerometers simultaneously while obtaining data
reading. from the vehicles computer system about the
operation of the vehicle. Then it does a frequency
f. Compare the readings.
analysis on the accelerometer information and
A match in frequency indicates the problem
compares the vibration frequencies with the
component or area.
frequencies associated with various rotating
Example: A vibration is felt in the seat.
components within the vehicle. The data can be
Place the sensor on the console. Record the
presented in 4 different display modes: principle
readings. Place the vibration sensor on the
component, bar chart, frequency spectrum or
rear axle. Compare the readings. If the
waterfall. All display mode formats contain the
frequencies are the same, the axle is the
same common elements, such as amplitude.
problem component.
The second is for noise diagnosis. This mode
If the 2 readings are not the same
measures noise from 1 or 2 microphones
frequency, then diagnose the frequency with
simultaneously. All noise measurements are in dbs.
the most significant amplitude (Gs) first.
All frequency bands used for noise measurements
are the same as for the vibration measurements, up
NVH Analyzer (Vetronix)
to 1000 Hz.
The MTS 4000 and the MTS 4100 NVH analyzers
The third is driveshaft balancing. Driveshaft
are tools to aid in the identification and isolation of
balancing is done using 1 or 2 accelerometers and a
a noise, vibration or harshness concern in a vehicle.
photo-tachometer. The accelerometers measure the
They measures noise and vibration data and
vibrations at both ends of the driveshaft, while the
compare it with data obtained from the vehicles
photo-tachometer measures the rotation speed and
powertrain control module (PCM) in order to
position reference.
provide possible sources. The MTS 4000 and the
4100 have the following characteristics:
The fourth mode is the strobe. A strobe or standard
timing light can be connected to an analyzer, to
Interfaces with the vehicles computer system
provide a means for measuring rotational speed. The
Support and store vibration data input from 1 or 2
strobe function is used for isolating the source of a
accelerometers
vibration.
Support and store noise data input from 2
microphones
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DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Vibrate Software EngineEAR Basic Unit
Vibrate Software (Rotunda tool number An electronic listening device used to detect even
215-00003) is a diagnostic aid which will assist in the faintest noises, the EngineEARs can detect the
pinpointing the source of unacceptable vibrations. noise of damaged/worn bearings in generators,
The engines crankshaft is the point of reference for coolant pumps, A/C compressors and power steering
vibration diagnosis. Every rotating component will pumps. They are also used to identify noisy lifters,
have an angular velocity that is faster, slower or the exhaust manifold leaks, chipped gear teeth and for
same as the engines crankshaft. Vibrate Software detecting wind noise. The EngineEAR has a sensing
calculates the angular velocity of each component tip, amplifier and headphones. The directional
and graphically represents these velocities on a sensing tip is used to listen to the various
computer screen and on a printed vibration components. Point the sensing tip at the suspect
worksheet. The following steps outline how Vibrate component and adjust the volume with the
Software helps diagnose a vibration concern: amplifier. Placing the tip in direct contact with a
component will reveal structure-borne noise and
Enter the vehicle information. Vibrate will do all
vibrations, generated by or passing through, the
the calculations and display a graph showing tire,
component. Various volume levels can reveal
driveshaft and engine vibrations.
different sounds.
Print a Vibration Worksheet graph. The printed
Ultrasonic Leak Detector
graph is to be used during the road test.
The Ultrasonic Leak Detector is used to detect wind
Road test the vehicle at the speed where the
noises caused by leaks and gaps in areas where
vibration is most noticeable. Record the vibration
there is weatherstripping or other sealing material. It
frequency (rpm) and the engine rpm on the
is also used to identify A/C leaks, vacuum leaks and
worksheet graph. The point on the graph where
evaporative emission noises. The Ultrasonic Leak
the vibration frequency (rpm) reading and the
Detector includes a multi-directional transmitter
engine rpm reading intersect indicates the
(operating in the ultrasonic range) and a hand-held
specific component group causing the concern.
detector. The transmitter is placed inside the
A EVA or equivalent tool capable of
vehicle. On the outside of the vehicle, the hand-held
measuring vibration frequency and engine rpm
detector is used to sweep the area of the suspected
will be needed.
leak. As the source of the leak is approached, a
beeping sound is produced which increases in both
Provide pictures of diagnostic procedures to aid in
speed and frequency.
testing components.
Squeak and Rattle Repair Kit
Combination EngineEAR/ChassisEAR
The Squeak and Rattle Repair Kit (Rotunda tool
An electronic listening device used to quickly
number 164-R4900) contains lubricants and
identify noise and the location under the chassis
self-adhesive materials that can be used to eliminate
while the vehicle is being road tested. The
interior and exterior squeaks and rattles. The kit
ChassisEARs can identify the noise and location of
consists of the following materials:
damaged/worn wheel bearings, CV joints, brakes,
springs, axle bearings or driveshaft carrier bearings.
PVC (soft foam) tape
Urethane (hard foam) tape
Flocked (black fuzzy) tape
UHMW (frosted) tape
Squeak and rattle oil tube
Squeak and rattle grease tube
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DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Tracing Powder
Tracing powder is used to check both the uniformity
of contact and the tension of a seal against its
sealing surface. These tests are usually done when a
suspected air leak/noise appears to originate from
the seal area or during the alignment and
adjustment of a component to a weatherstrip.
Tracing powder can be ordered from Crest
Industries as ATR Leak Trace. Carry out the tracing
powder test as follows:
a. Clean the weatherstrip.
b. Spray the tracing powder on the mating surface
only.
Index Card
Place an index card or a piece of paper between the
c. Close the door completely. Do not slam the
weatherstrip and the sealing surface, then close the
door.
door. Slowly withdraw the index card or paper after
d. Open the door. An imprint is made where the
the door is closed and check the amount of pressure
weatherstrip contacted the mating surface seal.
on the weatherstrip. There should be a medium
Gaps or a faint imprint will show where there
amount of resistance as it is withdrawn. Continue
is poor contact with the weatherstrip.
around the entire seal area. If there is little or no
resistance, this indicates insufficient contact to form
a good seal. At these points, the door, the glass or
the weatherstrip is out of alignment.
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100-04-1 100-04-1 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
To assist the service advisor and the technician, a
Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH)
Write-up Job Aid and an NVH Diagnostic Guide
Special Tool(s)
are included with this material. The Write-up Job
Aid serves as a place to record all important
ChassisEAR
symptom information. The NVH Diagnostic Guide
107-R2102 or equivalent
serves as a place to record information reported on
the Write-up Job Aid as well as data from the
testing to be carried out.
Electronic Vibration Analyzer
100-F027 (014-00344) or
equivalent
EngineEAR
107-R2100 or equivalent
Ultrasonic Leak Detector
134-R0135 or equivalent
Dial Indicator Gauge with
Holding Fixture
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
Dial Indicator Gauge with
Holding Fixture
100-D002 (D78P-4201-B) or
equivalent
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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100-04-2 100-04-2 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
To begin a successful diagnosis, fill out the NVH
Diagnostic Guide, record the reported findings, then
proceed to each of the numbered process steps to
complete the diagnosis.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Customer Interview
Remember that the vibrating source component
(originator) may only generate a small vibration.
The diagnostic process starts with the customer
This small vibration can in turn cause a larger
interview. The service advisor must obtain as much
vibration/noise to emanate from another receiving
information as possible about the problem and take
component (reactor), due to contact with other
a test drive with the customer. There are many ways
components (transfer path).
a customer will describe NVH concerns and this
will help minimize confusion arising from
Conduct the road test on a quiet street where it is
descriptive language differences. It is important that
safe to duplicate the vibration/noise. The ideal
the concern is correctly interpreted and the customer
testing route is an open, low-traffic area where it
descriptions are recorded. During the interview, ask
is possible to operate the vehicle at the speed in
the following questions:
which the condition occurs.
If possible, lower the radio antenna in order to
When was it first noticed?
minimize turbulence. Identify anything that could
Did it appear suddenly or gradually?
potentially make noise or be a source of wind
Did any abnormal occurrence coincide with or
noise. Inspect the vehicle for add-on items that
proceed its appearance?
create vibration/noise. Turn off the radio and the
heating and cooling system blower.
Use the information gained from the customer to
accurately begin the diagnostic process.
The engine speed is an important factor in
arriving at a final conclusion. Therefore, connect
Pre-Drive Check
an accurate tachometer to the engine, even if the
It is important to do a pre-drive check before road
vehicle has a tachometer. Use a tachometer that
testing the vehicle. A pre-drive check verifies that
has clearly defined increments of less than 50
the vehicle is relatively safe to drive and eliminates
rpm. This ensures an exact engine speed reading.
any obvious faults on the vehicle.
Verify the Customer Concern
The pre-drive check consists of a brief visual
Verify the customer concern by carrying out a road
inspection. During this brief inspection, take note of
test, an engine run-up test, or both.
anything that will compromise safety during the
road test and make those repairs/adjustments before
The decision to carry out a road test, an engine
taking the vehicle on the road.
run-up test, or both depends on the type of NVH
concern. A road test may be necessary if the
Preparing for the Road Test
symptom relates to the suspension system or is
Observe the following when preparing for the road
sensitive to torque. A drive engine run-up (DERU)
test:
or a neutral engine run-up (NERU) test identifies
noises and vibrations relating to engine and
Review the information recorded on the NVH
drivetrain rpm. Remember, a condition will not
Diagnostic Guide. It is important to know the
always be identifiable by carrying out these tests,
specific concern the customer has with the
however, they will eliminate many possibilities if
vehicle.
carried out correctly.
Do not be misled by the reported location of the
noise/vibration. The cause can actually be some
distance away.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Road Test
The Engine Accessory Test helps to locate faulty
belts and accessories that cause engine
NOTE: It may be necessary to have the customer
speed-related concerns.
ride along or drive the vehicle to point out the
concern. During the road test, take into
The Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure helps to
consideration the customers driving habits and the
identify concerns occurring during initial start-up
driving conditions. The customers concern just may
and when an extended time lapse occurs between
be an acceptable operating condition for that
vehicle usage.
vehicle.
Slow Acceleration Test
The following is a brief overview of each test in the
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
order in which it appears. A review of this
information helps to quickly identify the most
Slowly accelerate to the speed where the reported
appropriate process necessary to make a successful
concern occurs. Note the vehicle speed, the engine
diagnosis. After reviewing this information, select
rpm and, if possible, determine the vibration
and carry out the appropriate test(s), proceeding to
frequency.
the next step of this process.
Attempt to identify from what part of the vehicle
The Slow Acceleration Test is normally the first
the concern is coming.
test to carry out when identifying an NVH
Attempt to identify the source of the concern.
concern, especially when a road test with the
Proceed as necessary.
customer is not possible.
The Heavy Acceleration Test helps to determine if
Heavy Acceleration Test
the concern is torque-related.
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
The Neutral Coast Down Speed Test helps to
Accelerate hard from 0-64 km/h (0-40 mph).
determine if the concern is vehicle speed-related.
Decelerate in a lower gear.
The Downshift Speed Test helps to determine if
The concern is torque related if duplicated while
the concern is engine speed-related.
carrying out this test.
The Steering Input Test helps to determine how
Proceed as necessary.
the wheel bearings and other suspension
components contribute to a vehicle speed-related
Neutral Coast Down Speed Test
concern.
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
The Brake Test helps to identify vibrations or
noise that are brake related.
Drive at a higher rate of speed than where the
concern occurred when carrying out the Slow
The Road Test Over Bumps helps isolate a noise
Acceleration Test.
that occurs when driving over a rough or bumpy
surface.
Place the transmission in NEUTRAL and coast
down past the speed where the concern occurs.
The Engine Run-Up Tests consist of the Neutral
Run-Up Test and the Engine Load Test. These
The concern is vehicle speed-related if duplicated
tests help to determine if the concern is engine
while carrying out this test. This eliminates the
speed-related.
engine and the torque converter as sources.
The Neutral Run-Up Test is used as a follow-up
If the concern was not duplicated while carrying
test to the Downshift Speed Test when the
out this test, carry out the Downshift Speed Test
concern occurs at idle.
to verify if the concern is engine speed related.
The Engine Load Test helps to identify
Proceed as necessary.
vibration/noise sensitive to engine load or torque.
Downshift Speed Test
It also helps to reproduce engine speed-related
concerns that cannot be duplicated when carrying
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
out the Neutral Run-Up Test or the Neutral Coast
Shift into a lower gear than the gear used when
Down Test.
carrying out the Slow Acceleration Test.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Neutral Engine Run-Up (NERU) Test
Drive at the engine rpm where the concern
occurs.
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
The concern is engine speed related if duplicated
Install a tachometer.
while carrying out this test. This eliminates the
Increase the engine rpm up from an idle to
tires, wheels, brakes and the suspension
approximately 4000 rpm while in PARK on front
components as sources.
wheel drive vehicles with automatic transmissions,
If necessary, repeat this test using other gears and
or NEUTRAL for all other vehicles. Note the
NEUTRAL to verify the results.
engine rpm and, if possible, determine the
Proceed as necessary.
vibration frequency.
Attempt to identify what part of the vehicle the
Steering Input Test
concern is coming from.
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
Attempt to identify the source of the concern.
Drive at the speed where the concern occurs,
Proceed as necessary.
while making sweeping turns in both directions.
Drive Engine Run-Up (DERU) Load Test
If the concern goes away or gets worse, the wheel
bearings, hubs, U-joints (contained in the axles of
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
four wheel drive [4WD] applications), and tire
tread wear are all possible sources. WARNING: Block the front and rear
wheels, and apply the parking brake and the
Proceed as necessary.
service brake, or injury to personnel can result.
Brake Test
CAUTION: Do not carry out the Engine
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
Load Test for more than five seconds or damage
Warm the brakes by slowing the vehicle a few to the transmission or transaxle can result.
times from 80-32 km/h (50-20 mph) using light Block the front and rear wheels.
braking applications. At highway speeds of 89-97
Apply the parking brake and the service brake.
km/h (50-60 mph), apply the brake using a light
Install a tachometer.
pedal force.
Shift the transmission into DRIVE, and increase
Accelerate to 89-97 km/h (55-60 mph).
and decrease the engine rpm between an idle to
Lightly apply the brakes and slow the vehicle to
approximately 2000 rpm. Note the engine rpm
30 km/h (20 mph).
and, if possible, determine the vibration
A brake vibration noise can be felt in the steering frequency.
wheel, seat or brake pedal. A brake noise can be
Repeat the test in REVERSE.
heard upon brake application and diminish when
If the vibration/noise is duplicated when carrying
the brake is released.
out this test, inspect the engine and transmission
or transaxle mounts.
Road Test Over Bumps
If the concern is definitely engine speed-related,
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
carry out the Engine Accessory Test to narrow
Drive the vehicle over a bump or rough surface
down the source.
one wheel at a time to determine if the noise is
Proceed as necessary.
coming from the front or the back and the left or
the right side of the vehicle.
Proceed as necessary.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Engine Accessory Test
CAUTION: Never probe moving parts.
To carry out this test, proceed as follows:
Isolate the vibration/noise by carefully listening.
Move around the vehicle while listening to find
WARNING: Block the front and rear
the general location of the vibration/noise. Then,
wheels, and apply the parking brake and the
search for a more precise location by using a
service brake, or injury to personnel can result.
stethoscope or EngineEAR.
CAUTION: Limit engine running time to GO to Symptom Chart Idle Noise/Vibration to
one minute or less with belts removed or serious assist with the diagnosis.
engine damage will result.
6: Check OASIS/TSBs/Repair History
NOTE: A serpentine drive belt decreases the
After verifying the customer concern, check for
usefulness of this test. In these cases, use a
OASIS reports, TSBs and the vehicle repair history
vibration analyzer, such as the VA, to pinpoint
for related concerns. If information relating to a
accessory vibrations. An electronic listening device,
diagnosis/repair is found, carry out the procedure(s)
such as an EngineEAR, will also help to identify
specified in that information.
noises from specific accessories.
Remove the accessory drive belts. If no information is available from these sources,
carry out the vehicle preliminary inspection to
Increase the engine rpm to where the concern
eliminate any obvious faults.
occurs.
If the vibration/noise is duplicated when carrying
7: Diagnostic Procedure
out this test, the belts and accessories are not
Qualifying the concern by the particular sensation
sources.
present can help narrow down the concern. Always
If the vibration/noise was not duplicated when
use the symptom to system to component
carrying out this test, install each accessory belt,
to cause diagnosis technique. This diagnostic
one at a time, to locate the source.
method divides the problem into related areas to
correct the customer concern.
Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure
Verify the symptom.
To carry out this procedure, proceed as follows:
Determine which system(s) can cause the
Test preparations include matching customer
symptom.
conditions (if known). If not known, document the
If a vibration concern is vehicle speed related,
test conditions: gear selection and engine rpm.
the tire and wheel rpm/frequency or driveshaft
Monitor the vibration/noise duration with a watch
frequency should be calculated.
for up to three minutes.
If a vibration concern is engine speed related,
Park the vehicle where testing will occur. The
the engine, engine accessory or engine firing
vehicle must remain at or below the concern
frequencies should be calculated.
temperature (if known) for 6-8 hours.
After determining the system, use the
Before starting the engine, conduct a visual
diagnostic tools to identify the worn or damaged
inspection under the hood.
components.
Turn the key on, but do not start the engine.
After identifying the components, try to find
Listen for the fuel pump, anti-lock brake system
the cause of the failure.
(ABS) and air suspension system noises.
Once the concern is narrowed down to a
Start the engine.
symptom/condition, proceed to NVH Condition and
Symptom Categories.
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100-04-9 100-04-9 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
NVH Condition and Symptom Categories Operating Condition Vehicle is Moving
A good diagnostic process is a logical sequence of 1. Depends more on how the vehicle is operated
steps that lead to the identification of a causal
1 Speed related
system. Use the condition and symptom categories
X Related to vehicle speed
as follows:
Pitch increases with vehicle speed.
Identify the operating condition that the vehicle is
GO to Symptom Chart Tire
exhibiting.
Noise/Vibration.
Match the operating condition to the symptom.
Noise occurs at specific vehicle
Verify the symptom.
speed. A high-pitched noise (whine).
GO to Symptom Chart Driveline
Identify which category or system could cause the
Noise/Vibration.
symptom.
Loudness proportional to vehicle
Refer to the diagnostic symptom chart that is
speed. Low-frequency noise at high
referred to.
speeds, noise and loudness increase
Operating Condition Vehicle is Not
with speed. GO to Symptom Chart
Moving
Driveline Noise/Vibration.
1. Static operation
A low-pitched noise (drumming). GO
to Symptom Chart Engine
Noise occurs during component/system
Noise/Vibration.
functioning. GO to Symptom Chart
Squeak and Rattle.
Vibration occurs at a particular speed
(mph) regardless of acceleration or
2. While cranking
deceleration. GO to Symptom Chart
1 Grinding or whine, differential ring gear or
Tire Noise/Vibration.
starter motor pinion noise. GO to Symptom
Noise varies with wind/vehicle speed
Chart Engine Noise/Vibration.
and direction. GO to Symptom Chart
2 Rattle. Exhaust hanger, exhaust heat shield
Air Leak and Wind Noise.
or A/C line noise. GO to Symptom Chart
X Related to engine speed.
Squeak and Rattle.
Noise varies with engine rpm. GO to
3 Vibration. Acceptable condition.
Symptom Chart Engine
3. At idle
Noise/Vibration.
Idle noise. GO to Symptom Chart Idle
Vibration occurs at a particular speed
Noise/Vibration.
(mph) regardless of engine speed
Idle vibration or shake. GO to Symptom
(rpm).
Chart Idle Noise/Vibration.
2 Acceleration
4. During Gear Selection
X Wide open throttle (WOT)
1 Vehicle parked on a steep incline.
Engine induced contact between
Acceptable noise.
components. Inspect and repair as
2 Vehicle parked on a flat surface. GO to
necessary.
Symptom Chart Driveline
Noise is continuous throughout
Noise/Vibration.
WOT. Exhaust system or engine
3 Vehicle with a manual transmission. GO to
ground out. GO to Symptom Chart
Symptom Chart Transmission (Manual)
Engine Noise/Vibration.
and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration.
X Light/moderate acceleration
Tip-in moan. Engine/exhaust noise.
GO to Symptom Chart Engine
Noise/Vibration.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-10 100-04-10 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Knock-type noise. GO to Symptom X Noise or vibration related to the
Chart Engine Noise/Vibration. transmission (manual). GO to Symptom
Chart Transmission (Manual) and
Driveline shudder. GO to Symptom
Transfer Case Noise/Vibration.
Chart Driveline Noise/Vibration.
7 Engaged in four-wheel drive. GO to
Engine vibration. GO to Symptom
Symptom Chart Transmission (Manual)
Chart Engine Noise/Vibration.
and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration.
3 Turning noise. GO to Symptom Chart
8 Cruising speeds
Steering Noise/Vibration.
X Accelerator pedal vibration. GO to
4 Braking
Symptom Chart Engine
X Clicking sound is signaling ABS is
Noise/Vibration.
active. Acceptable ABS sound.
X Driveline vibration. GO to Symptom
X A continuous grinding/squeal. GO to
Chart Driveline Noise/Vibration.
Symptom Chart Brake
X A shimmy or shake. GO to Symptom
Noise/Vibration.
Chart Tire Noise/Vibration.
X Brake vibration/shudder. GO to Symptom
9 Driving at low/medium speeds
Chart Brake Noise/Vibration.
X A wobble or shudder. GO to Symptom
5 Clutching
Chart Tire Noise/Vibration.
X A noise occurring during clutch
2. Depends more on where the vehicle is operated
operation. GO to Symptom Chart
Transmission (Manual) and Transfer Case 1 Bump/pothole, rough road or smooth road.
Noise/Vibration. GO to Symptom Chart Suspension
Noise/Vibration.
X Vibration. GO to Symptom Chart
Transmission (Manual) and Transfer Case X Noise is random or intermittent occurring
Noise/Vibration. from road irregularities. GO to Symptom
Chart Squeak and Rattle.
6 Shifting
X Noise or vibration changes from one road
X Noise or vibration condition related to the
surface to another. Normal sound
transmission (automatic). GO to Symptom
changes.
Chart Transmission (Automatic)
Noise/Vibration. X Noise or vibration associated with a
hard/firm ride. GO to Symptom Chart
Suspension Noise/Vibration.
Symptom Charts
Symptom Chart Air Leak and Wind Noise
Condition Possible Sources Action
Air leak around door Loose fit seal PINCH the seal carrier to
perimeter improve retention on the seal
flange.
Seal installed incorrectly REINSTALL the seal.
Door misaligned REALIGN the door. CHECK
door gaps and fit in the door
opening and ADJUST as
necessary.
Scuff plate installed REINSTALL the scuff plate.
incorrectly
Seal or seal push pins INSTALL a new seal.
damaged
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-11 100-04-11 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Air Leak and Wind Noise (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Air leak around glass run Door glass misaligned ADJUST the door glass.
Glass run installed incorrectly ADJUST the glass run.
INSERT foam in the glass
run carrier.
Leak path behind glass run INSTALL foam rope behind
the glass run.
Glass run channel spread PINCH the glass run channel
wide to reduce the size of the
opening.
Blow-out clip bent or ADJUST the blow-out clip or
contacting door glass INSTALL a new glass
run/blow-out clip molding
assembly.
Glass run damaged INSTALL a new glass run.
Air leak at inner belt line Belt line seal installed ADJUST the seal. (Do not
incorrectly on flange bend the flange.)
Belt line seal integrated with REINSTALL the door trim.
door trim installed incorrectly
(no glass contact)
No contact with side glass ADJUST the door glass.
No contact with glass runs at ADJUST the belt line seal or
both ends of belt line seal ADD foam at the seal ends.
Belt line seal damaged INSTALL a new seal.
Air leak at outer belt line Belt line seal installed ADJUST the seal.
incorrectly on flange (no
glass contact)
Belt line seal does not contact ADJUST the door glass.
the glass
No contact with glass runs at ADJUST the belt line
both ends of belt line seal seal/ADD foam at the seal
ends.
Belt line seal damaged INSTALL a new seal.
Draft at inner door Hole in watershield SEAL the hole with a suitable
handle/speaker opening tape.
Watershield misaligned REALIGN the watershield.
INSTALL a new watershield
if the pressure sensitive
adhesive fails.
Exterior door handle seal REALIGN or INSTALL a
misaligned/damaged new seal as necessary.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-12 100-04-12 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Air Leak and Wind Noise (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Wind noise from side view Outside mirror housing REALIGN with the edges
mirror misaligned shingled correctly and no
gaps.
Mirror sail gasket REINSTALL with the gasket
folded/misaligned unfolded and aligned
correctly.
Mirror housing trim cap REINSTALL with the edges
installed incorrectly shingled to the air flow.
Air leak through mirror Fully ENGAGE the mirror
housing hinge into its operating
position/USE foam to block
the air path through the
hinge.
Inner sail trim installed REINSTALL the sail
incorrectly trim/ADJUST the door trim.
Inner sail gasket/barrier REINSTALL the trim cover
installed incorrectly with the gasket/barrier aligned
correctly.
Air path through wiring BLOCK the air path(s) with
bundle/fastener access holes foam/tape.
Exposed fastener access hole INSTALL a new cap if it is
on mirror housing/sail missing.
Air leak around perimeter of Gaps in the sealant bead APPLY approved sealant.
fixed glass
Air traveling up windshield INSTALL foam rope the full
molding along A-pillar length of the A-pillar.
Windshield/backlite REINSTALL the
misaligned or not installed windshield/backlite.
correctly
Rear hood seal at base of REALIGN or INSTALL a
windshield new seal as necessary.
misaligned/damaged
Air leak at cowl Cowl gasket REALIGN or INSTALL a
misaligned/damaged new seal as necessary.
Wind noise from antenna Shape of antenna INSTALL an antenna boot or
a spiral antenna.
Air leak around antenna cable INSPECT the antenna access
access hole hole grommet. REPAIR as
necessary.
Air leak from closed roof Seal installed incorrectly REINSTALL the seal.
opening panel
Roof opening panel REALIGN the roof opening
glass/door misaligned panel glass/door.
Roof opening panel damaged INSTALL a new roof
opening panel.
Buffeting from an open roof Wind deflector REPAIR or INSTALL a new
opening panel inoperative/damaged wind deflector as necessary.
Wind deflector height ADJUST the wind deflector
incorrect higher.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-13 100-04-13 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Air Leak and Wind Noise (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Wind noise created by airflow Fender splash shield REALIGN the fender splash
over or behind body panels misaligned shield.
Body panel misaligned REALIGN the appropriate
(exposed edge) body panel.
Hood misaligned (front CHECK hood gaps and fit.
margin) ADJUST the hood as
necessary.
Front grille edge noise APPLY foam in the hollow
areas behind the louvers.
Wind noise created by grille Grille relationship to leading ADJUST the grille opening
opening panel edge on hood panel forward to eliminate
wind noise.
Sharp edges due to material REMOVE the sharp edges
imperfections (no damage to visible
surface).
Wind noise from air extractor Air extractor housing seated REINSTALL the air extractor
incorrectly housing.
Air extractor housing or flaps INSTALL a new air
damaged extractor.
Air leak at top of A-pillar Seal at windshield header REINSTALL the seal.
vehicles with a convertible installed incorrectly
top
Seal pinched FILL the seal with foam to
reshape it.
Gap between side rail and ADJUST the J-hook/vinyl
header seal at A-pillar top.
Air leak at rear quarter glass No contact between front side ADJUST the front side glass
(division bar) vehicles glass and quarter glass regulator and the rear quarter
with a convertible top division bar glass regulator.
Air leak or wind noise from Gap between side rail and ADD additional foam tape to
top of side glass vehicles vinyl top seal between the side rail and
with a convertible top the vinyl top.
Seal at windshield header REINSTALL the seal.
installed incorrectly
Seal damaged between side INSTALL a new seal.
rail and vinyl top
Vinyl top damaged INSPECT the vinyl top.
INSTALL a new vinyl top as
necessary.
Air leak or wind noise at Vinyl top not flush with ADJUST the J-hook to lower
windshield header vehicles header the top to achieve a flush
with a convertible top condition.
Seal at windshield header REINSTALL the seal.
installed incorrectly
Header seal not flush with REINSTALL the seal.
header
Convertible top flapping with Vinyl top contacting interior Working from front to back,
the top up headliner INSTALL a 6.35 mm (0.25
in) foam sheet between the
headliner and the vinyl top at
the suspected area. Allow a
clearance of 50 mm (2 in) -
75 mm (3 in) away from the
roof bows and the side rails.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-14 100-04-14 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Air Leak and Wind Noise (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Noise from roof rack Roof rack rails or crossbars TIGHTEN the fasteners.
loose
Roof rack fasteners missing INSTALL the approved
fasteners.
Roof rack crossbars installed REINSTALL the crossbars.
backward
Roof rack rub strips partially REAPPLY adhesive or
lifting from roof fasteners or INSTALL new
rub strips as necessary.
Roof rack gaskets loose or REINSTALL the gasket.
misaligned
Wind noise from bug Turbulence created by REMOVE per customer
shield/exterior windshield sun location and shape direction if it is a dealer
visor installed option.
Symptom Chart Brake Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Rattling noise Caliper mounting bolts loose CHECK the caliper bolts.
TIGHTEN to specifications.
REFER to Section 206-03 for
front disc brakes or Section
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
Damaged or worn caliper pins CHECK the caliper pins and
or retainers retainers for lubrication and
correct fit. LUBRICATE or
INSTALL new components
as necessary.
Missing or damaged CHECK the brake pads for
anti-rattle clips or springs missing clips or broken
springs. INSTALL new
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 206-03 for
front disc brakes or Section
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
Loose brake disc shield TIGHTEN the brake disc
shield bolts to specification.
REFER to Section 206-03.
Clicking noise with brakes ABS hydraulic control unit Acceptable condition.
applied with ABS brakes
Squealing noise occurs on Disc brake pads Acceptable condition. Caused
first (morning) brake by humidity and low disc
application brake pad temperature.
Squealing noise a Disc brake pads or linings INSTALL new disc brake
continuous squeal worn below minimum pads. REFER to Section
thickness 206-03 for front disc brake
pads or Section 206-04 for
rear disc brake pads.
Squealing noise an Disc brake pad Acceptable condition.
intermittent squeal brought on
by cold, heat, water, mud or
snow
Groaning noise occurs at Disc brake pads Acceptable condition.
low speeds with brake lightly
applied (creeping)
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-15 100-04-15 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Brake Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Grinding noise continuous Disc brake pads or linings INSPECT the disc brake
worn below minimum pads, brake discs and
thickness attaching hardware for
damage. REPAIR or
INSTALL new components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 206-03 for front disc
brakes and Section 206-04
for rear disc brakes.
Moaning noise Brake linings contaminated INSPECT the brake pads and
with grease or oil shoes for contamination.
REPAIR or INSTALL new
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 206-03 for
front disc brakes or Section
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
Brake vibration/shudder Uneven disc or drum wear GO to Pinpoint Test A.
occurs when brakes are Uneven disc brake pad or
applied lining transfer
Suspension components
Brake vibration/shudder Brake drag INSPECT the disc brake pads
occurs when the brake pedal or linings for premature wear.
is released REPAIR or INSTALL a new
caliper or wheel cylinder as
necessary. REFER to Section
206-03 for front disc brakes
and Section 206-04 for rear
disc brakes.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-16 100-04-16 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Driveline Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Axle howling or whine Axle lubricant low CHECK the lubricant level.
front or rear axle FILL the axle to
specification.
Axle housing damage INSPECT the axle housing
for damage. REPAIR or
INSTALL a new axle as
necessary. REFER to Section
205-02A for Ford 7.5 rear
axles or Section 205-02B for
Ford 8.8 integral axles.
Damaged or worn wheel CHECK for abnormal wheel
bearings or axle bearings bearing play or roughness.
REFER to Wheel Bearing
Check in this section.
ADJUST or INSTALL new
wheel bearings as necessary.
Damaged or worn differential INSPECT the ring and pinion
ring and pinion ring for abnormal wear
patterns or broken teeth.
INSTALL a new ring and
pinion as necessary. REFER
to Section 205-02A for Ford
7.5 rear axles or Section
205-02B for Ford 8.8 integral
axles.
Damaged or worn differential CHECK for abnormal bearing
side or pinion bearings play or roughness. INSTALL
new bearings as necessary.
Damaged or worn differential DISASSEMBLE the
side gears and pinion gears differential carrier. INSPECT
the side and pinion gears for
abnormal wear patterns or
broken teeth. INSTALL new
gears as necessary. REFER to
Section 205-02A for Ford
7.5 rear axles or Section
205-02B for Ford 8.8 integral
axles.
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100-04-17 100-04-17 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Driveline Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Driveline clunk loud clunk Incorrect axle lubricant level CHECK the lubricant level.
when shifting from reverse to FILL the axle to
drive specification.
Excessive backlash in the CARRY OUT a total
axle or transmission backlash check. REFER to
Section 205-00.
Damaged or worn pinion CHECK for abnormal bearing
bearings play or roughness. INSTALL
new bearings as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-02A
for Ford 7.5 rear axles or
Section 205-02B for Ford 8.8
integral axles.
Damaged or worn universal INSPECT the U-joints for
joints (U-joints) wear or damage. INSTALL
new U-joints as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-01.
Loose suspension components INSPECT the suspension for
damage or wear. REPAIR or
INSTALL new components
as necessary.
Broken powertrain mounts INSPECT the powertrain
mounts. INSTALL new
mounts as necessary. REFER
to Section 303-01A orSection
303-01B.
Idle speed too high CHECK for the correct idle
speed.
Driveline clunk occurs as Worn or galled driveshaft CLEAN and INSPECT the
the vehicle starts to move slip-yoke splines splines of the yoke for a
forward following a stop worn or galled condition.
INSTALL a new yoke as
necessary. REFER to Section
205-01.
Worn or galled driveshaft and CLEAN and INSPECT the
coupling shaft splines splines of the driveshaft and
coupling shaft for a worn or
galled condition. INSTALL a
new driveshaft assembly as
necessary. REFER to Section
205-01.
Driveline clunk (front wheel Damaged or worn inboard INSPECT the inboard CV
drive [FWD] vehicles) constant velocity (CV) joint joint and boot. REPAIR or
occurs during acceleration or INSTALL a new CV joint as
from cruise to necessary.
coast/deceleration
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100-04-18 100-04-18 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Driveline Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Clicking, popping or grinding Inadequate or contaminated CHECK the CV boots and
occurs while vehicle is lubrication in the (CV) joints joints for wear or damage.
turning REPAIR or INSTALL new
components as necessary.
Another component CHECK the halfshafts and
contacting the halfshaft the area around the halfshafts.
REPAIR as necessary.
Brake components INSPECT the front brakes for
wear or damage. REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
206-03.
Steering components INSPECT the drag link, inner
and outer tie-rods or idler arm
for wear or damage. REPAIR
as necessary. REFER to
Section 211-02.
Suspension components INSPECT the upper and
lower ball joints for wear or
damage. REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01.
Damaged or worn wheel CHECK for abnormal wheel
bearings bearing play or roughness.
Refer to Wheel Bearing
Check in this section.
ADJUST or INSTALL new
wheel bearings as necessary.
Clicking or snapping Damaged or worn outboard INSPECT the outboard CV
occurs when accelerating CV joint joint and boot. REPAIR or
around a corner INSTALL a new CV joint as
necessary.
High pitched chattering Incorrect or contaminated CHECK the vehicle by
noise from the rear axle when lubricant driving in tight circles (5
the vehicle is turning clockwise, 5
counterclockwise). FLUSH
and REFILL with the
specified rear axle lubricant
and friction modifier as
necessary.
Damaged or worn differential DISASSEMBLE the
(differential side gears and differential assembly.
pinion gears) INSPECT the differential
case, pin and gears for wear
or damage. REPAIR or
INSTALL a new differential
as necessary. REFER to
Section 205-02A for Ford 7.5
rear axles or Section 205-02B
for Ford 8.8 integral axles.
Buzz buzzing noise is the Damaged or worn tires CHECK for abnormal tire
same at cruise or wear or damage. INSTALL a
coast/deceleration new tire as necessary. REFER
to Section 204-04.
Incorrect driveline angles CHECK for correct driveline
angles. REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-00.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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100-04-19 100-04-19 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Driveline Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Rumble or boom noise Driveshaft is out-of-balance CHECK the driveshaft for
occurs at coast/deceleration, damage, missing balance
usually driveshaft speed weights or undercoating.
related and noticeable over a REPAIR or INSTALL a new
wide range of speeds driveshaft.
U-joints binding or seized ROTATE the driveshaft and
CHECK for rough operation
or seized U-joints. INSTALL
new U-joints as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-01.
Excessive pinion flange CARRY OUT a runout
runout check. REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Pinion Flange
Runout Check in this section.
Grunting normally Driveshaft slip yoke binding CLEAN and LUBRICATE
associated with a shudder the male and female splines.
experienced during
acceleration from a dead stop
Howl can occur at various Incorrect ring and pinion CHECK the ring and pinion
speeds and driving conditions. contact, incorrect bearing and bearings for damage.
Affected by acceleration and preload or gear damage INSPECT the ring and pinion
deceleration wear pattern. REFER to
Section 205-00. ADJUST or
INSTALL new components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 205-02A for Ford 7.5
rear axles or Section 205-02B
for Ford 8.8 integral axles.
Chuckle heard at Incorrect ring and pinion CHECK the ring and pinion
coast/deceleration. Also contact or by damaged teeth for damage. INSPECT the
described as a knock on the coast side of the ring ring and pinion wear pattern.
and pinion REFER to Checking Tooth
Contact Pattern and Condition
of the Ring and Pinion
component test in this
section. ADJUST or
INSTALL new components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 205-02A for Ford 7.5
rear axles or Section 205-02B
for Ford 8.8 integral axles.
Knock noise occurs at Gear tooth damage to the CHECK the differential case
various speeds. Not affected drive side of the ring and and ring and pinion for
by acceleration or pinion damage. INSTALL new
deceleration components as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-02A
for Ford 7.5 rear axles or
Section 205-02B for Ford 8.8
integral axles.
Excessive axle shaft end play. CHECK the axle end play
(Vehicles with integral axles) using a dial indicator.
INSTALL a new axle shaft or
side gears as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-02A
for Ford 7.5 rear axles or
Section 205-02B for Ford 8.8
integral axles.
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100-04-20 100-04-20 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Driveline Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Scraping noise a Worn or damaged pinion CHECK the pinion bearings.
continuous low pitched noise bearings INSTALL new pinion
starting at low speeds bearings as necessary. REFER
to Section 205-02A for Ford
7.5 rear axles or Section
205-02B for Ford 8.8 integral
axles.
Driveline shudder occurs Rear drive axle assembly CHECK the axle mounts and
during acceleration from a mispositioned the rear suspension for
slow speed or stop damage or wear. REPAIR as
necessary.
Incorrect or high CV joint CHECK vehicle ride height is
operating angle within limits. REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
206-00.
Damaged or worn front CHECK for a loose stabilizer
suspension components bar, damaged or loose
strut/strut bushings or loose
or worn ball joints. INSPECT
the steering linkage for wear
or damage. REPAIR or
INSTALL new components
as necessary.
Driveline angles out of CHECK for correct driveline
specification angles. REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Driveline Angles
in this section.
U-joints binding or seized ROTATE the driveshaft and
CHECK for rough operation
or seized U-joints. INSTALL
new U-joints as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-01.
Binding, damaged or galled CLEAN and INSPECT the
splines on the driveshaft splines of the slip-yoke,
slip-yoke driveshaft and coupling shaft
for a worn, damaged or
galled condition. INSTALL a
new slip-yoke or driveshaft
assembly as necessary.
REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-01.
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100-04-21 100-04-21 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Driveline Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Driveline vibration occurs U-joints are worn CHECK for wear or incorrect
at cruising speeds seating. INSTALL new
U-joints as necessary. REFER
to Section 205-01.
Worn or damaged driveshaft CHECK the insulator for
center bearing support damage or wear. ROTATE
the driveshaft and CHECK
for rough operation.
INSTALL a new center
bearing support as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-01.
Loose axle pinion flange bolts INSPECT the axle pinion
flange. TIGHTEN the pinion
flange bolts to specification.
REFER to Section 205-01.
Excessive axle pinion flange CARRY OUT a Runout
runout Check. REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-01.
Driveshaft is out-of-balance CHECK the driveshaft for
damage, missing balance
weights or undercoating.
REPAIR or INSTALL a new
driveshaft as necessary.
Binding or damaged splines CLEAN and INSPECT the
on the driveshaft slip-yoke splines of the slip-yoke,
driveshaft and coupling shaft
for wear or damage.
INSTALL a new slip-yoke or
driveshaft assembly as
necessary. REFER to Section
205-01. REPAIR as
necessary.
Driveshaft runout CARRY OUT a Runout
Check. REPAIR as necessary.
Incorrect lateral and radial INSPECT the tire and wheels.
tire/wheel runout MEASURE tire runouts.
REPAIR or INSTALL new
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 204-04.
Driveline angles out of CHECK for correct driveline
specification angles. REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Driveline Angles
in this section.
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100-04-22 100-04-22 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Engine Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Grinding noise occurs Incorrect starter motor INSPECT the starter motor
during engine cranking mounting for correct mounting.
REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Section 303-06.
Starter motor CHECK the starter motor.
REPAIR or INSTALL a new
starter motor as necessary.
REFER to Section 303-06.
Incorrect starter motor drive INSPECT the starter motor
engagement drive and flexplate/flywheel
for wear or damage.
INSTALL a new starter
motor drive or flywheel as
necessary. REFER to Section
303-06.
Engine ticking noise Fuel injector GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Fuel line
Oil pump
Valve lifter
Belt tensioner
Water pump
Obstruction of cooling fan
Engine drumming noise Powertrain mount CARRY OUT
normally accompanied by Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount
vibration Neutralizing in this section.
Damaged or misaligned INSPECT the exhaust system
exhaust system for loose or broken clamps
and brackets. CARRY OUT
Exhaust System Neutralizing
in this section.
Whistling noise normally Air intake system CHECK the air intake ducts,
accompanied with poor idle air cleaner, throttle body and
condition vacuum hoses for leaks and
correct fit. REPAIR or
ADJUST as necessary.
REFER to Section 303-12.
Clunking noise Water pump has excessive CHECK the water pump for
end play or imbalance excessive end play. INSPECT
the water pump with the drive
belt off for imbalance.
INSTALL a new water pump
as necessary. REFER to
Section 303-03A.
Generator has excessive end CHECK the generator for
play excessive end play. REPAIR
or INSTALL a new
generator. REFER to Section
414-02.
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100-04-23 100-04-23 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Engine Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Pinging noise Exhaust system leak INSPECT the exhaust system
for leaks. REPAIR as
necessary.
Gasoline octane too low VERIFY with customer the
type of gasoline used.
CORRECT as necessary.
Knock sensor operation CHECK the knock sensor.
INSTALL a new knock
sensor as necessary. REFER
to Section 303-14.
Incorrect spark timing CHECK the spark timing.
REPAIR as necessary.
High operating temperature INSPECT cooling system for
leaks. CHECK the coolant
level. REFILL as necessary.
CHECK the coolant for the
correct mix ratio. DRAIN and
REFILL as needed. CHECK
engine operating temperature
is within specifications.
REPAIR as necessary.
Foul-out spark plug CHECK the spark plugs.
REPAIR or INSTALL new
spark plugs as necessary.
Catalytic converter Acceptable noise.
Knocking noise light Excessive clearance between Engine cold and at high idle.
knocking noise, also the piston and the cylinder Using an EngineEAR, pull a
described as piston slap. wall spark plug or fuel injector
Noise is most noticeable connector until the noise goes
when engine is cold with away. CARRY OUT a
light to medium acceleration. cylinder bore clearance to
Noise disappears as engine piston check. INSTALL a
warms new piston. REFER to
Section 303-01A orSection
303-01B.
Knocking noise light Excessive clearance between INSTALL a new piston or
double knock or sharp rap the piston and the piston pin piston pin. REFER to Section
sound. Occurs mostly with 303-01A orSection 303-01B.
warm engine at idle or low
speeds in DRIVE. Increases
in relation to engine load.
Associated with poor
lubrication history
Knocking noise light Excessive clearance between Engine warm and at idle.
knocking noise is most the connecting rod bearings Using an EngineEAR, PULL
noticeable when engine is and the crankshaft a spark plug or fuel injector
warm. Noise tends to connector until the noise goes
decrease when vehicle is away. INSTALL new
coasting or in NEUTRAL bearings. REFER to Section
303-01A or Section
303-01B.
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100-04-24 100-04-24 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Engine Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Knocking deep knocking Worn or damaged crankshaft CARRY OUT DERU test.
noise. Noise is most main bearings CHECK for noise with
noticeable when engine is vehicle at operating
warm, at lower rpm and temperature, during medium
under a light load and then at to heavy acceleration.
float CHECK at idle with injector
disconnected, noise does not
change. INSTALL new main
bearings. REFER to Section
303-01A orSection 303-01B.
Knocking noise occurs Spark plugs CHECK the spark plug for
mostly with warm engine at damage or wear. INSTALL
light/medium acceleration new spark plugs as necessary.
Carbon accumulation in REMOVE carbon from
combustion chamber combustion chamber.
Whine or moaning noise Air intake system CHECK the air cleaner and
ducts for correct fit.
INSPECT the air intake
system for leaks or damage.
REPAIR as necessary.
Generator electrical field or CARRY OUT generator load
bearings test. REPAIR or INSTALL a
new generator as necessary.
REFER to Section 414-02.
Drone type noise Exhaust system CARRY OUT the Exhaust
System Neutralizing in this
section. REPAIR as
necessary.
A/C compressor CHECK for noise with
vehicle at constant speeds.
CYCLE the compressor on
and off and listen for a
change in pitch. REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
412-01.
Powertrain mounts CARRY OUT the
Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount
Neutralizing in this section.
Sputter type noise noise Damaged or worn exhaust INSPECT the exhaust system
worse when cold, lessens or system components for leaks or damage. REPAIR
disappears when vehicle is at as necessary. REFER to
operating temperature Section 309-00.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Engine Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Rattling noise noise from Low oil level CHECK oil level. FILL as
the upper engine (valve train). necessary.
Worse when engine is cold
Thin or diluted oil INSPECT the oil for
contamination. If oil is
contaminated, CHECK for the
source. REPAIR as necessary.
CHANGE the oil and filter.
Low oil pressure CARRY OUT an oil pressure
test. If not within
specifications, REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
303-00.
Worn rocker arms/fulcrums or CARRY OUT a valve train
followers analysis. INSTALL new valve
train components as
necessary. REFER to Section
303-01A or Section
303-01B.
Worn valve guides CARRY OUT a valve train
analysis. INSTALL new valve
guides as necessary. REFER
to Section 303-01A or
Section 303-01B.
Excessive runout of valve CARRY OUT a valve seat
seats on the valve face runout test. INSPECT the
valve face and seat.
INSTALL new valves as
necessary. REFER to Section
303-01A or Section
303-01B.
Rattling noise from the Loose muffler shields or CHECK the exhaust system
bottom of the vehicle catalytic converter shields for loose exhaust shields.
REPAIR as necessary.
Thumping noise from the Exhaust pipe/muffler CHECK the exhaust system
bottom of the vehicle, worse grounded to chassis to chassis clearance. CHECK
at acceleration the exhaust system hangers
for damage. REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
309-00.
Whoosh occurs during Throttling late, creating CHECK for leaks or missing
light vehicle acceleration. turbulence transmitted seal in the dash panel.
Heard inside the vehicle through the plastic manifold
Engine vibration increases Engine out-of-balance CARRY OUT Neutral Engine
intensity as engine rpm is Run-Up (NERU) Test.
increased ROTATE the torque
converter, 120 for 3 bolt and
180 for 4 bolt. INSPECT the
torque converter pilot outer
diameter to crankshaft pilot
inner diameter. REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
307-01.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Engine Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Engine vibration is felt Strain on exhaust mounts CARRY OUT the Exhaust
with increases and decreases System Neutralizing
in engine rpm procedure in this section.
REPAIR as necessary.
Damaged or worn CHECK the
powertrain/drivetrain mounts powertrain/drivetrain mounts
for damage. REPAIR as
necessary.
Engine or transmission INSPECT the
grounded to chassis powertrain/drivetrain for
correct clearances. REPAIR
as necessary.
Engine vibration vibration Excessive engine pulley CARRY OUT Engine
felt at all times runout Accessory Test. INSTALL a
new engine pulley as
necessary. REFER to Section
303-01A or Section
303-01B.
Damaged or worn accessory CARRY OUT Engine
component Accessory Test. REPAIR or
INSTALL a new component
as necessary.
Accelerator pedal vibration Throttle cable loose or INSPECT the throttle cable.
felt through the pedal as a misrouted REPAIR as necessary.
buzz REFER to Section 310-02.
Engine vibration mostly at Combustion instability CHECK the ignition system.
coast/neutral coast. Condition INSTALL new components
improves with vehicle as necessary.
accelerating
Engine vibration or shudder Worn or damaged spark plugs INSPECT the spark plugs for
occurs with light to cracks, high resistance or
medium acceleration above broken insulator. INSTALL a
56 km/h (35 mph) new spark plug(s) as
necessary.
Plugged fuel injector REPAIR or INSTALL a new
injector as necessary. REFER
to Section 303-04A or
Section 303-04B.
Damaged spark plug wire INSPECT the spark plug
wires for damage. INSTALL
a new spark plug wire(s) as
necessary.
Contaminated fuel INSPECT the fuel for
contamination. DRAIN the
fuel system and refill.
Worn or damaged torque CHECK the torque converter.
converter INSTALL a new torque
converter as necessary.
REFER to Section 307-01.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Idle Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Idle air control (IAC) valve IAC valve is contaminated GO to Component Tests in
moan occurs on throttle with oil this section.
tip-out
Accessory drive belt chirp Accessory drive belt worn, or INSPECT for loose or
occurs at idle or high idle, pulley is misaligned or loose misaligned pulleys. CHECK
cold or hot. Most common the drive belt for wear or
occurrence is during humid damage. INSTALL new
weather pulley(s)/drive belt, or
accessory drive components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 303-05.
Accessory drive bearing hoot Accessory drive idler or GO to Pinpoint Test C.
occurs at idle or high idle tensioner pulley bearing is
in cold temperatures of experiencing stick/slip
approximately +4C (+40F) between ball bearings and
or colder at first start of the bearing race
day
Power steering moan High fluid viscosity, or GO to Pinpoint Test D.
occurs at high idle and plugged reservoir screen in
possibly at idle during the power steering reservoir
first cold start of the day in starves pump causing
temperatures of approximately cavitation
-18C (0F) or colder. Noise
can even be a severe screech
for less than one minute in
very cold temperatures of
approximately -29C (-20F)
or colder
Generator whine during Generator electrical field Using an EngineEAR,
high electrical loads at idle or noise PROBE near the generator
high idle, a high pitch whine housing. LISTEN for changes
or moan is emitted from the in the noise level while
generator changing electrical loads
(such as rear defrost,
headlamps, etc.). CARRY
OUT a generator load test. If
the system passes the load
test, the noise is from the
generator bearings, INSTALL
new bearings. If the system
fails the load test, INSTALL
a new generator. REFER to
Section 414-02.
Engine-driven cooling fan The viscous cooling fan GO to Pinpoint Test E.
moan occurs during the clutch engages until the fluid
first start of the day. It is in the clutch reaches normal
most objectionable near idle operating temperature,
speeds up to 2000 rpm. The causing the fan to fully
noise increases with rpm engage
Drumming noise occurs Exhaust system vibration GO to Pinpoint Test F.
inside the vehicle during idle excites the body resonances
or high idle, hot or cold. inducing interior noise
Very low-frequency Engine vibration excites the
drumming is very rpm body resonances inducing
dependent interior noise
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100-04-28 100-04-28 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Idle Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Hissing noise occurs Vacuum leak or idle air Use the Ultrasonic Leak
during idle or high idle that is control (IAC) valve flow Detector/EngineEAR to locate
apparent with the hood open noise the source. Scan the air intake
system from the inlet to each
cylinder intake port.
DISCARD the leaking parts,
and INSTALL a new
component.
Vehicles with a plastic intake Acceptable condition. Some
manifold plastic manifolds exhibit this
noise, which is the effect of
the plastic manifold.
Automatic transmission buzz Incorrect driveline angles CHECK for correct driveline
or hiss angles. REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Driveline Angles
in this section.
Worn or damaged main Using a transmission tester,
control solenoids or valves activate the solenoids to
duplicate sound. INSTALL
new components as necessary.
REFER to Section 307-01.
Manual Transmission Clutch Worn throw-out bearing INSTALL a new throw-out
throw-out bearing whine. A bearing. REFER to Section
change in noise pitch or 308-01.
loudness while depressing the
clutch pedal
Heating, vacuum and air Damaged or worn HVAC INSTALL a new blower
conditioning (HVAC) system blower bearing motor. REFER to Section
chirp most audible inside 412-01.
the vehicle. Listen for a
change in noise pitch or
loudness while changing the
HVAC system blower speed
Air conditioning (A/C) clutch Acceptable noise LISTEN to the clutch to
ticking occurs when the Incorrect air gap determine if the noise occurs
compressor clutch engages with clutch engagement. A
small amount of noise is
acceptable. If the noise is
excessive, CHECK the A/C
clutch air gap. INSPECT the
A/C clutch for wear or
damage. INSTALL a new
clutch as necessary. REFER
to Section 412-01.
Intermittent rattle, or Loose exhaust heat shield(s) INSPECT the exhaust system
scraping/rubbing noise for loose parts using a glove
or clamps to verify cause.
REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Section 309-00.
Wiring, hose or other part INSPECT accessory drive
interfering with accessory system closely verifying there
drive belt or pulley is adequate clearance to all
rotating components. REPAIR
as necessary.
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100-04-29 100-04-29 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Idle Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Engine ticking or knocking Piston noise or valvetrain GO to Pinpoint Test G.
noise occurs during idle or noise (bled down lifter/lash
high idle during the first cold adjuster)
start of the day
A continuous, Piston noise or valvetrain GO to Pinpoint Test G.
speed-dependent rattle from noise (bled down lifter/lash
the engine occurs during adjuster)
idle or high idle during the
first cold start of the day and
disappears as the engine
warms up
Idle vibration a Cylinder misfire Using a scan tool, CHECK
low-frequency vibration (5-20 the ignition system. CARRY
Hz) or mild shake that is felt OUT a cylinder power test.
through the seat/floorpan REFER to Section 303-00.
Engine or torque converter VERIFY the torque converter
out of balance to crankshaft pilot clearance
is correct, REPAIR as
necessary. RE-INDEX the
torque converter on the flex
plate by 120 on a 3 bolt
converter or 180 for a 4 bolt
converter. REFER to Section
307-01. RETEST the vehicle.
Idle vibration a Exhaust system mounts bound VERIFY concern occurs at
high-frequency vibration up engine firing frequency.
(20-80 Hz) or buzz, that is CHECK that the exhaust
felt through the steering system vibrates at the same
wheel or seat frequency as the engine.
ADD 9-14 km (20-30 lb.) to
the tail pipe to test, CARRY
OUT Exhaust System
Neutralizing in this section.
Body mounts loose INSPECT the body mounts.
REPAIR as necessary.
Power steering lines grounded INSPECT that the power
out steering lines are not
contacting the chassis or each
other. REPAIR as necessary.
Symptom Chart Squeak and Rattle
Condition Possible Sources Action
Squeak heard inside the Insufficient lubrication on the LUBRICATE the hinge or
vehicle when closing/opening door hinge or check strap check strap.
the door
Internal door components CHECK the inside of the
loose, rubbing or misaligned door. TIGHTEN or ALIGN
as necessary. USE the
Rotunda Squeak and Rattle
Kit to isolate any rubbing
components.
Squeak heard inside the Worn or damaged glass REPAIR or INSTALL a new
vehicle when closing/opening run/channel glass run/channel. REFER to
the window Section 501-11.
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100-04-30 100-04-30 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Squeak and Rattle (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Squeak heard outside of Exhaust shield rubbing CHECK the exhaust system.
vehicle when closing/opening against the chassis or exhaust REPAIR as necessary.
the door pipe REFER to Section 309-00.
Squeak occurs with initial Disc brake pads Under certain conditions,
brake pedal application asbestos free pads can
generate a squeak noise. This
noise is normal and does not
indicate a concern.
Squeak a constant noise Damaged or worn disc brake INSPECT the pads for oil,
that occurs with brake pedal pads grease or brake fluid
applications contamination. CHECK for
glazed linings. A brake disc
with hard spots will also
cause a squeak type noise.
REPAIR or INSTALL new
pads as necessary. REFER to
Section 206-03 for front disc
brakes and Section 206-04 for
rear disc brakes.
Squeak noise occurs over Worn control arm bushings INSPECT the control arm
bumps or when turning bushings. Spray with lubricant
and CARRY OUT a bounce
test to determine which
bushing. REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01.
Worn or damaged shock INSPECT the shock absorber
absorber/strut for damage. CARRY OUT a
bounce test to isolate the
noise. INSTALL a new shock
absorber/strut as necessary.
REFER to Section 204-01 for
the front shock absorber/strut
or Section 204-02 for the rear
shock absorber/strut.
Rattle heard when Loose internal door REPEAT the motion or
closing/opening the door or mechanism, bracket or CARRY OUT a tap test to
window attachment duplicate the noise. INSPECT
the door for loose
components. TIGHTEN loose
components or USE the
Rotunda Squeak and Rattle
Kit to isolate any rattling
components.
Rattle GT models only, A loose or under torqued VERIFY the torque on the
noise occurs from the rear of shock damper attaching nut shock damper-to-axle nuts is
the vehicle 63 Nm (46 lb-ft). VERIFY
the torque for the shock
damper-to-rail bracket nuts is
90 Nm (66 lb-ft). Do not over
torque. TIGHTEN as
necessary.
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100-04-31 100-04-31 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Squeak and Rattle (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Squeak or rattle heard Misaligned glove ALIGN the glove
inside the vehicle over rough compartment door/hinge compartment door.
roads/bumps
Instrument panel trim loose or INSPECT the instrument
misaligned panel trim for missing or
loose clips or screws.
REPAIR as necessary.
Loose interior component or CARRY OUT a touch
trim test. ELIMINATE the noise
by pressing or pulling on
interior trim and components.
USE the Rotunda Squeak and
Rattle Kit to isolate any
rattling/squeaking
components.
Squeak or rattle noise with Damaged or worn body INSPECT the upper and
a vibration concern mounts lower absorbers and washers
for damage or wear. CHECK
the body mount brackets for
damage. CHECK the nuts and
bolts are tightened to
specifications. TIGHTEN as
necessary.
Damaged or worn sub-frame INSPECT the upper and
mounts lower absorbers for damage
or wear. CHECK the
sub-frame for damage.
CHECK the nuts and bolts
are tightened to specifications.
TIGHTEN as necessary.
Symptom Chart Steering Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Steering grunt or shudder Steering gear or power GO to Steering Gear
occurs when turning into or steering hoses Grunt/Shudder Test
out of a turn at low speeds component test in this
(temperature sensitive) section.
Steering System clonk Air in the steering hydraulic CHECK for leaks in the
hydraulic knocking sound system system. PURGE the air from
the system. REFER to
Section 211-00.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Steering Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Power steering pump moan Power steering hose grounded INSPECT the power steering
loud humming noise out to chassis hoses. REPAIR as necessary.
occurs when the steering
wheel is rotated to the stop
position. Produces a 120-600
Hz frequency that changes
with rpm
Aerated fluid CHECK for leaks in the
system. PURGE the air from
the system. REFER to
Section 211-00.
Steering gear isolators INSPECT the isolators for
wear or damage. REPAIR as
necessary.
Low fluid CHECK the fluid level.
REFILL as necessary.
Power steering pump brackets CHECK bolts, brackets and
loose or misaligned bracket alignment. TIGHTEN
bolts to specification.
REPAIR or INSTALL new
brackets as necessary. REFER
to Section 211-02.
Steering gear clunk occurs Steering gear INSPECT the steering gear
only while cornering over a for loose mounting bolts.
bump (can be temperature TIGHTEN as necessary.
sensitive) REFER to Section 211-02.
Feedback (rattle, chuckle or Column intermediate/flexible INSTALL a new
knocking noise in the steering shaft joints damaged or worn intermediate/flexible shaft.
gear) a condition where REFER to Section 211-04.
roughness is felt in the
steering wheel when the
vehicle is driven over rough
surfaces
Loose, damaged or worn TIGHTEN the nuts to
tie-rod ends specification or INSTALL
new tie-rod ends as
necessary. REFER to Section
211-02.
Steering gear insulators or TIGHTEN the bolts or
mounting bolts loose or INSTALL new bolts as
damaged necessary. REFER to Section
211-02.
Steering column intermediate TIGHTEN the bolts to
shaft bolts are loose specification. REFER to
Section 211-04.
Steering column damaged or REPAIR or INSTALL a new
worn steering column as necessary.
REFER to Section 211-04.
Loose suspension bushings, INSPECT the suspension
bolts or ball joints system. TIGHTEN or
INSTALL new components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 204-01.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Steering Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Feedback (nibble at the Lateral runout in the tire or GO to Pinpoint Test H.
steering wheel) a condition wheel
where slight rotational
movement is felt in the
steering wheel when the
vehicle is driven over rough
or grooved surfaces
Yoke spring in the steering CHECK TSBs for revised
gear yoke spring for applicable
vehicles.
Accessory drive belt Loose or worn accessory ADJUST or INSTALL a new
squeal/chirp when rotating drive belt accessory belt as necessary.
the steering wheel from stop REFER to Section 303-05.
to stop
Power steering gear hiss Steering column REPAIR or INSTALL a new
intermediate/flexible intermediate/flexible shaft as
shaft-to-steering gear is necessary. REFER to Section
binding or misaligned 211-04.
Grounded or loose steering REPAIR as necessary.
column boot at the dash panel
Damaged or worn steering REPAIR or INSTALL a new
gear input shaft and valve steering gear as necessary.
REFER to Section 211-02.
Steering column rattle Loose bolts or attaching TIGHTEN the bolts to
brackets specifications.
Loose, worn or insufficiently LUBRICATE or INSTALL
lubricated column bearings new steering column bearings
as necessary. REFER to
Section 211-04.
Steering shaft insulators INSTALL new insulators.
damaged or worn REFER to Section 211-04.
Intermediate/flexible shaft INSPECT the rubber spider
compressed or extended coupling for damage.
INSTALL a new
intermediate/flexible shaft.
REFER to Section 211-04.
Steering column squeak or Insufficient lubricated steering LUBRICATE the steering
cracks shaft bushings shaft and shaft tube seals.
Loose or misaligned steering TIGHTEN or ALIGN the
column shrouds steering column shrouds.
Steering wheel rubbing REPOSITION the steering
against steering column column shrouds.
shrouds
Insufficient lubricated speed LUBRICATE the speed
control slip ring control slip ring.
Upper or lower bearing sleeve REPOSITION the bearing
out of position sleeves.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Steering Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Power steering pump noisy Incorrect assembly of REPAIR or INSTALL a new
components power steering pump as
Imperfections on the outside necessary. REFER to Section
diameter or end surface of the 211-02.
power steering pump rotor
Damaged or worn power
steering pump rotor splines
A crack on the inner surface
of the power steering pump
cam
Interference between the
power steering pump rotor
and cam
Damaged or worn power
steering pump rotor and
pressure plates
Power steering pump swish Power steering fluid flow into Acceptable condition.
noise the bypass valve of the pump
valve housing with fluid
temperature below 54C
(130F)
Power steering pump whine Aerated fluid PURGE the air from the
noise system. REFER to Section
211-00. CHECK for a leak in
the system.
Damaged power steering REPAIR or INSTALL a new
pump cam power steering pump as
necessary. REFER to Section
211-02.
Damaged valve cover O-ring REPAIR or INSTALL a new
seal power steering pump as
necessary. REFER to Section
211-02.
Power steering pump clicking Power steering pump rotor REPAIR or INSTALL a new
(mechanical) noise slippers too long, excessive power steering pump as
rotor slipper-to-slot clearance necessary. REFER to Section
or damaged or worn rotor 211-02.
assembly
Power steering pump clatter Damaged corners on the REPAIR or INSTALL a new
noise outside diameter or the power power steering pump as
steering rotor or distorted necessary. REFER to Section
rotor slipper ring 211-02.
Symptom Chart Suspension Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Squeak or grunt noise Front stabilizer bar insulators Under these conditions, the
from the front suspension, noise is acceptable. CHECK
occurs more in cold ambient TSBs.
temperatures. More noticeable
over rough roads or when
turning
Clunk noise from the front Loose front struts or shocks INSPECT for loose nuts or
suspension, occurs in and out bolts. TIGHTEN to
of turns specifications. REFER to
Section 204-01.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Suspension Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Clunk noise from the rear Loose rear suspension INSPECT for loose or
suspension, occurs when components damaged rear suspension
shifting from REVERSE to components. REPAIR or
DRIVE INSTALL new components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 204-02.
Click or pop noise from Worn or damaged ball joints CARRY OUT a ball joint
the front suspension. More inspection. INSTALL new
noticeable over rough roads ball joints or control arms as
or over bumps necessary. REFER to Section
204-01.
Click or pop (front wheel Worn or damaged ball joints CARRY OUT a ball joint
drive [FWD] vehicles) inspection. INSTALL new
noise occurs when vehicle is ball joints or control arms as
turning necessary.
Click or snap occurs when Damaged or worn outboard INSPECT the outboard CV
accelerating around a corner CV joint joint and boot. REPAIR or
INSTALL a new CV joint as
necessary.
Front suspension noise a Steering components GO to Pinpoint Test H.
squeak, creak or rattle noise. Loose or bent front struts or
Occurs mostly over bumps or shock absorbers
rough roads Damaged spring or spring
mounts
Damaged or worn
control/radius arm bushings
Worn or damaged stabilizer
bar bushings or links
Rear suspension noise a Loose or bent rear shock GO to Pinpoint Test I.
squeak, creak or rattle noise. absorbers
Occurs mostly over bumps or Damaged spring or spring
rough roads mounts
Damaged or worn control arm
bushings
Worn or damaged stabilizer
bar bushings or links
Shudder occurs during Rear drive axle assembly CHECK the axle mounts and
acceleration from a slow mispositioned the rear suspension for
speed or stop damage or wear. REPAIR as
necessary.
Incorrect or high CV joint CHECK vehicle ride height is
operating angle within limits. REPAIR as
necessary.
Damaged or worn front CHECK for a loose stabilizer
suspension components bar, damaged or loose
strut/strut bushings or loose
or worn ball joints. INSPECT
the steering linkage for wear
or damage. REPAIR or
INSTALL new components
as necessary.
Shimmy most noticeable Excessive positive caster CHECK the caster alignment
on coast/deceleration. Also angle. CORRECT as
hard steering condition necessary. REFER to Section
204-00.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Tire Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Tire noise hum/moan at Abnormal wear patterns SPIN the tire and CHECK for
constant speeds tire wear. INSTALL a new
tire as necessary. INSPECT
for damaged/worn suspension
components. CARRY OUT
wheel alignment.
Tire noise noise tone Out-of-balance tire BALANCE the tire and road
lowers as the vehicle speed is test. INSTALL a new tire as
lowered necessary. REFER to Section
204-04.
Tire noise ticking noise, Nail puncture or stone in tire INSPECT the tire. REPAIR
changes with speed tread as necessary.
Wheel and tire vibration Damaged or worn tire GO to Pinpoint Test J.
and noise concern is directly
related to vehicle speed and is
not affected by acceleration,
coasting or decelerating
Tire wobble or shudder Damaged wheel bearings SPIN the tire and CHECK for
occurs at lower speeds abnormal wheel bearing play
or roughness. ADJUST or
INSTALL new wheel
bearings as necessary. REFER
to Section 204-01.
Damaged wheel INSPECT the wheel for
damage. INSTALL a new
wheel as necessary. REFER
to Section 204-01.
Damaged or worn suspension INSPECT the suspension
components components for wear or
damage. REPAIR as
necessary.
Loose wheel nuts CHECK the wheel nuts.
TIGHTEN to specification.
REFER to Section 204-04.
Damaged or uneven tire wear SPIN the tire and CHECK for
abnormal tire wear or
damage. INSTALL a new tire
as necessary. REFER to
Section 204-04.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Tire Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Tire shimmy or shake Wheel/tire out of balance BALANCE the wheel/tire
occurs at lower speeds assembly.
Uneven tire wear CHECK for abnormal tire
wear. INSTALL a new tire as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-04.
Excessive radial runout of CARRY OUT a radial runout
wheel or tire test of the wheel and tire.
INSTALL a new tire as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-04.
Worn or damaged wheel INSPECT the wheel studs
studs or elongated stud holes and wheels. INSTALL new
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 204-01 for
the front wheels or Section
204-02 for the rear wheels.
Excessive lateral runout of CARRY OUT a lateral runout
the wheel or tire test of the wheel and tire.
CHECK the wheel, tire and
hub. REPAIR or INSTALL
new components as necessary.
Foreign material between the CLEAN the mounting
brake disc and hub or in the surfaces of the brake disc and
brake disc fins hub. CHECK the brake disc
fins for material.
High speed shake or shimmy Excessive wheel hub runout GO to Pinpoint Test K.
occurs at high speeds Damaged or worn tires
Damaged or worn wheel
bearings
Worn or damaged suspension
or steering linkage
components
Brake disc or drum imbalance
Symptom Chart Manual Transmission and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Clutch rattling noise Flywheel bolts, clutch TIGHTEN the bolts to
occurs with clutch engaged, housing bolts or clutch specifications. CHECK the
noise changes/disappears with pressure plate bolts loose bolts for damage.
clutch pedal depressed
Clutch squeaking noise Pilot bearing seized or INSTALL a new pilot
noise is heard when the damaged bearing. REFER to Section
clutch is operated. Vehicle 308-01.
moves slowly or creeps when
the clutch is disengaged. Can
also be difficult to shift into
1st and reverse gear
Clutch squeaking noise Worn clutch pedal shaft or INSPECT the clutch pedal for
occurs with clutch pedal bushings wear or damage. REPAIR as
depressed/released necessary. REFER to Section
308-02.
Clutch whirring/rattle noise Worn, damaged or misaligned INSTALL a new clutch
occurs when clutch pedal clutch release bearing release bearing. REFER to
is depressed Section 308-01.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Manual Transmission and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Clutch grating/grinding noise Clutch pressure plate fingers INSPECT the clutch pressure
occurs when clutch pedal bent or worn plate release fingers.
is depressed INSTALL a new pressure
plate as necessary. REFER to
Section 308-01.
Contact surface of clutch INSTALL a new clutch
release bearing worn or release bearing. REFER to
damaged Section 308-01.
Clutch chatter a small Clutch engagement Acceptable operating
amount of noise when clutch condition.
pedal is released at initial
take-off
Clutch chatter/grabs in Damaged or worn INSPECT the
some cases a shudder is felt. powertrain/driveline mounts powertrain/drivetrain mounts.
Occurs with clutch pedal INSTALL new mounts as
depressed/released necessary. REFER to Section
303-01A or Section
303-01B.
Binding or dragging plunger CHECK the master and slave
of the clutch master cylinder cylinder operation. INSPECT
or slave cylinder the components for damage
or wear. INSTALL a new
master or slave cylinder as
necessary. REFER to Section
308-02.
Grease or oil on the clutch CHECK the input shaft seal
disc facing and rear main oil seal.
REPAIR as necessary.
INSTALL a new clutch disc.
REFER to Section 308-03A
for T50D transmissions or
Section 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Clutch disc surface glazed or INSPECT the clutch disc
damaged surface for a glazed, hardened
or damage condition. CARRY
OUT a disc check. INSTALL
a new clutch disc as
necessary. REFER to Section
308-01.
Damaged or worn clutch INSPECT the clutch pressure
pressure plate plate for wear or damage.
INSTALL a new clutch
pressure plate as necessary.
REFER to Section 308-01.
Flywheel surface damaged or INSPECT the flywheel for
glazed damage or wear. CARRY
OUT a flywheel runout
check. INSTALL a new
flywheel as necessary.
REFER to Section 303-01A
or Section 303-01B.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Manual Transmission and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Clutch chatter noise noise Pilot bearing worn, damaged INSPECT the clutch pressure
when clutch pedal is released or not correctly aligned in plate release fingers for
at initial take-off. Clutch is bore uneven wear, clutch
hard to engage and disengage components burnt or a seized
pilot bearing. INSTALL a
new pilot bearing as
necessary. REFER to Section
308-01.
Clutch vibration Loose flywheel bolts GO to Pinpoint Test L.
Damaged or loose clutch
pressure plate
Excessive flywheel runout
Transmission Gearshift lever joint worn or INSTALL a new gearshift
rattling/clattering noise damaged lever. REFER to Section
noise at idle or on light 308-03A for T50D
acceleration from a stop. Gear transmissions or Section
selection difficult 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Gearshift lever loose TIGHTEN the bolts to
specification. REFER to
Section 308-03A for T50D
transmissions or Section
308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Gearshift linkage rods worn CHECK the linkage bushings
or damaged for wear. INSTALL new
linkage rods as necessary.
REFER to the appropriate
workshop manual for the
service procedures.
Transmission Incorrect fluid level or fluid CHECK that the transmission
rattling/clattering noise quality is filled to the correct level
occurs in NEUTRAL or in and with the specified fluid.
gear, at idle REFER to Section 308-03A
for T50D transmissions or
Section 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Manual Transmission and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Transmission Worn or rough reverse idler CHECK the reverse idler
rattling/clattering noise gear gear. REPAIR as necessary.
noise at idle in NEUTRAL REFER to Section 308-03A
for T50D transmissions or
Section 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Rough running engine, CHECK the ignition system.
cylinder misfire CARRY OUT a cylinder
power test. REFER to Section
303-00.
Excessive backlash in gears CHECK the gear backlash.
ADJUST as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-02A
for Ford 7.5 rear axles or
Section 205-02B for Ford 8.8
integral axles.
Worn countershaft gears REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Section 308-03A
for T50D transmissions or
Section 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Transmission whine a mild Rotating gears/geartrain Acceptable noise.
whine at extreme speeds or
high rpm
Transmission whine a high Transmission gears are worn Result of normal gear wear.
pitched whine, also described (high mileage vehicle) REPAIR as necessary.
as a squeal REFER to Section 308-03A
for T50D transmissions or
Section 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Mismatched gear sets INSPECT the gear sets for an
uneven wear pattern on the
face of the gear teeth.
REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Section 308-03A
for T50D transmissions or
Section 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Damaged or worn INSPECT the transmission
transmission bearing bearings. INSTALL new
bearings as necessary. REFER
to Section 308-03A for T50D
transmissions or Section
308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Transmission Gear is cracked, chipped or INSPECT the transmission
growling/humming noise rough gears for damage or wear.
occurs in the FORWARD INSTALL new gears as
gears. The noise is more necessary. REFER to Section
prominent when the gear is 308-03A for T50D
loaded. The problem gear can transmissions or Section
be located as the noise occurs 308-03B for TR3650
in a specific gear position transmissions.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Manual Transmission and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Transmission hissing noise Damaged or worn bearings INSPECT the transmission
in NEUTRAL or in bearings. INSTALL new
FORWARD gears. As bearings as necessary. REFER
bearings wear or break up, to Section 308-03A for T50D
the noise changes to a transmissions or Section
thumping noise 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Transmission Bearings with damaged balls INSPECT the transmission
knocking/thudding noise at or rollers or with pitted and bearings. INSTALL new
low speeds in FORWARD spalled races bearings as necessary. REFER
gears to Section 308-03A for T50D
transmissions or Section
308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Transmission rumble/growl Incorrect driveline angle CHECK the driveline angle.
noise at higher speeds in REPAIR as necessary.
FORWARD gears, more REFER to Section 205-00.
pronounced in a
coast/deceleration condition
Driveshaft out of balance or CHECK the driveshaft for
damaged damage, missing balance
weights or undercoating.
Using the vibration analyzer
(VA), CHECK the driveshaft
balance. CARRY OUT a
driveline vibration test.
REPAIR as necessary.
Transmission rumble/growl Damaged or worn CHECK transmission fluid
noise at all speeds in transmission bearing or gears for excessive metal particles.
FORWARD gears, more (high mileage vehicles) REPAIR as necessary.
pronounced in a heavy REFER to Section 308-03A
acceleration condition for T50D transmissions or
Section 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Transfer case whine noise Incorrect fluid level or fluid CHECK that the transfer case
at all ranges quality is filled to the correct level
and with the specified fluid.
REFER to Section 308-03A
for T50D transmissions or
Section 308-03B for TR3650
transmissions.
Worn oil pump DISASSEMBLE the transfer
case. CHECK the oil pump
for wear or damage. REPAIR
as necessary.
Under-inflated or oversized CONFIRM that the tires and
tires wheels are correct for the
vehicle. CHECK that the tire
inflation pressures are correct.
Transfer case growl/rumble Damaged or worn bearings or DISASSEMBLE the transfer
noise at all ranges (A planetary gear case. CHECK the bearings or
small amount of planetary planetary gear for wear or
noise can be heard when the damage. REPAIR as
transfer case is operated in necessary.
LOW range.)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Manual Transmission and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Transfer case scraping/grating Excessively stretched drive DISASSEMBLE the transfer
noise at all ranges chain hitting the case case. CHECK the drive chain
for wear or damage. REPAIR
as necessary.
Transfer case howl/hum Worn or damaged sun (input) DISASSEMBLE the transfer
noise at all ranges or HIGH gear, clutch pack case. CHECK the gears for
range only (intermediate) gear or output wear or damage. REPAIR as
shaft gear necessary.
Transfer case howl/hum Worn or damaged DISASSEMBLE the transfer
noise at LOW range only intermediate gear and sliding case. CHECK the gears for
gears (clutch pack) wear or damage. REPAIR as
necessary.
Transfer case vibration Transfer case mounting GO to Pinpoint Test M.
vibration felt with vehicle in Driveshaft out of balance
four wheel drive (4WD) Excessive pinion flange
runout
Symptom Chart Automatic Transmission Noise/Vibration
Condition Possible Sources Action
Rattle occurs at idle or at Damaged engine or CHECK the
light acceleration from a stop transmission mounts powertrain/drivetrain mounts
for damage. REPAIR or
INSTALL new mounts as
necessary.
A loose front exhaust pipe REPAIR or INSTALL a new
heat shield heat shield as necessary.
Loose inspection plate or dust CHECK for loose bolts.
cover plate TIGHTEN to specifications.
REFER to Section 307-01.
Loose flex plate to converter CHECK for loose nuts.
nuts TIGHTEN to specifications.
REFER to Section 307-01.
Whine pitch increases with Damaged or worn low INSPECT the transmission
vehicle speed. Starts in 1st one-way clutch for wear or damage. REPAIR
and 2nd gear, decreases or Damaged or worn or INSTALL new
goes away at higher gears intermediate one-way clutch components as necessary.
Friction elements REFER to Section 307-01.
Damaged or worn planetary
or sun gear
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Automatic Transmission Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Whine the pitch changes A worn or damaged accessory CARRY OUT the Engine
with engine speed drive component Accessory Test. REPAIR or
INSTALL new components
as necessary.
Incorrect fluid level CHECK that the transmission
is filled to the correct level.
ADD fluid as necessary.
REFER to Section 307-01.
Partially blocked filter INSPECT the filter. CLEAN
or INSTALL a new filter as
necessary. REFER to Section
307-01.
Worn or damaged torque CARRY OUT the torque
converter converter service and
replacement check. REFER to
Section 307-01.
Worn or damaged front pump INSPECT the front pump.
INSTALL a new front pump
as necessary. REFER to
Section 307-01.
Whine pitch changes with Speedometer cable or gears REPAIR or INSTALL new
vehicle speed cables or gears as necessary.
Whine/moan type noise Damaged engine or CHECK the
pitch increases or changes transmission mount powertrain/drivetrain mounts
with vehicle speed for damage. CARRY OUT
Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount
Neutralizing in this section.
U-joints worn or damaged INSPECT the U-joints for
wear or damage. INSTALL
new U-joints as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-01.
Damaged or worn differential INSPECT the differential ring
ring and pinion and pinion for damage.
CARRY OUT the Checking
Tooth Contact Pattern and
Condition of the Ring and
Pinion component test in this
section. REPAIR or
INSTALL a new differential
ring and pinion as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-02A
for Ford 7.5 rear axles or
Section 205-02B for Ford 8.8
integral axles.
Planetary gears nicked or CHECK the planetary gears
chipped for damage. INSTALL new
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 307-01.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Automatic Transmission Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Whistle noise is high Hydraulic pressure in the INSPECT the main control.
pitched, constant. Changes in main control REPAIR or INSTALL new
pitch with throttle position components as necessary.
REFER to Section 307-01.
Incorrect band/clutch apply CARRY OUT the line
pressure pressure tests. REPAIR or
INSTALL components as
necessary. REFER to Section
307-01.
Worn or damaged torque CARRY OUT the torque
converter converter service and
replacement check. REFER to
Section 307-01.
Clunk occurs when Damaged powertrain mounts INSPECT the powertrain
shifting from PARK to a mounts for damage.
DRIVE or REVERSE INSTALL new mounts as
position necessary.
Damaged or worn pinion CHECK for abnormal bearing
bearings play or roughness. INSTALL
new bearings as necessary.
REFER to Section 205-02A
for Ford 7.5 rear axles or
Section 205-02B for Ford 8.8
integral axles.
Worn or galled driveshaft slip CLEAN and INSPECT the
yoke splines splines of the yoke.
INSTALL a new slip yoke as
necessary. REFER to Section
205-01.
Worn friction elements or INSPECT the transmission
excessive clutch pack end for wear. CHECK that all end
plate play play and clearances are within
specification. REPAIR or
INSTALL new components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 307-01.
Bump occurs when Initial gear engagement Acceptable condition.
shifting from PARK to a
DRIVE or REVERSE
position. Similar to Clunk but
with no sound
Buzz or hiss Incorrect driveline angles CHECK for correct driveline
angles. REPAIR as necessary.
REFER to Driveline Angles
in this section.
Worn or damaged main Using a transmission tester,
control solenoids or valves ACTIVATE the solenoids to
duplicate sound. INSTALL
new components as necessary.
REFER to Section 307-01.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart Automatic Transmission Noise/Vibration (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Vibration a high frequency Transmission cooler lines CHECK the transmission
(20-80 Hz) that is felt through grounded out cooler lines. REPAIR as
the seat or gear shifter. necessary.
Changes with engine speed
Flexplate to torque converter CHECK the flexplate nuts.
nuts loose TIGHTEN to specification.
REFER to Section 307-01.
Fluid filler tube grounded out CHECK the fluid filler tube.
REPAIR as necessary.
Shift cable incorrectly routed, CHECK the shift cable.
grounded out or loose REPAIR as necessary.
Section 307-05.
Shutter or chatter occurs Electrical inputs/outputs CARRY OUT a Torque
with light to medium Vehicle wiring harness Converter Clutch Operation
acceleration from low speeds Incorrect inputs/outputs from Test. RUN on-board
or a stop the powertrain control module diagnostics or self-test.
(PCM), digital transmission REFER to Section 307-01.
range (TR) sensor, brake CLEAR the DTCs, ROAD
pedal position (BPP) sensor, TEST and RERUN on-board
throttle position (TP) sensor, diagnostics or self-test.
transmission speed sensor
(TSS), output speed shaft
(OSS) sensor or the torque
converter clutch (TCC)
Pinpoint Tests
The pinpoint tests are a step-by-step diagnostic
process designed to determine the cause of a
condition. It may not always be necessary to follow
a pinpoint test to its conclusion. Carry out only the
steps necessary to correct the condition. Then, test
the system for normal operation. Sometimes, it is
necessary to remove various vehicle components to
gain access to the component requiring testing.
Reinstall all components after verifying system
operation is normal.
PINPOINT TEST A: BRAKE VIBRATION/SHUDDER
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A1 ROAD TEST THE VEHICLE LIGHT BRAKING
Check that the wheel and tires are correct for the vehicle.
Inspect the tires for abnormal wear patterns.
Road test the vehicle. Warm the brakes by slowing the vehicle a
few times from 80-32 km/h (50 to 20 mph) using light braking
Yes
applications. At highway speeds of 89-97 km/h (55-60 mph),
GO to A4.
apply the brake using a light pedal force.
Is there a vibration/shudder felt in the steering wheel, seat No
or brake pedal? GO to A2.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: BRAKE VIBRATION/SHUDDER (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A2 ROAD TEST THE VEHICLE MODERATE TO HEAVY
BRAKING
Road test the vehicle. At highway speeds of 89-97 km/h (55-60 Yes
mph), apply the brake using a moderate to heavy pedal force. For vehicles with ABS, GO to A3.
Is there a vibration/shudder?
For vehicles with standard brakes, GO to
A4.
No
Vehicle is OK. VERIFY condition with
customer. TEST the vehicle for normal
operation.
A3 NORMAL ACTUATION OF THE ABS SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS
During moderate to heavy braking, noise from the hydraulic
control unit (HCU) and pulsation in the brake pedal can be
observed. Pedal pulsation coupled with noise during heavy
braking or on loose gravel, bumps, wet or snowy surfaces is
acceptable and indicates correct functioning of the ABS system.
Yes
Pedal pulsation or steering wheel nibble, (frequency is
GO to A5.
proportioned to the vehicle speed) indicates a concern with a
brake or suspension component. No
Is the vibration/shudder vehicle speed sensitive? The brake system is operating correctly.
A4 APPLICATION OF THE PARKING BRAKE
NOTE: Begin at the front of the vehicle unless the vibration or
shudder has been isolated to the rear.
This test is not applicable to vehicles with drum-in-hat type
parking brakes. For vehicles with drum-in-hat parking brakes,
proceed to the next test. For all other vehicles, apply the parking
brake to identify if the problem is in the front or rear brake. At
Yes
highway speeds of 89-97 km/h (55-60 mph), lightly apply the
GO to A7.
parking brake until the vehicle slows down. Release the parking
brake immediately after the test. No
Is there a vibration/shudder? GO to A5.
A5 CHECK THE FRONT WHEEL BEARINGS
Check the front wheel bearings. Refer to Wheel Bearing Check Yes
in this section. GO to A6.
Are the wheel bearings OK?
No
INSPECT the wheel bearings. ADJUST or
REPAIR as necessary. TEST the system
for normal operation.
A6 CHECK THE FRONT SUSPENSION
Check the front suspension for:
broken or loose bolts.
Yes
damaged springs.
GO to A7.
worn or damaged upper and lower control arm bushings.
loose or rough front bearings. No
uneven tire wear. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Are all the suspension components in satisfactory necessary. TEST the system for normal
condition? operation.
A7 RESURFACE THE FRONT BRAKE DISCS
CAUTION: Do not use a bench lathe to machine brake
discs.
NOTE: Follow the manufacturers instructions to machine the
Yes
brake discs. After machining, make sure the brake disc meets
GO to A8.
the thickness specification.
Resurface the front brake discs. Road test the vehicle. No
Is the vibration/shudder present? Vehicle is OK.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: BRAKE VIBRATION/SHUDDER (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A8 CHECK THE REAR SUSPENSION
Check the rear suspension for:
broken or loose bolts.
damaged or worn springs or spring bushings.
Yes
worn or damaged upper and lower control arm bushings.
GO to A9.
worn or damaged trailing arms.
loose or rough rear bearings. No
uneven tire wear. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Are all the suspension components in satisfactory necessary. TEST the system for normal
condition? operation.
A9 RESURFACE THE REAR BRAKE DISC OR DRUM
CAUTION: Do not use a bench lathe to machine brake Yes
discs. CHECK the front suspension for wear or
damage. RESURFACE the front brake
NOTE: Follow the manufacturers instructions to machine the
discs. TEST the system for normal
brake discs. After machining, make sure the brake disc meets
operation.
the thickness specification.
Resurface the rear brake discs or drums. Road test the vehicle. No
Is the vibration/shudder present? Vehicle is OK.
PINPOINT TEST B: ENGINE TICKING NOISE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B1 CHECK FOR TICKING NOISE AT THE FUEL RAIL
Disconnect the first fuel line clip. Yes
Is the ticking noise gone? CHECK for TSB for applicable vehicle.
REPAIR as necessary. TEST the system
for normal operation.
No
GO to B2.
B2 CHECK FOR TICKING NOISE AT THE FUEL INJECTOR
Using an EngineEAR, listen at the fuel injectors by placing a Yes
probe on each injector. To isolate the faulty injector, disconnect INSTALL a new fuel injector. REFER to
the injector electrical connector and listen for the noise. Section 303-04A or Section 303-04B.
Is the fuel injector the source of the ticking noise? TEST the system for normal operation.
No
GO to B3.
B3 CHECK THE BELT TENSIONER FOR TICKING NOISE
Inspect the accessory drive. Check for the belt tensioner Yes
bottoming at end of travel or not at end of stroke. INSTALL a new belt tensioner. TEST the
Using an EngineEAR, listen at the belt tensioner. system for normal operation.
Is the belt tensioner the source of the noise?
No
GO to B4.
B4 CHECK THE WATER PUMP FOR TICKING NOISE
Using an EngineEAR, listen at the water pump for ticking noise. Yes
Is the water pump the source of the noise? INSTALL a new water pump. REFER to
Section 303-03A. TEST the system for
normal operation.
No
GO to B5.
B5 CHECK FOR AN OBSTRUCTION OF THE COOLING FAN
Inspect the cooling fan for obstructions. Yes
Check the cooling fan and shroud for wear or damage. REPAIR or INSTALL a new cooling fan.
Was there an obstruction or does the cooling fan show REFER to Section 303-03A. TEST the
signs of damage? system for normal operation.
No
GO to B6.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: ENGINE TICKING NOISE (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B6 CHECK THE OIL PUMP FOR TICKING NOISE
Check the oil pump using EngineEARs and probe at the oil filter Yes
adapter to verify the oil pump as a source. INSTALL a new oil pump. REFER to
Is the oil pump the source of the noise? Section 303-01A or Section 303-01B.
TEST the system for normal operation.
No
GO to B7.
B7 CHECK VALVE LIFTERS OR LASH ADJUSTERS FOR
CORRECT OPERATION
Check valve lifter/lash adjuster for correct operation, using Yes
EngineEARs. VERIFY customer concern. CONDUCT a
Are the valve lifters/lash adjusters operating correctly? diagnosis of other suspect components.
No
INSTALL a new valve lifter/lash
adjuster(s). TEST the system for normal
operation.
PINPOINT TEST C: ACCESSORY DRIVE BEARING HOOT
Test Step Result / Action to Take
C1 CHECK THE IDLER AND TENSIONER PULLEY BEARINGS
Carry out the Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure in this section. Yes
Key in START position. INSTALL a new pulley/idler. CARRY OUT
Place an EngineEAR probe directly on the pulley center post or the Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure and
bolt to verify which bearing is making the noise. TEST the system for normal operation.
Key in OFF position.
No
Is either bearing making the noise?
CONDUCT a diagnosis on other suspect
accessory drive components.
PINPOINT TEST D: POWER STEERING MOAN
Test Step Result / Action to Take
D1 CHECK THE POWER STEERING SYSTEM
Carry out the Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure in this section.
Key in START position.
Yes
Turn the steering wheel while the noise is occurring and listen
GO to D2.
for changes in sound pitch or loudness.
Key in OFF position. No
Does the sound pitch or loudness change while turning the CONDUCT a diagnosis on other suspect
steering wheel? accessory drive components.
D2 VERIFY THE SOURCE
Key in START position. Yes
Place an EngineEAR probe near the power steering VERIFY that the supply tube to the pump
pump/reservoir while the noise is occurring. While an assistant is unobstructed. CHECK the fluid condition
turns the steering wheel, listen for changes in sound pitch or and level. DRAIN the fluid and REFILL.
loudness. CARRY OUT the Vehicle Cold Soak
Key in OFF position. Procedure and TEST the system for
Does the sound pitch or loudness change while turning the normal operation. REFER to Section
steering wheel? 211-02.
No
Normal system operation.
PINPOINT TEST E: ENGINE DRIVEN COOLING FAN MOAN
Test Step Result / Action to Take
E1 CHECK THE ENGINE DRIVEN COOLING FAN AFTER A COLD
SOAK
Carry out the Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure in this section.
Yes
Key in START position.
TEST the fan for normal operation. If the
Assess the airflow.
fan tests normal, GO to E2. Otherwise,
Raise the engine speed to 1500 rpm while listening for the moan
REPAIR as necessary.
to increase in proportion to the airflow.
Key in OFF position. No
Does the moan increase in proportion to the airflow? Normal system operation.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST E: ENGINE DRIVEN COOLING FAN MOAN (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
E2 CHECK THE ENGINE DRIVEN COOLING FAN AT NORMAL
OPERATING TEMPERATURE
Key in START position. Yes
Run the engine to normal operating temperature while listening Normal clutch operation.
for the moan to stop.
No
Key in OFF position.
INSTALL a new fan clutch. TEST the
Does the moan stop?
system for normal operation.
PINPOINT TEST F: DRUMMING NOISE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
F1 CHECK THE EXHAUST SYSTEM
Key in START position.
Increase the engine rpm until the noise is the loudest. Note the
engine rpm.
Key in OFF position.
Add approximately 9 kg (20 lb) of weight to the exhaust system.
First place the weight at the tail pipe and test, then at the front
pipe.
Key in START position.
Increase the engine rpm and listen for the drumming noise. Note
Yes
the engine rpm if the noise occurs.
CARRY OUT Exhaust System Neutralizing
Key in OFF position.
in this section. TEST the system for
Using a vibration analyzer (VA), determine the amount of
normal operation.
vibration that occurs with the drumming noise.
Is the noise/vibration reduced or eliminated, or does the No
noise/vibration occur at a different rpm? GO to F2.
F2 POWERTRAIN/DRIVETRAIN MOUNT NEUTRALIZING
Carry out Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount Neutralizing in this Yes
section. Test the system for normal operation. Vehicle OK. TEST the system for normal
Is the noise reduced or eliminated? operation.
No
CONDUCT diagnosis of other suspect
components.
PINPOINT TEST G: ENGINE TICKING, KNOCKING OR CONTINUOUS RATTLE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
G1 CHECK FOR NOISE AT THE VALVE COVERS AND THE FRONT
COVERS (OHC ENGINES)
Carry out the Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure in this section.
Key in START position.
Yes
NOTE: For a short-duration ticking noise, multiple engine starts
REMOVE the appropriate cover and
may be necessary.
INSPECT for loose, worn/broken
Using an EngineEAR, listen closely at the valve covers and the
components. REPAIR as necessary. TEST
front covers (OHC engines) by placing the probe near the
the system for normal operation.
surface of the valve cover and then on the surface front cover.
Key in OFF position. No
Is the noise source apparent? GO to G2.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST G: ENGINE TICKING, KNOCKING OR CONTINUOUS RATTLE (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
G2 CHECK FOR NOISE AT THE CYLINDER BLOCK
Key in START position. Yes
Using an EngineEAR, listen closely at the cylinder block by REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
placing a probe on or near each freeze plug. necessary.
Key in OFF position.
No
Is the noise source apparent?
GO to G3.
G3 CHECK FOR NOISE WHILE DISCONNECTING EACH FUEL
INJECTOR ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR, ONE AT A TIME
Key in START position. Yes
Disconnect each fuel injector electrical connector, one at a time, INSTALL a new fuel injector. TEST the
to decrease piston force and listen for the noise. system for normal operation.
Key in OFF position.
No
Is the noise reduced or eliminated?
INSPECT accessory drive system or the
transmission as a possible source.
PINPOINT TEST H: FRONT SUSPENSION NOISE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
H1 ROAD TEST THE VEHICLE
Test drive the vehicle.
Yes
NOTE: An assistant will be needed for this road test.
GO to H2.
During the road test, drive the vehicle over a rough road. Using
ChassisEARs, determine from which area/component the noise No
is originating. The suspension system is OK. CONDUCT
Is there a squeak, creak or rattle noise? a diagnosis on other suspect systems.
H2 INSPECT THE STEERING SYSTEM
WARNING: The electrical power to the air suspension
system must be shut off prior to hoisting, jacking or towing
an air suspension vehicle. This can be accomplished by
turning off the air suspension switch. Failure to do so can
result in unexpected inflation or deflation of the air springs,
which can result in shifting of the vehicle during these
operations.
Yes
Raise and support the vehicle.
REPAIR the steering system. INSTALL
Check the steering system for wear or damage. Carry out a
new components as necessary. TEST the
steering linkage test. Refer Section 211-00.
system for normal operation.
Inspect the tire wear pattern. Refer to Tire Wear Patterns chart
in this section. No
Are the steering components worn or damaged? GO to H3.
H3 FRONT SHOCK ABSORBER/STRUT CHECK
Check the front shock absorbers/strut mounts for loose bolts or Yes
nuts. TIGHTEN to specifications if loose.
Check the front shock absorbers/struts for wear or damage. INSTALL new front shock absorbers/struts
Carry out a bounce test. if damaged. TEST the system for normal
Are the front shock absorbers/struts loose or damaged? operation.
No
GO to H4.
H4 CHECK THE FRONT SPRINGS
Check the front spring and front spring mounts/brackets for wear Yes
or damage. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Are the front springs or spring mounts/brackets worn or necessary. TEST the system for normal
damaged? operation.
No
GO to H5.
H5 CHECK THE CONTROL ARMS/RADIUS ARMS
Inspect the control arm bushings for wear or damage. Yes
Inspect for twisted or bent control/radius arm. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Are the control/radius arms damaged or worn? necessary. TEST the system for normal
operation.
No
GO to H6.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST H: FRONT SUSPENSION NOISE (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
H6 CHECK THE STABILIZER BAR/TRACK BAR
Check the stabilizer bar/track bar bushings and links for damage Yes
or wear. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Check the stabilizer bar/track bar for damage. necessary. TEST the system for normal
Check for loose or damaged stabilizer bar isolators or brackets. operation.
Are the stabilizer bar/track bar components loose, worn or
No
damaged?
Suspension system OK. CONDUCT
diagnosis on other suspect systems.
PINPOINT TEST I: REAR SUSPENSION NOISE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
I1 ROAD TEST THE VEHICLE
Test drive the vehicle.
Yes
NOTE: An assistant will be needed for this road test.
GO to I2.
During the road test, drive the vehicle over a rough road. Using
ChassisEARs, determine from which area/component the noise No
is originating. The suspension system is OK. Conduct a
Is there a squeak, creak or rattle noise? diagnosis on other suspect systems.
I2 REAR SHOCK ABSORBER/STRUT CHECK
WARNING: The electrical power to the air suspension
system must be shut off prior to hoisting, jacking or towing
an air suspension vehicle. This can be accomplished by
turning off the air suspension switch. Failure to do so can
result in unexpected inflation or deflation of the air springs,
which can result in shifting of the vehicle during these
Yes
operations.
TIGHTEN to specifications if loose.
Raise and support the vehicle.
INSTALL new rear shock absorbers/struts
Check the rear shock absorber/strut mounts for loose bolts or
if damaged. TEST the system for normal
nuts.
operation.
Check the rear shock absorbers/struts for damage. Carry out a
shock absorber check. No
Are the rear shock absorbers/struts loose or damaged? GO to I3.
I3 CHECK THE REAR SPRINGS
Check the rear springs and rear spring mounts/brackets for wear Yes
or damage. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Are the rear springs or spring mounts/brackets worn or necessary. TEST the system for normal
damaged? operation.
No
GO to I4.
I4 CHECK THE CONTROL ARMS/TRAILING ARMS
Inspect the control arm/trailing arm bushings for wear or Yes
damage. Check for loose control arm/trailing arm bolts. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Inspect for twisted or bent control arm/trailing arms. necessary. TEST the system for normal
Are the control arm/trailing arms loose, damaged or worn? operation.
No
GO to I5.
I5 CHECK THE STABILIZER BAR/TRACK BAR
Check the stabilizer bar/track bar bushings and links for damage Yes
or wear. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Check the stabilizer bar/track bar for damage. necessary. TEST the system for normal
Check for loose or damaged stabilizer bar isolators or brackets. operation.
Are the stabilizer bar/track bar components loose, worn or
No
damaged?
Suspension system OK. CONDUCT
diagnosis on other suspect systems.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST J: WHEEL AND TIRE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
J1 ROAD TEST THE VEHICLE
NOTE: Wheel or tire vibrations felt in the steering wheel are
most likely related to the front wheel or tire. Vibration felt
through the seat are most likely related to the rear wheel or tire.
This may not always be true, but it can help to isolate the
problem to the front or rear of the vehicle.
Yes
Test drive the vehicle at different speed ranges.
GO to J2.
During the road test, if the vibration can be eliminated by placing
the vehicle in NEUTRAL or is affected by the speed of the No
engine, the cause is not the wheels or tires. The wheel and tires are OK. CONDUCT a
Is there a vibration and noise? diagnosis on other suspect systems.
J2 CHECK THE FRONT WHEEL BEARINGS
Check the front wheel bearings. Refer to Wheel Bearing Check Yes
in this section. GO to J3.
Are the wheel bearings OK?
No
INSPECT the wheel bearings. ADJUST or
REPAIR as necessary. TEST the system
for normal operation.
J3 INSPECT THE TIRES
Check the tires for missing weights. Yes
Check the wheels for damage. CORRECT the condition that caused the
Inspect the tire wear pattern. Refer to the Tire Wear Patterns abnormal wear. INSTALL new tire(s).
chart in this section. TEST the system for normal operation.
Do the tires have an abnormal wear pattern?
No
GO to J4.
J4 TIRE ROTATION
Spin the tires slowly and watch for signs of lateral runout.
Spin the tires slowly and watch for signs of radial runout.
Yes
GO to J5.
No
CHECK the wheel and tire balance.
CORRECT as necessary. TEST the
Are there signs of visual runout? system for normal operation.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST J: WHEEL AND TIRE (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
J5 RADIAL RUNOUT CHECK ON THE TIRE
Measure the radial runout of the wheel and tire assembly. A
typical specification for total radial runout is 1.14 mm (0.045 in).
Yes
GO to J8.
No
Is the radial runout within specifications? GO to J6.
J6 RADIAL RUNOUT CHECK ON THE WHEEL
Measure the radial runout of the wheel. A typical specification Yes
for total radial runout is 1.14 mm (0.045 in). INSTALL a new tire. TEST the system for
Is the radial runout within specifications? normal operation.
No
GO to J7.
J7 CHECK THE HUB/BRAKE DISC OR DRUM PILOT RUNOUT OR
BOLT CIRCLE RUNOUT
Measure the pilot or bolt circle runout. A typical specification for Yes
radial runout is: INSTALL a new wheel. TEST the system
Pilot runout less than 0.15 mm (0.006 in). for normal operation.
Bolt circle runout less than 0.38 mm (0.015 in).
No
Is the radial runout within specifications?
REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
necessary. REFER to Section 204-01 for
the front wheels or Section 204-02 for the
rear wheels.
J8 LATERAL RUNOUT CHECK ON THE TIRE
Measure the lateral runout of the wheel and tire assembly. A
typical specification for total lateral runout is 1.14 mm (0.045 in).
Yes
Wheel and tires OK. CONDUCT diagnosis
on other suspect systems.
No
Is the lateral runout within specifications? GO to J9.
J9 LATERAL RUNOUT CHECK ON THE WHEEL
Measure the lateral runout of the wheel. A typical specification Yes
for total radial runout is 1.14mm (0.045 in). INSTALL a new tire. TEST the system for
Is the lateral runout within specifications? normal operation.
No
GO to J10.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST J: WHEEL AND TIRE (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
J10 CHECK THE FLANGE FACE LATERAL RUNOUT
Measure the flange face lateral runout. A typical specification for Yes
lateral runout is: INSTALL a new wheel. TEST the system
Hub/brake disc less than 0.13 mm (0.005 in). for normal operation.
Axle shaft less than 0.25 mm (0.010 in).
No
Is the lateral runout within specifications?
REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
necessary. REFER to Section 204-04.
PINPOINT TEST K: HIGH SPEED SHAKE OR SHIMMY
Test Step Result / Action to Take
K1 CHECK FOR FRONT WHEEL BEARING ROUGHNESS
Chock the rear wheels. Yes
Raise and support the front end of the vehicle so that the front INSPECT the wheel bearings. REPAIR as
wheel and tire assemblies can spin. necessary. TEST the system for normal
Spin the front tires by hand. Refer to Wheel Bearing Check in operation.
this section.
No
Do the wheel bearings feel rough?
GO to K2.
K2 CHECK THE END PLAY OF THE FRONT WHEEL BEARINGS
Check the end play of the front wheel bearings. Refer to Section Yes
204-01. GO to K3.
Is the end play OK?
No
ADJUST or REPAIR as necessary. TEST
the system for normal operation.
K3 MEASURE THE LATERAL RUNOUT AND THE RADIAL RUNOUT
OF THE FRONT WHEELS ON THE VEHICLE
Measure the lateral runout and the radial runout of the front Yes
wheels on the vehicle. Refer to GO to Pinpoint Test J. GO to K4.
Are the measurements within specifications?
No
INSTALL new wheels as necessary and
BALANCE the assembly. TEST the
system for normal operation.
K4 MEASURE THE LATERAL RUNOUT OF THE FRONT TIRES ON
THE VEHICLE
Measure the lateral runout of the front tires on the vehicle. GO Yes
to Pinpoint Test J. GO to K5.
Is the runout within specifications?
No
INSTALL new tires as necessary and
BALANCE the assembly. TEST the
system for normal operation.
K5 MEASURE THE RADIAL RUNOUT OF THE FRONT TIRES ON
THE VEHICLE
Measure the radial runout of the front tires on the vehicle. GO to Yes
Pinpoint Test J. BALANCE the front wheel and tire
Is the runout within specifications? assemblies. If any tire cannot be balanced,
INSTALL a new tire. TEST the system for
normal operation.
No
GO to K6.
K6 MATCH MOUNT THE TIRE AND WHEEL ASSEMBLY
Mark the high runout location on the tire and also on the wheel. Yes
Break the assembly down and rotate the tire 180 degrees BALANCE the assembly. TEST the
(halfway around) on the wheel. Inflate the tire and measure the system for normal operation.
radial runout.
No
Is the runout within specifications?
If the high spot is not within 101.6 mm (4
inches) of the first high spot on the tire,
GO to K7.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST K: HIGH SPEED SHAKE OR SHIMMY (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
K7 MEASURE THE WHEEL FLANGE RUNOUT
Dismount the tire and mount the wheel on a wheel balancer.
Measure the runout on both wheel flanges. GO to Pinpoint Test
J.
Yes
LOCATE and MARK the low spot on the
wheel. INSTALL the tire, matching the
high spot on the tire with the low spot on
the wheel. BALANCE the assembly. TEST
the system for normal operation. If the
condition persists, GO to K8.
No
INSTALL a new wheel. CHECK the runout
on the new wheel. If the new wheel is
within limits, LOCATE and MARK the low
spot. INSTALL the tire, matching the high
spot on the tire with the low spot on the
wheel. BALANCE the assembly. TEST the
system for normal operation. If the
Is the runout within specifications? condition persists, GO to K8.
K8 CHECK FOR VIBRATION FROM THE FRONT OF THE VEHICLE
WARNING: If only one drive wheel is allowed to rotate,
speed must be limited to 55 km/h (34 mph) using the
speedometer reading, since actual wheel speed will be twice
that indicated on the speedometer. Exceeding a speed of 55
km/h (34 mph) or allowing the drive wheel to hang
unsupported can result in tire disintegration or differential
Yes
failure, which can cause serious personal injury and extensive
SUBSTITUTE known good wheel and tire
vehicle damage.
assemblies as necessary. TEST the
Spin the front wheel and tire assemblies with a wheel balancer
system for normal operation.
while the vehicle is raised on a hoist. Feel for vibration in the
front fender or while seated in the vehicle. No
Is the vibration present? GO to K9.
K9 CHECK FOR VIBRATION FROM THE REAR OF THE VEHICLE
WARNING: If only one drive wheel is allowed to rotate,
speed must be limited to 55 km/h (34 mph) using the
speedometer reading, since actual wheel speed will be twice
that indicated on the speedometer. Exceeding a speed of 55
km/h (34 mph) or allowing the drive wheel to hang
unsupported can result in tire disintegration or differential
failure, which can cause serious personal injury and extensive
vehicle damage.
Chock the front wheels.
Raise and support the rear end of the vehicle so that the rear
Yes
wheel and tire assemblies can spin.
GO to K10.
Engage the drivetrain and carefully accelerate the drive wheels
while checking for vibration. No
Is the vibration present? TEST the system for normal operation.
K10 CHECK THE DRIVETRAIN
WARNING: If only one drive wheel is allowed to rotate,
speed must be limited to 55 km/h (34 mph) using the
speedometer reading, since actual wheel speed will be twice
that indicated on the speedometer. Exceeding a speed of 55
km/h (34 mph) or allowing the drive wheel to hang
unsupported can result in tire disintegration or differential
Yes
failure, which can cause serious personal injury and extensive
CHECK/TEST the drivetrain and driveline
vehicle damage.
components. TEST the system for normal
Remove the rear wheel and tire assemblies. Refer to the
operation.
appropriate workshop manual for the service procedures.
Secure the brake drums (if so equipped), by installing wheel hub No
bolt nuts, reversed. SUBSTITUTE known good wheel and tire
Carefully accelerate the drivetrain while checking for vibration. assemblies as necessary. TEST the
Is the vibration present? system for normal operation.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST L: CLUTCH VIBRATION
Test Step Result / Action to Take
L1 CHECK ENGINE COMPONENTS FOR GROUNDING
NOTE: Make sure the clutch is the cause of the vibration
concern. The vibration should occur during clutch operation. The
clutch can also be difficult to engage or disengage. Eliminate all
related systems before checking the clutch components.
NOTE: Check the driveline angles and driveshaft runout before
Yes
disassembling the clutch system. Refer to Section 205-00 for the
REPAIR as necessary. TEST the system
correct driveline angle specifications.
for normal operation.
Check the powertrain/drivetrain mounts, exhaust manifolds or
other engine components for grounding on the chassis. No
Are any mounts or engine components grounded? GO to L2.
L2 CHECK THE ACCESSORY DRIVE
Remove the accessory drive belt. Yes
Does the vibration stop with the accessory drive belt DIAGNOSE the accessory drive
removed? components.
No
GO to L3.
L3 CHECK FOR LOOSE CLUTCH PRESSURE PLATE BOLTS
Check for loose clutch pressure plate bolts. Inspect the clutch Yes
pressure plate for damage or for material between the pressure TIGHTEN the bolts to specifications or if
plate and flywheel. damaged, INSTALL a new clutch pressure
Are there any loose bolts or damage? plate. REFER to Section 308-01. TEST
the system for normal operation.
No
GO to L4.
L4 CHECK THE CLUTCH DISC SPRINGS
Check for worn, broken or loose clutch disc springs. Yes
Are the clutch springs worn, broken or loose? INSTALL a new clutch disc. REFER to
Section 308-01. TEST the system for
normal operation.
No
GO to L5.
L5 CHECK THE CLUTCH DISC SPLINES
Inspect the clutch disc splines for damage or wear. Yes
Is there damage or wear? INSTALL a new clutch disc. REFER to
Section 308-01. TEST the system for
normal operation.
No
GO to L6.
L6 CHECK THE FLYWHEEL BOLTS
Check for loose flywheel bolts. Yes
Are the bolts loose? TIGHTEN the bolts to specifications.
REFER to Section 308-01. TEST the
system for normal operation.
No
GO to L7.
L7 CHECK THE FLYWHEEL SURFACE
Inspect the flywheel surface for wear or damage. Check the Yes
flywheel runout. INSTALL a new flywheel. TEST the
Is there any damage or excessive wear? system for normal operation.
No
Clutch system normal. CONDUCT a
diagnosis on other suspect systems.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST M: TRANSFER CASE VIBRATION
Test Step Result / Action to Take
M1 INSPECT THE TRANSFER CASE
WARNING: The electrical power to the air suspension
system must be shut off prior to hoisting, jacking or towing
an air suspension vehicle. This can be accomplished by
turning off the air suspension switch. Failure to do so can
result in unexpected inflation or deflation of the air springs,
Yes
which can result in shifting of the vehicle during these
TIGHTEN to specifications or INSTALL
operations.
new bolts as necessary. TEST the system
Inspect the transfer case for loose or missing mounting bolts.
for normal operation.
Check for fluid seepage between the transfer case and the
transmission. No
Are the mounting bolts missing or loose? GO to M2.
M2 INSPECT THE REAR DRIVESHAFT
NOTE: Verify that the driveshaft and pinion flange index marks
are aligned.
Inspect the driveshaft for missing weights, damage or
Yes
undercoating.
REPAIR or INSTALL a new driveshaft as
Inspect the U-joints for freedom of movement.
necessary. TEST the system for normal
Check driveshaft runout and, if necessary, check the pinion
operation.
flange runout.
Is the driveshaft or U-joints worn or damaged or No
misaligned? GO to M3.
M3 CHECK THE DRIVELINE ANGLES
Measure the rear driveshaft and pinion angles. Refer to Section Yes
205-00. REPAIR as necessary. TEST the system
Measure the front driveshaft and pinion angles. Refer to Section for normal operation.
205-00.
No
Are the driveline angles incorrect?
GO to M4.
M4 INSPECT THE FRONT DRIVESHAFT
NOTE: Verify that the driveshaft and pinion flange index marks
are aligned.
Yes
Inspect the front driveshaft for missing weights, damage or
REPAIR or INSTALL a new driveshaft as
undercoating.
necessary. TEST the system for normal
Inspect the U-joints and slip yoke for freedom of movement.
operation.
Check driveshaft runout and, if necessary, check the pinion
flange runout. No
Is the driveshaft or U-joints worn or damaged? GO to M5.
M5 ROAD TEST WITH THE FRONT DRIVESHAFT ONLY
NOTE: Index mark the driveshaft to the pinion flange and to the
output shaft before removal.
Yes
Remove the rear driveshaft.
INSTALL and BALANCE the rear
Plug the transfer case with an output shaft seal plug.
driveshaft. TEST the system for normal
NOTE: Shift the transfer case into four wheel drive (4WD) high
operation.
so the vehicle is driven by the front driveshaft only.
Test drive the vehicle. No
Is the vibration gone? GO to M6.
M6 ROAD TEST WITH THE REAR DRIVESHAFT ONLY
NOTE: Index mark the front driveshaft to the pinion flange. Yes
INSTALL and BALANCE the front
Remove the front driveshaft.
driveshaft. TEST the system for normal
Test drive the vehicle.
operation.
Is the vibration gone?
No
GO to M7.
M7 TRANSFER CASE TAIL SHAFT INSPECTION
Inspect the splines of the output shaft for wear or damage. Yes
Inspect the splines of the driveshaft slip yoke for wear or REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
damage. necessary. TEST the system for normal
Are the splines worn or damaged? operation.
No
The transfer case is OK. CONDUCT a
diagnosis on other suspect systems.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Component Tests Wheel Hub Bolt Circle Runout
NOTE: The brake discs must be removed to carry
Idle Air Control (IAC) Valve
out all runout measurements.
1. Open the hood.
1. Position the special tool on the wheel hub bolt,
2. NOTE: Key symptom is elevated idle speed
as close to the hub face as possible. Zero the
while noise is occurring.
indicator to allow the pointer to deflect either
NOTE: Snapping the throttle can induce the way.
noise.
Verify the condition by operating the vehicle
for a short time.
3. Inspect the IAC valve. If physical evidence of
contamination exists, install a new IAC valve.
4. While the noise is occurring, either place an
EngineEAR probe near the IAC valve and the
inlet tube, or create a 6.35-mm (0.25-in) to
12.7-mm (0.50-in) air gap between the inlet
tube and the clean air tube. If the IAC valve is
making the noise, install a new IAC valve.
5. Test the vehicle for normal operation.
2. Rotate the hub until the next bolt is contacted.
Steering Gear Grunt/Shudder Test
Record the measurement and continue until
1. Start and run the vehicle to operating each bolt is checked. The difference between
temperature. the maximum and minimum contact readings
will be the total wheel hub bolt circle runout.
2. Set engine idle speed to 1200 rpm.
The runout must not exceed 0.38 mm (0.015
3. CAUTION: Do not hold the steering
in).
wheel against the stops for more than three
Pilot Runout
to five seconds at a time. Damage to the
power steering pump will occur.
1. Position the special tools on the pilot, as close
to the hub as possible. Zero the indicator to
Rotate the steering wheel to the RH stop, then
allow the pointer to deflect either way.
turn the steering wheel 90 degrees back from
that position. Turn the steering wheel slowly in
a 15 to 30 degree arc.
4. Turn the steering wheel another 90 degrees.
Turn the steering wheel slowly in a 15 to 30
degree arc.
5. Repeat the test with power steering fluid at
different temperatures.
6. If a light grunt is heard or a low (50-200 Hz)
shudder is present, this is a normal steering
system condition.
7. If a loud grunt is heard, or a strong shudder is
felt, fill and purge the power steering system.
2. Rotate the hub 1 full turn and note the
maximum and minimum readings. The
difference between the maximum and minimum
readings will be the total pilot runout. Pilot
runout must not exceed 0.15 mm (0.006 in).
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100-04-59 100-04-59 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Wheel Hub Runout
2. Rotate the hub 1 full turn and note the
maximum and minimum readings. The
1. Position the special tool on the wheel hub, as
difference between the maximum and minimum
close to the outer edge as possible. Zero the
readings will be the total wheel hub runout. The
indicator to allow the pointer to deflect either
runout must not exceed 0.127 mm (0.005 in).
way.
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100-04-60 100-04-60 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Tire Wear Patterns and frequency calculations
Tire Wear Chart
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100-04-61 100-04-61 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Wheel and tire NVH concerns are directly related to For a vibration concern, use the vehicle speed to
vehicle speed and are not generally affected by determine tire/wheel frequency and rpm. Calculate
acceleration, coasting or decelerating. Also, tire and wheel rpm and frequency by carrying out
out-of-balance wheel and tires can vibrate at more and following:
than one speed. A vibration that is affected by the
Measure the diameter of the tire.
engine rpm, or is eliminated by placing the
Record the speed at which the vibration occurs.
transmission in NEUTRAL is not related to the tire
and wheel. As a general rule, tire and wheel
Obtain the corresponding tire and wheel rpm and
vibrations felt in the steering wheel are related to
frequency from the Tire Speed and Frequency
the front tire and wheel assemblies. Vibrations felt
Chart.
in the seat or floor are related to the rear tire and
If the vehicle speed is not listed, divide the
wheel assemblies. This can initially isolate a
vehicle speed at which the vibration occurs by
concern to the front or rear.
16 km/h (10 mph). Multiply that number by
Careful attention must be paid to the tire and
16 km/h (10 mph) tire rpm listed for that tire
wheels. There are several symptoms that can be
diameter in the chart. Then divide that number
caused by damaged or worn tire and wheels. Carry
by 60. For example: a 40 mph vibration with
out a careful visual inspection of the tires and wheel
835 mm (33 in) tires. 40 10 = 4. Multiply 4
assemblies. Spin the tires slowly and watch for
by 105 = 420 rpm. Divide 420 rpm by 60
signs of lateral or radial runout. Refer to the tire
seconds = 7 Hz at 40 mph.
wear chart to determine the tire wear conditions and
actions.
Tire Speed and Frequency Chart
Tire Diameter Tire RPM/Hz Tire RPM/Hz Tire RPM/Hz Tire RPM/Hz
mm (inch) @ 16 km/h (10 mph) @ 80 km/h (50 mph) @ 97 km/h (60 mph) @ 113 km/h (70
mph)
483 (19) 182 910/15 1092/18 1274/21
508 (20) 173 865/14 1038/17 1211/20
533 (21) 165 825/14 990/16 1155/19
560 (22) 158 790/13 948/16 1106/18
585 (23) 151 755/13 906/15 1057/18
610 (24) 145 725/12 870/14 1015/17
635 (25) 139 695/12 834/14 973/16
660 (26) 134 670/11 804/13 938/16
685 (27) 129 645/11 774/13 903/15
710 (28) 124 620/10 744/12 868/14
735 (29) 119 595/10 714/12 833/14
760 (30) 115 575/10 690/11 805/13
785 (31) 111 555/9 666/11 777/13
810 (32) 108 540/9 648/11 756/13
835 (33) 105 525/9 630/10 735/12
864 (34) 102 510/8 612/10 714/12
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100-04-1 100-04-1 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
GENERAL PROCEDURES
7. Tighten the RH and LH engine mount nuts.
Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount
Neutralizing Tighten the nuts to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
The front 2 engine mounts are neutralized.
NOTE: This procedure applies to both the 4.0L
SOHC engine and the 4.6L (3V) engine.
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. Working under the hood, loosen the RH and
LH engine mount nuts.
8. Raise the vehicle.
9. Place a transmission jack under the
transmission.
Slightly raise the transmission to remove the
weight from the transmission mount.
10. Loosen the 4 rear transmission mount outer
bolts.
3. Raise the vehicle.
The transmission should be fully supported
by the transmission jack.
4. Remove the rear transmission mount center
bolt.
11. Raise the transmission until it is not contacting
the transmission mount.
5. Lower the vehicle.
12. Install the rear transmission center bolt. Do not
6. Move the vehicle in forward and reverse 0.6-1.2
tighten at this time.
meters (2-4 feet).
13. Lower the transmission until it sits at the
installed height.
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100-04-2 100-04-2 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
14. Center the transmission mount until the gap
between the transmission mount snubber and
the front face of the transmission mount is the
same as the gap between the transmission
mount snubber and the rear face or the
transmission mount.
1 The entire gap of the front transmission
mount snubber equals the entire gap of the
rear mount snubber.
16. Tighten the rear transmission center bolt to
specification.
Tighten to 70 Nm (52 lb-ft).
15. Tighten the 4 rear transmission mount outer
bolts. Remove the transmission jack, check that
the gaps are still equally spaced.
Tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
17. Lower the vehicle.
18. Test the system for normal operation.
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100-04-1 100-04-1 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Wheel Bearing Check
1. WARNING: The electrical power to
the air suspension system must be shut off
prior to hoisting, jacking or towing an air
suspension vehicle. This can be accomplished
by turning off the air suspension switch.
Failure to do so can result in unexpected
inflation or deflation of the air springs,
which can result in shifting of the vehicle
during these operations.
Raise the vehicle until the front tires are off the
floor.
Make sure the wheels are in a straight
forward position.
2. NOTE: Make sure the wheel rotates freely and
that the brake pads are retraced sufficiently to
allow free movement of the tire and wheel
assembly.
Spin the tire by hand to check the wheel
bearings for roughness.
3. Grip each front tire at the top and bottom and
move the wheel inward and outward while
lifting the weight of the tire off the front wheel
bearing.
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100-04-2 100-04-2 Noise, Vibration and Harshness
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
4. If the tire and wheel (hub) is loose on the
spindle, does not rotate freely or has a rough
feeling when spun, carry out one of the
following:
1 On vehicles with inner and outer bearings,
inspect the bearings and cups for wear or
damage. Adjust or install new bearings and
cups as necessary.
2 On vehicles with one sealed bearing, install
a new wheel hub.
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204-00-1 204-00-1 Suspension System General Information
General Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Item Specification
Alignment Specifications
Rear Coupe 115 mm 8 mm (4.5 in
Total/ 0.3 in)
Item LH RH Split
Dogtracking
Front
Maximum 13 mm (0.5 in)
Caster 7.1 7.1 0
Clear vision (negative 0 3
0.75 0.75 0.75
value is counterclockwise)
Camber -0.75 -0.75 0
Ball Joint Deflection
0.75 0.75 0.75
Lower ball joint 0-0.3 mm (0-0.012 in)
Toe (positive value is 0.10
toe-in, negative value 0.20
is toe-out)
Torque Specifications
Description Nm lb-ft
General Specifications
Tie-rod jam nut 55 41
Item Specification
Lower control arm rear 175 129
Front Ride Height inboard cam nut
Front 37 mm 8 mm (1.5 in Strut-to-wheel spindle cam 200 148
0.3 in) nut
Rear Ride Height Brake line bracket bolt 20 15
Rear Convertible 118 mm 8 mm (4.6 in Wheel speed sensor bolt 15 11
0.3 in)
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204-00-1 204-00-1 Suspension System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Camber Adjustment Front 4. CAUTION: Support the wheel spindle
using mechanics wire.
1. NOTE: If camber adjustment is necessary to Note the orientation of the strut-to-spindle bolts
resolve a vehicle alignment issue, then slotting and flag nuts, then remove and discard the bolts
the strut at the lower mounting plate and and flag nuts.
installing a cam bolt is an acceptable method.
This procedure should not be routinely
5. CAUTION: Do not enlarge the holes
performed with all alignments and only after
any more than indicated by the etchings on
all other possible sources have been inspected
the strut mount.
and corrected as necessary.
Using a suitable grinding tool, enlarge the
With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
strut-to-wheel spindle lower mounting holes as
hoist. For additional information, refer to
indicated by the etchings in the strut lower
Section 100-02.
mount.
Remove any burrs.
2. Remove the wheel speed sensor bolt and
Clean and paint any exposed metal.
position the sensor aside.
6. NOTE: Do not fully tighten the cam bolts until
3. Remove the brake line bracket bolt and
the alignment has been corrected.
disconnect the wheel speed sensor wire from
the bracket.
Position the wheel spindle and install a cam
adjusting nut and bolt in the bottom location,
using the opposite orientation noted in Step 4.
Then install a new bolt and flag nut in the top
location.
Tighten the upper bolt and cam nut until
snug.
7. Position the brake line bracket and install the
bolt, connect the wheel speed sensor wire to the
bracket.
Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
8. Position the wheel speed sensor and install the
bolt.
Tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
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204-00-2 204-00-2 Suspension System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
9. Using alignment equipment and the 10. Using the cam bolt, adjust the front camber
manufacturers instructions, measure the front until it is within specifications.
camber.
Tighten the upper bolt and the cam nut to
200 Nm (148 lb-ft).
11. Recheck the front camber settings, adjust as
necessary.
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204-00-1 204-00-1 Suspension System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES
3. Install the front lower control arm using a cam
Caster Adjustment Front
bolt and a new nut in the rear inboard mounting
hole. For additional information, refer to
1. NOTE: If caster adjustment is necessary to
Section 204-01.
resolve a vehicle alignment issue, then slotting
Do not tighten the cam bolt until the
the subframe and installing cam bolts is an
alignment has been corrected.
acceptable method. This procedure should not
be routinely performed with all alignments and
only after all other possible sources have been
inspected and corrected as necessary.
Remove the front lower control arm. For
additional information, refer to Section 204-01.
2. CAUTION: Do not elongate the hole
any more than indicated by the etchings on
the subframe.
Using a suitable grinding tool, elongate the
lower control arm rear outboard mounting hole
as indicated by the etchings in the subframe.
Remove any burrs.
4. Using alignment equipment and the
Clean and paint any exposed metal.
manufacturers instructions, measure the caster.
5. Using the cam bolt, adjust the front caster until
it is within specifications.
Tighten the nut to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
6. Recheck the caster settings and adjust as
necessary
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204-00-1 204-00-1 Suspension System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
X Install a new shock absorber, if
Suspension System
necessary.
Inspection and Verification
Vehicle Sag: Many times new shock
1. Road test.
absorbers are installed in an effort to solve a
vehicle sag concern. Shock absorbers by
Verify the customers concern by
design are hydraulic damping units only
performing a road test on a smooth road.
and, unlike suspension springs, do not
2. Inspect tires.
support any suspension loads. Therefore,
Check the tire pressure with all normal
installing a new shock absorber will not
loads in the vehicle and the tires cold. For
correct a vehicle sag concern.
additional information, refer to the vehicle
Installment in Pairs: In the past it was
certification (VC) label.
recommended that new shock absorbers be
Verify that all tires are sized to
installed in pairs if one unit became
specification.
unrepairable. New shock absorbers no longer
need to be installed in pairs when only one
Inspect the tires for incorrect wear and
unit is not repairable.
damage.
3. Inspect chassis and underbody.
Visual Inspection Chart
Remove any excessive accumulation of
Mechanical
mud, dirt or road deposits from the chassis
Front wheel bearing(s)
and underbody.
Loose or damaged front or rear suspension
components 4. Inspect for aftermarket equipment.
Loose, damaged or missing suspension fastener(s)
Check for aftermarket changes to the
Damaged spring(s)
steering, suspension, wheel and tire
Damaged or leaking strut and spring assemblies
components (such as competition, heavy Damaged or leaking shock absorber(s)
Worn or damaged suspension bushing(s)
duty, etc.). The specifications shown in this
Loose, worn or damaged steering system components
manual do not apply to vehicles equipped
Damaged axle components
with aftermarket equipment.
5. Inspect shock absorbers.
6. If an obvious cause for an observed or reported
All vehicles are equipped with gas-pressurized
condition is found, correct the cause (if
hydraulic shock absorbers. These shock
possible) before proceeding to the next step.
absorbers are not adjustable or refillable and
7. If the fault is not visually evident, determine
cannot be repaired.
the symptom and GO to Symptom Chart.
Oil Leak: A light film of oil (weepage) on
the upper portion of the shock absorber is
permissible and is a result or correct shock
lubrication. Weepage is a condition in which
a film of oil accumulates on the thin tube
(body) and is normally noticed due to the
collection of dust in this area. If shock
absorbers exhibit this weepage condition,
they are functional units and new shock
absorbers should not be installed. Leakage is
a condition in which the entire shock
absorber body is covered with oil and the
oil will drip from the shock absorber onto
the pavement. If condition exists:
X Make sure fluid observed is not from
sources other than the shock absorber.
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204-00-2 204-00-2 Suspension System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart
Symptom Chart
Condition Possible Sources Action
Incorrect thrust angle Incorrect rear thrust angle CHECK the rear wheel
(dogtracking) alignment.
Rear suspension components INSPECT the rear suspension
system. REPAIR or
INSTALL new suspension
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 204-02.
Drive axle damaged REPAIR as necessary. Refer
to the appropriate section in
Group 205 for the procedure.
Drift/pull Unequal tire pressure ADJUST tire pressure.
Excessive side-to-side CHECK the wheel alignment.
difference in caster or camber ADJUST as necessary
Tire forces ROTATE tires front to rear.
Unevenly loaded or NOTIFY the customer of
overloaded vehicle incorrect vehicle loading.
Steering components REFER to Section 211-00.
Brake drag REFER to Section 206-00.
Front bottoming or riding low Strut(s) INSTALL new strut(s) as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01.
Front coil springs CHECK ride height.
INSTALL new springs as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01.
Incorrect tire wear Incorrect tire pressure (rapid ADJUST tire pressure.
center rib or inner and outer
edge wear)
Excessive front or rear toe CHECK the wheel alignment.
(rapid inner or outer edge ADJUST as necessary.
wear)
Excessive negative or positive
camber (rapid inner or outer
edge wear)
Tires out of balance (tires BALANCE tires.
cupped or dished)
Rough ride Strut(s) INSTALL new strut(s) as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01.
Shock absorber(s) INSTALL new shock
absorber(s) as necessary.
Front coil springs or rear INSTALL new front coil
springs springs or rear springs as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01 or Section 204-02.
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204-00-3 204-00-3 Suspension System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Shimmy or wheel tramp Loose wheel nut(s) TIGHTEN to specification.
REFER to Section 204-04.
Loose front suspension TIGHTEN to specification.
fasteners REFER to Section 204-01.
Front wheel bearing(s) REFER to Section 100-04
Wheel or tire runout REFER to Section 204-04.
Tire flatspotting
Shock absorber(s) INSTALL new shock
absorber(s) as necessary.
Loose, worn or damaged ball GO to the Ball Joint
joint(s) Inspection component test in
this section.
Loose, worn or damaged REFER to Section 211-00.
steering components
Front wheel alignment CHECK the wheel alignment.
ADJUST as necessary.
Sticky steering, poor Ball joint(s) GO to the Ball Joint
returnability Inspection component test in
this section
Steering components REFER to Section 211-00.
Steering wheel off-center Unequal front or rear toe CHECK the wheel alignment.
settings (side-to-side) ADJUST as necessary.
Steering components REFER to Section 211-00.
Sway or roll Overloaded, unevenly or NOTIFY the customer of
incorrectly loaded vehicle incorrect vehicle loading.
Loose wheel nut(s) TIGHTEN to specification.
REFER to Section 204-04.
Strut(s) INSTALL new strut(s) as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01.
Shock absorber(s) INSTALL new shock
absorber(s) as necessary.
Loose front stabilizer bar or TIGHTEN to specification.
rear stabilizer bar REFER to Section 204-01 or
Section 204-02.
Worn stabilizer assembly INSTALL new bushing(s) as
bushing(s) necessary. REFER to Section
204-01 or Section 204-02.
Front coil spring(s) or rear INSTALL new front coil
spring(s) springs or rear springs as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01 or Section 204-02.
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204-00-4 204-00-4 Suspension System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Vehicle leans to one side Unevenly loaded or NOTIFY the customer of
overloaded vehicle incorrect vehicle loading.
Front or rear suspension INSPECT the front and rear
components suspension system. REPAIR
or INSTALL new suspension
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 204-01 or
Section 204-02.
Front coil springs or rear INSTALL new front coil
springs springs or rear springs as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01 or Section 204-02.
Incorrect ride height. Lateral CHECK ride height.
tilt out of specification INSTALL new front coil
springs or rear springs as
necessary. REFER to Section
204-01 or Section 204-02.
Vibration/noise Tire or wheel runout REFER to Section 100-04.
Tire flatspotting
Wheel bearings
Wheel hubs
Brake components
Suspension components
Steering components
Wander Unevenly loaded or NOTIFY the customer of
overloaded vehicle incorrect vehicle loading.
Ball joint(s) GO to the Ball Joint
Inspection component test in
this section.
Front wheel bearing(s) REFER to Section 100-04
Loose, worn or damaged INSTALL new suspension
suspension component(s) components as necessary.
REFER to Section 204-01 or
Section 204-02.
Loose suspension fasteners TIGHTEN to specification.
REFER to Section 204-01 or
Section 204-02.
Steering components REFER to Section 211-00.
Wheel alignment CHECK wheel alignment.
ADJUST as necessary
(excessive total front toe out).
Component Tests 3. Inspect the ball joint and ball joint boot for
damage.
Ball Joint Inspection
If the ball joint or ball joint boot is
1. Prior to inspecting the ball joints for wear,
damaged, install a new ball joint as
inspect the wheel bearings. For additional
necessary. For additional information, refer
information, refer to Section 100-04.
to Section 204-01.
2. NOTE: In order to obtain accurate
measurements, the suspension must be in full
rebound with the weight of the vehicle
supported by the frame.
Raise and support the vehicle by the frame to
allow the wheels to hang in the rebound
position.
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204-00-5 204-00-5 Suspension System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
If relative movement is found, continue with
4. CAUTION: Do not use any tools or
Step 5.
equipment to move the wheel and tire
assembly or suspension components while
5. NOTE: In order to obtain an accurate
checking for relative movement or suspension
measurement, the dial indicator should be
damage can occur. The use of tools or
aligned as close as possible with the vertical
equipment will also create relative movement
axis (center line) of the ball joint.
that may not exist when using hand force.
To measure ball joint deflection, attach a
Relative movement must be measured using
suitable dial indicator with a flexible arm
hand force only.
between the lower control arm and the wheel
Inspect the ball joint for relative movement by
knuckle or ball joint stud.
alternately pulling downward and pushing
upward on the lower control arm by hand. Note
any relative vertical movement between the
wheel knuckle and lower arm at the lower ball
joint.
If relative movement is not felt or seen, the
ball joint is OK. Do not install a new ball
joint
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204-00-6 204-00-6 Suspension System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
6. Measure the ball joint deflection while pushing If the deflection meets the specification, no
up and pulling down on the lower control arm, further action is required.
by hand.
If the deflection exceeds the specification, a
new ball joint must be installed. For
additional information, refer to Section
204-01.
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204-00-1 204-00-1 Suspension System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Toe Adjustment Front
1. Start the engine and center the steering wheel.
2. Turn the engine off and, using a suitable
steering wheel holding device, lock the steering
wheel in the straight ahead position.
3. Using alignment equipment and the
manufacturers instructions, measure the front
toe.
4. Remove the clamps.
7. NOTE: Do not allow the inner tie rods to
rotate while tightening the jam nuts.
Tighten the jam nuts to 55 Nm (41 lb-ft).
5. Loosen the jam nuts.
8. Install the clamps.
6. NOTE: Do not allow the steering gear bellows
to twist when the inner tie rod is rotated.
Rotate the inner tie rods until the toe reading is
9. Recheck the toe settings and adjust as
within specifications.
necessary.
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204-00-1 204-00-1 Suspension System General Information
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Caster is the deviation from vertical of an imaginary
Wheel Alignment Angles
line drawn through the pivot points (top of strut and
Camber and toe are adjustable on the front
lower ball joint), when viewed from the side. The
suspension systems. Front camber is adjusted
caster specifications in this section will give the
through the use of a service repair kit (2B236).
vehicle the best directional stability characteristics
Caster is preset at the factory and should only be
when loaded and driven. The caster setting is not
adjusted, through the use of a service repair kit
related to tire wear.
(2B236), after all other possible sources have been
inspected and corrected as necessary. Front toe is
Toe
adjusted by the use of the front wheel spindle tie
Positive Toe (Toe In)
rod.
Camber
Negative and Positive Camber
Negative Toe (Toe Out)
Camber is the vertical tilt of the wheel when viewed
from the front. Camber can be positive or negative
and has a direct effect on tire wear.
Caster
The vehicle toe setting affects tire wear and
directional stability.
Item Part Number Description
1 True vertical
2 Positive caster angle
3 Strut-to-ball joint centerline
4 Pivot centerline
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204-00-2 204-00-2 Suspension System General Information
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Rear Ride Height Measurement
Ride Height
Front Ride Height Measurement
Item Description
1 Body reinforcement
2 Ride height (shortest distance)
3 Rear axle
Incorrect Thrust Angle (Dogtracking)
Item Description
1 Ride height = B - A
2 Measurement A
3 Measurement B
Item Part Number Description
1 Vehicle centerline
2 Axle centerline
3 Thrust angle
Incorrect thrust angle (also known as dogtracking) is
the condition in which the rear axle is not square to
the chassis. Heavily crowned roads can give the
illusion of dogtracking.
Wander
Wander is the tendency of the vehicle to require
frequent, random left and right steering wheel
corrections to maintain a straight path down a level
road.
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204-00-3 204-00-3 Suspension System General Information
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Shimmy
Drift describes what a vehicle with this condition
does with hands off the steering wheel.
Shimmy, as observed by the driver, is large,
consistent, rotational oscillations of the steering
Drift/pull may be induced by conditions external
wheel resulting from large, side-to-side (lateral)
to the vehicle (that is, wind, road camber).
tire/wheel movements.
Poor Groove Feel
Shimmy is usually experienced near 64 km/h (40
Poor groove feel is characterized by little or no
mph), and can begin or be amplified when the tire
buildup of turning effort felt in the steering wheel
contacts pot holes or irregularities in the road
as the wheel is rocked slowly left and right within
surface.
very small turns around center or straight-ahead
(under 20 degrees of steering wheel turn). Efforts
Nibble
may be said to be flat on center.
Sometimes confused with shimmy, nibble is a
condition resulting from tire interaction with various
Under 20 degrees of turn, most of the turning
road surfaces and observed by the driver as small
effort that builds up comes from the mesh of gear
rotational oscillations of the steering wheel.
teeth in the steering gear. In this range, the
steering wheel is not yet turned enough to feel the
Poor Returnability/Sticky Steering
effort from the self-aligning forces at the road
Poor returnability and sticky steering is used to
wheel or tire patch.
describe the poor return of the steering wheel to
In the diagnosis of a handling problem, it is
center after a turn or steering correction is
important to understand the difference between
completed.
wander and poor groove feel.
Drift/Pull
Pull is a tugging sensation, felt in the steering
wheel, that must be overcome to keep the vehicle
going straight.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Front Suspension
WARNING: All vehicles are equipped with
gas-pressurized shock absorbers which will
extend unassisted. Do not apply heat or flame to
the shock absorbers during removal or
component servicing. Failure to follow these
instructions can result in personal injury.
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
vital components and systems and their failure
can result in major service expense. A new part
with the same part number or an equivalent part
must be installed, if installation is necessary. Do
not use a part of lesser quality or substitute
design. Torque values must be used as specified
during reassembly to ensure correct retention of
these parts. Never attempt to heat, quench or
straighten any front suspension part. Install a
new part.
The front suspension is a MacPherson strut design.
The design consists of:
Front shock absorber
Front wheel spindle
Front suspension lower arm
Front stabilizer bar
Front stabilizer bar link
Front coil spring
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Front Suspension
Refer to Section 204-00.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Lower Arm
4.0L and 4.6L shown, 5.4L similar
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
4 3A053 LH/ Lower control arm 1 W710141 Lower control arm rearward
3A052 RH flag bolt (2 required)
5 W711123 Lower ball joint bolt 2 W709865 Lower control arm forward
bolt
6 W520215 Lower control arm rearward
nut (2 required) 3 W710909 Steering gear bolt (2 required)
(Continued) 7 W520214 Lower ball joint nut
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204-01-2 204-01-2 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
5. CAUTION: Do not damage the
steering gear boot while removing or
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are installing the lower control arm forward bolt.
critical parts because they affect performance of
Remove the lower control arm forward nut and
vital components and systems and their failure
bolt.
can result in major service expense. A new part
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
with the same part number or an equivalent part
must be installed, if installation is necessary. Do
6. NOTE: To ease installation, the position of the
not use a part of lesser quality or substitute
lower control arm nut and flag bolt can be
design. Torque values must be used as specified
reversed to allow installation of the nut from
during reassembly to make sure of correct
underneath the vehicle.
retention of these parts.
Remove the lower control arm rearward nuts
and flag bolts.
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
Section 100-02.
7. Remove the lower control arm and bracket
2. CAUTION: Note the orientation of the assembly.
lower ball joint nut and bolt. They must be
8. Remove the 3 heat shield bolts.
installed using the same orientation.
To install, tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
Remove the lower ball joint nut and bolt.
To install, tighten the nut to 103 Nm (76
9. Remove the heat shield.
lb-ft).
10. CAUTION: Tighten the lower control
3. Separate the lower control arm and the wheel
arm and lower ball joint nuts with the
spindle.
suspension at curb height.
4. Remove the steering gear bolts. Position the
CAUTION: The lower ball joint seal
steering gear to gain access to the lower control
must be fully seated against the knuckle or
arm forward bolt.
premature damage to the ball joint can
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
occur.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
Torque Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
General Specifications
Lower control arm 175 129
Item Specification rearward nuts
Lubricant Brake line bracket bolt 20 15
Silicone Spray Lubricant ESR-M13P4-A Strut rod nut 62 46
XL-6
Strut-to-spindle bolts 200 148
Strut upper mount nuts 35 26
Torque Specifications
Wheel hub nut 300 221
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
Stabilizer bar bracket 70 52
nuts
Caliper anchor plate 133 98
bolts
Stabilizer bar link nuts 115 85
Brake disc shield bolts 20 15
Wheel speed sensor 15 11
bolt
Lower ball joint nut 103 76
Tie-rod end nuts 80 59
Lower control arm 175 129
forward bolt
Steering gear bolts 115 85
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Stabilizer Bar Bushing
Material
Item Specification
Silicone Spray Lubricant ESR-M13P4-A
XL-6
Item Part Number Description
1 5482 Stabilizer bar
2 5484 Stabilizer bar bushing
Removal and Installation
1. Remove the stabilizer bar. For additional
information, refer to Stabilizer Bar in this
section.
2. NOTE: To aid removal, apply a light coat of
lubricant to the necessary parts of the front
stabilizer bar.
Remove the stabilizer bar bushing by sliding if
off the stabilizer bar.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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204-01-2 204-01-2 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
3. NOTE: To aid installation, apply a light coat of
lubricant to the necessary parts of the front
stabilizer bar and the inside diameter of the
stabilizer bar bushing.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Stabilizer Bar Link
Item Part Number Description 2. CAUTION: Use the holding feature to
prevent the studs from turning while
1 5K483 Stabilizer bar link
removing or installing the stabilizer bar link
2 W520214 Stabilizer bar link upper nut
nuts. The boot seal must not be allowed to
3 W520214 Stabilizer bar link lower nut
twist at all while tightening the nuts.
Remove and discard the stabilizer bar link
Removal and Installation
lower nut.
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
3. Disconnect the link from the stabilizer bar.
vital components and systems and their failure
can result in major service expense. A new part
4. CAUTION: Use the holding feature to
with the same part number or an equivalent part
prevent the studs from turning while
must be installed, if installation is necessary. Do
removing or installing the stabilizer bar link
not use a part of lesser quality or substitute
nuts. The boot seal must not be allowed to
design. Torque values must be used as specified
twist at all while tightening the nuts.
during reassembly to make sure of correct
retention of these parts.
Remove and discard the stabilizer bar link
upper nut.
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
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204-01-2 204-01-2 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
5. Disconnect the link from the strut. 6. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Stabilizer Bar
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
3 W520213 Bracket nut (4 required) 1 5482 Stabilizer bar
4 W520214 Stabilizer bar link lower nut 2 5486 Stabilizer bar bracket (2
(2 required) required)
(Continued)
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204-01-2 204-01-2 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
2. CAUTION: Use the holding feature to
prevent the studs from turning while
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are removing or installing the stabilizer bar link
critical parts because they affect performance of nuts. The boot seal must not be allowed to
vital components and systems and their failure twist at all while tightening the nut.
can result in major service expense. A new part
Remove and discard both stabilizer bar link
with the same part number or an equivalent part
lower nuts.
must be installed, if installation is necessary. Do
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
not use a part of lesser quality or substitute
design. Torque values must be used as specified
3. Disconnect both links from the stabilizer bar.
during reassembly to make sure of correct
retention of these parts.
4. Remove and discard the 4 stabilizer bracket
nuts, then remove the stabilizer bar brackets
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
and the stabilizer bar.
hoist. For additional information, refer to
To install, tighten to 70 Nm (52 lb-ft).
Section 100-02.
5. If necessary, remove the stabilizer bar bushings.
For additional information, refer to Stabilizer
Bar Bushing in this section.
6. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Disassembly and Assembly
Strut and Spring Assembly
WARNING: All vehicles are equipped with
gas-pressurized struts which will extend
unassisted. Do not apply heat or flame to the
struts during removal or component servicing.
Failure to follow these instructions can result in
personal injury.
WARNING: The strut and spring assembly
is under extreme load. Do not attempt to
disassemble the strut and spring assembly
without using a spring compressor. Failure to
follow these instructions can result in personal
injury.
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
vital components and systems and their failure
can result in major service expense. A new part
with the same part number must be installed if
installation is necessary. Do not use a new part
of lesser quality or substitute design. Torque
values must be used as specified during
reassembly to make sure of correct retention of
these parts.
1. Remove the strut and spring assembly. For
additional information, refer to Strut and Spring
Item Part Number Description
Assembly in this section.
1 W520215 Strut rod nut and washer
2 18045 Strut
3 Dust boot (part of 18045)
4 Jounce bumper (part of
18045)
5 18183 Upper mount assembly
6 5310 Spring
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204-01-2 204-01-2 Front Suspension
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
2. NOTE: If installing a new spring, make sure 4. If necessary, remove the dust boot and jounce
the part number is correct. Refer to the vehicle bumper.
certification (VC) label for the correct spring
5. Remove the upper mount assembly.
code. Refer to Section 100-01 to convert the
spring code to a part number.
6. Carefully release the tension on the spring
Using a suitable spring compressor, compress
compressor and remove the spring.
the spring until the tension is released from the
strut.
7. When installing the spring onto the strut, make
sure the spring end is positioned against the
seat stop and is resting in the spring seat
pocket.
3. While holding the strut rod, remove and discard
the strut rod nut and washer and remove the
strut.
To install, tighten to 62 Nm (46 lb-ft).
8. To assemble, reverse the disassembly procedure.
Align the notch on the upper bearing
assembly with the clevis at the bottom of
the strut.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Strut and Spring Assembly
Removal and Installation
Item Part Number Description
1 W709870 Strut-to-wheel spindle bolt (2
required) WARNING: All vehicles are equipped with
gas-pressurized struts which will extend
2 Strut and spring assembly
unassisted. Do not apply heat or flame to the
3 N807144 Stabilizer bar link upper nut
struts during removal or component servicing.
4 W711091 Strut-to-wheel spindle flag
Failure to follow these instructions can result in
nut (2 required)
personal injury.
5 W520112 Strut upper mount nut (4
required)
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
vital components and systems and their failure
can result in major service expense. A new part
with the same part number or an equivalent part
must be installed, if installation is necessary. Do
not use a part of lesser quality or substitute
design. Torque values must be used as specified
during reassembly to make sure of correct
retention of these parts.
1. Remove the 4 strut upper mount nuts.
To install, tighten to 35 Nm (26 lb-ft).
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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204-01-2 204-01-2 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
3. Remove the wheel speed sensor bolt and
position the sensor aside.
To install, tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
4. Remove the brake line bracket bolt and
disconnect the wheel speed sensor wire from
the bracket.
To install, tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
8. WARNING: All vehicles are equipped
with gas-pressurized struts which will extend
unassisted. Do not apply heat or flame to the
struts during removal or component
servicing. Failure to follow these instructions
can result in personal injury.
NOTE: If equipped, do not discard the
strut-to-spindle cam nuts and bolts.
Remove and discard the strut-to-spindle bolts
and flag nuts.
To install, tighten to 200 Nm (148 lb-ft).
9. CAUTION: Damage to the lower
5. CAUTION: Use the holding feature to
control arm bushings may occur if the lower
prevent the studs from turning while
control arm is not supported.
removing or installing the stabilizer bar link
nuts. Carefully lower the lower control arm and
remove the strut and spring assembly.
Remove and discard the stabilizer bar link
upper nut and disconnect the link from the To install, the notch and the arrow etched
strut. into the upper bearing assembly must face
the outboard side of the vehicle.
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
10. If necessary, disassemble the strut and spring
6. Using a suitable jack stand, support the lower
assembly. For additional information, refer to
control arm.
Strut and Spring Assembly in this section.
7. If equipped, index mark the 2 strut-to-spindle
11. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
cam bolts.
12. Check and, if necessary, adjust the front end
alignment. For additional information, refer to
Section 204-00.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Wheel Bearing and Wheel Hub
Removal and Installation
Item Part Number Description
1 W710233 Caliper anchor plate bolt (2
required) CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
2 Brake caliper, pads and
anchor plate assembly vital components and systems and their failure
can result in major service expense. A new part
3 1125 Brake disc
with the same part number or an equivalent part
4 1N135 Wheel hub grease cap
must be installed, if installation is necessary. Do
5 3B477 Wheel hub nut
not use a part of lesser quality or substitute
6 Dust shield bolt (3 required)
design. Torque values must be used as specified
7 2K004 Dust shield
during reassembly to make sure of correct
8 2B663/2C300 Wheel hub assembly retention of these parts.
(ABS/non-ABS)
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
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204-01-2 204-01-2 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
2. CAUTION: Do not allow the caliper 5. WARNING: The wheel hub nut is a
and anchor plate assembly to hang from the one-time-use item and must be replaced with
brake hose or damage to the hose can occur. a new nut when removed. Failure to do so
can cause the retainer to come loose during
Remove the anchor plate bolts and position the
vehicle operation resulting in loss of vehicle
brake caliper and anchor plate assembly aside.
control. Failure to follow these instructions
Support the caliper and anchor plate
may result in personal injury.
assembly using mechanics wire.
Remove and discard the wheel hub nut.
To install, tighten to 133 Nm (98 lb-ft).
To install, tighten to 300 Nm (221 lb-ft).
3. Remove the brake disc.
6. Remove the front wheel bearing and hub
assembly.
4. Remove and discard the wheel hub grease cap.
7. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Wheel Spindle
Special Tool(s)
Tie-Rod End Remover
211-001 (TOOL-3290-D) or
Equivalent
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204-01-2 204-01-2 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
4.0L and 4.6L shown, 5.4L similar
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
6 W520214 Lower ball joint nut 1 Brake dust shield bolt (3
required)
7 2C204 Wheel speed sensor
2 2K004 Brake disc shield
8 W711091 Strut-to-wheel spindle flag
nut (2 required) 3 W705606 Tie-rod end nut
9 Wheel speed sensor bolt 4 W711123 Lower ball joint bolt
10 W709870 Strut-to-wheel spindle bolt (2 5 3107/3108 Wheel spindle (LH/RH)
required)
(Continued)
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204-01-3 204-01-3 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
7. Remove the lower ball joint nut and bolt.
To install, tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
8. CAUTION: Do not damage the lower
vital components and systems and their failure
ball joint boot while separating the lower
can result in major service expense. A new part
control arm and the wheel spindle.
with the same part number or an equivalent part
Separate the lower control arm and the wheel
must be installed, if installation is necessary. Do
spindle.
not use a part of lesser quality or substitute
design. Torque values must be used as specified
9. If equipped, index-mark the 2 strut-to-spindle
during reassembly to make sure of correct
cam bolts.
retention of these parts.
1. Remove the wheel bearing and hub assembly.
For additional information, refer to Wheel
Bearing and Wheel Hub in this section.
2. Remove the 3 brake disc shield bolts, then
remove the dust shield.
To install, tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
3. Remove the wheel speed sensor bolt and
position the sensor aside.
To install, tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
4. Remove and discard the tie-rod end nut.
10. WARNING: All vehicles are equipped
with gas-pressurized struts which will extend
To install, tighten to 80 Nm (59 lb-ft).
unassisted. Do not apply heat or flame to the
struts during removal or component
5. CAUTION: Use care not to damage
servicing. Failure to follow these instructions
the tie-rod end dust boot.
can result in personal injury.
Using the special tool, disconnect the tie-rod
NOTE: If equipped, do not discard the
end from the front wheel spindle.
strut-to-spindle cam nuts and bolts.
Remove and discard the strut-to-spindle bolts
and flag nuts.
To install, tighten to 200 Nm (148 lb-ft).
11. Remove the wheel spindle.
12. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
13. Check and, if necessary, adjust the front end
alignment. For additional information, refer to
Section 204-00.
6. Support the front suspension lower arm with a
jack stand.
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204-01-1 204-01-1 Front Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Wheel Studs
Installation
1. Using a press, install a new wheel stud.
Item Part Number Description
1 2B663/2C300 Wheel hub assembly
(ABS/non-ABS)
2 Wheel stud
Removal
1. Remove the wheel bearing and hub assembly.
For additional information, refer to Wheel
Bearing and Wheel Hub in this section.
2. Using a press, remove the wheel stud from the
wheel bearing and hub assembly.
2. Install the wheel bearing and hub assembly. For
additional information, refer to Wheel Bearing
and Wheel Hub in this section.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Lateral Stiffener Bar
Item Part Number Description
1 W711331 Lateral stiffener bar-to-body
bolt (2 required)
2 3424 Lateral stiffener bar
3 W710693 Lateral stiffener bar flag bolt
4 W520214 Lateral stiffener bar nut
Removal and Installation
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
vital parts and systems and their failure can
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
result in major service expense. A new part with
hoist. For additional information, refer to
the same part number must be installed if
Section 100-02.
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
must be used as specified during reassembly to
make sure of correct retention of these parts.
3. CAUTION: Do not support the rear
axle at the differential housing.
1. Mark the rear shock absorber relative to the
Using 2 suitable jackstands, support the rear
protective sleeve with the vehicle in a static,
axle.
level ground position (curb height).
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
4. Raise the rear axle so the mark made on the
rear shock absorber in Step 1 lines up with the
protective sleeve.
6. Remove and discard the lateral stiffener
bar-to-body bolts.
To install, tighten to 62 Nm (46 lb-ft).
5. Remove and discard the RH panhard rod bolt,
7. Remove the lateral stiffener bar.
then remove and discard the lateral stiffener
bar-to-body mount nut and flag bolt.
8. CAUTION: Tighten the RH panhard
To install:
rod bolt while the suspension is at curb
height.
X Tighten the RH panhard rod bolt to 175
Nm (129 lb-ft).
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
X Tighten the lateral stiffener bar-to-body
mount nut to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Lower Arm
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
4 W704886 Lower control arm front bolt 1 5538 Lower control arm (2
(2 required) required)
5 W704888 Lower control arm rear bolt 2 W710089 Lower control arm front nut
(2 required) (2 required)
3 W704991 Lower control arm rear nut (2
required)
(Continued)
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
vital parts and systems and their failure can
result in major service expense. A new part with
the same part number must be installed if
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
must be used as specified during reassembly to
make sure of correct retention of these parts.
1. To aid in installation, mark the rear shock
absorber relative to the protective sleeve with
5. Disconnect the parking brake cable from the
the vehicle in a static, level ground position
rear caliper.
(curb height).
1 Remove the clip.
2 Disconnect the parking brake cable.
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
6. Remove the parking brake cable bracket bolt.
To install, tighten the bolt to 27 Nm (20
3. CAUTION: Do not support the rear
lb-ft).
axle at the differential housing.
Using 2 suitable jack stands, support the rear
axle.
4. Raise the rear axle so the mark made on the
rear shock absorber in Step 1 lines up with the
protective sleeve.
7. Remove and discard the lower arm front bolt.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
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204-02-3 204-02-3 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
8. Remove and discard the lower arm front nut. 9. Remove and discard the lower arm rear bolt
and flag nut and then remove the lower arm.
1 Rotate the nut clockwise.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
2 Remove and discard the nut.
10. CAUTION: Tighten the lower arm
bolts while the suspension is at curb height.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Panhard Rod
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
4 W710689 Panhard rod flag nut (LH) 1 W704886 Panhard rod bolt (RH)
5 4264 Panhard rod 2 W710022 Panhard rod flag nut (RH)
3 W704886 Panhard rod bolt (LH)
(Continued)
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
vital parts and systems and their failure can
result in major service expense. A new part with
the same part number must be installed if
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
must be used as specified during reassembly to
make sure of correct retention of these parts.
1. To aid in installation, mark the rear shock
absorber relative to the protective sleeve with
5. Using 2 screwdrivers inserted through the
the vehicle in a static, level ground position
access hole, depress the tabs of the panhard rod
(curb height).
bolt cover retaining clip and remove the cover.
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
6. Remove and discard the LH panhard rod bolt
hoist. For additional information, refer to
and flag nut.
Section 100-02.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
3. CAUTION: Do not support the rear
7. Remove and discard the RH panhard rod bolt
axle at the differential housing.
and flag nut and remove the panhard rod.
Using 2 suitable jack stands, support the rear
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
axle.
4. Raise the rear axle so the mark made on the
8. CAUTION: Tighten the LH and RH
rear shock absorber in Step 1 lines up with the
panhard rod bolts with the suspension at
protective sleeve.
curb height.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
The rear suspension consists of the following
Rear Suspension
components:
WARNING: All vehicles are equipped with
Rear spring
gas-pressurized shock absorbers which will
extend unassisted. Do not apply heat or flame to
Rear shock absorber
the shock absorbers during removal or
Rear upper suspension arm and bushings
component servicing. Failure to follow these
Rear lower suspension arm and bushings
instructions can result in personal injury.
common LH and RH
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
Panhard rod and bushings
critical parts because they affect performance of
vital parts and systems and their failure can
common LH and RH
result in major service expense. A new part with
Stabilizer bar assembly with drop links
the same part number must be installed if
tagged on LH side (GT and Pony packages
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
only)
must be used as specified during reassembly to
make sure of correct retention of these parts. Lateral stiffener bar
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Rear Suspension
Refer to Section 204-00.
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Shock Absorber
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
3 Shock flag nut (part of 1 Upper nut, washer and
service kit 18008) insulator (part of service kit
18008)
4 Shock (part of service kit
18008) 2 Shock lower bolt (part of
service kit 18008)
(Continued)
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal
4. CAUTION: Do not support the rear
axle at the differential housing.
WARNING: All vehicles are equipped with
CAUTION: Do not allow the axle
gas-pressurized shock absorbers which will
assembly to hang supported only by the
extend unassisted. Do not apply heat or flame to
upper control arm or lower control arms.
the shock absorbers during removal or
This could damage the control arm bushings.
component servicing. Failure to follow these
Using 2 suitable jack stands, support the rear
instructions can result in personal injury.
axle.
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
5. Remove and discard the shock absorber upper
critical parts because they affect performance of
nut, washer and insulator assembly.
vital parts and systems and their failure can
result in major service expense. A new part with
To install, tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
the same part number must be installed if
installation becomes necessary. Torque values 6. Raise the rear axle so the mark made on the
must be used as specified during reassembly to rear shock absorber in Step 2 lines up with the
make sure of correct retention of these parts. protective sleeve.
CAUTION: When using a hoist that lifts
the vehicle by the frame, install new shock
absorbers one at a time. If the rear axle is
allowed to hang unsupported by the control
arms, damage to the control arm bushings may
result. A drive-on type hoist is the preferred
hoist to use for this procedure.
All vehicles
1. Open the luggage compartment and position the
carpet out of the way.
Vehicles with a rear stabilizer bar
2. Mark the rear shock absorber that is not being
removed relative to the protective sleeve with
the vehicle in a static, level ground position 7. Remove and discard both stabilizer bar link
(curb height). bolts and clip nuts.
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
8. Position the stabilizer bar to gain access to the
shock absorber lower bolt.
All vehicles
9. Remove and discard the shock absorber lower
bolt and nut and remove the shock absorber.
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
3. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
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204-02-3 204-02-3 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
10. CAUTION: Tighten the shock absorber
lower bolt while the suspension is at curb
height.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
Torque Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Description Nm lb-ft
General Specifications
Panhard rod-to-axle bolt 175 129
Item Specification
Lateral stiffener bar-to-body 115 85
Lubricant mount nut
Silicone Spray Lubricant ESR-M13P4-A Lateral stiffener bar-to-body 62 46
XL-6 bolts
Stabilizer bar bracket nuts 70 52
Torque Specifications Stabilizer bar link bolts 115 85
Parking brake cable 27 20
Description Nm lb-ft
bracket-to-lower arm
Rear shock absorber upper 40 30
Upper control arm front bolt 175 129
nut
Upper control arm rear bolts 115 85
Rear shock absorber lower 115 85
bolt
Upper control arm bushing 175 129
nut
Lower arm-to-body bolt 175 129
Fuel tank strap bolt 51 38
Brake caliper anchor plate 103 76
bolts
Brake hose bracket bolt 20 15
Lower arm-to-axle bolt 175 129
Panhard rod-to-body mount 175 129
bolt
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Spring Coil
NOTE: Rear stabilizer bar equipped shown, non-equipped similar.
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
5 W708737 Stabilizer bar link bolt 1 5599 Upper spring insulators
6 Shock absorber lower bolt 2 5560 Spring
(part of service kit 18008)
3 5536 Lower spring insulator
7 W712385 Clip nut
4 Shock absorber lower nut
(part of service kit 18008)
(Continued)
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Vehicles with a rear stabilizer bar
Removal
5. Remove and discard both stabilizer bar link CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
bolts and clip nuts. critical parts because they affect performance of
vital parts and systems and their failure can
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
result in major service expense. A new part with
the same part number must be installed if
6. Position the stabilizer bar to gain access to the
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
shock absorber lower bolt.
must be used as specified during reassembly to
All vehicles make sure of correct retention of these parts.
All vehicles
7. Remove and discard the shock absorber lower
bolt and nut.
1. To aid in installation, mark the rear shock
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
absorber relative to the protective sleeve with
the vehicle in a static, level ground position
8. Remove the brake hose bracket bolt.
(curb height).
To install, tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
9. Lower the rear axle and remove the spring.
10. Inspect the upper and lower spring insulators
for wear or damage. Install new insulators if
necessary.
Installation
All vehicles
1. NOTE: The springs are vehicle specific and are
marked with a tag indicating the spring code.
Make sure the new spring has the same spring
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
code as the one being replaced. If the tag is not
hoist. For additional information, refer to
on the spring being replaced, look on the
Section 100-02.
vehicle information label located on the
Convertible vehicles
drivers door for the spring code and compare
that to the new spring code.
3. Remove the rear support braces. Position the spring onto the axle with the tag
toward the axle assembly.
For additional information, refer to Section
502-00.
All vehicles
4. CAUTION: Do not support the rear
axle at the differential housing.
Using 2 suitable jack stands, support the rear
axle.
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204-02-3 204-02-3 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
2. Raise the rear axle so the mark made on the 4. Install the brake hose bracket bolt.
rear shock absorber in Removal Step 1 lines up
Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
with the protective sleeve.
Convertible vehicles
5. Install the rear support braces. For additional
information, refer to Section 502-00.
Vehicles with a rear stabilizer bar
6. Position the stabilizer bar and links and install
new stabilizer bar link bolts and clip nuts.
Tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
3. CAUTION: Tighten the shock absorber
lower bolt while the suspension is at curb
height.
Install a new shock absorber lower bolt and nut.
Tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Stabilizer Bar Link
Material
Item Specification
Silicone Spray Lubricant ESR-M13P4-A
XL-6
Item Part Number Description
1 5C488 Stabilizer bar link (2
required) (also part of 5A771)
2 5A771 Stabilizer bar
Removal and Installation
1. Remove the stabilizer bar. For additional
information, refer to Stabilizer Bar in this
section.
2. NOTE: To aid removal, apply a light coat of
silicone lubricant to the necessary parts of the
rear stabilizer bar and the inside diameter of the
stabilizer bar bushing and link.
Remove the stabilizer bar bushing and link.
1 Slide the bushing off of the stabilizer bar.
2 Slide the link off of the stabilizer bar.
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
3. NOTE: The stabilizer bar links and bushings
are vehicle specific (convertible and coupe).
Make sure the correct link and bushing go on
the correct vehicle.
The link for the convertible GT and V6 Pony
package will have a B suffix in the part
number and it will be colored white. The
bushing for the convertible will have a B
suffix in the part number.
The link for the GT coupe and Shelby GT 500
convertible will have an A suffix in the part
number and it will be colored black. The
bushing will have an A suffix in the part
number.
NOTE: To aid installation, apply a light coat of
silicone lubricant to the necessary parts of the
rear stabilizer bar and the inside diameter of the
stabilizer bar bushing and link.
NOTE: The stabilizer bar link for the Shelby
GT 500 convertible will have a C suffix in
the part number and it will be blue/gray in
color. The bushing will have a C suffix in
the part number.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Stabilizer Bar
Removal and Installation
Item Part Number Description
1 W708737 Stabilizer bar link bolts (2
required) CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
2 W712385 Stabilizer bar link flag nuts (2
required) vital parts and systems and their failure can
result in major service expense. A new part with
3 W520213 Stabilizer bar bracket nut (4
required) the same part number must be installed if
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
4 5486 Stabilizer bar bracket (2
required) must be used as specified during reassembly to
make sure of correct retention of these parts.
5 5A771 Stabilizer bar
6 W711368 Stabilizer bar bracket clip
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
stud (4 required)
hoist. For additional information, refer to
7 5C488 Stabilizer bar link (2
Section 100-02.
required) (also part of 5A771)
8 4A037 Stabilizer bar bushing (2
2. Remove and discard the stabilizer bar link bolts
required) (also part of 5A771)
and clip nuts.
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
3. Remove the stabilizer bar bracket nuts, studs,
5. CAUTION: The stabilizer bar is
brackets and stabilizer bar.
equipped with a tag. This tag indicates the
LH side of the stabilizer bar. When installing
Discard the stabilizer bar bracket nuts and
a new stabilizer bar, make sure the tag is on
studs.
the LH side of the vehicle.
To install, tighten to 70 Nm (52 lb-ft).
NOTE: The stabilizer bar is vehicle specific
4. If necessary, remove the stabilizer bar bushings (convertible and coupe). Make sure the correct
and links. For additional information, refer to stabilizer bar goes on the correct vehicle.
Stabilizer Bar Link in this section.
Make sure that a new stabilizer bar has the
same tag color as the one being replaced. If the
stabilizer bar being replaced does not have a
tag, it will be necessary to inspect the stabilizer
bar link coating color to determine the proper
replacement stabilizer bar.
Black-coated stabilizer bar link will require a
yellow tag stabilizer bar with the suffix A
in the part number.
White-coated stabilizer bar link will require a
green tag stabilizer bar with the suffix B
in the part number.
Blue/gray-coated stabilizer bar link will
require an orange tag stabilizer bar with the
suffix C in the part number.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Removal
Upper Arm Bushing
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are Special Tool(s)
critical parts because they affect performance of
Adapter
vital parts and systems and their failure can
204-034 (T78P-5638-A4)
result in major service expense. A new part with
the same part number must be installed if
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
must be used as specified during reassembly to
make sure of correct retention of these parts.
Receiver Cup
1. Mark the rear shock absorber relative to the
205-813
protective sleeve with the vehicle in a static,
level ground position (curb height).
Remover/Installer, Bushing
204-590
Forcing Screw
205-813
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
3. CAUTION: Do not support the rear
axle at the differential housing.
Using 2 suitable jack stands, support the rear
axle.
4. Remove and discard the upper control arm
bushing nut and flag bolt.
Item Part Number Description
1 5A638 Upper control arm bushing
2 4001 Rear drive axle
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
5. Partially lower the rear axle and, using the 3. Install the bushing so there is a 12 mm (0.47
special tools, remove the upper control arm in) gap between the bushing flange and the rear
bushing. axle bracket.
Installation
4. Raise the rear axle so the mark made on the
rear shock absorber in Removal Step 1 lines up
1. Position the new bushing into the rear axle with the protective sleeve.
bracket with the voids in the rubber positioned
at the top and bottom of the bushing.
5. CAUTION: Tighten the upper control
arm rear nut with the suspension at curb
2. Using the special tools, install the upper control
height.
arm bushing.
Install a new upper control arm rear nut and
flag bolt.
Tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Upper Arm
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
4 5K671 Upper control arm assembly 1 W708795 Upper control arm front bolt
5 W709884 Upper control arm rear bolt 2 W520215 Upper control arm bushing
(2 required) nut
6 W710947 Fuel tank strap bolt (2 3 W710051 Upper control arm bushing
required) bolt
(Continued)
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are
critical parts because they affect performance of
vital parts and systems and their failure can
result in major service expense. A new part with
the same part number must be installed if
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
must be used as specified during reassembly to
make sure of correct retention of these parts.
CAUTION: The upper arm is a 2-piece
design and is replaced as an assembly. Do not
4. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
remove or loosen the nut and bolt that joins the
hoist. For additional information, refer to
2 pieces together. The assembly is set at ride
Section 100-02.
height during production, loosening the nut and
bolt will disturb this setting.
5. Place a safety support under the fuel tank.
1. Remove the rear seat cushion. For additional
information, refer to Section 501-10.
2. Remove and discard the upper control arm front
bolt.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
6. Remove the rear bolts from the 2 fuel tank
support straps and position both straps aside.
To install, tighten to 51 Nm (38 lb-ft)
3. To aid in installation, mark the rear shock
absorber relative to the protective sleeve with
the vehicle in a static, level ground position
(curb height).
7. Partially lower the fuel tank to gain access to
the upper control arm.
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204-02-3 204-02-3 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
8. Remove and discard the 2 upper control arm
rear bolts.
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
9. Remove and discard the upper control arm
bushing flag bolt and nut.
To install, tighten the nut to 175 Nm (129
lb-ft).
10. Remove the upper control arm assembly.
11. Raise the rear axle so the mark made in Step 3
lines up with the protective sleeve.
12. CAUTION: Tighten the upper control
arm fasteners while the suspension is at curb
height.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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204-02-1 204-02-1 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Wheel Studs
Special Tool(s)
C-Frame and Clamp Assembly
211-023 (T74P-3044-A1)
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
3 Wheel stud 1 2553 LH/ 2552 Brake caliper and anchor
RH plate assembly
4 W704797 Anchor plate bolt (2 required)
2 2C026 Brake disc
(Continued)
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204-02-2 204-02-2 Rear Suspension
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal Installation
CAUTION: Suspension fasteners are CAUTION: Do not use air tools to install
critical parts because they affect performance of the wheel stud. The serrations in the hub flange
vital parts and systems and their failure can can be stripped.
result in major service expense. A new part with
1. Position the wheel stud in the axle flange,
the same part number must be installed if
making sure that the serrations are aligned with
installation becomes necessary. Torque values
those made by the original wheel stud.
must be used as specified during reassembly to
make sure of correct retention of these parts.
2. Position washers and a reversed wheel nut on
the wheel stud and tighten the wheel nut until
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
the stud seats on the back of the axle flange.
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. CAUTION: Care must be used when
servicing rear brake components without
disconnecting the parking brake cable from
the brake caliper lever. Carefully position the
caliper aside using a suitable support or
damage to the parking brake cable end
fittings can occur.
CAUTION: Do not allow the caliper
and anchor plate assembly to hang from the
brake hose or damage to the hose can occur.
Remove the bolts and position the caliper and
3. Remove the wheel nut and washers.
anchor plate assembly aside.
Discard the nut.
Support the caliper and anchor plate
assembly using mechanics wire.
4. Install the rear brake disc.
3. Remove the rear brake disc.
5. Position the brake caliper and anchor plate
assembly and install the bolts.
4. Using the special tool, remove and discard the
wheel stud.
Tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
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204-04-1 204-04-1 Wheels and Tires
Torque Specifications
SPECIFICATIONS
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
General Specifications
Wheel nuts 133 98
Item Specification
Sensor strap (worm 3 27
Cleaners gear)
Wheel and Tire Cleaner
ZC-27-A or B
Tire Balance Weight
Max tire balance weight 140g (5 oz) per wheel,
70g (2.5 oz) per flange
Tire inflation
Tires See safety certification
sticker located inside
glove compartment door
CAUTION: Use only Digital Tire Pressure
Gauge 204-354 any time tire pressures are measured
to be sure that accurate values are obtained.
For accuracy, Ford recommends the use of a digital
or dial-type tire pressure gauge rather than a
stick-type pressure gauge.
Inflate the tire to the pressure specified on the safety
certification sticker located on the driver door or door
pillar.
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204-04-1 204-04-1 Wheels and Tires
GENERAL PROCEDURES
NOTE: The tire pressure monitoring system is not
Tire Pressure Monitoring System
affected by wheel and tire rotation.
(TPMS) Sensor Training
1. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position,
Special Tool(s)
then press and release the brake pedal.
Vehicle Communication Module
(VCM) and Integrated 2. Cycle the ignition switch from the OFF position
Diagnostic System (IDS)
to the RUN position 3 times, ending in the
software with appropriate
RUN position. Do not wait more than one
hardware, or equivalent scan
minute between each key cycle.
tool
3. Press and release the brake pedal.
Activation Tool, Tire Pressure
4. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.
Monitor
204-363
5. Turn the ignition switch from the OFF position
to the RUN position 3 times, ending in the
RUN position. Do not wait more than one
minute between each key cycle.
The horn will sound once and the TPMS
NOTE: A new tire pressure sensor is shipped in an
indicator will flash if the training mode has
OFF mode (or battery saver mode) and must be
been entered successfully. If equipped, the
turned ON before it can be trained. To turn the
message center will display TRAIN LF
sensor ON, deflate the tire slightly if necessary, then
TIRE.
inflate the tire to the recommended inflation
pressure and wait at least 2 minutes, then continue
6. NOTE: It may take up to 6 seconds to activate
with the sensor training procedure.
a tire pressure sensor. During this time, the
activation tool must remain in place 180
NOTE: The tire pressure sensor training procedure
degrees from the valve stem.
must be done on a single vehicle, in an area without
Place the activation tool on the LF tire sidewall
radio frequency (RF) noise and at least 1 meter (3
opposite (180 degrees) from the valve stem.
feet) away from other vehicles equipped with
The horn will sound briefly to indicate that the
TPMS.
tire pressure sensor has been recognized by the
RF noise is generated by electrical motors and
smart junction box (SJB).
appliance operation, cellular telephones, remote
transmitters, power inverters and portable
entertainment equipment.
NOTE: If a sensor does not respond to the
activation tool, attempt to activate the same sensor
with the activation tool. If the sensor still does not
respond, move the vehicle to rotate the wheels at
least 1/4 of a turn and attempt to activate the same
sensor again.
NOTE: If the SJB does not recognize any 1 of the
4 tire pressure sensors during the sensor training
procedure, the horn will sound twice and the
message center (if equipped) will display TIRE
NOT TRAINED REPEAT and the procedure must
be repeated.
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204-04-2 204-04-2 Wheels and Tires
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
7. Within 2 minutes of the horn sounding, place 8. NOTE: Do not wait more than 2 minutes
the activation tool on the RF tire sidewall between training each sensor.
opposite (180 degrees) from the valve stem to
Repeat Step 7 for the RR and LR tires.
train the RF tire pressure sensor.
The procedure is completed after the last tire
has been trained. When the training procedure
is complete, the message center (if equipped)
will display TIRE TRAINING COMPLETE.
For vehicles not equipped with a message
center, successful completion of the training
procedure will be verified by turning the
ignition switch to the OFF position without the
horn sounding. If the horn sounds twice when
the switch is turned to the OFF position, the
training procedure was not successful.
9. Using the scan tool, locate the updated TPMS
sensor IDs trained to the SJB and document
them on the applicable warranty claim.
10. NOTE: This step is required to clear DTC
C2780, cause the SJB to exit the manufacturing
mode and to make sure there are no other
concerns with a newly programmed SJB.
If the sensors are being trained due to the
installation of a new SJB, clear any DTCs and
perform the SJB on-demand self-test.
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204-04-1 204-04-1 Wheels and Tires
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
OF SUBASSEMBLIES
Tire Pressure Monitoring System
(TPMS) Sensor
NOTE: Tire pressure sensors are equipped with
Item Part Number Description
Lithium-ion batteries and must be disposed of
1 1A150/1A189 Tire pressure sensor/sensor kit
accordingly.
2 1A175 Sensor cradle
3 14C202 Locking clip (also part of
1. CAUTION: The sensor, cradle and
1A189)
strap can be damaged by incorrect tire
mounting or dismounting. Dismount the tire
Disassembly
only as instructed.
Remove the tire from the wheel. For additional
CAUTION: Tire pressure sensors are
information, refer to Wheel and Tire in this
manufactured in multiple colors based on their
section.
application. When installing a new sensor, make
sure the color of the sensor being installed
matches the color of the sensor that was
removed. The different colored sensors are not
interchangeable.
NOTE: The sensor can be removed and installed
without removing the strap or the cradle.
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204-04-2 204-04-2 Wheels and Tires
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
Assembly
2. CAUTION: Do not use a large
screwdriver. Apply minimum force during
removal or damage to the sensor locking clip
1. CAUTION: Damage to the sensor can
can occur.
occur if excessive force is applied during
sensor installation.
Using a pocket screwdriver, or similar tool,
remove the sensor locking clip.
NOTE: Make sure the sensor is fully seated
into the cradle. The sensor will make a click
noise when correctly seated.
Position the sensor into the cradle by inserting
the hinge end of the sensor into the hook end
of the cradle and pushing the opposite end of
the sensor down onto the cradle.
3. CAUTION: Do not use a large
screwdriver. Apply minimum force during
removal or damage to the sensor can occur.
Using a pocket screwdriver or similar tool,
detach the sensor from the cradle.
2. NOTE: The locking clip can only be fully
seated when installed in the correct orientation.
If the sensor locking clip cannot be fully
inserted, then the sensor may not be fully
seated on the cradle or the locking clip may be
inserted backward.
Insert a new locking clip into the sensor.
4. Remove the sensor.
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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
4. NOTE: A new tire pressure sensor is shipped
3. CAUTION: The sensor, cradle and
in an off mode (or battery saver mode) and
strap can be damaged by incorrect tire
must be turned on before it can be trained. To
mounting or dismounting. Mount the tire
turn the sensor on, inflate the tire to the
only as instructed.
recommended inflation pressure and wait at
Install the tire onto the wheel. For additional
least 2 minutes, then continue with the sensor
information, refer to Wheel and Tire in this
training procedure.
section.
Train the tire pressure sensor(s). For additional
information, refer to Tire Pressure Monitoring
System (TPMS) Sensor Training Procedure
component test in this section.
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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
OF SUBASSEMBLIES
Tire Pressure Monitoring System
(TPMS) Strap and Cradle
Material
Item Specification
Wheel and Tire Cleaner
ZC-37-A or -B
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
Item Part Number Description
1 1A177/1A193 Strap/strap kit
2 1A150/1A189 Tire pressure sensor/sensor kit
3 1A175 Sensor cradle (also part of
1A193)
4 14C202 Locking clip (also part of
1A189)
Disassembly
CAUTION: Tire pressure sensors are
manufactured in multiple colors based on their
application. When installing a new sensor, make
3. To remove a dealer installed strap, turn the
sure the color of the sensor being installed
worm gear screw until the strap is fully released
matches the color of the sensor that was
from the worm gear.
removed. The different colored sensors are not
Discard the strap.
interchangeable.
4. NOTE: To aid assembly, mark the location of
NOTE: The sensor is available separately, the
the cradle prior to disassembly.
cradle and strap are available as a strap kit. There
Using a screwdriver, or similar tool, remove the
are several different strap kits available based on
cradle by inserting the screwdriver under the
wheel diameter but all strap kits share the same
cradle and prying up.
base part number.
Assembly
NOTE: Tire pressure sensors are equipped with
Lithium-ion batteries and must be disposed of
accordingly. 1. NOTE: Make sure the sensor is fully seated
into the new cradle. The sensor will make a
1. Remove the tire pressure monitoring system
click noise when fully seated.
(TPMS) sensor. For additional information,
Position the sensor into the new cradle by
refer to Tire Pressure Monitoring System
inserting the hinge end of the sensor into the
(TPMS) Sensor in this section.
hook end of the cradle and pushing the opposite
end of the sensor down onto the cradle.
2. WARNING: The TPMS band is under
tension. Always use safety goggles or a face
shield and gloves when removing the TPMS
band/strap. Failure to follow these
instructions may result in personal injury.
Remove a factory installed strap in the
following sequence:
1 Locate the strap buckle and secure the strap
to the wheel using duct tape or a similar
item, on both sides of the buckle
approximately 25 mm (0.98 in) from the
buckle.
2 Using a large screwdriver and a twisting
motion, unbuckle the strap.
3 Discard the strap.
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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
2. CAUTION: Metal scrapers can damage
the wheel. Use only plastic or non-metallic
scrapers to remove the cradle adhesive strip
residue.
NOTE: The sensor and cradle must be installed
in the drop well of the wheel, 180 degrees from
the valve stem.
Clean the area where the sensor and cradle are
to be installed.
5. CAUTION: Steel wheels have a high
spot along their circumference. Make sure
the strap is positioned in the lowest spot
possible for correct sensor and cradle
retention.
NOTE: Keep the strap parallel with the wheel
flange while tightening the worm gear.
Position the worm gear 13-26 mm (0.5-1.0 in)
away from the sensor and tighten the worm
gear.
3. NOTE: The sensor and cradle must be
Tighten to 3 Nm (27 lb-in).
positioned with the hinge side of the sensor on
the RH side when viewed from the curb side
(beauty side) of the wheel.
NOTE: The sensor has raised markings
indicating how to position the sensor.
Remove the adhesive tape liner from the cradle
and position the sensor and cradle into the
wheel drop well 180 degrees from the valve
stem.
6. CAUTION: The sensor, cradle and
strap can be damaged by incorrect tire
mounting or dismounting. Mount the tire
only as instructed.
Install the tire onto the wheel. For additional
information, refer to Wheel and Tire in this
section.
4. Install the tapered end of the strap through the
opening of the cradle on the hinge side of the
sensor. This will position the worm gear on the
locking clip side of the sensor.
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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF SUBASSEMBLIES (Continued)
7. NOTE: A new tire pressure sensor is shipped
in an off mode (or battery saver mode) and
must be turned on before it can be trained. To
turn the sensor on, inflate the tire to the
recommended inflation pressure and wait at
least 2 minutes, then continue with the sensor
training procedure.
Train the tire pressure sensor(s). For additional
information, refer to Tire Pressure Monitoring
System (TPMS) Sensor Training Procedure
component test in this section.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Ambient Temperature Change and Tire
Tire Pressure Monitoring System
Pressure
Special Tool(s)
CAUTION: Do not inflate tire higher than
Vehicle Communication Module maximum pressure stamped on tire sidewall.
(VCM) and Integrated
Tire pressures fluctuate with temperature changes.
Diagnostic System (IDS)
For this reason, tire pressure must be set to
software with appropriate
hardware, or equivalent scan specification when tires are at outdoor ambient
tool
temperatures. If the vehicle is allowed to warm up
to shop temperatures, and the outside temperature
is less than shop temperature, the tire inflation
Activation Tool, Tire Pressure
pressure must be adjusted accordingly.
Monitor
If the tires are inflated to specification at shop 204-363
temperatures and the vehicle is moved outdoors
when the outdoor ambient temperature is
significantly lower, the tire pressure may drop
enough to be detected by the TPMS and activate the
TPMS warning lamp.
Digital Tire Gauge
204-354
Principles of Operation
The tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS)
monitors the air pressure of all 4 road tires. The
wheel-mounted tire pressure sensors transmit via
radio frequency (RF) signals, to the smart junction
box (SJB). TPMS functionality is integral to the
SJB. These transmissions are sent approximately
every 60 seconds when the vehicle speed exceeds
32 km/h (20 mph). The TPMS function compares
each tire pressure sensor transmission against a
low-pressure limit. If it has been determined that the
tire pressure has fallen below this limit, the SJB
communicates this on the vehicle communication
bus to the instrument cluster. The instrument cluster
then illuminates the TPMS indicator and displays
the appropriate message(s) in the message center (if
equipped).
The system is not affected by wheel and tire
rotation.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
As the ambient temperature decreases by 6C
(10F), tire pressure decreases 7 kPa (1 psi). Adjust
the tire pressure by 7 kPa (1 psi) for each 6C
(10F) ambient temperature drop as necessary to
keep the tire at the specified vehicle certification
label pressure. Refer to the following tables to
adjust the tire pressure indoors for colder outside
temperatures.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
TPMS Indicator and Message Center
1. Tire Pressure Sensor Fault If equipped, the
Messages
message center will display TIRE SENSOR
FAULT when a tire pressure sensor is
The TPMS indicator and vehicle message center (if
malfunctioning. GO to Symptom Chart.
equipped) sometimes displays faults that cannot be
resolved by the customer. Treat these messages as
2. No communication with the SJB (TPMS is
TPMS faults that must be serviced.
integral to the SJB) The TPMS indicator is
illuminated when the instrument cluster has
TPMS Indicator Illuminates Continuously
received no signals from the SJB for more than
NOTE: If the spare tire is in use, the damaged road
5 seconds. If equipped, the message center
tire must be repaired and installed on the vehicle to
displays TIRE MONITOR FAULT. GO to
restore complete TPMS functionality before carrying
Symptom Chart.
out any diagnosis.
3. Tire Pressure Monitor Fault If equipped, the
message center will display TIRE MONITOR
1. The TPMS indicator remains on continuously
FAULT when the tire pressure monitoring
for the following condition:
system is malfunctioning or communication
Low Tire Pressure The TPMS indicator
with the instrument cluster has been lost. GO
is illuminated solid and the message center
to Symptom Chart.
displays LOW TIRE PRESSURE (if
equipped). This is displayed when any of
Inspection and Verification
the tire pressures are low. When this
1. NOTE: The tire pressure sensors are not
condition exists, the tire pressure must be
designed to be used with aftermarket wheels.
adjusted to the recommended cold pressure
NOTE: The use of run-flat tires (tires with
as indicated on the vehicle certification
steel body cord plies in the tire sidewall) where
label.
not originally equipped, may cause the TPMS
2. NOTE: The TPMS sensors do not transmit
system to malfunction and is therefore not
when the vehicle is stationary. If the vehicle
recommended.
has been stationary for more than 30 minutes, it
Verify the customer concern by inspecting the
will be necessary to wake up the sensors so
vehicle and observing the message center (if
they will transmit the latest tire pressure
equipped) and the TPMS indicator.
information to the SJB.
2. NOTE: The valve-mounted TPMS sensors and
If the vehicle has been stationary for more than
the strap-mounted TPMS sensors are not
30 minutes, carry out the following procedure
compatible. Swapping wheels from one vehicle
to wake up the TPMS sensors.
to another with the different systems will
1 Turn the ignition switch to the ON position.
adversely affect TPMS operation.
2 Adjust the air pressure in the LF tire.
NOTE: Non-original equipment manufacturer
3 Activate the LF TPMS sensor, at least 2
(OEM) modifications made to the vehicle may
times, using the tire pressure monitor
result in false TPMS warnings.
activation tool.
Inspect to determine if one of the following
4 Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for the remaining
mechanical or electrical concerns apply:
tires.
5 If the TPMS indicator remains illuminated
after adjusting and activating each sensor,
GO to Symptom Chart.
TPMS Indicator Flashes
The TPMS indicator flashes for 70 seconds and then
remains ON solid when the ignition key is turned to
the ON position for the following conditions:
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Visual Inspection Chart
check the scan tool connection to the VCM.
Mechanical Electrical refer to Section 418-00, No Power To The
Scan Tool, to diagnose no communication
Low tire pressure Circuitry
TPMS sensor damaged Electrical connectors with the scan tool.
or missing SJB missing or
6. If the scan tool does not communicate with the
Spare tire installed as a damaged
vehicle:
road wheel
Incorrect TPMS sensor
verify the ignition key is in the ON position.
installed
verify the scan tool operation with a known
TPMS sensor installed
incorrectly good vehicle.
Non-OEM wheels
refer to Section 418-00 to diagnose no
installed (aftermarket
response from the powertrain control module
rims)
(PCM). Non-OEM equipped
run-flat tires installed
7. Carry out the network test.
Other non-OEM
modifications (roll If the scan tool responds with no
cages, service barriers,
communication for one or more modules,
part racks, ladder racks)
refer to Section 418-00.
If the network test passes, retrieve and
3. If an obvious cause for an observed or reported
record continuous memory diagnostic
concern is found, correct the cause (if possible)
trouble codes (DTCs).
before proceeding to the next step.
8. Clear the continuous DTCs and carry out the
4. NOTE: Make sure to use the latest scan tool
self-test diagnostics for the TPMS module.
software release.
9. If the DTCs retrieved are related to the concern,
If the cause is not visually evident, connect the
go to the Tire Pressure Monitor System (TPMS)
scan tool to the data link connector (DLC).
Module Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart.
For all other DTCs, refer to Section 419-10.
5. NOTE: The vehicle communication module
(VCM) LED prove out confirms power and
10. If no DTCs related to the concern are retrieved,
ground from the DLC are provided to the
GO to Symptom Chart.
VCM.
Tire Pressure Monitor System (TPMS)
If the scan tool does not communicate with the
Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart
VCM:
check the VCM connection to the vehicle.
Tire Pressure Monitor System (TPMS) Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart
DTC Description Source Action
B1342 ECU is Defective SJB INSTALL a smart junction box (SJB).
REFER to Section 419-10.
B2872 Tire Pressure Sensor Fault SJB GO to Pinpoint Test C.
Tire Pressure Monitor System (TPMS)
Module Replacement Diagnostic Trouble
Code (DTC) Chart
Tire Pressure Monitor System (TPMS) Module Replacement Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart
DTC Description Source Action
B106A Pressure Sensor Range Bit Incorrect State SJB GO to Pinpoint Test D.
B106B Tire Pressure Sensor Low Battery (Could SJB GO to Pinpoint Test E.
be set configuring new SJB)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Tire Pressure Monitor System (TPMS) Module Replacement Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
Chart (Continued)
DTC Description Source Action
B2477 Module Configuration Failure/Mismatch SJB DTC B2477 is only present when a new
SJB is installed, the SJB is incorrectly
flashed or the SJB is incorrectly
configured. Successfully configuring the
SJB is the only way to clear this DTC.
Make sure the SJB is configured
correctly. If the DTC B2477 is still
present, REFER to Section 418-00.
B2868 Left Front Tire Pressure Sensor Fault SJB DTC B2868 is only present when a new
SJB is installed, the SJB is flashed or the
SJB is reconfigured. REFER to Section
419-10, follow all SJB removal and
installation steps.
B2869 Right Front Tire Pressure Sensor Fault SJB DTC B2869 is only present when a new
SJB is installed, the SJB is flashed or the
SJB is reconfigured. REFER to Section
419-10, follow all SJB removal and
installation steps.
B2870 Right Rear Tire Pressure Sensor Fault SJB DTC B2870 is only present when a new
SJB is installed, the SJB is flashed or the
SJB is reconfigured. REFER to Section
419-10, follow all SJB removal and
installation steps.
B2871 Left Rear Tire Pressure Sensor Fault SJB DTC B2871 is only present when a new
SJB is installed, the SJB is flashed or the
SJB is reconfigured. REFER to Section
419-10, follow all SJB removal and
installation steps.
C2780 ECU in Manufacturing Mode SJB DTC C2780 is only present when a new
SJB is installed, the SJB is flashed or the
SJB is reconfigured. REFER to Section
419-10, follow all SJB removal and
installation steps.
Symptom Chart
NOTE: TPMS is not affected by wheel and tire
rotation.
Failure of a TPMS component may not cause the
message center to display a fault message or a DTC
to be stored. The Symptom Chart is a starting point
to begin diagnosis of these concerns.
Symptom Chart
Condition Possible Sources Action
TPMS indicator ON Air pressure not set to GO to Pinpoint Test A.
continuously and message specifications listed on the
center (if equipped) displays vehicle certification label
LOW TIRE PRESSURE
Message center (if equipped) Spare tire currently in use INSTALL the repaired road
displays LOW TIRE wheel/tire in place of the
PRESSURE spare tire.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
SJB will not enter sensor Brake on/off (BOO) switch GO to Pinpoint Test B.
training mode Ignition switch
Vehicle communication bus
ABS/TC/IVD module
Smart junction box (SJB)
TPMS indicator FLASHES TPMS sensor(s) GO to Pinpoint Test C.
for 70 seconds and then TPMS sensor(s) not trained to
remains ON solid when the the SJB
ignition key is turned to the SJB
ON position and DTC B2872
is present
TPMS indicator FLASHES SJB REFER to Section 419-10.
for 70 seconds and then
remains ON solid when the
ignition key is turned to the
ON position, the message
center (if equipped) displays
TIRE MONITOR FAULT
and DTC B1342 is present
TPMS indicator FLASHES Vehicle communication bus REFER to Section 419-10.
for 70 seconds and then SJB
remains ON solid when the
ignition key is turned to the
ON position, the message
center (if equipped) displays
TIRE MONITOR FAULT
and there are no DTCs
present in the SJB
Vehicle communication issue REFER to Section 413-00.
between SJB and instrument
cluster
Possible Causes
Pinpoint Tests
Low air pressure in tire(s)
Pinpoint Test A: TPMS Indicator ON
Continuously and Message Center (if Tire pressure sensor(s)
Equipped) Displays LOW TIRE PRESSURE
Normal Operation
The tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS)
monitors the air pressure of all 4 road tires. The
wheel-mounted tire pressure sensors transmit via
radio frequency (RF) signals, to the smart junction
box (SJB). TPMS functionality is integral to the
SJB. These transmissions are sent approximately
every 60 seconds when the vehicle speed exceeds
32 km/h (20 mph). The TPMS function (integral to
the SJB) compares each tire pressure sensor
transmission against a low-pressure limit. If it has
been determined that the tire pressure has fallen
below this limit, the SJB communicates this on the
vehicle communication bus to the instrument cluster.
The instrument cluster then illuminates the TPMS
indicator and displays the appropriate message(s) in
the message center (if equipped).
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: TPMS INDICATOR ON CONTINUOUSLY AND MESSAGE CENTER (IF EQUIPPED)
DISPLAYS LOW TIRE PRESSURE
CAUTION: Use only special tool 204-354 any time tire pressures are measured to
be sure that accurate values are obtained.
NOTE: If a warranty case is opened for an actual TPMS fault, document and include the
actual tire pressure data in all warranty communications.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A1 CHECK THE TIRE PRESSURE
Measure and record the air pressure in all 4 road tires.
Yes
Adjust the air pressure for those found to be below the
The system is functioning normally,
specification listed on the vehicle certification label.
diagnosis is complete. INFORM the
NOTE: If the vehicle has been stationary for more than 30
customer of correct tire pressure
minutes, activate each TPMS sensor at least 2 times with the
maintenance as instructed in the
tire pressure monitor activation tool. The TPMS sensor does not
scheduled maintenance guide and the
transmit when the vehicle is stationary.
owner guide.
Verify system operation.
Have the TPMS indicator and the message center (if No
equipped) warnings gone out? GO to A2.
A2 CHECK THE SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Train all 4 tire pressure sensors. Refer to Tire Pressure Yes
Monitoring System (TPMS) Sensor Training in this section. The system is functioning normally,
Using the scan tool, read and record the tire pressures: diagnosis complete.
LF PRES, RF PRES, RR PRES and LR PRES.
No
Compare the air pressure readings recorded from the function
Before installing a new sensor(s): If a
test to those recorded in A1.
sensor(s) does not respond to the special
Do the compared tire pressure values match within 5 psi,
tool, ATTEMPT to activate the same
and have the TPMS indicator and the message center (if
sensor(s) with the special tool. If the
equipped) warnings gone out?
sensor(s) still does not respond, MOVE
the vehicle to rotate the wheels at least
1/4 of a turn and ATTEMPT to activate the
same sensor(s) again. INSTALL new tire
pressure sensors for those with
discrepancies. REFER to Tire Pressure
Monitoring System (TPMS) Sensor in this
section.
CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
VERIFY system operation.
Possible Causes
Pinpoint Test B: SJB Will Not Enter Sensor
Training Mode
Circuit open
Normal Operation
Circuit shorted
For the smart junction box (SJB) to enter tire
Brake on/off (BOO) switch
pressure monitoring system (TPMS) sensor training
Ignition switch
mode, the SJB must receive valid input from the
brake pedal position switch and ignition switch, and
ABS/TC/IVD module
it must receive valid vehicle speed sensor input
Smart junction box (SJB)
from the ABS/TC/IVD module.
PINPOINT TEST B: SJB WILL NOT ENTER SENSOR TRAINING MODE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B1 CHECK THE BRAKE PEDAL POSITION (BPP)/BRAKE ON/OFF
(BOO) SWITCH
Using the scan tool, monitor the SJB BPP/BOO switch PID (SJB
Yes
reads the brake switch directly).
GO to B2.
Press and release the brake pedal while monitoring the PID.
Do the brake pedal PID values match the brake pedal No
positions? REFER to Section 206-09.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: SJB WILL NOT ENTER SENSOR TRAINING MODE (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B2 CHECK THE IGNITION SWITCH
Using the scan tool, monitor the SJB ignition switch status PID.
Yes
Cycle the ignition switch to the ON and OFF position while
GO to B3.
monitoring the PID (SJB reads the ignition switch directly).
Do the ignition switch status PID values match the ignition No
switch positions? REFER to Section 413-01.
B3 CHECK THE VEHICLE SPEED INPUT TO THE SJB
Using the scan tool, monitor the SJB vehicle speed PID (SJB Yes
receives vehicle speed from the ABS/TC/IVD module). REFER to Section 419-10.
Does the vehicle speed PID value match the speed of the
No
vehicle?
REFER to Section 206-09.
Possible Causes
Pinpoint Test C: TPMS Indicator FLASHES
For 70 Seconds and Then Remains ON Solid
TPMS sensor(s) missing
When the Ignition Key is Turned to the ON
TPMS sensor(s) not trained to the vehicle
Position and DTC B2872 is Present
TPMS sensor(s) swapped due to wheel swap
Normal Operation
TPMS sensor(s) damaged If there is a fault in the tire pressure monitor system
(TPMS), such as a damaged or missing sensor(s),
Vehicle communication issue
damaged module or a communication issue within
SJB
the vehicle, diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) are set
in the smart junction box (SJB), the TPMS warning
indicator will flash for 70 seconds and then remain
ON solid when the ignition switch is turned to the
ON position and the message center (if equipped)
will display TIRE PRESSURE SENSOR FAULT.
PINPOINT TEST C: TPMS INDICATOR FLASHES FOR 70 SECONDS AND THEN REMAINS ON SOLID
WHEN THE IGNITION KEY IS TURNED TO THE ON POSITION AND DTC B2872 IS PRESENT
NOTE: If a warranty case is opened for an actual TPMS fault, document and include the
actual tire pressure data in all warranty communications.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
C1 CHECK FOR DTCs
Connect the scan tool.
Using the scan tool, read the TPMS sensor IDs currently trained
Yes
to the SJB.
GO to C2.
Record the sensor IDs.
Using the scan tool, read the TPMS System Status: TP STAT. No
Is the TPMS system status (TP STAT) equal to $02 If the TPMS system status is equal to $01
SENSOR FAULT? SYSTEM FAULT, GO to C4.
C2 CHECK THE TIRE PRESSURE SENSOR RESPONSE TO THE
TRAINING TOOL
Activate a sensor by positioning the tire pressure monitor
activation tool against the tire sidewall 180 degrees from the tire
valve stem.
Press the test button on the special tool.
NOTE: The special tool will provide feedback in the form of a
Yes
flashing green light and a beep sound for each successful
GO to C3.
response from a tire pressure sensor.
Activate the 3 remaining sensors. No
Did all tire pressure sensors respond back to the training The sensor(s) that did not respond to the
tool? tool could be the cause. GO to C3.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST C: TPMS INDICATOR FLASHES FOR 70 SECONDS AND THEN REMAINS ON SOLID
WHEN THE IGNITION KEY IS TURNED TO THE ON POSITION AND DTC B2872 IS PRESENT (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
C3 CARRY OUT THE SENSOR TRAINING PROCEDURE
Train all 4 tire pressure sensors. Refer to Tire Pressure Yes
Monitoring System (TPMS) Sensor Training in this section. Using the scan tool, locate the updated
Did all of the tire pressure sensors transmit correctly and TPMS sensor IDs trained to the SJB
did the horn sound when each tire pressure sensor module.
transmitted to the SJB?
COMPARE these values to those recorded
prior to the TPMS sensor training
procedure. Disregarding sensor position
(the system is not affected by tire
rotation), any sensor IDs that do not
match those retrieved from the module
were changed but not retrained. The
sensors are now trained to the vehicle,
diagnosis is complete.
DOCUMENT all TPMS sensor IDs on the
applicable warranty claim.
VERIFY system operation.
No
Before installing a new sensor(s): If a
sensor(s) does not respond to the special
tool, ATTEMPT to activate the same
sensor(s) with the special tool. If the
sensor(s) still does not respond, MOVE
the vehicle to rotate the wheels at least
1/4 of a turn and ATTEMPT to activate the
same sensor(s) again.
If the sensor(s) fail to train a second time,
INSTALL a new tire pressure sensor(s).
REFER to Tire Pressure Monitoring
System (TPMS) Sensor.
CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
VERIFY system operation.
C4 TPMS SYSTEM STATUS EQUALS $01 SYSTEM FAULT
Train all 4 tire pressure sensors. Refer to Tire Pressure Yes
Monitoring System (TPMS) Sensor Training in this section. Using the scan tool, locate the updated
Did all of the tire pressure sensors transmit correctly and TPMS sensor IDs trained to the SJB
did the horn sound when each tire pressure sensor module.
transmitted to the SJB?
COMPARE these values to those recorded
prior to the TPMS sensor training
procedure. Disregarding sensor position
(the system is not affected by tire
rotation), any sensor IDs that do not
match those retrieved from the module
were changed but not retrained. The
sensors are now trained to the vehicle,
diagnosis is complete.
DOCUMENT all TPMS sensor IDs on the
applicable warranty claim.
VERIFY system operation.
No
Before diagnosing the SJB: If a
sensor(s) does not respond to the special
tool, ATTEMPT to activate the same
sensor(s) with the special tool. If the
sensor(s) still does not respond, MOVE
the vehicle to rotate the wheels at least
1/4 of a turn and ATTEMPT to activate the
same sensor(s) again.
If the sensor(s) fail to train a second time,
REFER to Section 419-10 for SJB and
SJB antenna diagnosis.
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204-04-10 204-04-10 Wheels and Tires
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Pinpoint Test D: DTC B106A Pressure
This DTC may be encountered if a high-pressure
Sensor Range Bit Incorrect State
sensor (designed for trucks with much higher tire
pressures and molded in green plastic) was installed.
Normal Operation
The SJB will only allow a low-pressure sensor
If there is a fault in the tire pressure monitoring
(molded in blue plastic) to be trained using the
system (TPMS), such as a damaged or missing
TPMS sensor training procedure. Make sure the
sensor(s), damaged module or a communication
correct sensors are used to avoid compatibility
issue within the vehicle, DTCs are set in the smart
issues.
junction box (SJB), the TPMS warning indicator
will flash for 70 seconds and then remain ON solid Possible Causes
when the ignition switch is turned to the ON
Tire pressure sensor(s)
position and the message center (if equipped) will
Incorrect tire pressure sensor(s) installed
display TIRE PRESSURE SENSOR FAULT.
SJB
PINPOINT TEST D: DTC B106A PRESSURE SENSOR RANGE BIT INCORRECT STATE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
D1 DETERMINE IF THE VEHICLE IS EQUIPPED WITH AN
INCORRECT SENSOR
Train all 4 tire pressure sensors. Refer to Tire Pressure Yes
Monitoring System (TPMS) Sensor Training in this section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
Did all of the tire pressure sensors transmit correctly and VERIFY system operation.
did the horn sound when each tire pressure sensor
No
transmitted to the SJB?
Before installing a new sensor(s): If a
sensor(s) does not respond to the special
tool, ATTEMPT to activate the same
sensor(s) with the special tool. If the
sensor(s) still does not respond, MOVE
the vehicle to rotate the wheels at least
1/4 of a turn and ATTEMPT to activate the
same sensor(s) again.
If the sensor(s) fail to train a second time,
INSTALL a new tire pressure sensor(s).
REFER to Tire Pressure Monitoring
System (TPMS) Sensor.
CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
VERIFY system operation.
Pinpoint Test E: DTC B106B Tire Pressure
The tire pressure sensor is battery powered.
Sensor Low Battery
This DTC may be set when attempting to train a
tire pressure sensor(s) with a low battery.
Normal Operation
If there is a fault in the tire pressure monitoring
Possible Causes
system (TPMS), such as a damaged or missing
Tire pressure sensor battery
sensor(s), damaged module or a communication
issue within the vehicle, DTCs are set in the smart Tire pressure sensor(s)
junction box (SJB), the TPMS warning indicator
SJB
will flash for 70 seconds and then remain ON solid
when the ignition switch is turned to the ON
position and the message center (if equipped) will
display TIRE PRESSURE SENSOR FAULT.
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204-04-11 204-04-11 Wheels and Tires
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST E: DTC B106B TIRE PRESSURE SENSOR LOW BATTERY
Test Step Result / Action to Take
E1 DETERMINE WHICH SENSOR HAS A LOW BATTERY
Train all 4 tire pressure sensors. Refer to Tire Pressure Yes
Monitoring System (TPMS) Sensor Training in this section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
Did all of the tire pressure sensors transmit correctly and VERIFY system operation.
did the horn sound when each tire pressure sensor
No
transmitted to the SJB?
Before installing a new sensor(s): If a
sensor(s) does not respond to the special
tool, ATTEMPT to activate the same
sensor(s) with the special tool. If the
sensor(s) still does not respond, MOVE
the vehicle to rotate the wheels at least
1/4 of a turn and ATTEMPT to activate the
same sensor(s) again.
If the sensor(s) fail to train a second time,
INSTALL a new tire pressure sensor(s).
REFER to Tire Pressure Monitoring
System (TPMS) Sensor.
CLEAR the DTCs.
REPEAT the self-test.
VERIFY system operation.
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204-04-1 204-04-1 Wheels and Tires
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Wheel and Tire
Special Tool(s)
Digital Tire Gauge
204-354
Item Part Number Description
1 1508 Tire
2 1007 Wheel
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204-04-2 204-04-2 Wheels and Tires
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Disassembly
2. CAUTION: Tire and valve stem
position is critical to prevent damage to the
CAUTION: Use only special tool 204-354 TPMS sensor when using a paddle-type bead
any time tire pressures are measured to be sure separator.
that accurate values are obtained.
NOTE: Some machines may have a nylon
roller bead separator at the 12 oclock position
CAUTION: Failure to follow the
instead of the paddle-type bead separator at the
instructions below may result in damage to the
3 oclock position.
tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) sensor.
Position the wheel and tire assembly on a
suitable tire machine and separate both beads of
NOTE: A wheel and tire assembly equipped with a
the tire from the wheel.
TPMS sensor will have the following verbiage
stamped or cast on the wheel: SENSOR MAY BE
For a paddle-type tire machine, position the
INSIDE.
valve stem at the 12 oclock or 6 oclock
position and the paddle at the 3 oclock
NOTE: The TPMS sensor is mounted to the wheel
position.
180 degrees opposite of the valve stem and is held
For a roller-type tire machine, align the
in place by a stainless steel strap. The sensor is not
valve stem with the roller at any position.
mounted to the valve stem.
1. Remove the wheel and tire assembly. For
additional information, refer to Wheel and Tire
in this section.
CAUTION: Do not allow the tire beads to
move beyond the wheel mid-plane (middle of the
wheel) when separating the beads from the
wheels, damage to the TPMS sensor may occur.
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204-04-3 204-04-3 Wheels and Tires
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
3. NOTE: Index-mark the valve stem and wheel 5. Inspect the TPMS sensor, cradle and strap for
weight positions on the tire. damage, install new parts as necessary.
Place the wheel and tire assembly on the For information on removal and installation
turntable of the tire machine with the valve of the TPMS sensor, refer to Tire Pressure
stem between the 5 and 6 oclock positions and Monitoring System (TPMS) Sensor in this
the machine arm at the 12 oclock position and section.
dismount the outer bead from the wheel.
When installing a new wheel, reuse the
TPMS sensor from the previous wheel if
possible. The TPMS will not have to be
trained if the sensor is reused. The new
wheel will not come with a sensor strap. A
sensor strap kit will need to be ordered
with the new wheel.
Assembly
CAUTION: Damage to the TPMS sensor
may result if the tire mounting is not carried out
as instructed.
1. CAUTION: Use only a soap and water
4. Reset the wheel and tire assembly on the
solution to lubricate the tire. Use of anything
turntable of the tire machine with the valve
other than soap and water may result in
stem between the 5 and 6 oclock positions and
damage to the TPMS sensor.
the machine arm at the 12 oclock position and
dismount the inner bead from the wheel.
CAUTION: Do not mount the tire at
this time.
Position the wheel on the turntable of the tire
machine, then lubricate and position the inner
bead of the tire on the wheel.
2. Position the wheel to align the valve stem with
the machine arm, at the 12 oclock position,
and mount the bottom bead of the tire.
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204-04-4 204-04-4 Wheels and Tires
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
3. Reposition the wheel to align the valve stem
4. CAUTION: Use only special tool
with the machine arm, at the 12 oclock
204-354 any time tire pressures are measured
position, and mount the top bead of the tire.
to be sure that accurate values are obtained.
Inflate the tire to the pressure specified on the
vehicle certification label located on the driver
door or door pillar.
5. Install the wheel and tire assembly. For
additional information, refer to Wheel and Tire
in this section.
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204-04-1 204-04-1 Wheels and Tires
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Installation
Wheel and Tire
1. WARNING: When a wheel is installed,
always remove any corrosion, dirt or foreign
material present on the mounting surfaces of
the wheel and the surface of the wheel hub,
brake drum or brake disc that contacts the
wheel. Installing wheels without correct
metal-to-metal contact at the wheel mounting
surfaces can cause the wheel nuts to loosen
and the wheel to come off while the vehicle is
in motion, causing loss of control.
Position the wheel and tire assembly on the
vehicle.
Item Part Number Description
2. CAUTION: Failure to tighten the
1 1130 Center cap
wheel nuts in the pattern indicated can result
2 1012 Wheel nut (5 required)
in high brake disc runout, which will speed
3 Wheel and tire assembly
up the development of brake roughness,
(1007 wheel) (1508 tire)
shudder and vibration.
Install the wheel nuts and tighten to 133 Nm
Removal
(98 lb-ft) in the sequence shown.
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. CAUTION: Do not use heat to loosen a
seized wheel nut. Heat can damage the wheel
and wheel bearings.
NOTE: Place the center cap face up after
removal to avoid damage.
If equipped, remove the center cap.
3. CAUTION: Do not use heat to loosen a
seized wheel because heat can shorten the life
3. If removed, install the center cap.
of the wheel and damage the wheel bearings.
If the wheel cannot be removed by hand, use
a wheel puller to remove the seized wheel.
Remove the wheel nuts and the wheel and tire
assembly.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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204-04-1 204-04-1 Wheels and Tires
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Wheel Leaks
WARNING: Wheel repairs that use
welding or peening are not approved. An inner
tube is not an acceptable repair for leaking
wheels or tires.
If the air pressure in a tire mounted on an
aluminum wheel is found to be low, carry out the
following procedure. Failure to follow these
instructions may result in personal injury.
1. Remove the tire and wheel assembly and
inspect the wheel for structural damage. If the
wheel is damaged, install a new wheel.
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204-04-1 204-04-1 Wheels and Tires
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Wheels And Tires WARNING: Use only wheels and wheel
nuts that have been designed for current model
WARNING: Do not mix different types of
Ford trucks. Aftermarket wheels or wheel nuts
tires on the same vehicle such as radial, bias or
may not fit or function correctly. Failure to
bias-belted tires except in emergencies
follow these instructions may result in personal
(temporary spare usage), because vehicle
injury.
handling may be seriously affected and may
result in loss of control. Failure to follow these
WARNING: Always wear safety goggles or
instructions may result in personal injury.
a face shield when performing any work with the
tire and wheel assemblies. Failure to follow these
Factory-installed tires and wheels are designed to
instructions may result in personal injury.
operate satisfactorily with loads up to and including
full-rated load capacity when inflated to
CAUTION: Reduce the air pressure as
recommended inflation pressures.
much as possible by pushing the valve core
Correct tire pressure and driving techniques have an plunger in prior to removing the valve core.
important influence on tire life. Heavy cornering, Avoid working in a position in which the face or
excessively rapid acceleration and unnecessary sharp body is directly over a tire in which there is
braking increase tire wear. pressure.
To equalize tire wear, the tires should be rotated at
CAUTION: Do not clean aluminum wheels
recommended intervals.
with steel wool, abrasive-type cleaners or strong
detergents. Use Wheel and Tire Cleaner ZC-37-A
Safety Precautions
or -B or equivalent.
WARNING: Never run the engine with one
When carrying out any inspection or repair
wheel off the ground, for example, when
procedures on wheels and tires, follow the preceding
changing a tire. The wheel(s) resting on the
safety precautions.
ground could cause the vehicle to move. Failure
to follow these instructions may result in Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS)
personal injury.
The TPMS includes:
WARNING: The tire and wheel must
the smart junction box (SJB), TPMS functionality
always be correctly matched. It is very important
is integrated within the SJB.
to determine the size of each component before
four tire pressure sensors.
any assembly operations commence. Failure to
four tire pressure sensor cradles.
adhere to these instructions can result in an
explosive separation and cause serious bodily
four tire pressure sensor straps.
injury or death.
an instrument cluster indicator.
WARNING: Aftermarket aerosol tire
a message center (if equipped).
sealants are extremely flammable. Always
question the customer to make sure these TPMS System Module
products have not been used. Failure to follow
The SJB contains the TPMS functionality. Refer to
these instructions may result in personal injury.
Tire Pressure Monitoring System in Diagnosis and
Testing for TPMS fault diagnosis and repair.
WARNING: Aftermarket wheel assemblies
may not be compatible with the vehicle. Use of
The SJB compares the information of each tire
incompatible wheel assemblies can result in
pressure sensor transmission against a pressure limit.
equipment failure and possible injury. Use only
If the SJB determines that the tire pressure has
approved wheel assemblies. Failure to follow
fallen below the low limit, the SJB communicates
these instructions may result in personal injury.
this to the instrument cluster on the vehicle
communication bus.
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204-04-2 204-04-2 Wheels and Tires
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
TPMS Pressure Sensor TPMS Pressure Sensor Strap
The SJB monitors the air pressure in the 4 road The sensor strap is what keeps the sensor and the
tires with tire pressure sensors. The sensors transmit cradle retained to the wheel. A factory-installed
radio frequency (RF) signals to the SJB strap is joined together with a one-time use buckle
approximately every 60 seconds when the vehicle and a dealer-installed strap is joined together with a
speed exceeds 32 km/h (20 mph). worm gear (similar to a radiator hose clamp). Both
straps should be discarded after removal and should
The tire pressure sensors are battery operated and
not be re-used.
are mounted to metal brackets (called cradles) on
the wheels inside the tires. The sensors are mounted The strap can be serviced separately from the sensor
180 degrees from the valve stem. and the cradle. The sensor is available separately
from the cradle and the strap. The cradle and strap
The tire pressure sensor can be serviced separately
are available as a strap kit. There are several
from the cradle and the strap.
different strap kits available based on wheel
TPMS Pressure Sensor Cradle diameter, all strap kits share the same base part
number.
The tire pressure sensor cradles are mounted to the
wheels with metal straps and have an adhesive strip
Instrument Cluster and Message Center
to aid in their retention to the wheel.
The instrument cluster illuminates the TPMS
To service the sensor cradle, the strap must also be
indicator when it receives a message from the SJB
removed.
to do so and displays the appropriate message(s) in
the message center (if equipped).
The instrument cluster and message center are
diagnosed and serviced in their own respective
workshop manual sections.
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204-04-1 204-04-1 Wheels and Tires
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Use of any other tire size or type can seriously
Wheels And Tires
affect:
Inspection and Verification
ride.
WARNING: If, while the vehicle is being
handling.
serviced, only one wheel is raised off the ground
speedometer/odometer calibration.
and the rear axle is driven by the engine, the
wheel on the ground could drive the vehicle off
vehicle ground clearance.
the stand or jack. Be sure both rear wheels are
tire clearance between the body and chassis.
off the ground. Failure to follow these
wheel bearing life.
instructions may result in personal injury.
brake cooling.
WARNING: Never run the engine with one
New wheels need to be installed when vehicles
wheel off the ground, for example, when
wheels:
changing a tire. The wheel(s) resting on the
ground could cause the vehicle to move. Failure
are bent.
to follow these instructions may result in
are cracked.
personal injury.
are dented.
WARNING: Do not balance the wheels and
are heavily corroded.
tires while they are mounted on the vehicle.
Possible tire disintegration or differential failure are leaking.
could result, causing personal injury and
have elongated wheel hub bolt holes.
extensive component damage. Use off-vehicle
have excessive lateral or radial runout.
wheel and tire balancer only. Failure to follow
Wheel and tire assemblies are attached by 5 wheel
these instructions may result in personal injury.
nuts.
Be sure to follow the warnings when carrying out
It is mandatory to use only the tire sizes
the inspection and verification.
recommended on the tire chart attached to the
Road Test
vehicle. Larger or smaller tires can damage the
vehicle, affect durability and require changing the
Verify the customer concern by carrying out a road
speedometer calibration. Make sure wheel size and
test on a smooth road. If any vibrations are
offsets match those recommended for the tire in use.
apparent, refer to Section 100-04.
1. Inspect for signs of uneven wear that may
To maximize tire performance, inspect for signs of
indicate a need for balancing, rotation, front
incorrect inflation and uneven wear, which may
suspension alignment, damaged tie rod or
indicate a need for balancing, rotation or front
steering components.
suspension alignment.
2. Check tires for:
Correct tire pressure and driving techniques have an
important influence on tire life. Heavy cornering,
cuts.
excessively rapid acceleration and unnecessary sharp
stone bruises.
braking increase tire wear.
abrasions.
Replacement tires must follow the recommended:
blisters.
tire sizes.
embedded objects.
speed rating.
3. Tread wear indicators are molded into the
load range.
bottom of the tread grooves. Install a new tire
tire construction type. when the indicator bands become visible.
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204-04-2 204-04-2 Wheels and Tires
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart
Symptom Chart
Condition Possible Sources Action
Tires show excess wear on Underinflated tires ADJUST air pressure in tires.
edge of tread
Vehicle overloaded RETURN vehicle. NOTIFY
customer of overload
condition.
High-speed cornering RETURN vehicle. NOTIFY
customer of cause of
condition.
Incorrect ride height SET ride height.
Incorrect wheel alignment SET alignment to
specification. REFER to
Section 204-00.
Incorrect tire rotation ADVISE customer of
intervals condition. ROTATE tires.
Tires show excess wear in Tires overinflated ADJUST air pressure.
center of tread
Other excessive tire wear Incorrect tire rotation ADVISE customer of
problems intervals condition. ROTATE tires.
Incorrect tire pressure ADJUST pressure.
Loose or leaking shock TIGHTEN or INSTALL new
absorbers shock absorbers as necessary.
REFER to Section 204-01 for
front shock absorbers and
Section 204-02 for rear shock
absorbers.
Incorrect wheel alignment SET alignment to
specification. REFER to
Section 204-00.
Loose, worn or damaged REFER to Section 204-00.
suspension components
Wheel and tire assembly out BALANCE wheel and tire
of balance assembly.
Excessive lateral or radial REFER to Section 100-04.
runout of wheel
Wobble or shimmy Damaged wheel bearings REFER to Section 204-00.
Loose or damaged suspension
components
Bent wheel INSTALL a new wheel as
necessary.
Damaged tire INSTALL a new tire as
necessary.
Loose wheel nuts TIGHTEN to specification.
REFER to Specifications in
this section.
High-speed shake Wheel hub face/pilot/bolt REFER to Section 100-04.
circle runout
Tires/wheels
Wheel bearings
Suspension/steering linkage
Engine
Transmission
Brake discs/imbalance
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204-04-3 204-04-3 Wheels and Tires
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Vehicle vibration Driveline engine REFER to Section 100-04.
Tires
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205-00-1 205-00-1 Driveline System General Information
General Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Item Specification
Driveline Angles @ Curb Specifications
Motorcarft SAE 80W90 WSP-M2C197-A
Engine Driveshaft Pinion Premium Rear Axle
Angle Angle Angle Lubricant XY-80W90-QL
Engine (Deg) (Deg) (Deg) (US); CXY-80W90-1L
(Canada) (7.5 inch axle)
4.0L 3.5 1.8 0.55
Additive Friction Modifier EST-M2C118-A
4.6L (3V) 2.2 3.9 1.1
XL-3 (US); CXL-3
(Canada)
All driveshaft and pinion angles point downward.
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease XG-1-C or
General Specifications
XG-1-K (Canada
CXG-1-C)
Item Specification
Axle Capacities a Service refill capacities are determined by filling the
axle 11.1 mm (0.4375 in) to 12.7 mm (0.5 in)
7.5 inch rear axle
a
1.5 liters (3.0 pints)
below the bottom of the filler hole. The vehicle
8.8 inch rear axle
b
1.9 liters (4.0/3.75 pints) must be on a level surface.
b Service refill capacities are determined by filling the
Additive Friction Modifier 118 ml (4 oz)
axle 25.4 mm (1 in) to 28.6 mm (1.125 in) below
Lubricants
the bottom of the filler hole. The vehicle must be
on a level surface.
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSP-M2C192-A
Premium Rear Axle
Lubricant
XY-75W140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L
(Canada) (8.8 inch axle)
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205-00-1 205-00-1 Driveline System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES
3. To check the pinion angle, rotate the driveshaft
Driveline Angle Measurement
so the axle flange yoke is parallel to the floor.
If equipped, remove the U-joint snap ring and
Special Tool(s)
install the special tool.
Anglemaster II Driveline
Inclinometer
164-R2402 or equivalent
NOTE: An incorrect driveline angle can cause a
vibration or shudder. For additional information,
refer to Section 100-04.
1. Preliminary setup procedures.
1 Inspect the U-joints for correct operation.
4. To check the engine angle, rotate the driveshaft
2 Park the vehicle on a level surface such as
so the slip yoke ear is parallel to the floor. If
a drive-on hoist or back onto a front end
equipped, remove the U-joint snap ring and
alignment rack.
install the special tool.
3 Verify the curb position ride height is
within specifications with the vehicle
unloaded, and all of the tires are inflated to
their normal operating pressures.
4 Rotate the transmission output yoke until
vertical. This will simplify taking
measurements.
5 Calibrate the special tool by placing the tool
on clean, flat level section of the frame rail
and press the ALT-ZERO button.
2. Using the special tool, measure the slope of the
components. Record the measurements and the
direction of the components slope.
5. Calculate the difference in the slope of the
components to determine the U-joint operating
angle.
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205-00-2 205-00-2 Driveline System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
5 Driveshaft slope minus (-) the 1 Output yoke slope
pinion flange slope equals the
2 Driveshaft slope
driveshaft/axle operating
3 Driveshaft slope minus (-) the
angle
output yoke slope equals the
When 2 connected components slope in the same
transmission/driveshaft
direction, subtract the smaller number from the
operating angle
largest to find the U-joint operating angle. When 2
4 Pinion flange slope
connected components slope in the opposite
(Continued)
direction, add the measurements to find the U-joint
operating angle.
The U-joint operating angle is the angle formed by
2 yokes connected by a cross and bearing kit.
Ideally, the operating angles on each end of the
driveshaft must:
be equal or within 1 degree of each other.
have a 3 degree maximum operating angle.
have a least 1/2 of 1 degree continuous
operating angle.
If the driveline angle is not the cause, carry out the NVH
test to determine whether the concern is caused by a
condition in the axle. Refer to Section 100-04.
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205-00-1 205-00-1 Driveline System General Information
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Vehicle Certification (VC) Label Example
Driveline System
The source of the drivetrains power is generated by
the engine and delivered to the transmission. The
driveline transfers the engine torque through the
driveshaft to the axle.
The driveshaft is connected to the output shaft of
the transmission and to the axle.
Vehicles with 4.0L engines use universal joints at
both ends of the driveshaft to allow for angular
motion. A slip yoke is used to allow for any
changes to the length of the driveshaft.
Vehicles with 4.6L engines use a constant velocity
joint in the rear of the driveshaft and a universal
joint in the front. A center bearing and the constant
velocity joint allow for length changes to the
driveshaft.
The engine torque enters the axle through the drive
pinion, which rotates the ring gear. The ring gear is
mounted to the differential case, which contains the
gears that transmit power to the axle shafts. These
shafts rotate the drive wheels. Available axles are
as follows:
Conventional axle-Ford 7.5-inch ring gear
Conventional axle-Ford 8.8-inch rear axle
Limited slip axle-Ford 8.8-inch rear axle
For additional information on the driveshaft, refer to
Section 205-01.
For additional information on the axle, refer to
Section 205-02A or Section 205-02B.
The engine angle is built into the engine mounts. If
the engine angle is out of specification, the engine
mounts must be inspected for damage.
For additional information, refer to Section 303-01A
or Section 303-01B.
The vehicle certification (VC) label is located in the
driver door jamb. The axle code is on the VC label.
For additional information on the VC label, refer to
Section 100-01.
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205-00-2 205-00-2 Driveline System General Information
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Rear Axle Identification Label
Item Description Item Description
1 Plant code 5 Build year
2 Axle ratio 6 Build month
3 Denotes Traction-Lok 7 Build day
4 Ring gear diameter (inch)
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205-00-1 205-00-1 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Special Tool(s)
Driveline System
Vibration Analyzer
Special Tool(s)
100-F027 (014-00344)
Clamp Plate
205-320 (T92L-4851-C)
Gauge, Differential Clutch
205-022 (T66L-4204-A)
Clutch Housing Alignment
Adapter
308-021 (T75L-4201-A)
Inspection and Verification
Certain axle noise or vibration symptoms are also
Companion Flange Holding
common to the engine, transmission, wheel
Tool
205-126 (T78P-4851-A) bearings, tires and other components of the vehicle.
For this reason, make sure that the cause of the
trouble is in the axle before disassembling,
adjusting or repairing the axle. Refer to Section
100-04.
Certain driveshaft vibration symptoms are common Companion Flange Runout
Gauge to the front engine accessory drive (FEAD), the
205-319 (T92L-4851-B)
engine, transmission or tires. Make sure the cause of
the concern is the driveshaft before repairing or
installing a new driveshaft. Refer to Section
100-04.
Certain symptoms may be caused by Traction-Lok
Dial Indicator with Holding
differentials. Check the vehicle certification label
Fixture
and axle identification tag to determine the type of
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
differential. Refer to Section 100-01.
equivalent
Noise Acceptability
NOTE: A gear-driven unit will produce a certain
amount of noise. Some noise is acceptable and
Dial Indicator/Magnetic Base audible at certain speeds or under various driving
100-D002 (D78P-4201-B) or
conditions such as a newly paved blacktop road.
equivalent
Slight noise is not detrimental to the operation of
the axle and is considered normal.
With the Traction-Lok differential axle, slight
chatter noise on slow turns after extended highway
driving is considered acceptable and has no
(Continued)
detrimental effect on the locking axle function.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-00-2 205-00-2 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Universal Joint (U-Joint) Inspection
The rubber lips can occasionally become hard (like
plastic) with cracks at the oil lip contact point. The
Place the vehicle on a frame hoist and rotate the
contact point on the pinion flange may blacken,
driveshaft by hand. Check for rough operation or
indicating excessive heat. Marks, nicks, gouges or
seized U-joints. Install a new driveshaft if it shows
rough surface texture on the drive pinion seal
signs of seizure, excessive wear, or incorrect
journal of the pinion flange will also cause leaks.
seating. Refer to Section 205-01.
When a drive pinion seal leak occurs, install a new
Analysis of Leakage
drive pinion seal and check the vent and the vent
Clean up the leaking area enough to identify the
hose to make sure they are clean and free of foreign
exact source. An axle leak can be caused by the
material.
following:
Axle Shaft Seals
Axle lubricant level is too high
Axle shaft oil seals are susceptible to the same
Worn or damaged axle shaft seals or differential
kinds of damage as drive pinion seals if incorrectly
seals
installed. The axle shaft oil seal bore must be clean
and the lip handled carefully to avoid cutting or
Differential housing is cracked
tearing it. The axle shaft journal surface must be
Flange yoke seat is worn or damaged
free of nicks, gouges, and rough surface texture.
Pinion flange is scored or damaged
Differential Seals
Axle cover is not sealed
Refer to Section 205-02A or Section 205-02B.
Vent is plugged
Repair the axle as necessary. Make sure the axle
Analysis of Vibration
lubricant is at the correct level. Refer to
WARNING: A vehicle equipped with a
Specifications in this section.
Traction-Lok differential will always have both
wheels driving. If only one wheel is raised off the
Axle Vent
floor and the axle is driven by the engine, the
NOTE: If a plugged vent cannot be cleared, install
wheel on the floor could drive the vehicle off the
a new one.
stand or jack. Be sure both rear wheels are off
A plugged vent will cause excessive seal lip wear
the floor.
due to internal pressure buildup. If a leak occurs,
Few vibration conditions are caused by the axle. On
check the vent.
a vibration concern, follow the diagnosis procedure
in Section 100-04 unless there is a good reason to
Flange Yoke Seal
suspect the axle.
Leaks at the drive pinion seal originate for the
following reasons:
Tires
Drive pinion seal was not correctly installed.
WARNING: Do not balance the wheels and
Poor quality drive pinion seal journal surface. tires while they are mounted on the vehicle.
Possible tire disintegration/differential failure
Any damage to the drive pinion seal bore (dings,
could result, causing personal injury/extensive
dents, gouges or other imperfections) will distort the
component damage. Use an off-vehicle wheel and
seal casing and allow leakage past the outer edge of
tire balancer only.
the drive pinion seal.
Most vibration in the rear end is caused by tires or
The drive pinion seal can be torn, cut or gouged if
driveline angle.
it is not installed carefully. The spring that holds the
drive pinion seal against the pinion flange may be
knocked out and allow leakage past the lip.
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205-00-3 205-00-3 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Driveline Angle
Vibration is a concern with modern, high-mileage
tires if they are not true both radially and
Driveline angularity is the angular relationship
laterally. They are more susceptible to vibration
between the engine crankshaft, the driveshaft and
around the limits of radial and lateral runout of the
the axle pinion. Factors determining driveline
tire and wheel assembly. They also require more
angularity include ride height, rear spring and
accurate balancing. Wheel and tire runout checks,
engine mounts.
truing and balancing are normally done before axle
inspection. Refer to Section 204-04.
Driveline Angle
Item Description
A vibration during acceleration, from 56 to 72
km/h (35 to 45 mph) may indicate an excessive 1 Bottom of the frame
U-joint angle at the axle (pinion nose upward).
2 Engine crankshaft centerline
When these conditions exist, check the driveline
3 Engine angle
angles as described in the General Procedures
4 Driveshaft and coupling shaft centerline
portion of this section.
5 Driveshaft and coupling shaft angle
If the tires and driveline angle are not the cause,
6 Axle pinion centerline
carry out the NVH tests to determine the cause.
7 Axle pinion angle
Refer to Section 100-04.
Universal Joint (U-Joint) Wear
An incorrect driveline (pinion) angle can often be
Place the vehicle on a frame hoist and rotate the
detected by the driving condition in which the
driveshaft by hand. Check for rough operation or
vibration occurs.
seized U-joints. Install a new driveshaft if it shows
A vibration during coastdown from 72 to 56 km/h
signs of seizure, excessive wear or incorrect seating.
(45 to 35 mph) is often caused by an excessive
Refer to Section 205-01.
U-joint angle at the axle (pinion nose downward).
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205-00-4 205-00-4 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Wheel Hub or Axle Flange Bolt Circle
2. Rotate the hub or flange one full turn and note
Runout
the maximum and minimum readings. The
difference between the maximum and minimum
NOTE: The brake discs must be removed to carry
readings will be the total pilot runout. Pilot
out all runout measurements.
runout must not exceed 0.15 mm (0.006 in).
1. Position the special tool perpendicular to the
wheel hub or axle flange bolt, as close to the
Wheel Hub or Axle Flange Face Runout
hub or flange face as possible. Zero the
NOTE: If the axle shaft assembly is removed,
indicator to allow the pointer to deflect either
check runout of the shaft itself. The forged
way.
(unmachined) part of the shaft is allowed to have as
much as 3.0 mm (0.120 in) runout. This alone will
not cause a vibration condition.
1. Position the special tool on the wheel hub or
axle flange face, as close to the outer edge as
possible. Zero the indicator to allow the pointer
to deflect either way.
2. Rotate the hub or flange until the next bolt is
contacted. Record the measurement and
continue until each bolt is checked. The
difference between the maximum and minimum
contact readings will be the total wheel hub or
axle flange bolt pattern runout. The runout
must not exceed 0.38 mm (0.015 in).
2. Rotate the hub or flange one full turn and note
Pilot Runout
the maximum and minimum readings. The
difference between the maximum and minimum
1. Position the special tools as close to the hub or
readings will be the total face runout. The
axle flange face as possible. Zero the indicator
runout must not exceed 0.127 mm (0.005 in).
to allow the pointer to deflect either way.
Drive Pinion Stem and Pinion Flange
Check the pinion flange runout when all other
checks have failed to show the cause of vibration.
One cause of excessive pinion flange runout is
incorrect installation of the axle drive pinion seal.
Check to see if the spring on the seal lip has been
dislodged before installing the pinion flange.
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205-00-5 205-00-5 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Axle Noise
NOTE: Before disassembling the axle to diagnose
and correct gear noise, eliminate the tires, exhaust,
trim items, roof racks, axle shafts and wheel
bearings as possible causes. Follow the diagnostic
procedures in Section 100-04.
The noises described as follows usually have
specific causes that can be diagnosed by observation
as the unit is disassembled. The initial clues are the
type of noise heard during the road test.
Gear Howl and Whine
Howling or whining of the ring gear and pinion is
If the wheel bearing is damaged, the roller surface
due to an incorrect gear pattern, gear damage or
on the axle shaft may also be damaged. Install a
incorrect bearing preload.
new axle shaft if any damage is detected.
Bearing Whine
Bearing whine is a high-pitched sound similar to a
whistle. It is usually caused by worn/damaged
pinion bearings, which are operating at driveshaft
speed. Bearing noise occurs at all driving speeds.
This distinguishes it from gear whine which usually
comes and goes as speed changes.
As noted, pinion bearings make a high-pitched,
whistling noise, usually at all speeds. If however
there is only one pinion bearing that is
worn/damaged, the noise may vary in different
driving phases. If pinion bearings are scored or
damaged or there is a specific pinion bearing noise,
Chuckle
new pinion bearings must be installed. A
Chuckle that occurs on the coast driving phase is
worn/damaged bearing will normally be obvious at
usually caused by excessive clearance between the
disassembly. Examine the large end of the rollers
differential gear hub and the differential case bore.
for wear. If the pinion bearings original blend radius
has worn to a sharp edge, a new pinion bearing
Damage to a gear tooth on the coast side can cause
must be installed.
a noise identical to a chuckle. A very small tooth
nick or ridge on the edge of a tooth can cause the
NOTE: A low-pitched rumble normally associated
noise.
with a worn/damaged wheel bearing can also be
caused by tires.
Clean the gear tooth nick or ridge with a small
grinding wheel. If the damaged area is larger than
A wheel bearing noise can be mistaken for a pinion
3.2 mm (1/8 in), install a new gearset.
bearing noise. Check the wheel bearing for a spalled
cup and spalled/damaged rollers. Check the wheel
To check the ring gear and pinion, remove as much
bearing for rotating smoothness and end play. Install
lubricant as possible from the gears with clean
a new wheel bearing if any of these concerns are
solvent. Wipe the gears dry or blow them dry with
detected.
compressed air. Look for scored or damaged teeth.
Also look for cracks or other damage.
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205-00-6 205-00-6 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
If either gear is scored or damaged badly, install a 1. A gear tooth damaged on the drive side is a
new ring gear and pinion. common cause of the knock. This can usually
be corrected by grinding the damaged area.
2. NOTE: Measure the end play with a dial
indicator with holding fixture and not by feel.
Knock is also caused by excessive end play in
the axle shafts. Up to 0.762 mm (0.030 in) is
allowed in semi-float axles. The frequency of
the knock will be less because the axle shaft
speed is slower than the driveshaft.
Clunk
Clunk is a metallic noise heard when the automatic
transmission is engaged in REVERSE or DRIVE.
The noise may also occur when throttle is applied
or released. It is caused by backlash somewhere in
If metal has broken loose, the axle housing must be
the driveline or loose suspension components; it is
cleaned to remove particles that will cause damage.
felt or heard in the axle.
At this time, any other new components in the axle
housing must also be installed, if necessary.
Additionally, clunk may be heard upon initial
drive-away. This occurs as engine torque shifts
Knock
vehicle weight, forcing changes in driveline angles,
Knock, which can occur on all driving phases, has
preventing the driveshaft slip-yoke from sliding on
several causes including damaged teeth or gearset.
the output shaft. To correct for this condition,
lubricate the slip-yoke splines.
Axle Shaft Bearing Noise
Axle bearing shaft noise is similar to gear noise and
differential pinion bearing whine. Axle shaft bearing
noise will usually distinguish itself from gear noise
by occurring in all driving modes (drive, coast and
float), and will persist with the transmission in
NEUTRAL while the vehicle is moving at the speed
in which the concern is occurring. If the vehicle
makes this noise, remove the suspect axle shaft,
install a new bearing and a new axle shaft oil seal.
Re-evaluate the vehicle for noise before removing
In most cases, one of the following conditions will any internal components.
occur:
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205-00-7 205-00-7 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Bearing Rumble
Bearing rumble sounds like marbles being tumbled.
This condition is usually caused by a worn/damaged
wheel bearing. The lower pitch is because the wheel
bearing turns at only about 1/3 of the driveshaft
speed. Wheel bearing noise also may be
high-pitched, similar to gear noise, but will be
evident in all 4 driving modes.
Symptom Chart
Symptom Chart
Condition Possible Sources Action
Traction-Lok does not work Differential. CARRY OUT the
in snow, mud or on ice Traction-Lok Differential
Operation Check in this
section. REPAIR as
necessary. REFER to Section
205-02B.
Lubricant leaking from the Vent. CLEAN the axle housing
pinion seal, axle shaft oil Damage in the seal contact vent.
seals area or damaged or worn INSTALL a new seal if
seal. damage is found.
Differential side gears/pinion Insufficient lubrication. INSTALL new gears. REFER
gears are scored to Section 205-02A or
Section 205-02B. FILL the
axle to specification.
Incorrect or contaminated INSTALL new gears. REFER
lubricant type. to Section 205-02A or
Section 205-02B. CLEAN
and REFILL the axle to
specification.
Axle overheating Lubricant level too low. CHECK the lubricant level.
FILL the axle to
specification.
Incorrect or contaminated INSPECT the axle for
lubricant type. damage. REPAIR as
necessary. CLEAN and
REFILL the axle to
specification.
Bearing preload adjusted too CHECK the ring and pinion
tight. for damage. INSPECT the
ring and pinion wear pattern.
ADJUST the preload as
necessary.
Excessive gear wear. INSPECT all the axle gears
for wear or damage.
INSTALL new components
as necessary.
Incorrect ring gear backlash. INSPECT the ring gear for
scoring. INSPECT the ring
and pinion wear pattern.
ADJUST the ring gear
backlash as necessary.
Broken gear teeth on the ring Overloading the vehicle. INSTALL a new ring and
gear or pinion pinion. REFER to Section
205-02A or Section 205-02B.
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205-00-8 205-00-8 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Axle shaft broken Overloading the vehicle. INSTALL a new axle shaft.
REFER to Section 205-02A
or Section 205-02B.
Misaligned axle shaft tube. INSPECT the axle for
damage. CHECK axle shaft
tube alignment. INSTALL a
new axle shaft. REFER to
Section 205-02A or Section
205-02B.
Component Tests
2. Mark the relative position of the drive wheels
to the wheel nuts. Remove the wheels. Install
Driveline Vibration
all the nuts in the reversed position and repeat
An analysis of driveline vibration can also be
the road speed acceleration. If the vibration is
conducted using the Vibration Analyzer; follow the
gone, refer to the tire and wheel runout
manufacturers directions.
procedure in Section 204-04. If the vibration
persists, proceed to Step 3.
Driveline vibration exhibits a higher frequency and
lower amplitude than does high-speed shake.
3. Inspect the driveshaft for signs of physical
Driveline vibration is directly related to the speed of
damage, missing balance weight, undercoating,
the vehicle and is usually noticed at various speed
incorrect seating, wear and binding universal
ranges. Driveline vibration can be perceived as a
joints. Install a new driveshaft if damaged.
tremor in the floorpan or is heard as a rumble, hum
Check the index marks (paint spots) on the rear
or boom. Driveline vibration can exist in all drive
of the driveshaft and pinion flange. If these
modes, but may exhibit different symptoms
marks are more than 1/4 turn apart, disconnect
depending upon whether the vehicle is accelerating,
the driveshaft and re-index to align the marks
decelerating, floating or coasting. Check the
as closely as possible. After any corrections are
driveline angles if the vibration is particularly
made, recheck for vibration at the road test
noticeable during acceleration or deceleration,
speed. If the vibration is gone, reinstall the
especially at lower speeds. Driveline vibration can
wheels and road test. If the vibration persists,
be duplicated by supporting the axle upon a hoist or
proceed to Step 4.
upon jack stands, though the brakes may need to
be applied lightly in order to simulate road
resistance.
1. Raise the vehicle promptly after road testing.
Use a twin-post hoist or jack stands to prevent
tire flat-spotting. Engage the drivetrain and
accelerate to the observed road test speed to
verify the presence of the vibration. If the
vibration is not evident, check the non-driving
wheels with a wheel balancer to rule out
imbalance as a possible cause. If required,
balance the non-driving wheels and repeat the
road test. If the vibration is still evident,
proceed to Step 2.
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205-00-9 205-00-9 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
4. Raise the vehicle on a hoist and remove the
wheels. Rotate the driveshaft by turning the
axle and measure the runout at the front, the
center, and the rear of the driveshaft with the
indicator. If the runout exceeds 0.89 mm (0.035
inch) at the front or center, a new driveshaft
must be installed. If the front and center are
within this limit, but the rear runout is not,
mark the rear runout high point and proceed to
Step 5. If the runout is within the limits at all
points, proceed to Step 7.
If the marks are on opposite sides of the driveshaft,
the yoke or pinion flange is responsible for the
vibration.
5. NOTE: Check the U-joints during re-indexing.
If a U-joint feels stiff or gritty, install a new
U-joint.
Scribe alignment marks on the driveshaft and
the pinion flange. Disconnect the driveshaft, When installing a new pinion flange, the driveshaft
rotate it one-half turn, and reconnect it. Circular runout must not exceed 0.89 mm (0.035 in). When
pinion flanges can be turned in one-quarter runout is within limits, recheck for vibration at road
increments to fine tune the runout condition. speed. If vibration persists, balance the driveshaft.
Check the runout at the rear of the driveshaft.
7. To balance the driveshaft, install 1 or 2 hose
If it is still over 0.89 mm (0.035 inch), mark
clamps on the driveshaft, near the rear. Position
the high point and proceed to Step 6. If the
of the hose clamp head(s) can be determined by
runout is no longer excessive, check for
trial-and-error.
vibration at the road test speed. If vibration is
still present, re-index the driveshaft slip yoke
on the transmission output shaft 1/2 turn and
road test the vehicle. If the vibration persists,
proceed to Step 7.
6. Excessive driveshaft runout may originate in the
driveshaft itself or in the pinion flange. To
determine which, compare the 2 high points
marked in Steps 4 and 5. If the marks are close
together, within about 25 mm (1 in), a new
shaft must be installed and the vehicle road
tested.
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205-00-10 205-00-10 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
8. Mark the rear of the driveshaft into 4
approximately equal sectors and number the
marks 1 through 4. Install a hose clamp on the
driveshaft with its head at position No. 1.
Repeat the process with increasing separation until
the best combination is found or the vibration is
reduced to an acceptable level.
10. Install the wheels and road test (vibration
noticeable on the hoist may not be evident
Check for vibration at road speed. Recheck with the
during the road test). If the vibration is still not
clamp at each of the other positions to find the
acceptable, install a new axle driveline vibration
position that shows minimum vibration. If 2
damper first, if so equipped. If the vibration is
adjacent positions show equal improvement, position
still not acceptable, refer to Section 205-02A or
the clamp head between them.
Section 205-02B for differential case and ring
9. If the vibration persists, add a second clamp at
gear runout checks.
the same position and recheck for vibration.
Driveshaft Vibrates
1. Road test the vehicle to determine the critical
vibration points. Note the road speed, the
engine RPM, and the shift lever positions at
which the vibration occurs.
2. Stop the vehicle, place the transmission lever in
neutral and run the engine through the critical
speed ranges determined in Step 1.
3. If no vibration is felt, balance the driveshaft.
Refer to Driveline Vibration in this section.
Traction-Lok Differential Operation Check
A Traction-Lok differential can be checked for
If no improvement is noted, rotate the clamps in
correct operation without removing it from the rear
opposite directions, equal distances from the best
axle housing.
position determined in Step 8. Separate the clamp
heads about 13 mm (1/2 in) and recheck for
vibration at the road speed.
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205-00-11 205-00-11 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
2. Gradually open the throttle to obtain maximum
WARNING: A vehicle equipped with a
traction prior to break away. The ability to
Traction-Lok differential will always have both
move the vehicle demonstrates correct operation
wheels driving. If only one wheel is raised off the
of a Traction-Lok axle assembly.
floor and the axle is driven by the engine, the
wheel on the floor could drive the vehicle off the
3. When starting with one wheel on an excessively
stand or jack. Be sure both rear wheels are off
slippery surface, a slight application of the
the floor.
parking brake may be necessary to help
energize the Traction-Lok feature of the
With the engine off, raise only one rear wheel.
differential. Release the brake when traction is
Install the special tool on the wheel nuts.
established. Use light throttle on starting to
provide maximum traction.
4. If, with unequal traction, both wheels slip, the
limited slip axle has done all it can possibly do.
5. In extreme cases of differences in traction, the
wheel with the least traction may spin after the
Traction-Lok has transferred as much torque
as possible to the non-slipping wheel.
Companion Flange Runout Check
CAUTION: Pinion bearing preload must
be reset if the pinion nut has been loosened or
removed for pinion flange reindexing or
Use a torque wrench with a capacity of at least 271
installation.
Nm (200 lb-ft) to rotate the axle shaft. Be sure that
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
the transmission is in NEUTRAL, and that one rear
hoist. Refer to Section 100-02.
wheel is on the floor while the other rear wheel is
raised off the floor. The breakaway torque required 2. Remove the driveshaft. Refer to Section 205-01.
to start rotation must be at least 27 Nm (20 lb-ft).
3. Check the pinion flange for damage.
The initial breakaway torque may be higher than the
4. Position the Companion Flange Runout Gauge
continuous turning torque.
on the pinion flange.
The axle shaft must turn with even pressure
Item Part Number Description throughout the check without slipping or binding. If
the torque reading is less than specified, check the
1 Pilot (part of 205-319
differential case. Refer to Section 205-02B. [T92L-4851-B])
2 354845 Pinion nut
Traction-Lok Differential Check Road Test
3 205-319 Companion flange runout
1. Place one wheel on a dry surface and the other
(T92L-4851-B) gauge
wheel on ice, mud or snow.
(Continued)
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205-00-12 205-00-12 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Item Part Number Description
4 Bolts (2 required) (Part of
205-320 [T92L-4851-C])
5 205-320 Clamp plate (T92L-4851-C)
6 4851 Pinion flange
5. Position the special tools on the pinion flange.
If the pinion flange runout exceeds 0.25 mm (0.010
in), remove the pinion flange, reindex the pinion
flange 1/2 turn on the pinion, and reinstall it. Refer
to Section 205-02A or Section 205-02B.
8. Check the runout again. If necessary, rotate the
pinion flange until an acceptable runout is
obtained. If the pinion flange runout is still
more than 0.25 mm (0.010 in), install a new
6. Align the holes on the clamp plate with the
pinion flange.
holes in the pinion flange and install the bolts.
Snug the bolts evenly.
9. If excessive runout is still evident after
installing a new pinion flange, install a new
7. Position the special tool as shown. Turn the
ring and pinion. Repeat the above checks until
Companion Flange Runout Gauge, and locate
the runout is within specifications.
and mark the high spot on the pinion flange
10. Install the driveshaft. Refer to Section 205-01.
with yellow paint.
Tooth Contact Pattern Check Gearset
1. To check the gear tooth contact, paint the gear
teeth with the special marking compound. A
mixture that is too wet will run and smear; a
mixture that is too dry cannot be pressed out
from between the teeth.
2. Use a box wrench on the ring gear bolts as a
lever to rotate the ring gear several complete
revolutions in both directions or until a clear
tooth contact pattern is obtained.
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205-00-13 205-00-13 Driveline System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
3. Certain types of gear tooth contact patterns on Correct backlash with a thicker pinion position shim
the ring gear indicate incorrect adjustment. required.
Incorrect adjustment can be corrected by
readjusting the ring gear or the pinion.
Contact Pattern Location
In general, desirable ring gear tooth patterns must
have the following characteristics:
drive pattern on the drive side ring gear well
centered on the tooth
coast pattern on the coast side ring gear well
centered on the tooth
clearance between the pattern and the top of the
tooth
Correct pinion position shim that requires a decrease
no hard lines where the pressure is high
in backlash.
Acceptable ring gear tooth patterns for all axles.
Correct pinion position shim that requires an
Correct backlash with a thinner pinion position shim
increase in backlash.
required.
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205-01-1 205-01-1 Driveshaft
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Driveshaft 4.0L
Material
Item Specification
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
7 Pinion flange 1 Transmission output flange
2 Driveshaft flange (part of
Removal and Installation 4602)
3 Driveshaft flange bolt
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
4 Driveshaft slip yoke boot
(part of 4602) hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
5 Driveshaft flange bolt
6 Driveshaft flange (part of
4602)
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-01-2 205-01-2 Driveshaft
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
2. Index-mark the driveshaft to maintain alignment
during installation.
4. CAUTION: The driveshaft flanges fit
tightly on the flange pilots. Never hammer
on the driveshaft or any of its components to
disconnect the driveshaft flanges from the
flange pilots. Pry only in the area shown
with a suitable tool, to disconnect the
driveshaft flanges from the flange pilots.
Using a suitable tool as shown, disconnect the
driveshaft flanges from the flange pilots and
remove the driveshaft.
3. Remove and discard the 8 driveshaft flange
bolts.
To install, tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
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205-01-3 205-01-3 Driveshaft
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
5. CAUTION: The driveshaft flanges fit
tightly on the pinion flange pilots. To make
sure that the driveshaft flanges seat squarely
on the pinion flange pilots, tighten the
driveshaft flange bolts evenly in a cross
pattern.
CAUTION: If new driveshaft flange
bolts are not available, coat the threads of
the original driveshaft flange bolts with
threadlock and sealer.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
Install new fasteners.
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205-01-1 205-01-1 Driveshaft
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Driveshaft 4.6L and 5.4L
Material
Item Specification
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
2. Index-mark the driveshaft to maintain alignment
Item Part Number Description
during installation.
1 4K177 Transmission output flange
2 Driveshaft flange (part of
4K145)
3 N800594-S100 Driveshaft flange bolt
4 N506434-S439 Center bearing bolt
5 W710432-S300 Spacer
6 Center bearing (part of
4K145)
7 4K145 Driveshaft assembly
8 W708259 Constant velocity (CV) joint
bolt (6 required)
9 4682 CV joint washer (3 required)
10 CV joint (part of 4K145)
11 4851 Pinion flange
Removal and Installation
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-01-2 205-01-2 Driveshaft
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
5. CAUTION: The driveshaft flanges fit
tightly on the transmission flange pilot.
Never hammer on the driveshaft or any of its
components to disconnect the driveshaft
flange from the transmission flange pilot. Pry
only in the area shown, with a suitable tool,
to disconnect the driveshaft flange from the
transmission flange pilot.
Using a suitable tool as shown, disconnect the
driveshaft flange from the transmission flange
pilot.
3. Remove the 6 constant velocity (CV) joint bolts
and CV joint washers, then disconnect the CV
joint from the pinion flange.
Discard the CV joint bolts.
To install, tighten to 55 Nm (41 lb-ft).
6. Remove the 2 center bearing bolts and spacers,
then remove the driveshaft.
Discard the center bearing bolts.
To install, tighten to 48 Nm (35 lb-ft).
X Install the center bearing bolts finger tight
until after the front and rear flanges are
tightened to specifications.
4. Remove and discard the 4 driveshaft flange
bolts.
To install, tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
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205-01-3 205-01-3 Driveshaft
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
7. CAUTION: The driveshaft flanges fit
tightly on the transmission output flange
pilot. To make sure that the driveshaft flange
seat squarely on the transmission output
flange, tighten the driveshaft flange bolts
evenly in a cross pattern.
CAUTION: If new driveshaft flange
bolts are not available, coat the threads of
the original driveshaft flange bolts with
threadlock and sealer.
NOTE: Tighten the CV joint bolts evenly in a
star pattern.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
Install new fasteners.
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205-01-1 205-01-1 Driveshaft
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
4. Remove and discard all 4 of the snap rings.
Driveshaft Universal Joint Snap
Ring Type
Special Tool(s)
Installer/Remover, C-Frame and
Screw
205-086 (T74P-4635-C)
Material
Item Specification
5. Place the special tool in a vise.
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease
XG-1-C or XG-1-K (US);
CXG-1-C (Canada)
Disassembly
1. Remove the driveshaft. For additional
information, refer to Driveshaft 4.0L.
2. CAUTION: Do not, under any
circumstance, clamp the driveshaft assembly
in the jaws of a vise or similar holding
fixture. Denting or localized fracturing may
result, causing driveshaft failure during
vehicle operation.
Place the driveshaft on a suitable workbench.
Do not damage the tube.
3. NOTE: If the components are not marked and
therefore installed incorrectly, driveshaft
imbalance can occur.
Index-mark the driveshaft components.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-01-2 205-01-2 Driveshaft
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
6. NOTE: If necessary, use a pair of pliers to
remove a bearing cup that fails to press out all
the way.
Remove the bearing cups and the driveshaft slip
yoke.
1 Position the driveshaft slip yoke in the
special tool.
2 Press out a bearing cup.
3 Rotate the driveshaft slip yoke 180 degrees.
4 Press on the U-joint spider to remove the
remaining bearing cup.
Assembly
5 Remove the driveshaft slip yoke.
1. NOTE: Install the Universal Joint Kits as
complete assemblies only. Do not mix
components from other Universal Joint Kits.
NOTE: Lubricate the driveshaft slip yoke and
driveshaft yoke bearing cup bores with grease
before installing the bearing cups.
Install a new U-joint spider and bearing cup.
1 Start a new bearing cup in the driveshaft
yoke.
X Check the needle bearings for correct
positioning.
2 Position the new U-joint spider in the
7. Repeat steps to remove the remaining bearing
driveshaft yoke.
cups and the U-joint spider from the driveshaft
yoke.
3 Press the bearing cup to just below the snap
ring groove.
8. NOTE: Inspect the bearing cup bores and
retaining ring grooves. Remove any rust or
other surface irregularities.
Inspect the bearing cup bores of the driveshaft
slip yoke and driveshaft yoke. Make sure that
the bearing cup bores are clean and smooth.
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205-01-3 205-01-3 Driveshaft
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
5. Remove the driveshaft from the special tool and
2. CAUTION: Never mix yellow and
install a new yellow snap ring.
black snap rings on opposing sides.
Remove the shaft from the special tool and
install a new yellow snap ring.
6. CAUTION: Never mix yellow and
black snap rings on opposing sides.
3. Repeat steps to install the new bearing cup and Repeat steps to install the new bearing cup and
snap ring on the opposite side of the driveshaft snap ring on the opposite side of the driveshaft
yoke. slip yoke.
If the yellow snap ring will not seat in the If the yellow snap ring will not seat in the
snap ring groove, install the black snap snap ring groove, install the black snap
rings. rings.
4. Install the driveshaft slip yoke and new bearing
7. CAUTION: Do not strike the bearings.
cup.
A sharp rap on the driveshaft yoke with a brass
1 Align the index marks made during
or plastic hammer will seat the bearing cups.
disassembly and install the driveshaft slip
yoke on the U-joint spider.
2 Start a new bearing cup in the driveshaft
slip yoke.
X Check the needle bearings for correct
positioning.
3 Position the assembly in the special tool.
4 Press the bearing cup to just below the snap
ring groove.
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205-01-4 205-01-4 Driveshaft
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
8. Rotate the driveshaft yoke to make sure the 9. Install the driveshaft. For additional
universal joints are free to rotate easily, without information, refer to Driveshaft 4.0L.
binding, before installing the driveshaft.
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205-01-1 205-01-1 Driveshaft
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
The 4.6L drive shaft consists of a driveshaft
Driveshaft
centering socket yoke, a single-cardon universal
NOTE: All driveshaft assemblies are balanced. If
joint, a center bearing and 2 constant velocity
undercoating the vehicle, protect the driveshaft to
(CV) joints.
prevent overspray of any undercoating material.
The splined driveshaft slip yoke permits the
The driveshafts have the following features:
driveshaft to move forward and rearward during
A tubular shaft used to transfer engine torque drivetrain movement and during driveshaft
from the transmission output shaft to the removal and installation.
differential in the axle housing, which transmits
The staked universal joint driveshafts are not
torque through the axle shafts to the drive wheels.
serviced.
The 4.0L driveshaft consists of 2 driveshaft
centering socket yokes, 2 single-cardan universal
joints, a driveshaft slip yoke, a driveshaft slip
yoke boot, 2 driveshaft slip yoke boot clamps and
a welded tube assembly.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-01-1 205-01-1 Driveshaft
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Driveshaft
Refer to Section 205-00.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-01-1 205-01-1 Driveshaft
Torque Specifications
SPECIFICATIONS
Description Nm lb-ft
General Specifications
Driveshaft flange bolts 103 76
Item Specification
Center bearing bolts 48 35
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Driveshaft constant velocity 55 41
Grease XG-1-C or
(CV) joint bolts
XG-1-K (US); CXG-1-C
(Canada) Exhaust pipe nuts 48 35
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-01-1 205-01-1 Driveshaft
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Universal Joints Item Part Number Description
3 32 needle bearings (part of
The universal joints are:
4635)
lubed-for-life design and require no lubrication.
4 Thrust washer (part of 4635)
equipped with nylon thrust washers, located at
5 Bearing cup (part of 4635)
each base of the bearing cup, which control end
play, position the needle bearing and improve
grease movement.
Item Part Number Description
1 4635 Universal joint (U-joint)
2 Grease seal (part of 4635)
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Axle Housing Bushing
1. Refer to upper suspension arm bushing in
Section 204-02.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Axle Housing
Removal and Installation
All vehicles
1. CAUTION: The vehicle must be on
level ground and at curb height.
Mark the rear shock absorbers relative to their
protective sleeve.
During installation, raise the suspension to
this reference mark before tightening the
5. Remove and discard the 2 upper support brace
suspension fasteners.
bolts.
To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
6. Remove and discard the 4 front support brace
Section 100-02.
bolts.
3. Remove the rear wheel and tire assemblies. For To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
Convertibles
4. Remove and discard the 4 rear support brace
bolts.
To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
All vehicles
7. NOTE: Using 2 screwdrivers through the
access hole, depress the tabs of the trackbar
cover retaining clip.
Remove the trackbar cover.
9. CAUTION: Secure the differential
housing to the transmission jack with a
suitable strap.
Support the differential housing with a suitable
transmission jack.
10. Remove and discard the shock absorber nuts
and shock absorber bolts.
8. NOTE: The suspension must be at ride height
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
when tightening suspension components.
Remove the trackbar bolts and trackbar flag
nuts, then the trackbar.
Discard the trackbar bolts and trackbar flag
nuts.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
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205-02A-3 205-02A-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
11. Remove and discard the upper suspension arm 14. Disconnect the lower suspension arms from the
nut and upper suspension arm bolt. axle housing.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
15. Lower the axle housing from the vehicle.
12. Lower the axle slightly, and remove the springs.
16. CAUTION: Raise the suspension to the
reference marks on the rear shock absorbers
before tightening the suspension fasteners.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
Install new fasteners as listed:
X Rear support brace bolts.
X Upper support brace bolts.
X Front support brace bolts.
X Trackbar bolts.
X Trackbar flag nuts.
X Shock absorber bolts.
X Shock absorber nuts.
13. Remove and discard the trailing arm nuts and
trailing arm bolts. X Upper suspension arm bolts.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft). X Upper suspension arm nuts.
X Trailing arm bolts.
X Trailing arm nuts.
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Axle Shaft
Material
Item Specification
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease
XG-1-C or XG-1-K (US);
CXG-1-C (Canada)
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
Anti-Seize Lubricant
XL-2 (US); CXG-2-B
(Canada)
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
6 4211 Differential pinion shaft 1 4346 Differential housing cover
bolt
7 4N237 Axle shaft U-washer
2 4033 Differential housing cover
8 4234 Axle shaft
3 Disc brake caliper
9 1177 Axle shaft seal
4 Brake disc
10 1225 Axle shaft bearing
5 4241 Differential pinion shaft lock
bolt
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Removal
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. Remove the wheel and tire assembly. For
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
3. Remove the differential housing cover. For
additional information, refer to Differential
Housing Cover in this section.
4. Remove the 2 disc brake caliper bolts, then 7. Remove the brake disc.
position aside the disc brake caliper.
Using mechanics wire, support the disc
brake caliper.
8. CAUTION: Damage to the rear brake
anti-lock sensor may occur if it is not
removed before the axle shaft U-washer.
5. Remove the disc brake pads.
Remove the anti-lock sensor bolt, then the
anti-lock sensor from the hub.
6. Remove the 2 disc brake caliper anchor bolts
and the disc brake caliper anchor.
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205-02A-3 205-02A-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
9. Remove the differential pinion shaft.
1 Remove and discard the differential pinion
shaft lock bolt.
2 Remove the differential pinion shaft.
Installation
1. Lubricate the lip of the axle shaft oil seal with
grease.
2. CAUTION: Do not damage the axle
10. CAUTION: Do not damage the rubber
shaft oil seal when installing the axle shaft.
O-ring in the axle shaft grooves.
Install the axle shaft.
Remove the axle shaft U-washer.
1 Push in on the axle shaft.
2 Remove the U-washer.
11. CAUTION: Do not damage the axle
shaft oil seal.
Remove the axle shaft.
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205-02A-4 205-02A-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
5. NOTE: Be sure to apply High Temperature
3. CAUTION: Do not damage the rubber
Nickel Anti-Seize Lubricant.
O-ring in the U-washer groove.
Install the anti-lock sensor and the anti-lock
Install the axle shaft U-washer.
sensor bolt.
1 Position the U-washer on the button end of
Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
the axle shaft.
2 Pull the axle shaft outward.
6. Install the brake disc.
4. NOTE: If a new differential pinion shaft lock
bolt is unavailable, coat the threads of the old
differential pinion shaft lock bolt with
Threadlock and Sealer.
Install the differential pinion shaft.
Align the hole in the differential pinion
shaft with the differential case lock bolt
hole.
Install a new differential pinion shaft lock
bolt.
X Tighten to 30 Nm (22 lb-ft).
7. Install the disc brake caliper anchor, then install
the 2 disc brake caliper anchor bolts.
Tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
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205-02A-5 205-02A-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
8. Install the disc brake pads.
10. Install the differential housing cover. For
additional information, refer to Differential
9. Install the disc brake caliper and the 2 disc
Housing Cover in this section.
brake caliper bolts.
11. Install the tire and wheel assembly. For
Tighten to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Special Tool(s)
Differential Bearings
Installer, Differential Shim
205-220 (T85L-4067-AH)
Special Tool(s)
Protector, Drive Pinion Thread
205-460
Dial Indicator Gauge With
Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C)
2-Jaw Puller
205-D072 (D79L-4221-A1) or
equivalent
Installer, Drive Pinion Oil Seal
205-208 (T83T-4676-A)
Step Plate
205-D061 (D80L-630-5) or
equivalent
Puller, Bearing
205-D064 (D84L-1123-A) or
equivalent
Installer, Drive Pinion Flange
205-002 (TOOL-4858-E)
Installer, Drive Pinion Bearing
Cup
205-054 (T71P-4616-A)
Holding Fixture, Drive Pinion
Flange
205-126 (T78P-4851-A)
Adapter for 205-S127
205-105 (T76P-4020-A3)
Installer, Differential Side
Bearing
205-009 (T57L-4221-A1)
Adapter for 205-S127
205-109 (T76P-4020-A9)
(Continued)
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Special Tool(s) Material
Adapter for 205-S127 Item Specification
205-110 (T76P-4020-A10)
Stud and Bearing Mount WSK-M2G349-A1
TA-27
Removal
1. Remove the differential carrier. For additional
information, refer to Differential Carrier in this Adapter for 205-S127
205-111 (T76P-4020-A11) section.
2. Index-mark the driveshaft flange and pinion
flange for correct alignment during installation.
Adapter for 205-S127
205-125 (T78P-4020-A15)
Gauge Tube
205-D034 (D80T-4020-F49) or
equivalent
3. Remove the 4 driveshaft flange bolts.
Installer, Drive Pinion Bearing
Cone
205-005 (T53T-4621-C)
Plate, Bearing/Oil Seal
205-090 (T75L-1165-B)
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205-02A-3 205-02A-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
4. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
pilot. Never hammer on the driveshaft or
any of its components to disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange. Pry only in the area shown
with a suitable tool to disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Using a suitable tool as shown, disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Using mechanics wire, position the
7. Using the special tool, remove the pinion
driveshaft aside.
flange.
8. Using a screwdriver, force up the rear axle
5. CAUTION: Discard the nut after
drive pinion seal metal flange.
removal. Use a new nut during installation.
Use the special tool to hold the pinion flange
while removing the drive pinion nut.
6. Index-mark the pinion flange and the drive
pinion stem for correct alignment during
installation.
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205-02A-4 205-02A-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
9. Using gripping pliers and a hammer, remove 14. Using the special tool and a suitable press,
the axle drive pinion seal. remove the inner pinion bearing.
10. Remove the axle drive pinion shaft oil slinger. 15. Using a brass drift, remove the pinion bearing
cups by tapping alternately on opposite sides of
11. Using the special tool and a soft-faced hammer,
the bearing cups.
drive the pinion assembly out of the outer
pinion bearing and remove it through the rear
of the differential housing.
12. Remove the outer pinion bearing.
13. Remove the drive pinion collapsible spacer and
discard it.
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205-02A-5 205-02A-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
16. Using the special tools, remove the differential
bearings.
2. Tighten the special tool to seat the drive pinion
bearing cups into their bores.
3. NOTE: If a feeler gauge can be inserted
Installation
between a drive pinion bearing cup and the
bottom of its bore at any point around the drive
1. Position the special tool and the inner and outer
pinion bearing cup, the drive pinion bearing cup
drive pinion bearing cups in their respective
is not correctly seated.
bores.
Make sure the drive pinion bearing cups are
1 After placing the inner and outer drive
correctly seated in their bores.
pinion bearing cups in their bores, place the
special tool (inner) on the inner drive pinion
bearing cup.
2 Place the special tool (outer) on the outer
drive pinion bearing cup.
3 Install the special tool.
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205-02A-6 205-02A-6 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
4. NOTE: Install new drive pinion bearings 6. NOTE: The special tool must be offset to
without any additional lubricant since the obtain an accurate reading.
anti-rust oil provides adequate lubricant without
Rotate the special tool several half-turns to
upsetting the drive pinion bearing preload
make sure of correct seating of the drive pinion
settings.
bearings and position the special tool.
Assemble and position the special tools in the
sequence shown.
7. Install the special tool.
1 Position the special tool.
5. NOTE: This step duplicates final drive pinion
2 Install the differential bearing caps.
bearing preload.
3 Install the 4 differential bearing cap bolts.
Tighten the special tool.
X Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
Tighten to 2.2 Nm (20 lb-in).
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205-02A-7 205-02A-7 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
8. NOTE: Drive pinion bearing adjustment shims 10. Install a new drive pinion collapsible spacer on
must be flat and clean. the pinion shaft against the pinion shaft
shoulder.
NOTE: A slight drag should be felt for correct
drive pinion bearing adjustment shim selection.
Do not attempt to force the drive pinion bearing
adjustment shim between the gauge block and
the gauge tube. This will minimize selection of
a drive pinion bearing adjustment shim thicker
than required, which results in a deep tooth
contact in final assembly of integral axle
assemblies.
Use a drive pinion bearing adjustment shim as a
gauge for drive pinion bearing adjustment shim
selection.
After the correct drive pinion bearing
adjustment shim thickness has been
11. Install the outer drive pinion bearing and the
determined, remove all of the special tools.
drive pinion shaft oil slinger.
9. Using the special tool, press the inner drive
12. Using the special tools, install the drive pinion
pinion bearing and drive pinion bearing
seal.
adjustment shim until it is firmly seated on the
pinion shaft.
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205-02A-8 205-02A-8 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
13. Install the drive pinion assembly into the axle
15. CAUTION: Do not, under any
housing.
circumstance, loosen the drive pinion nut to
reduce pinion bearing preload. If it is
necessary to reduce the preload, install a new
drive pinion collapsible spacer and drive
pinion nut.
CAUTION: Remove the special tool
while taking rotational pinion bearing
preload checks with the Nm (lb-in) torque
wrench.
Use the special tool to hold the pinion flange
while tightening the pinion nut.
Rotate the pinion occasionally to make sure
the differential pinion bearings are seating
correctly. Take frequent differential pinion
14. Using the special tools, install the drive pinion
bearing preload checks by rotating the
flange.
differential pinion with a Nm (lb-in) torque
wrench. Tighten the pinion nut in small
increments to avoid excessive pinion bearing
preload. Tighten the pinion nut until the
drive pinion bearing preload is in
specification.
X Tighten to a rotational torque of 1.8-3.3
Nm (16-29 lb-in).
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205-02A-9 205-02A-9 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
16. Using the special tool, install the new
19. CAUTION: Always install the bearing
differential bearings.
caps in their original locations and positions.
NOTE: Apply pressure toward the LH side to
make sure the left differential bearing cup seats
correctly.
Install the LH bearing cap and loosely install
the bolts.
17. Position the differential carrier assembly and
the new differential bearing cups in the
differential housing.
20. Install progressively larger differential bearing
shims on the RH side until the largest shim is
installed by hand.
18. Install a differential bearing shim of the shown
dimension on the left side.
21. Install the RH side bearing cap and bolts.
Tighten the left and right bearing cap bolts.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
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205-02A-10 205-02A-10 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
22. Rotate the differential carrier several times to 25. To correct for high or low backlash, increase
verify the differential bearings have seated the thickness of one differential bearing shim
correctly. and decrease the thickness of the other
differential bearing shim by the same amount.
Refer to the following tables when adjusting the
backlash. When the backlash is within
specification, proceed to Step 26.
Backlash Change Thickness Change
Required Required
mm Inch mm Inch
0.025 0.001 0.050 0.002
0.050 0.002 0.050 0.002
0.076 0.003 0.101 0.004
0.101 0.004 0.152 0.006
0.127 0.005 0.152 0.006
23. Install the special tools and measure the ring
0.152 0.006 0.203 0.008
gear backlash.
0.177 0.007 0.254 0.010
If the backlash is within specification,
0.203 0.008 0.254 0.010
proceed to Step 26.
0.228 0.009 0.304 0.012
If a zero backlash condition occurs, proceed
0.254 0.010 0.355 0.014
to Step 24.
0.279 0.011 0.355 0.014
If the backlash is not within specification,
0.304 0.012 0.406 0.016
proceed to Step 25.
0.330 0.013 0.457 0.018
0.335 0.014 0.457 0.018
0.381 0.015 0.508 0.020
Differential Shim Size Chart 4067
Dimension A
Stripes and
mm Inch Color Code
2 C-COAL 7.7978-7.8105 0.3070-0.3075
1 C-COAL 7.7470-7.7597 0.3050-0.3055
5 BLU 7.6962-7.7089 0.3030-0.3035
4 BLU 7.6454-7.6581 0.3010-0.3015
24. If a zero backlash condition occurs, add 0.50 3 BLU 7.5946-7.6073 0.2990-0.2995
mm (0.020 in) to the RH side shim and subtract
2 BLU 7.5458-7.5565 0.2970-0.2975
0.50 mm (0.020 in) from the LH side shim to
5 PINK 7.4422-7.4549 0.2930-0.2935
allow a backlash indication. Go back to Step
4 PINK 7.3914-7.4041 0.2910-0.2915
23.
3 PINK 7.3406-7.3533 0.2890-0.2895
2 PINK 7.2898-7.3025 0.2870-0.2875
1 PINK 7.2390-7.2517 0.2850-0.2855
5 GRN 7.1882-7.2009 0.2830-0.2835
4 GRN 7.1374-7.1501 0.2810-0.2815
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205-02A-11 205-02A-11 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Differential Shim Size Chart 4067 (Continued)
28. Using the special tool, fully seat the differential
bearing shims. Make sure the assembly rotates
Dimension A
Stripes and
freely.
mm Inch Color Code
3 GRN 7.0866-7.0993 0.2790-0.2795
2 GRN 7.0358-7.0485 0.2770-0.2775
1 GRN 6.9850-7.0485 0.2750-0.2755
5 WH 6.9342-6.9469 0.2730-0.2735
4 WH 6.8834-6.8961 0.2710-0.2715
3 WH 6.8326-6.8453 0.2690-0.2695
2 WH 6.7818-6.7945 0.2670-0.2675
1 WH 6.7310-6.7437 0.2650-0.2655
5 YEL 6.6802-6.6929 0.2630-0.2635
4 YEL 6.6294-6.6421 0.2610-0.2615
3 YEL 6.5786-6.5913 0.2590-0.2595
29. Install the bearing caps and bolts.
2 YEL 6.5278-6.5405 0.2570-0.2575
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
1 YEL 6.4770-6.4897 0.2550-0.2555
5 ORNG 6.4262-6.4389 0.2530-0.2535
4 ORNG 6.3754-6.3881 0.2510-0.2515
3 ORNG 6.3246-6.3373 0.2490-0.2495
2 ORNG 6.2738-6.2865 0.2470-0.2475
1 ORNG 6.2223-6.2357 0.2450-0.2455
2 RED 6.1722-6.1849 0.2430-0.2435
1 RED 6.1214-6.1341 0.2410-0.2415
26. Remove the bearing cap bolts and bearing caps.
27. To establish differential bearing preload,
increase both LH and RH differential bearing
30. Using the special tools, recheck the ring gear
shim size by the thickness shown.
backlash.
31. Apply marking compound and rotate the
differential assembly 5 complete revolutions.
32. Verify an acceptable pattern check.
33. Install the axle shafts. For additional
information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
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205-02A-12 205-02A-12 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
34. Position the driveshaft and align the index
marks on the pinion flange.
35. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
pilot. To make sure that the driveshaft
centering socket yoke seats squarely on the
pinion flange, tighten the driveshaft flange
bolts evenly in a cross pattern.
Install the driveshaft flange bolts.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Differential Carrier
Special Tool(s)
Installer, Differential Shim
205-220 (T85L-4067-AH)
Removal
Installation
1. Remove the axle shafts. For additional
information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
1. Position the differential assembly in the axle
housing.
2. CAUTION: Index-mark the position of
the differential bearing caps, as arrows may
not be visible. The differential bearing caps
must be installed in their original locations
and positions.
Remove the 4 differential bearing cap bolts and
the 2 differential bearing caps.
2. Install the originally removed differential
bearing shim on the LH side.
3. WARNING: Be careful not to allow
the differential assembly to fall.
CAUTION: Place a wood block
between the pry bar and the axle housing to
protect the machined surface from damage.
CAUTION: Index-mark the position of
the differential bearing shims. The
differential bearing shims must be installed
in their original locations and positions.
Using pry bars and wood blocks, remove the
differential carrier assembly from the axle
housing.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
3. NOTE: Apply pressure toward the LH side to 6. Install the RH side differential bearing cap and
make sure the LH differential bearing cap is tighten the LH side and RH side differential
seated. bearing cap bolts.
Install the LH differential bearing cap and Tighten to 105 Nm (77 lb-ft).
loosely install the differential bearing cap bolts.
7. Rotate the differential assembly to make sure it
4. Install the original differential bearing shim on rotates freely.
the RH side.
8. Measure the ring and pinion backlash.
5. Using the special tool, fully seat the differential
9. Install the axle shafts. For additional
bearing shims.
information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Differential Case and Ring Gear
Special Tool(s)
2-Jaw Puller
205-D072 (D97L-4221-A) or
equivalent
Step Plate
205-D016 (D80L-630-5) or
equivalent
Installer, Differential Side
Bearing
205-009 (T57L-4221-A1)
Material
Item Specification
Motorcraft 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
Synthetic Rear Axle
Lubricant
XY-75W-140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L
(Canada)
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
Stud and Bearing Mount WSK-M2G349-A1
TA-27
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
2. Remove the 10 differential ring gear bolts.
Item Part Number Description
1 4236 Differential side gear
2 4228 Differential side gear thrust
washers
3 4215 Differential pinion gear
4 4230 Differential pinion thrust
washer
5 4N237 Axle shaft U-washer
6 4209 Differential ring gear
7 4241 Differential pinion shaft lock
bolt
8 4211 Differential pinion shaft
9 4204 Differential case
10 4216 Differential ring gear bolts
11 4221 Differential bearing
12 4222 Differential bearing cup
Disassembly
1. Remove the differential case. For additional
information, refer to Differential Carrier in this
section.
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205-02A-3 205-02A-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
6. Remove the differential pinion shaft.
3. CAUTION: Do not damage the
differential ring gear bolt hole threads.
Insert a punch in the differential ring gear bolt
holes and drive the differential ring gear off.
7. Rotate and remove the differential pinion gears
and differential pinion gear thrust washers.
4. Using the special tools, remove the differential
bearings.
8. Remove the differential side gears and the
differential side gear thrust washers.
5. Remove the differential pinion shaft lock bolt.
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205-02A-4 205-02A-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Assembly
4. Install the differential pinion gears and
differential pinion gear thrust washers opposite
the differential side gears.
1. Lubricate the differential side gear thrust
washer and the differential side gear journals
with axle lube, then position the differential
side gear thrust washers on the differential side
gears.
5. Rotate the differential pinion gears to align with
the differential pinion shaft bore.
2. Install the differential side gears.
6. Install the differential pinion shaft.
Align the hole in the differential pinion
shaft with the hole in the differential case.
3. Using axle lubricant, lubricate the differential
pinion gear thrust washers and the differential
pinion gears.
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205-02A-5 205-02A-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
7. NOTE: If a new differential pinion shaft lock
bolt is unavailable, coat the threads with
Threadlock and Sealer.
Install a new differential pinion shaft lock bolt
and finger-tighten.
10. Apply Stud and Bearing Mount to the
differential ring gear bolt threads and install the
differential ring gear bolts.
Tighten to 105 Nm (77 lb-ft).
8. Using the special tool, install new differential
bearings.
11. Install the differential case. For additional
information, refer to Differential Carrier in this
section.
9. Press the differential ring gear on the
differential assembly.
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Installation
Differential Housing Cover
Material 1. CAUTION: Make sure the machined
surfaces on both the differential housing and
Item Specification
the differential housing cover are clean and
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
free of oil before applying the new silicone
Synthetic Rear Axle
sealant. To prevent contamination, cover the
Lubricant
inside of the axle prior to cleaning the XY-75W140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L machined surface.
(Canada)
Clean the differential housing and the
Silicone Gasket and WSE-M4G323-A4
differential housing cover gasket mating
Sealant
surfaces.
TA-30
Removal
2. CAUTION: Install the differential
housing cover within 15 minutes of applying
the silicone sealant, or it will be necessary to
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
remove and reapply new silicone sealant.
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
Apply a continuous bead of silicone sealant of
the specified thickness to the differential
2. Remove the differential housing cover.
housing cover.
1 Remove the 10 differential housing cover
bolts and drain the lubricant from the axle
housing.
2 Remove the differential housing cover.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
3. NOTE: The differential housing cover must be
4. CAUTION: When filling the axle it
installed within 15 minutes of application of the
must be done on a level surface with the
silicone sealant, or new silicone sealant must be
vehicle at ride height.
applied. If possible, allow one hour before
NOTE: In-vehicle repair refill capacities are
filling the axle housing with axle lubricant to
determined by filling the axle with the specified
make sure the silicone sealant has correctly
lubricant to 11.1-12.7 mm (7/16-1/2 in) below
cured.
the bottom of the fill hole.
Install the differential housing cover and the 10
Fill the axle to the level shown, approximately
differential housing cover bolts.
1.42 liters (3.0 pints) of axle lubricant, and
Tighten to 46 Nm (33 lb-ft).
install the filler plug.
Tighten to 30 Nm (22 lb-ft).
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Special Tool(s)
Differential Ring And Pinion
Dial Indicator Gauge With
Bracketry
Special Tool(s)
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C)
Protector, Drive Pinion Thread
205-460
Installer, Differential Shim
205-220 (T85L-4067-AH)
2-Jaw Puller
205-D072 (D79L-4221-A1) or
equivalent
Installer, Differential Side
Bearing
205-009 (T57L-4221-A1)
Step Plate
205-D016 (D80L-630-5) or
equivalent
Installer, Drive Pinion Bearing
Cup
205-054 (T71P-4616-A)
Installer, Drive Pinion Flange
205-002 (TOOL-4858-E)
Adapter for 205-S127
205-105 (T76P-4020-A3)
Holding Fixture, Drive Pinion
Flange
205-126 (T78P-4851-A)
Adapter for 205-S127
205-109 (T76P-4020-A9)
Installer, Drive Pinion Oil Seal
205-208 (T83T-4676-A)
Adapter for 205-S127
205-110 (T76P-4020-A10)
(Continued)
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Special Tool(s)
Adapter for 205-S127
205-111 (T76P-4020-A11)
Adapter for 205-S127
205-125 (T78P-4020-A15)
3. CAUTION: Do not damage the
differential ring gear bolt hole threads.
Gauge Tube
Insert a punch in the differential ring gear bolt
205-D034 (D80T-4020-F49) or
holes and drive the differential ring gear off.
equivalent
Installer, Drive Pinion Bearing
Cone
205-005 (T53T-4621-C)
Plate, Bearing/Oil Seal
205-090 (T75L-1165-B)
4. Using the special tools, remove the differential
bearings.
Material
Item Specification
Stud and Bearing Mount WSK-M2G349-A1
TA-27
Removal
1. Remove the differential carrier. For additional
information, refer to Differential Carrier in this
section.
2. Remove the 10 differential ring gear bolts.
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205-02A-3 205-02A-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
5. Index-mark the driveshaft flange and pinion
flange for correct alignment during installation.
8. Using the special tool to hold the pinion flange,
remove and discard the pinion nut.
6. Remove the 4 driveshaft flange bolts.
9. Using the special tool, remove the pinion
flange.
7. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
pilot. Never hammer on the driveshaft or
any of its components to disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange. Pry only in the area shown
with a suitable tool to disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Using a suitable tool as shown, disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Using mechanics wire, position the
driveshaft aside.
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205-02A-4 205-02A-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
10. Force up on the metal flange of the drive 14. Using a brass drift, remove the drive pinion
pinion seal. Install gripping pliers and strike bearing cups by tapping alternately on opposite
with a hammer until the drive pinion seal is sides of the drive pinion bearing cups.
removed.
Installation
11. Remove the drive pinion shaft oil slinger and
the outer drive pinion bearing. 1. Position the special tool and the inner and outer
drive pinion bearing cups in their respective
12. Install the special tool. Using a soft-faced
bores.
hammer, drive the pinion assembly out of the
1 After placing the inner and outer drive
axle housing.
pinion bearing cups in their bores, place the
special tool (inner) on the inner drive pinion
bearing cup.
2 Place the special tool (outer) on the outer
drive pinion bearing cup.
3 Install the special tool.
13. Remove and discard the drive pinion collapsible
spacer.
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205-02A-5 205-02A-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
2. Tighten the special tool to seat the drive pinion
bearing cups into their bores.
5. NOTE: This step duplicates final drive pinion
bearing preload.
Tighten the special tool.
3. NOTE: If a feeler gauge can be inserted
Tighten to 2.2 Nm (20 lb-in).
between a drive pinion bearing cup and the
bottom of its bore at any point around the drive
pinion bearing cup, the drive pinion bearing cup
is not correctly seated.
Make sure the drive pinion bearing cups are
correctly seated in their bores.
6. NOTE: The special tool must be offset to
obtain an accurate reading.
Rotate the special tool several half-turns to
make sure of correct seating of the drive pinion
bearings and position the special tool.
4. NOTE: Install new drive pinion bearings
without any additional lubricant since the
anti-rust oil provides adequate lubricant without
upsetting the drive pinion bearing preload
settings.
Assemble and position the special tools in the
sequence shown.
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205-02A-6 205-02A-6 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
7. Install the special tool. 9. Using the special tool, press the inner drive
pinion bearing and drive pinion bearing
1 Position the special tool.
adjustment shim until it is firmly seated on the
2 Install the differential bearing caps.
pinion shaft.
3 Install the 4 differential bearing cap bolts.
X Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
10. Install a new drive pinion collapsible spacer on
the pinion shaft against the pinion shaft
shoulder.
8. NOTE: Drive pinion bearing adjustment shims
must be flat and clean.
NOTE: A slight drag should be felt for correct
drive pinion bearing adjustment shim selection.
Do not attempt to force the drive pinion bearing
adjustment shim between the gauge block and
the gauge tube. This will minimize selection of
a drive pinion bearing adjustment shim thicker
than required, which results in a deep tooth
contact in final assembly of integral axle
assemblies.
Use a drive pinion bearing adjustment shim as a
gauge for drive pinion bearing adjustment shim
selection.
11. Install the outer drive pinion bearing and the
After the correct drive pinion bearing
drive pinion shaft oil slinger.
adjustment shim thickness has been
determined, remove all of the special tools.
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205-02A-7 205-02A-7 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
12. Using the special tools, install the drive pinion
15. CAUTION: Do not, under any
seal.
circumstance, loosen the drive pinion nut to
reduce pinion bearing preload. If it is
necessary to reduce the preload, install a new
drive pinion collapsible spacer and drive
pinion nut.
CAUTION: Remove the special tool
while taking rotational pinion bearing
preload checks with the Nm (lb-in) torque
wrench.
Use the special tool to hold the pinion flange
while tightening the pinion nut.
Rotate the pinion occasionally to make sure
the differential pinion bearings are seating
correctly. Take frequent differential pinion
13. Install the drive pinion assembly into the axle
bearing preload checks by rotating the
housing.
differential pinion with a Nm (lb-in) torque
wrench. Tighten the pinion nut in small
increments to avoid excessive pinion bearing
preload. Tighten the pinion nut until the
drive pinion bearing preload is in
specification.
X Tighten to a rotational torque of 1.8-3.3
Nm (16-29 lb-in).
14. Using the special tools, install the drive pinion
flange.
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205-02A-8 205-02A-8 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
16. Using the special tool, install the new 19. Position the differential carrier assembly and
differential bearings. the new differential bearing cups in the
differential housing.
17. Press the differential ring gear on the
differential assembly. 20. Install a differential bearing shim of the shown
dimension on the LH side.
18. NOTE: Apply stud and bearing mount to the
differential ring gear bolts.
Install the differential ring gear bolts.
Tighten to 105 Nm (77 lb-ft).
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205-02A-9 205-02A-9 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
21. CAUTION: Always install the bearing
caps in their original locations and positions.
NOTE: Apply pressure toward the left side to
make sure the LH differential bearing cup seats
correctly.
Install the LH bearing cap and loosely install
the bolts.
25. Install the special tools and measure the ring
gear backlash.
If the backlash is within specification,
proceed to Step 28.
If a zero backlash condition occurs, proceed
to Step 26.
If the backlash is not within specification,
proceed to Step 27.
22. Install progressively larger differential bearing
shims on the RH side until the largest shim is
installed by hand.
26. If a zero backlash condition occurs, add 0.50
mm (0.020 in) to the RH side shim and subtract
0.50 mm (0.020 in) from the LH side shim to
23. Install the right side bearing cap and bolts.
allow a backlash indication. Go back to Step
Tighten the LH and RH bearing cap bolts.
25.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
24. Rotate the differential carrier several times to
verify the differential bearings have seated
correctly.
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205-02A-10 205-02A-10 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Differential Shim Size Chart 4067 (Continued)
27. To correct for high or low backlash, increase
the thickness of one differential bearing shim
Dimension A
Stripes and
and decrease the thickness of the other
mm Inch Color Code
differential bearing shim by the same amount.
4 GRN 7.1374-7.1501 0.2810-0.2815
Refer to the following tables when adjusting the
3 GRN 7.0866-7.0993 0.2790-0.2795 backlash. When the backlash is within
specification, proceed to Step 28.
2 GRN 7.0358-7.0485 0.2770-0.2775
1 GRN 6.9850-7.0485 0.2750-0.2755
Backlash Change Thickness Change
Required Required 5 WH 6.9342-6.9469 0.2730-0.2735
mm Inch mm Inch 4 WH 6.8834-6.8961 0.2710-0.2715
0.025 0.001 0.050 0.002 3 WH 6.8326-6.8453 0.2690-0.2695
0.050 0.002 0.050 0.002 2 WH 6.7818-6.7945 0.2670-0.2675
0.076 0.003 0.101 0.004 1 WH 6.7310-6.7437 0.2650-0.2655
0.101 0.004 0.152 0.006 5 YEL 6.6802-6.6929 0.2630-0.2635
0.127 0.005 0.152 0.006 4 YEL 6.6294-6.6421 0.2610-0.2615
0.152 0.006 0.203 0.008 3 YEL 6.5786-6.5913 0.2590-0.2595
0.177 0.007 0.254 0.010 2 YEL 6.5278-6.5405 0.2570-0.2575
0.203 0.008 0.254 0.010 1 YEL 6.4770-6.4897 0.2550-0.2555
0.228 0.009 0.304 0.012 5 ORNG 6.4262-6.4389 0.2530-0.2535
0.254 0.010 0.355 0.014 4 ORNG 6.3754-6.3881 0.2510-0.2515
0.279 0.011 0.355 0.014 3 ORNG 6.3246-6.3373 0.2490-0.2495
0.304 0.012 0.406 0.016 2 ORNG 6.2738-6.2865 0.2470-0.2475
0.330 0.013 0.457 0.018 1 ORNG 6.2223-6.2357 0.2450-0.2455
0.335 0.014 0.457 0.018 2 RED 6.1722-6.1849 0.2430-0.2435
0.381 0.015 0.508 0.020 1 RED 6.1214-6.1341 0.2410-0.2415
Differential Shim Size Chart 4067
28. Remove the bearing cap bolts and bearing caps.
Dimension A
Stripes and
29. To establish differential bearing preload,
mm Inch Color Code
increase both LH and RH differential bearing
2 C-COAL 7.7978-7.8105 0.3070-0.3075
shim size by the thickness shown.
1 C-COAL 7.7470-7.7597 0.3050-0.3055
5 BLU 7.6962-7.7089 0.3030-0.3035
4 BLU 7.6454-7.6581 0.3010-0.3015
3 BLU 7.5946-7.6073 0.2990-0.2995
2 BLU 7.5458-7.5565 0.2970-0.2975
5 PINK 7.4422-7.4549 0.2930-0.2935
4 PINK 7.3914-7.4041 0.2910-0.2915
3 PINK 7.3406-7.3533 0.2890-0.2895
2 PINK 7.2898-7.3025 0.2870-0.2875
1 PINK 7.2390-7.2517 0.2850-0.2855
5 GRN 7.1882-7.2009 0.2830-0.2835
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205-02A-11 205-02A-11 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
30. Using the special tool, fully seat the differential 35. Install the axle shafts. For additional
bearing shims. Make sure the assembly rotates information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
freely.
36. Position the driveshaft and align the index
marks on the pinion flange.
31. Install the bearing caps and bolts.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
37. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
pilot. To make sure that the driveshaft
centering socket yoke seats squarely on the
pinion flange, tighten the driveshaft flange
bolts evenly in a cross pattern.
Install the driveshaft flange bolts.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
32. Using the special tools, recheck the ring gear
backlash.
33. Apply marking compound and rotate the
differential assembly 5 complete revolutions.
34. Verify an acceptable pattern check.
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Special Tool(s)
Drive Pinion Flange and Drive Pinion
Installer, Drive Pinion Oil Seal
Seal
205-133 (T79P-4676-A)
Special Tool(s)
Holding Fixture, Drive Pinion
Flange
205-126 (T78P-4851-A)
Installer, Drive Pinion Flange
205-002 (TOOL-4858-E)
2-Jaw Puller
205-D072 (D97L-4221-A) or
equivalent
Material
Item Specification
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
(Continued)
Synthetic Rear Axle
Lubricant
XY-75W140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L
(Canada)
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease
XG-1-C or XG-1-K (US);
CXG-1-C (Canada)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
5. Remove the 4 disc brake caliper anchor bolts
Item Part Number Description
and the 2 disc brake caliper anchors.
1 389546-S100 Pinion nut
2 4851 Pinion flange
3 4859 Deflector
4 4676 Drive pinion seal
Removal
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. NOTE: The wheels and disc brake calipers
must be removed to prevent brake drag during
drive pinion bearing preload adjustment.
6. Remove the 2 brake discs.
Remove the wheel and tire assembly. For
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
3. Remove the 4 disc brake caliper bolts and the 2
disc brake calipers.
Using mechanics wire, support the 2 disc
brake calipers.
7. Index-mark the driveshaft flange and pinion
flange for correct alignment during installation.
4. Remove the disc brake pads.
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205-02A-3 205-02A-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
8. Remove the 4 driveshaft flange bolts.
11. Using the special tool to hold the pinion flange,
remove and discard the pinion nut.
9. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
pilot. Never hammer on the driveshaft or
any of its components to disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange. Pry only in the area shown
with a suitable tool to disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Using a suitable tool as shown, disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Using mechanics wire, position the
driveshaft aside.
12. Index-mark the pinion flange in relation to the
drive pinion stem to make sure of correct
alignment during installation.
10. Using a Nm (lb-in) torque wrench on the pinion
nut, record the torque required to maintain
rotation of the pinion gear through several
revolutions.
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205-02A-4 205-02A-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
13. Using the special tool, remove the pinion
flange.
3. Lubricate the pinion flange splines with axle
lubricant.
14. Force up on the metal flange of the drive 4. NOTE: Disregard the scribe marks if a new
pinion seal. Install gripping pliers and strike pinion flange is being installed.
with a hammer until the drive pinion seal is
Align the index marks on the pinion flange with
removed.
the drive pinion shaft.
Installation
5. Using the special tool, install the pinion flange.
1. Lubricate the new drive pinion seal with grease.
2. CAUTION: If the new drive pinion
seal becomes misaligned during installation,
remove the drive pinion seal and install a
new drive pinion seal.
Using the special tool, install a new drive
pinion seal.
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205-02A-5 205-02A-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
6. Position the new pinion nut.
8. Position the driveshaft to the pinion flange and
align the index marks made during removal.
7. CAUTION: Under no circumstances is
the pinion nut to be backed off to reduce
drive pinion bearing preload. If reduced
drive pinion bearing preload is required, a
new drive pinion collapsible spacer and
pinion nut must be installed.
CAUTION: Remove the special tool
while taking drive pinion bearing preload
readings with the Nm (lb-in) torque wrench.
Using the special tool to hold the pinion flange,
tighten the pinion nut.
Rotate the drive pinion occasionally to make
sure the drive pinion bearings are seating
9. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
correctly.
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
Install a Nm (lb-in) torque wrench on the
pilot. To make sure that the driveshaft
pinion nut.
centering socket yoke seats squarely on the
Rotating the drive pinion through several
pinion flange, tighten the driveshaft flange
revolutions, take frequent drive pinion
bolts evenly in a cross pattern.
bearing preload readings until the original
Install the 4 driveshaft flange bolts.
recorded drive pinion bearing preload
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
reading is obtained.
If the original recorded drive pinion bearing
preload is lower than specifications, tighten
to the appropriate specifications. If the drive
pinion bearing preload is higher than
specification, tighten the pinion nut to the
original reading as recorded. For additional
information, refer to the Specifications
portion of this section.
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205-02A-6 205-02A-6 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
10. Install the 2 brake discs.
13. Install the 2 disc brake calipers and the 4 disc
brake caliper bolts.
11. Install the 2 disc brake caliper anchors, then
Tighten to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
install the 4 disc brake caliper anchor bolts.
Tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
14. Install the wheel and tire assembly. For
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
12. Install the disc brake pads.
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Rear Drive Axle and Differential
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
32 4628 Drive pinion bearing cup 1 4236 Differential side gears
(inner)
2 4228 Differential side gear thrust
33 4630 Drive pinion bearing (inner) washers
34 Drive pinion gear (part of 3 4221 Differential bearings
4209)
4 4222 Differential bearing cups
35 4663 Drive pinion bearing
5 4067 Differential bearing shims
adjustment shim
6 4216 Differential ring gear bolt (10
36 Differential bearing cap bolt
required)
(4 required) (part of 4010)
7 4204 Differential case
37 4241 Differential pinion shaft lock
8 Differential ring gear (part of
bolt
4209)
38 4211 Differential pinion shaft
9 Differential bearing cap (2
39 4N237 Axle shaft U-washers
required) (part of 4010)
40 383548 Differential housing cover
10 4010 Axle housing
bolt (10 required)
11 373098-S Filler plug
41 Axle identification tag
12 4662 Drive pinion collapsible
42 4033 Differential housing cover
spacer
43 4230 Differential pinion gear thrust
13 4670 Drive pinion shaft oil slinger
washers
14 4676 Drive pinion seal
44 4215 Differential pinion gears
15 4851 Pinion flange
The axle housing consists of a cast center section
16 389546-S100 Pinion nut
with 2 steel tube assemblies and a stamped
17 4621 Drive pinion bearing (outer)
differential housing cover. The differential
18 2C026 Brake disc
housing cover uses silicone sealant as a gasket.
19 Axle shaft flange (2 required)
The hypoid-design gearset consists of 7.5-in ring
(part of 4234)
gear and a drive pinion gear. Two opposed
20 2C189 Anti-lock sensor indicator (2
tapered roller bearings (drive pinion bearings)
required)
support the drive pinion in the axle housing.
21 2552 Disc brake caliper (2
required) A drive pinion collapsible spacer, located on the
differential pinion shaft, maintains drive pinion
22 N601951-S2 Brake line clip bolt
bearing preload. The pinion nut adjusts the drive
23 N804361-S100 Brake line clip
pinion bearing preload.
24 Anti-lock sensor bolt (2
required) Differential bearing shims, located between the
differential bearing cups and the axle housing,
25 2C190 Anti-lock sensor (2 required)
adjust the differential bearing preload and the
26 2C101 LH disc brake adapter
differential ring gear backlash.
27 2C100 RH disc brake adapter
The differential case is a one-piece design with 2
28 N8015163-S190 Disc brake caliper anchor bolt
openings to allow for assembly of the internal
(4 required)
components and lubricant flow. Two opposed
29 2C028 Brake disc shield (2 required)
tapered roller bearings (differential bearings)
30 N602726-S2 Brake disc shield bolt (6
support the differential assembly in the axle
required)
housing. Removable bearing caps retain the
31 4616 Drive pinion bearing cup
differential assembly in the axle housing.
(outer)
(Continued)
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205-02A-3 205-02A-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Inside the differential assembly, the differential
pinion shaft supports 2 differential pinion gears.
The pinion gears engage the differential side
gears, to which the axle shafts are splined. The
differential pinion shaft lock bolt retains the
differential pinion shaft in the differential case.
An embossed metal tag, bolted to the differential
housing cover, contains the axle identification.
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
5 Are there any special conditions affecting
Rear Drive Axle and Differential
the concern or will alter the concern? For
Special Tool(s)
example:
Dial Indicator Gauge with X road speed.
Holding Fixture
X type of road.
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent X drive mode.
X temperature.
X vehicle loaded or unloaded.
6 Is the condition constant or intermittent?
Can the concern be duplicated at any time? Inspection and Verification
7 Check for TSBs, SSM and OASIS
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
messages.
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
3. NOTE: If the inspection reveals an obvious
concern, repair the vehicle.
The technician should have a thorough knowledge
of driveline system operation and accepted general
Do a preliminary investigation. Visually inspect
driveline guidelines to detect any problems.
for obvious signs of damage.
A gear driven unit will produce a certain amount of
1 Inspect the driveshaft:
noise. Some noise is acceptable and audible at
X for build up of any foreign material.
certain speeds or under various driving conditions.
X for damage, such as a bent tube or
Certain conditions, such as road conditions and
missing weights.
weather, will amplify normal vehicle noise.
X U-joints or flex couplers for wear or
Certain rear axle and driveline concern symptoms
damage.
are also common to the engine, transmission, rear
wheel bearings and tire. For this reason, be sure the
2 Inspect the axle:
cause of the concern is in the axle before repairing
X for signs of leakage at the drain or fill
or installing any axle components.
plug, differential seal, vent or halfshaft
The following is a guide to diagnose a driveline
seals.
concern:
a plugged vent or vent tube will
cause a leak.
Verify and document the customer concern.
X for damage, such as cracks, bent
Carry out a preliminary investigation.
halfshafts or dented rear cover.
Road test the vehicle.
X for missing fasteners.
Find the cause of the problem.
3 Inspect other suspect components/systems:
Inspect the components.
X inspect the halfshaft assemblies for
2. Verify and document the customer concern.
damaged CV joints or torn CV boots
1 When was it first noticed?
X inspect the suspension for broken springs,
2 Did it appear suddenly or gradually?
damaged shock absorbers and worn
3 Did anything unusual occur that would suspension bushings.
coincide with it or precede it?
X inspect the rear brake components
4 Has the driveline system been repaired lines, cables and calipers.
before or new components installed?
X inspect the tires; are they in good
X Check the vehicle service record. Note condition and do they match?
any repairs other than driveline, such as
brakes or suspension.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Diagnostic Routine Chart (Continued)
4. NOTE: A road test is necessary for any
customer concern of noise or vibration.
Condition Action
Road test the vehicle.
Axle noise GO to Diagnostic
(chatter/shudder)
a
in Routine Noise
1 During the road test, use the following
tight turn, limited slip (Chatter/Shudder) In
driving methods to diagnose the problem. Is
differential Tight Turns, Limited
the concern most noticeable:
Slip Differential
X from a stop?
Axle noise (whine)
a
in GO to Diagnostic
all or more than one Routine Noise
X on shifts from REVERSE to DRIVE?
drive mode (Whine) In All Or More
X on turns? Than One Drive Modes
sweeping type turn. Axle noise (tick/click)
a
GO to Diagnostic
in all or more than one Routine Noise
tight turn (to the stop).
drive mode (drive, (Tick/Click) In All Or
cruise, coast) More Than One Drive X in DRIVE?
Modes
accelerating the vehicle, definite
Axle noise GO to Diagnostic
throttle depression, applying engine
(howl/moan)
a
in all or Routine Noise
torque?
more than one drive (Howl/Moan) In All Or
mode (drive, cruise, More Than One Drive X in CRUISE?
coast) Modes
maintain a constant speed with the
Axle noise (clunk)
a
on GO to Diagnostic
throttle applied?
changes in speed or Routine Noise
X in COAST? direction of power (Clunk) On Changes In
Speed Or Direction Of
decelerating with the throttle closed?
Power
2 Record when the concern occurs. Write
Vibration For information on
down the kp/h (mph) range at which the
driveline vibration
noise/vibration occurs. diagnostics, REFER to
Section 100-04.
5. Find the cause of the problem.
1 Compare the inspection and road test results
a. Refer to Section 100-04 for a glossary of
with the following chart.
noise-related terms.
2 Use the following diagnostic routine chart
6. NOTE: If the conclusion of the road test points
to identify the probable cause and know
to an axle center section (ring and pinion or
what corrective actions should be taken to
differential case) concern, carry out a visual
repair the component/vehicle, and to prevent
inspection of the axle.
a reoccurrence.
Inspect the axle components.
Diagnostic Routine Chart
1 Remove the differential housing cover.
Condition Action
Drain the axle lubricant through a white
cloth. Check the fluid for: Fluid loss GO to Diagnostic
Routine Fluid Loss
X any foreign material.
Noise louder on turns GO to Diagnostic
X metal particles.
(sweeping turn) Routine Noise
Louder On Turns X burnt odor.
(Sweeping)
2 NOTE: When inspecting the axle, do not
Axle noise (growl)
a
in GO to Diagnostic
clean the components immediately. Cleaning
tight turn Routine Noise
may remove diagnostic evidence.
(Growl) In Tight Turn
Inspect the axle components.
X Look for:
loose fasteners.
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205-02A-3 205-02A-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
notches or visible steps or grooves notches or visible steps or grooves
created by wear. created by wear.
pitting or cracking along gear contact pitting or cracking along gear contact
lines. lines.
scuffing or deformations. scuffing or deformations.
discolorations. discolorations.
nicks or ridges on gear teeth. nicks or ridges on gear teeth.
X Clean the axle components for inspection. X Check backlash and carry out a ring and
pinion pattern test. Refer to Checking
Remove as much lubricant as
Differential Ring Gear Backlash and
possible with clean solvent. Wipe the
Checking Tooth Contact Pattern and
components or blow them dry with
Condition of the Ring and Pinion in this
compressed air.
section.
X Re-inspect for:
loose fasteners.
Diagnostic Routines
Diagnostic Routine Fluid Loss
Possible Component Reference/Action
Vent CLEAN the axle vent and vent hose.
Overfilled axle CHECK the lubricant level for specific amount.
Fill plug CLEAN the area around the plug. REMOVE the plug.
APPLY pipe sealant and INSTALL the plug.
Halfshaft oil seal INSTALL a new halfshaft oil seal.
Pinion seal INSTALL a new pinion seal.
Differential housing cover RESEAL the differential housing cover.
Diagnostic Routine Noise Louder on Turns (Sweeping)
Possible Component Reference/Action
Wheel end bearing CHECK the wheel end bearing for wear or damage.
INSTALL a new bearing.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Growl) In Tight Turn, Conventional Differential
Possible Component Reference/Action
Differential side gears and differential pinion gears DISASSEMBLE the differential carrier. INSPECT the
differential case assembly. INSTALL new side gears
and differential pinion gears or case assembly.
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205-02A-4 205-02A-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Chatter/Shudder) In Tight Turns, Limited Slip Differential
Possible Component Reference/Action
Clutch pack VERIFY the condition. With the vehicle in cold startup,
MAKE SURE that the vehicle is in 2WD, to isolate the
rear axle. TURN the wheel fully right (or fully left) and
then ACCELERATE the vehicle. If the condition is
verified to be in the rear axle, REMOVE and
INSTALL new clutch packs.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Whine) In All Or More Than One Drive Modes
Possible Component Reference/Action
Axle ring and pinion REMOVE and INSTALL a new ring gear, pinion and
bearings.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Tick/Click) In All Or More Than One Drive Modes
Possible Component Reference/Action
Axle ring and pinion REMOVE and INSTALL a new ring gear, pinion and
bearings.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Howl/Moan) In All Or More Than One Drive Modes
Possible Component Reference/Action
Axle bearings INSPECT differential and pinion bearings. INSTALL
new bearings.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Clunk) On Changes In Speed Or Direction Of Power
Possible Component Reference/Action
Axle and pinion system MEASURE total backlash. If end play and total
backlash are within specification, INSTALL a new
differential case assembly.
Differential pinion shaft INSTALL a new differential pinion shaft and pin.
Pinion bearings INSTALL new pinion and differential bearings and
bearing cups.
Diagnostic Routine Vibration
Possible Component Reference/Action
For additional information on driveline vibration, REFER to Section 100-04.
Checking Differential Ring Gear
Backlash
1. Remove the differential housing cover.
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205-02A-5 205-02A-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
2. Using a suitable dial indicator and the special Apply a marking compound to a third of the gear
tool, measure and record the differential ring teeth on the differential ring gear. Rotate the
gear backlash in 4 opposing points on the ring differential ring gear several complete turns in both
gear. directions until a good, clear tooth pattern is
obtained. Compare the contact patterns on the ring
gear teeth with the following illustrations.
Good Contact Pattern
Pattern inspection allows the technician to detect
gross errors in set up prior to complete assembly of
the differential assembly. Pattern contact should be
within the primary area of the ring gear tooth
section. Avoid narrow or hard contact with the
outer perimeter of the ring gear tooth. Pattern
inspection should be on the drive side of the tooth.
Correct assembly of the drive pattern will result in
satisfactory coast performance.
NOTE: If a gross pattern error is detected with the
Checking Tooth Contact Pattern and
correct backlash, check the pinion shim selection.
Condition of the Ring and Pinion
There are 2 basic types of conditions that will
Good Contact Pattern
produce ring and pinion noise. The first type is a
howl or chuckle produced by broken, cracked,
chipped, scored or forcibly damaged gear teeth and
is usually quite audible over the entire speed range.
The second type of ring and pinion noise pertains to
the mesh pattern of the gear pattern. This gear noise
can be recognized as it produces a constant pitch or
whine. Ring and pinion noise tends to peak in a
narrow speed range or ranges, and will tend to
remain constant in pitch.
NOTE: In the following steps, the movement of the
contact pattern along the length is indicated as
toward the heel or toe of the differential ring
gear.
Low Contact Pattern That Is Contacting
More Toward the Heel
Gross Pattern Error
Item Part Number Description
1 Heel
2 Toe
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205-02A-6 205-02A-6 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
High, Thin Contact Pattern In the Center Of Thick Contact Pattern That Is Contacting
the Tooth Tooth Toward the Toe
Gross Pattern Error Gross Pattern Error
Thick Contact Pattern That Is Contacting
Tooth Toward the Heel
Gross Pattern Error
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Material
Rear Wheel Bearing and Axle Shaft
Item Specification
Seal
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease
Special Tool(s)
XG-1-C or XG-1-K (US);
Slide Hammer CXG-1-C (Canada)
100-001 (T50T-100-A)
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
Synthetic Rear Axle
Lubricant
XY-75W140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L
(Canada)
Remover, Axle Bearing Removal
205-219 (T85L-1225-AH)
1. Remove the axle shaft. For additional
information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
2. NOTE: If the axle shaft oil seal is leaking, the
axle housing vent may be plugged.
Adapter for 303-224
Using the special tools, remove the rear wheel
205-153 (T80T-4000-W)
bearing and axle shaft oil seal.
Installer, Axle Shaft Bearing
205-124 (T78P-1225-A)
Installer, Rear Axle Oil Seal
205-390 (T97T-1177-B)
Installation
1. Lubricate the new rear wheel bearing with the
axle lubricant.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
2. Using the special tools, install the new rear 4. Using the special tools, install the new axle
wheel bearing. shaft oil seal.
3. Lubricate the lip of the new axle shaft oil seal 5. Install the axle shaft. For additional
with grease. information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
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205-02A-1 205-02A-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
General Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Item Specification
General Specifications
Available drive pinion 0.254 mm (0.010 in)
Item Specification bearing adjustment shim 0.965 mm (0.038 in)
in steps of 0.25 mm
Lubricants and Sealers
(0.010 in)
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
Pinion flange runout 0.25 mm (0.010 in) T.I.R.
Synthetic Rear Axle
Lubricant
a In-vehicle repair refill capacities are determined by
XY-75W140-QL (US);
filling the rear axle with the specified lubricant to
CXY-75W140-1L
11.1-12.7 mm (0.44-0.50 in) below the bottom of
(Canada)
the fill hole with the axle at ride height.
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease XG-1-C or
Rear Axle Backlash Shim Adjustment Table
XG-1-K (US); CXG-1-C
(Canada)
Backlash Change Thickness Change
Required Required
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
Anti-Seize Lubricant XL-2
mm Inch mm Inch
(US); CXG-2-B (Canada)
0.025 0.001 0.050 0.002
Silicone Gasket and WSE-M4G323-A4
0.050 0.002 0.050 0.002
Sealant TA-30
0.076 0.003 0.101 0.004
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
0.101 0.004 0.152 0.006
Stud and Bearing Mount WSK-M2G349-A1
0.127 0.005 0.152 0.006
TA-27
0.152 0.006 0.203 0.008
Lubricant Capacities
0.177 0.007 0.254 0.010
Approximate axle fill 1.42 liters (3.0 pints)
0.203 0.008 0.254 0.010
capacity
a
11.1-12.7-mm (7/16-1/2
in) below the bottom of 0.228 0.009 0.304 0.012
the fill hole with the axle
0.254 0.010 0.355 0.014
at ride height
0.279 0.011 0.355 0.014
Clearance, Tolerance and Adjustments
0.304 0.012 0.406 0.016
Maximum differential case 0.076 mm (0.003 in)
runout 0.330 0.013 0.457 0.018
Differential side gear 0.762-0.813 mm 0.335 0.014 0.457 0.018
thrust washer thickness (0.030-0.032 in)
0.381 0.015 0.508 0.020
Differential pinion gear 0.762-0.813 mm
thrust washer thickness (0.030-0.032 in)
Torque Specifications
Maximum axle shaft end 0.762 mm (0.030 in)
play
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
Pinion bearing preload 1.8-3.3 Nm (16-29 lb-in)
Differential pinion 30 22
shaft lock bolt
Ring gear backlash 0.203-0.304 mm
(0.008-0.012 in)
Disc brake caliper bolts 33 24
Variation between teeth 0.102 mm (0.004 in)
Disc brake caliper 103 76
maximum backlash
anchor bolts
Driveshaft flange bolts 112 83
Differential housing 46 33
cover bolts
Filler plug 30 22
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02A-2 205-02A-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 7.5-Inch Ring Gear
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
Torque Specifications (Continued) Torque Specifications (Continued)
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
Handle adapter for 2.2 20 Upper suspension arm 175 129
205-S127 nut
Differential bearing cap 105 77 Trailing arm nut 175 129
bolts
Rear support brace 63 46
Differential ring gear 105 77 bolts (convertible)
bolts
Upper support brace 63 46
Anti-lock sensor bolt 7 62 bolts (convertible)
Lower shock absorber 115 85 Front support brace 63 46
nuts bolts (convertible)
Trackbar nuts 175 129
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Axle Housing Bushing
1. To remove the axle housing bushing, refer to
Upper Arm Bushing in Section 204-02.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
5. For convertible models, remove and discard the
Axle Housing
2 upper support brace bolts.
Removal and Installation To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
1. CAUTION: The vehicle must be on
level ground and at curb height.
Mark the rear shock absorbers relative to their
protective sleeve.
During installation, raise the suspension to
this reference mark before tightening the
suspension fasteners.
6. For convertible models, remove and discard the
4 front support brace bolts.
To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
3. Remove the rear wheel and tire assemblies. For
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
4. For convertible models, remove and discard the
4 rear support brace bolts.
To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
7. Remove the stabilizer bar bracket-to-frame bolts 9. NOTE: The suspension must be at ride height
and disconnect the stabilizer bar from the axle. when tightening suspension components.
Discard the stabilizer bar bracket-to-frame Remove the trackbar bolts and the trackbar
bolts. flagnuts, then the trackbar.
To install, tighten to 70 Nm (52 lb-ft). Discard the trackbar bolts and the trackbar
flagnuts.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
8. NOTE: Using 2 screwdrivers through the
access hole, depress the tabs of the trackbar
cover retaining clip.
10. CAUTION: Secure the differential
Remove the trackbar cover.
housing to the transmission jack with a
suitable strap.
Support the differential housing with a suitable
transmission jack.
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205-02B-3 205-02B-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
11. Remove and discard the shock absorber nuts 14. Remove and discard the trailing arm nuts and
and shock absorber bolts. trailing arm bolts.
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft). To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
12. Remove and discard the upper suspension arm 15. Disconnect the lower suspension arms from the
nut and upper suspension arm bolt. axle housing.
To install, tighten to 175 Nm (129 lb-ft).
16. Lower the axle housing from the vehicle.
13. Lower the axle slightly and remove the springs.
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205-02B-4 205-02B-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
17. CAUTION: Raise the suspension to the
reference marks on the rear shock absorbers
before tightening the suspension fasteners.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
Install new fasteners as listed:
X Rear support brace bolts
X Upper support brace bolts
X Front support brace bolts
X Stabilizer bar bracket-to-frame bolts
X Track bar bolts
X Trackbar flag nuts
X Shock absorber bolts
X Shock absorber nuts
X Upper suspension arm bolts
X Upper suspension arm nuts
X Trailing arm bolts
X Trailing arm nuts
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Axle Shaft
Material
Item Specification
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease
XG-1-C or XG-1-K (US);
CXG-1-C (Canada)
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
Anti-Seize Lubricant
XL-2 (US); CXG-2-B
(Canada)
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
6 4211 Differential pinion shaft 1 4346 Differential housing cover
bolt
7 4N237 Axle shaft U-washer
2 4033 Differential housing cover
8 4234 Axle shaft
3 Disc brake caliper
9 1177 Axle shaft seal
4 Brake disc
10 1225 Axle shaft bearing
5 4241 Differential pinion shaft lock
bolt
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Removal
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. Remove the wheel and tire assembly. For
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
3. Remove the differential housing cover. For
additional information, refer to Differential
Housing Cover in this section.
4. Remove the 2 disc brake caliper bolts and 7. Remove the brake disc.
position aside the disc brake caliper.
Using mechanics wire, support the disc
brake caliper.
8. CAUTION: Damage to the rear brake
anti-lock sensor may occur if it is not
removed before the axle shaft U-washer.
5. Remove the disc brake pads.
Remove the anti-lock sensor bolt, then remove
the anti-lock sensor from the hub.
6. Remove the 2 disc brake caliper anchor bolts
and the disc brake caliper anchor.
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205-02B-3 205-02B-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
9. Remove the differential pinion shaft.
1 Remove and discard the differential pinion
shaft lock bolt.
2 Remove the differential pinion shaft.
Installation
1. Lubricate the lip of the axle shaft oil seal with
grease.
2. CAUTION: Do not damage the axle
10. CAUTION: Do not damage the rubber
shaft oil seal.
O-ring in the axle shaft grooves.
Install the axle shaft.
Remove the axle shaft U-washer.
1 Push in on the axle shaft.
2 Remove the U-washer.
11. CAUTION: Do not damage the axle
shaft oil seal.
Remove the axle shaft.
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205-02B-4 205-02B-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
5. NOTE: Be sure to apply anti-seize lubricant to
3. CAUTION: Do not damage the rubber
the sensor body where it will make contact
O-ring in the U-washer groove.
when installed.
Install the axle shaft U-washer.
Install the anti-lock sensor.
1 Position the U-washer on the button end of
To install, tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
the axle shaft.
2 Pull the axle shaft outward.
6. Install the brake disc.
4. NOTE: If a new differential pinion shaft lock
bolt is unavailable, coat the threads of the old
differential pinion shaft lock bolt with
threadlock and sealer.
Install the differential pinion shaft.
Align the hole in the differential pinion
shaft with the differential case lock bolt
hole.
Install a new differential pinion shaft lock
bolt.
X Tighten to 30 Nm (22 lb-ft).
7. Install the disc brake caliper anchor, then install
the 2 disc brake caliper anchor bolts.
Tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
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205-02B-5 205-02B-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
8. Install the disc brake pads.
10. Install the differential housing cover. For
additional information, refer to Differential
9. Install the disc brake caliper and the 2 disc
Housing Cover in this section.
brake caliper bolts.
11. Install the tire and wheel assembly. For
Tighten to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Special Tool(s)
Differential Bearings
Adapter For 205-S127
205-109 (T76P-4020-A9)
Special Tool(s)
2-Jaw Puller
205-D072 (D79L-4221-A1) or
equivalent
Adapter For 205-S127
205-129 (T79P-4020-A18)
Step Plate
205-D061 (D83T-4205-C2) or
equivalent
Adapter For 205-S127
205-110 (T76P-4020-A10)
Installer, Differential Side
Bearing
205-010 (T57L-4221-A2)
Adapter For 205-S127
205-130 (T79P-4020-A19)
Adapter For 205-S127
205-105 (T76P-4020-A3)
Dial Indicator With Holding
Fixture
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent Adapter For 205-S127
205-111 (T76P-4020-A11)
Gauge, Clutch Housing
308-021 (T57L-4201-A)
Remover, Differential Bearing
205-116 (T77F-4220-B1)
Shim Driver
205-220 (T85L-4067-AH)
(Continued)
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Special Tool(s) Special Tool(s)
Holding Fixture, Drive Pinion Protector, Drive Pinion Thread
Flange 205-460 or equivalent
205-126 (T78P-4851-A)
Installer, Drive Pinion Bearing Puller, Bearing
Cone 205-D064 (D84L-1123-A) or
205-005 (T53T-4621-C) equivalent
Installer, Drive Pinion Bearing
Cup
205-024 (T67P-4616-A)
Installer, Drive Pinion Flange
205-002 (TOOL-4858-E) or
equivalent
Installer, Drive Pinion Oil Seal
205-208 (T83T-4676-A)
Plate, Bearing Oil Seal
205-090 (T75L-1165-B)
Item Part Number Description
(Continued)
1 4670 Oil slinger
2 4621 Outer pinion bearing
3 4616 Outer pinion bearing cup
4 4662 Collapsible spacer
5 Inner pinion bearing cup shim
(5.4L only)
(Continued)
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205-02B-3 205-02B-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Item Part Number Description 4. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange 6 4628 Inner pinion bearing cup
pilot. Never hammer on the driveshaft or
7 4630 Inner pinion bearing
any of its components to disconnect the
8 4663 Pinion bearing adjustment
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
shim
pinion flange. Pry only in the area shown
9 4209 Drive pinion
with a suitable tool to disconnect the
10 4209 Ring gear
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
11 4221 Differential bearing
pinion flange.
12 4222 Differential bearing cup
Using a suitable tool as shown, disconnect the
13 4067 Differential bearing shim
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Removal
Using mechanics wire, position the
driveshaft aside.
1. Remove the differential carrier assembly. For
additional information, refer to Differential
Carrier in this section.
2. Index-mark the driveshaft flange and pinion
flange for correct alignment during installation.
5. CAUTION: Discard the nut after
removal. Use a new nut during installation.
Use the special tool to hold the pinion flange
while removing the drive pinion nut.
3. Remove the 4 driveshaft flange bolts.
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205-02B-4 205-02B-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
6. Index-mark the pinion flange and the drive
pinion stem for correct alignment during
installation.
10. Remove the axle drive pinion shaft oil slinger.
11. Using the special tool and a soft-faced hammer,
drive the pinion assembly out of the outer
7. Using the special tool, remove the pinion pinion bearing and remove it through the rear
flange. of the differential housing.
8. Using a screwdriver, force up the rear axle 12. Remove the outer pinion bearing.
drive pinion seal metal flange.
13. Remove the drive pinion collapsible spacer and
discard it.
9. Using gripping pliers and a hammer, remove
the axle drive pinion seal.
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205-02B-5 205-02B-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
14. Using the special tool and a suitable press,
remove the inner pinion bearing.
15. NOTE: On 5.4L applications, remove the inner
pinion cup shim from the housing.
Using a brass drift, remove the pinion bearing
cups by tapping alternately on opposite sides of
the bearing cups.
Installation
1. Press the left and right differential bearing on
the differential assembly.
1 Position the differential bearings.
2 Using the special tool, press the differential
bearings on the differential assembly.
16. Using the special tools, remove the differential
bearings.
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205-02B-6 205-02B-6 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
2. NOTE: On 5.4L applications, install the inner 4. NOTE: If a feeler gauge of the specification
pinion bearing cup shim in the housing before shown can be inserted between a cup and the
installing the bearing cups. bottom of its bore at any point around the cup,
the cup is not correctly seated.
Position the special tool and the inner and outer
bearing cups in their respective bores. Make sure the differential pinion bearing cups
are correctly seated.
1 After placing the inner and outer bearing
cups in their respective bores, place the
special tool of the inner bearing cup.
2 Place the special tool on the outer bearing
cup.
3 Install the special tool.
3. Tighten the special tool to seat the pinion
bearing cups in their bores.
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205-02B-7 205-02B-7 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
5. NOTE: Install new drive pinion bearings 6. NOTE: The gauge block must be offset to
without any additional lubricant since the obtain an accurate reading.
anti-rust oil provides adequate lubricant without
Rotate the gauge block several half turns to
upsetting the drive pinion bearing preload
make sure of correct seating of the drive pinion
settings.
bearings and position the gauge block.
Assemble and position the drive pinion depth
gauge set.
1 Position the screw.
2 Position the aligning adapter.
3 Position the gauge disc.
4 Position the gauge block.
5 Position the inner drive pinion bearing.
6 Position the outer drive pinion bearing.
7 Thread on the handle and tighten.
X Tighten to 2.2 Nm (20 lb-in).
7. Install the special tool.
1 Position the gauge tube and the paper
shipping tabs.
2 Install the differential bearing caps.
3 Install the differential bearing cap bolts.
X Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
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205-02B-8 205-02B-8 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
8. NOTE: Drive pinion bearing adjustment shims
must be flat and clean.
NOTE: A slight drag should be felt for correct
drive pinion bearing adjustment shim selection.
Do not attempt to force the drive pinion bearing
adjustment shim between gauge block and
gauge tube. This will minimize selection of a
drive pinion bearing adjustment shim thicker
than required, which results in a deep tooth
contact in final assembly of integral axle
assemblies.
Use a drive pinion bearing adjustment shim as a
gauge for drive pinion bearing adjustment shim
11. Install the drive pinion assembly into the axle
selection.
housing.
After the correct drive pinion bearing
adjustment shim thickness has been
determined, remove all of the special tools.
12. Install the outer drive pinion bearing and the
drive pinion shaft oil slinger.
13. Using the special tool, install the drive pinion
9. Using the special tool and a shop press, drive
seal.
the inner drive pinion bearing and drive pinion
bearing adjustment shim until they are firmly
seated on the pinion shaft.
10. Install a new drive pinion collapsible spacer on
the pinion shaft against the pinion shaft
shoulder.
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205-02B-9 205-02B-9 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
14. Using the special tools, install the drive pinion 16. Place the differential carrier assembly with the
flange. new differential carrier bearing cups in the axle
housing.
15. CAUTION: Do not, under any
17. Install a differential bearing shim on the LH
circumstance, loosen the drive pinion nut to
side.
reduce pinion bearing preload. If it is
necessary to reduce the preload, install a new
drive pinion collapsible spacer and drive
pinion nut.
CAUTION: Remove the special tool
while taking rotational pinion bearing
preload checks with the Nm (lb-in) torque
wrench.
Use the special tool to hold the pinion flange
while tightening the pinion nut.
Rotate the pinion occasionally to make sure
the differential pinion bearings are seating
correctly. Take frequent differential pinion
bearing preload checks by rotating the
18. NOTE: Apply pressure toward the LH side to
differential pinion with a Nm (lb-in) torque
make sure the left differential bearing cup is
wrench. Tighten the pinion nut in small
seated.
increments to avoid excessive pinion bearing
Install the LH differential bearing cap and
preload. Tighten the pinion nut until the
loosely install the differential bearing cap bolts.
drive pinion bearing preload is in
specification.
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205-02B-10 205-02B-10 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
19. Install progressively larger differential bearing 22. Install the special tools and measure the ring
shims on the RH side until the largest gear backlash.
differential bearing shim selected can be
If the backlash is within specification,
inserted by hand.
proceed to Step 25.
If a zero backlash condition occurs, proceed
to Step 23.
If the backlash is not within specification,
proceed to Step 24.
20. Install the RH side differential bearing cap and
tighten the differential bearing cap bolts.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
23. If a zero backlash condition occurs, add 0.50
mm (0.020 in) to the RH side shim and subtract
0.50 mm (0.020 in) from the LH side shim to
allow a backlash indication. Go back to Step
22.
24. To correct for high or low backlash, increase
the thickness of one differential bearing shim
and decrease the thickness of the other
differential bearing shim by the same amount.
Refer to the following tables when adjusting the
backlash. When the backlash is within
specifications, proceed to Step 25.
21. Rotate the differential assembly to make sure it
rotates freely.
Backlash Change Thickness Change
Required Required
mm Inch mm Inch
0.025 0.001 0.050 0.002
0.050 0.002 0.050 0.002
0.076 0.003 0.101 0.004
0.101 0.004 0.152 0.006
0.127 0.005 0.152 0.006
0.152 0.006 0.203 0.008
0.177 0.007 0.254 0.010
0.203 0.008 0.254 0.010
0.228 0.009 0.304 0.012
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205-02B-11 205-02B-11 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Differential Shim Size Chart 4067 (Continued) Backlash Change Thickness Change
Required Required
Dimension A
Stripes and
mm Inch mm Inch
mm Inch Color Code
0.254 0.010 0.355 0.014
5 ORNG 6.4262-6.4389 0.2530-0.2535
0.279 0.011 0.355 0.014
4 ORNG 6.3754-6.3881 0.2510-0.2515
0.304 0.012 0.406 0.016
3 ORNG 6.3246-6.3373 0.2490-0.2495
0.330 0.013 0.457 0.018
2 ORNG 6.2738-6.2865 0.2470-0.2475
0.335 0.014 0.457 0.018
1 ORNG 6.2223-6.2357 0.2450-0.2455
0.381 0.015 0.508 0.020
2 RED 6.1722-6.1849 0.2430-0.2435
1 RED 6.1214-6.1341 0.2410-0.2415
Differential Shim Size Chart 4067
Dimension A
Stripes and
25. Rotate the differential assembly several times to
mm Inch Color Code
make sure the differential bearings are seated.
2 C-COAL 7.7978-7.8105 0.3070-0.3075
1 C-COAL 7.7470-7.7597 0.3050-0.3055
5 BLU 7.6962-7.7089 0.3030-0.3035
4 BLU 7.6454-7.6581 0.3010-0.3015
3 BLU 7.5946-7.6073 0.2990-0.2995
2 BLU 7.5458-7.5565 0.2970-0.2975
5 PINK 7.4422-7.4549 0.2930-0.2935
4 PINK 7.3914-7.4041 0.2910-0.2915
3 PINK 7.3406-7.3533 0.2890-0.2895
2 PINK 7.2898-7.3025 0.2870-0.2875
1 PINK 7.2390-7.2517 0.2850-0.2855
5 GRN 7.1882-7.2009 0.2830-0.2835
26. Using the special tools, recheck the ring gear
4 GRN 7.1374-7.1501 0.2810-0.2815
backlash.
3 GRN 7.0866-7.0993 0.2790-0.2795
2 GRN 7.0358-7.0485 0.2770-0.2775
1 GRN 6.9850-7.0485 0.2750-0.2755
5 WH 6.9342-6.9469 0.2730-0.2735
4 WH 6.8834-6.8961 0.2710-0.2715
3 WH 6.8326-6.8453 0.2690-0.2695
2 WH 6.7818-6.7945 0.2670-0.2675
1 WH 6.7310-6.7437 0.2650-0.2655
5 YEL 6.6802-6.6929 0.2630-0.2635
4 YEL 6.6294-6.6421 0.2610-0.2615
3 YEL 6.5786-6.5913 0.2590-0.2595
2 YEL 6.5278-6.5405 0.2570-0.2575
27. Remove the differential bearing cap bolts and
1 YEL 6.4770-6.4897 0.2550-0.2555 differential bearing caps.
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205-02B-12 205-02B-12 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
28. To establish differential bearing preload, 31. Using the special tools, recheck the backlash.
increase both LH and RH differential bearing
32. Apply marking compound and rotate the
shim sizes as shown.
differential assembly 5 complete revolutions.
33. Check and verify an acceptable pattern.
34. Install the axle shafts. For additional
information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section
35. Position the driveshaft and align the index
marks on the pinion flange.
29. Using the special tool, fully seat the differential
bearing shims. Make sure the assembly rotates
freely.
36. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
pilot. To make sure that the driveshaft
centering socket yoke seats squarely on the
pinion flange, tighten the driveshaft flange
bolts evenly in a cross pattern.
Install the driveshaft flange bolts.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
30. Install the differential bearing caps and
differential bearing cap bolts.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Differential Carrier
Special Tool(s)
Shim Driver
205-220 (T85L-4067-AH)
Removal
Installation
1. Remove the axle shafts. For additional
information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
1. Position the differential assembly in the axle
housing.
2. CAUTION: Index-mark the position of
the differential bearing caps, as arrows may
not be visible. The differential bearing caps
must be installed in their original locations
and positions.
Remove the 4 differential bearing cap bolts and
the 2 differential bearing caps.
2. Install the originally removed differential
bearing shim on the LH side.
3. NOTE: Apply pressure toward the LH side to
make sure the LH differential bearing cap is
seated.
Install the LH differential bearing cap and
loosely install the differential bearing cap bolts.
3. WARNING: Be careful not to allow
the differential assembly to fall.
CAUTION: Place a wood block
between the pry bar and the axle housing to
protect the machined surface from damage.
CAUTION: Index-mark the position of
the differential bearing shims. The
differential bearing shims must be installed
in their original locations and positions.
Using pry bars and wood blocks, remove the
differential carrier assembly from the axle
housing.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
4. Install the original differential bearing shim on
the RH side.
7. Rotate the differential assembly to make sure it
rotates freely.
5. Using the special tool, fully seat the differential
bearing shims.
8. Measure the ring and pinion backlash.
9. Install the axle shafts. For additional
6. Install the RH side differential bearing cap and information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
tighten the LH side and RH side differential
bearing cap bolts.
Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
Special Tool(s)
Differential Case and Ring Gear
Installer, Differential Side
Bearing
Special Tool(s)
205-010 (T57L-4221-A2)
2-Jaw Puller
205-D072 (D97L-4221-A) or
equivalent
Gauge, Differential Clutch
205-022 (T66L-4204-A)
Step Plate
205-D016 (D80L-630-5) or
equivalent
Material
Item Specification
(Continued)
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
Stud and Bearing Mount WSK-M2G349-A1
TA-27
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
Item Part Number Description
1 4236 Differential side gear
2 4215 Differential pinion gear
3 4230 Differential pinion gear thrust
washer
4 4947 Differential clutch pack
5 4A324 Rear axle differential clutch
shim
6 4214 Differential clutch spring
7 4209 Differential ring gear
8 4241 Differential pinion shaft lock
bolt
4. Using the special tools, remove the differential
9 4211 Differential pinion shaft
bearings.
10 4204 Differential case
11 4216 Differential ring gear bolts
12 4221 Differential bearing
13 4222 Differential bearing cup
14 4N237 Axle shaft U-washer
Disassembly
1. Remove the differential carrier. For additional
information, refer to Differential Carrier in this
section.
2. Remove the 10 differential ring gear bolts.
5. Remove the differential pinion shaft lock bolt
and remove the differential pinion shaft.
Discard the differential pinion shaft lock
bolt.
3. CAUTION: Care should be taken not
to damage the differential ring gear bolt hole
threads.
Insert a punch in the differential ring gear bolt
holes and drive the differential ring gear off.
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205-02B-3 205-02B-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
6. WARNING: Due to the spring tension, 8. CAUTION: Keep the differential clutch
care must be used when removing the packs in order. Do not mix the differential
differential clutch spring. clutch packs. The differential clutch packs
must be reassembled in the same sequence.
Remove the differential clutch spring.
Remove the differential clutch packs and
differential side gears and tag them RH and
LH with the selective shim.
Clean and inspect the remaining components
of the differential case for wear or damage
and install new components as necessary.
7. Remove the differential gears.
1 Remove the differential pinion gear and
thrust washers.
2 Remove the 2 differential side gears.
9. CAUTION: Do not use acids or
solvents when cleaning the differential clutch
pack. Wipe components with a clean,
lint-free cloth only.
Clean and inspect the differential clutch packs
for wear or damage and install new components
as necessary.
Assembly
1. Install selective shims on the clutch pack and
differential side gear assembly.
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205-02B-4 205-02B-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
2. Install the differential side gear in the
differential case.
5. NOTE: If a new differential pinion shaft lock
bolt is unavailable, coat the threads of the old
differential pinion shaft lock bolt with
threadlock and sealer.
Install the differential pinion shaft and install a
new differential pinion shaft lock bolt
finger-tight.
3. Install the differential pinion gears with
differential pinion gear thrust washers in the
differential case.
6. Using the special tool, install the differential
bearings on the differential case.
1 Position the differential bearing.
2 Using the special tool, press on the
differential bearing.
4. Using a soft-faced hammer, install the
differential clutch spring.
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205-02B-5 205-02B-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued)
7. Press the differential ring gear on the 9. Check the torque required to rotate one
differential assembly. differential side gear.
Mount the differential assembly and special
8. NOTE: On the 5.4L applications, the
tool in a vise.
differential flange and ring gear flange must be
The initial minimum break-away torque, if
free of any old stud and bearing mount
original clutch plates are used, must be
material. Failure to clean the surfaces can result
within specification. The minimum rotating
in ring gear runout concerns.
torque required to keep the differential side
Apply stud and bearing mount to the
gear turning with new clutch plates may
differential ring gear bolts and the rear face of
vary.
the 5.4L application ring gear. Install the
differential ring gear bolts.
Tighten 4.0L and 4.6L to 105 Nm (77 lb-ft).
Tighten the 5.4L application ring gear bolts
to 135 Nm (100 lb-ft).
10. Install the differential carrier. For additional
information, refer to Differential Carrier in this
section.
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
2. Apply a new continuous bead of sealant to the
Differential Housing Cover
differential housing cover.
Material
Item Specification
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
Synthetic Rear Axle
Lubricant
XY-75W140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L
(Canada)
Silicone Gasket and WSE-M4G323-A4
Sealant
TA-30
Removal
3. NOTE: The differential housing cover must be
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
installed within 15 minutes of application of the
hoist. For additional information, refer to
silicone sealant, or new sealant must be applied.
Section 100-02.
If possible, allow one hour before filling the
2. Remove the differential housing cover. axle housing with axle lubricant to make sure
the silicone sealant has cured.
1 Remove the 10 differential housing cover
bolts and drain the lubricant from the axle Install the differential housing cover and the
housing. differential housing cover bolts.
2 Remove the differential housing cover. Tighten to 45 Nm (33 lb-ft).
Installation
1. CAUTION: Make sure the machined
surfaces on both the axle housing and the
differential housing cover are clean and free
of oil before installing the new silicone
sealant. The inside of the axle housing must
be covered when cleaning the machined
surface to prevent contamination.
Clean the gasket mating surface of the axle
housing and the differential housing cover.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
4. NOTE: Service refill capacities are determined
by filling the axle to the level shown.
Fill the axle with 1.50 liters (3.17 pints) of axle
lubricant and install the filler plug.
Tighten to 30 Nm (22 lb-ft).
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Special Tool(s)
Differential Ring And Pinion
Holding Fixture, Drive Pinion
Flange
Special Tool(s)
205-126 (T78P-4851-A)
Protector, Drive Pinion Thread
205-460 or equivalent
Installer, Drive Pinion Bearing
Cup
205-024 (T67P-4616-A)
Installer, Drive Pinion Oil Seal
205-208 (T83T-4676-A)
Adapter For 205-S127
205-105 (T76P-4020-A3)
Installer, Drive Pinion Flange
205-002 (TOOL-4858-E) or
equivalent
Adapter For 205-S127
205-111 (T76P-4020-A11)
Dial Indicator Gauge With
Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
Adapter For 205-S127
205-109 (T76P-4020-A9)
Remover, Differential Bearing
205-116 (T77F-4220-B1)
Adapter For 205-S127
205-129 (T79P-4020-A18)
Installer, Differential Shim
205-220 (T85L-4067-AH)
Adapter For 205-S127
205-110 (T76P-4020-A10)
(Continued)
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Special Tool(s) Material
Adapter For 205-S127 Item Specification
205-130 (T79P-4020-A19)
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
Synthetic Rear Axle
Lubricant
XY-75W140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L
(Canada)
Additive Friction Modifier EST-M2C118-A
Installer, Drive Pinion Bearing
XL-3 (US); CXL-3
Cone
(Canada)
205-005 (T53T-4621-C)
Stud and Bearing Mount WSK-M2G349-A1
TA-27
Silicone Gasket and WSE-M4G323-A4
Sealant
TA-30
2-Jaw Puller
205-D072 (D79L-4221-A1) or
equivalent
Step Plate
205-D016 (D80L-630-5) or
equivalent
Installer, Differential Side
Bearing
205-010 (T57L-4221-A2)
Plate, Bearing Oil Seal
205-090 (T75L-1165-B)
Item Part Number Description
1 4670 Oil slinger
2 4621 Outer pinion bearing
3 4616 Outer pinion bearing cup
4 4662 Collapsible spacer
5 Inner pinion bearing cup shim
(5.4L only)
(Continued)
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205-02B-3 205-02B-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
4. NOTE: The anti-lock ring cannot be reused
Item Part Number Description
once removed. Remove the anti-lock ring only
6 4628 Inner pinion bearing cup
if damaged.
7 4630 Inner pinion bearing
If necessary, remove the anti-lock ring.
8 4663 Pinion bearing adjustment
shim
9 4209 Drive pinion
10 4209 Ring gear
11 4221 Differential bearings
12 4222 Differential bearing cups
13 4067 Differential bearing shims
Removal
1. Remove the differential carrier assembly. For
additional information, refer to Differential
Carrier in this section.
5. Using the special tools, remove the differential
2. Remove the 10 differential ring gear bolts.
bearings.
3. CAUTION: Care should be taken not
6. Index-mark the driveshaft flange and pinion
to damage the differential ring gear bolt hole
flange for correct alignment during installation.
threads.
Insert a punch in the differential ring gear bolt
holes and drive the differential ring gear off.
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205-02B-4 205-02B-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
7. Remove the 4 driveshaft flange bolts.
10. Using the special tool, remove the pinion
flange.
8. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
pilot. Never hammer on the driveshaft or
any of its components to disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange. Pry only in the area shown
with a suitable tool to disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Using a suitable tool as shown, disconnect the
driveshaft centering socket yoke from the
pinion flange.
Using mechanics wire, position the
driveshaft aside.
11. Force up on the metal flange of the drive
pinion seal. Install gripping pliers and strike
with a hammer until the drive pinion seal is
removed.
9. Using the special tool to hold the pinion flange,
remove and discard the pinion nut.
12. Remove the drive pinion shaft oil slinger and
the outer drive pinion bearing.
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205-02B-5 205-02B-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
13. Install the special tool. Using a soft-faced
hammer, drive the pinion assembly out of the
axle housing.
2. Tighten the special tool to seat the drive pinion
bearing cups into their bores.
14. NOTE: On 5.4L applications, remove the inner
pinion cup shim from the housing.
Using a brass drift, remove the drive pinion
bearing cups by tapping alternately on opposite
sides of the drive pinion bearing cups.
3. NOTE: If a feeler gauge can be inserted
between a drive pinion bearing cup and the
bottom of its bore at any point around the drive
pinion bearing cup, the drive pinion bearing cup
is not correctly seated.
Make sure the drive pinion bearing cups are
correctly seated in their bores.
Installation
1. NOTE: On 5.4L applications, install the inner
pinion bearing cup shim in the housing before
installing the bearing cups.
Position the special tool and the inner and outer
drive pinion bearing cups in their respective
bores.
1 After placing the inner and outer drive
pinion bearing cups in their bores, place the
special tool (inner) on the inner drive pinion
bearing cup.
2 Place the special tool (outer) on the outer
drive pinion bearing cup.
3 Install the special tool.
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205-02B-6 205-02B-6 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
4. NOTE: Install new drive pinion bearings
without any additional lubricant since the
anti-rust oil provides adequate lubricant without
upsetting the drive pinion bearing preload
settings.
Assemble and position the special tools.
6. NOTE: The special tool must be offset to
obtain an accurate reading.
Rotate the special tool several half-turns to
make sure of correct seating of the drive pinion
bearings and position the special tool.
7. Install the special tool.
Item Part Number Description
1 Position the special tool.
1 205-105 Adapter for 205-S127 (1.612
2 Install the differential bearing caps.
inch O.D.) (T76P-4020-A3)
3 Install the 4 differential bearing cap bolts.
2 205-111 Adapter for 205-S127
(T76P-4020-A11) X Tighten to 105 Nm (77 lb-ft).
3 4621 Drive pinion bearing (outer)
4 205-109 Adapter for 205-S127
(T76P-4020-A9)
5 4630 Drive pinion bearing (inner)
6 205-129 Adapter for 105-S127 (1.1884
inch thick) (T79P-4020-A18)
7 205-110 Adapter for 205-S127 (1.7
inch thick) (T76P-4020-A10)
5. NOTE: This step duplicates final drive pinion
bearing preload.
Tighten the special tool.
Tighten to 2.2 Nm (20 lb-in).
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205-02B-7 205-02B-7 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
8. NOTE: Drive pinion bearing adjustment shims
must be flat and clean.
NOTE: A slight drag should be felt for correct
drive pinion bearing adjustment shim selection.
Do not attempt to force the drive pinion bearing
adjustment shim between the gauge block and
the gauge tube. This will minimize selection of
a drive pinion bearing adjustment shim thicker
than required, which results in a deep tooth
contact in final assembly of integral axle
assemblies.
Use a drive pinion bearing adjustment shim as a
gauge for drive pinion bearing adjustment shim
11. Install the drive pinion assembly into the axle
selection.
housing.
After the correct drive pinion bearing
adjustment shim thickness has been
determined, remove all of the special tools.
12. Install the outer drive pinion bearing and the
drive pinion shaft oil slinger.
13. Using the special tools, install the drive pinion
9. Using the special tool and a shop press, drive
seal.
the inner drive pinion bearing and the selected
drive pinion bearing adjustment shim until they
are firmly seated on the pinion shaft.
10. Install a new drive pinion collapsible spacer on
the pinion shaft against the pinion shaft
shoulder.
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205-02B-8 205-02B-8 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
14. Using the special tools, install the drive pinion 16. Using the special tool, install the new
flange. differential bearings.
17. NOTE: On the 5.4L application, the differential
15. CAUTION: Do not, under any
flange and ring gear flange must be free of any
circumstance, loosen the drive pinion nut to
old stud and bearing mount material. Failure to
reduce pinion bearing preload. If it is
clean the surfaces can result in ring gear runout
necessary to reduce the preload, install a new
concerns.
drive pinion collapsible spacer and drive
pinion nut.
NOTE: Apply stud and bearing mount to the
differential ring gear bolts and the back face of
CAUTION: Remove the special tool
the 5.4L application ring gear.
while taking rotational pinion bearing
Install the differential ring gear bolts.
preload checks with the Nm (lb-in) torque
wrench.
Tighten to 105 Nm (77 lb-ft).
Use the special tool to hold the pinion flange
Tighten the 5.4L application ring gear bolts
while tightening the pinion nut.
to 135 Nm (100 lb-ft).
Rotate the pinion occasionally to make sure
the differential pinion bearings are seating
correctly. Take frequent differential pinion
bearing preload checks by rotating the
differential pinion with a Nm (lb-in) torque
wrench. Tighten the pinion nut in small
increments to avoid excessive pinion bearing
preload. Tighten the pinion nut until the
drive pinion bearing preload is in
specification.
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205-02B-9 205-02B-9 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
18. Position the differential carrier assembly and
the new differential bearing cups in the
differential housing.
21. Install progressively larger differential bearing
shims on the RH side until the largest shim is
installed by hand.
19. Install a differential bearing shim of the shown
dimension on the left side.
22. Install the right side bearing cap and bolts.
Tighten the LH and RH bearing cap bolts.
Tighten to 105 Nm (77 lb-ft).
20. CAUTION: Always install the bearing
caps in their original locations and positions.
23. Rotate the differential carrier several times to
verify the differential bearings have seated
NOTE: Apply pressure toward the LH side to
correctly.
make sure the left differential bearing cup seats
correctly.
Install the LH bearing cap and loosely install
the bolts.
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205-02B-10 205-02B-10 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Backlash Change Thickness Change
24. Install the special tools and measure the ring
Required Required
gear backlash.
mm Inch mm Inch
If the backlash is within specification,
0.254 0.010 0.355 0.014
proceed to Step 27.
0.279 0.011 0.355 0.014
If a zero backlash condition occurs, proceed
to Step 25. 0.304 0.012 0.406 0.016
0.330 0.013 0.457 0.018 If the backlash is not within specification,
proceed to Step 26.
0.335 0.014 0.457 0.018
0.381 0.015 0.508 0.020
Differential Shim Size Chart 4067
Dimension A
Stripes and
mm Inch Color Code
2 C-COAL 7.7978-7.8105 0.3070-0.3075
1 C-COAL 7.7470-7.7597 0.3050-0.3055
5 BLU 7.6962-7.7089 0.3030-0.3035
4 BLU 7.6454-7.6581 0.3010-0.3015
3 BLU 7.5946-7.6073 0.2990-0.2995
2 BLU 7.5458-7.5565 0.2970-0.2975
25. If a zero backlash condition occurs, add 0.50
5 PINK 7.4422-7.4549 0.2930-0.2935
mm (0.020 in) to the RH side shim and subtract
4 PINK 7.3914-7.4041 0.2910-0.2915
0.50 mm (0.020 in) from the LH side shim to
3 PINK 7.3406-7.3533 0.2890-0.2895
allow a backlash indication. Go back to Step
24. 2 PINK 7.2898-7.3025 0.2870-0.2875
1 PINK 7.2390-7.2517 0.2850-0.2855
26. To correct for high or low backlash, increase
5 GRN 7.1882-7.2009 0.2830-0.2835
the thickness of one differential bearing shim
4 GRN 7.1374-7.1501 0.2810-0.2815
and decrease the thickness of the other
differential bearing shim by the same amount. 3 GRN 7.0866-7.0993 0.2790-0.2795
Refer to the following tables when adjusting the
2 GRN 7.0358-7.0485 0.2770-0.2775
backlash. When the backlash is within
1 GRN 6.9850-7.0485 0.2750-0.2755
specification, proceed to Step 27.
5 WH 6.9342-6.9469 0.2730-0.2735
Backlash Change Thickness Change
4 WH 6.8834-6.8961 0.2710-0.2715
Required Required
3 WH 6.8326-6.8453 0.2690-0.2695
mm Inch mm Inch
2 WH 6.7818-6.7945 0.2670-0.2675
0.025 0.001 0.050 0.002
1 WH 6.7310-6.7437 0.2650-0.2655
0.050 0.002 0.050 0.002
5 YEL 6.6802-6.6929 0.2630-0.2635
0.076 0.003 0.101 0.004
4 YEL 6.6294-6.6421 0.2610-0.2615
0.101 0.004 0.152 0.006
3 YEL 6.5786-6.5913 0.2590-0.2595
0.127 0.005 0.152 0.006
2 YEL 6.5278-6.5405 0.2570-0.2575
0.152 0.006 0.203 0.008
1 YEL 6.4770-6.4897 0.2550-0.2555
0.177 0.007 0.254 0.010
5 ORNG 6.4262-6.4389 0.2530-0.2535
0.203 0.008 0.254 0.010
4 ORNG 6.3754-6.3881 0.2510-0.2515
0.228 0.009 0.304 0.012
3 ORNG 6.3246-6.3373 0.2490-0.2495
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205-02B-11 205-02B-11 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
Differential Shim Size Chart 4067 (Continued)
Dimension A
Stripes and
mm Inch Color Code
2 ORNG 6.2738-6.2865 0.2470-0.2475
1 ORNG 6.2223-6.2357 0.2450-0.2455
2 RED 6.1722-6.1849 0.2430-0.2435
1 RED 6.1214-6.1341 0.2410-0.2415
27. Remove the bearing cap bolts and bearing caps.
28. To establish differential bearing preload,
31. Using the special tools, recheck the ring gear
increase both LH and RH differential bearing
backlash.
shim size by the thickness shown.
32. Apply marking compound and rotate the
differential assembly 5 complete revolutions.
33. Check for an acceptable pattern.
34. Install the axle shafts. For additional
information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
35. CAUTION: Make sure the machined
surfaces on both the axle housing and the
differential housing cover are clean and free
of oil before applying the new silicone
sealant. The inside of the axle must be
covered when cleaning the machined surface
29. Using the special tool, fully seat the differential
to prevent contamination.
bearing shims. Make sure the assembly rotates
freely.
Clean the gasket mating surface of the axle and
the differential housing cover.
36. Apply a new, continuous bead of sealant to the
differential housing cover.
30. Install the bearing caps and bolts.
Tighten to 105 Nm (77 lb-ft).
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205-02B-12 205-02B-12 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
37. CAUTION: For Traction-Lok axles,
first fill the axle with 118 ml (4 ounces) of
friction modifier.
NOTE: Service refill capacities are determined
by filling the axle with the specified lubricant
to the specified level below the bottom of the
filler hole.
Fill the axle to the level shown with axle
lubricant and install the filler plug.
Tighten to 30 Nm (22 lb-ft).
39. CAUTION: The driveshaft centering
socket yoke fits tightly on the pinion flange
pilot. To make sure that the driveshaft
centering socket yoke seats squarely on the
pinion flange, tighten the driveshaft flange
bolts evenly in a cross pattern.
Install the driveshaft flange bolts.
Tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
38. Position the driveshaft and align the index
marks on the pinion flange.
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Special Tool(s)
Drive Pinion Flange and Drive Pinion
Installer, Drive Pinion Oil Seal
Seal
205-208 (T83T-4676-A)
Special Tool(s)
Holding Fixture, Drive Pinion
Flange
205-126 (T78P-4851-A)
Installer, Drive Pinion Flange
205-002 (TOOL-4858-E)
2-Jaw Puller
205-D072 (D97L-4221-A) or
equivalent
Material
Item Specification
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
(Continued)
Synthetic Rear Axle
Lubricant
XY-75W140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L
(Canada)
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease
XG-1-C or XG-1-K (US);
CXG-1-C (Canada)
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
TA-25
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
5. Remove the 4 disc brake caliper anchor bolts
Item Part Number Description
and the 2 disc brake caliper anchors.
1 389546-S100 Pinion nut
2 4851 Pinion flange
3 4859 Deflector
4 4676 Drive pinion seal
Removal
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. NOTE: The wheels and disc brake calipers
must be removed to prevent brake drag during
drive pinion bearing preload adjustment.
6. Remove the 2 brake discs.
Remove the wheel and tire assembly. For
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
3. Remove the 4 disc brake caliper bolts and the 2
disc brake calipers.
Using mechanics wire, support the 2 disc
brake calipers.
7. Index-mark the constant velocity (CV) joint and
pinion flange for correct alignment during
installation.
4. Remove the disc brake pads.
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205-02B-3 205-02B-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
8. Remove the 6 CV joint bolts and 3 CV joint
washers, then disconnect the CV joint from the
pinion flange.
Using mechanics wire, position the
driveshaft aside.
Discard the CV joint bolts.
11. Index-mark the pinion flange in relation to the
drive pinion stem to make sure of correct
alignment during installation.
9. Using a Nm (lb-in) torque wrench on the pinion
nut, record the torque required to maintain
rotation of the pinion gear through several
revolutions.
12. Using the special tool, remove the pinion
flange.
10. Using the special tool to hold the pinion flange,
remove and discard the pinion nut.
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205-02B-4 205-02B-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
13. Force up on the metal flange of the drive
pinion seal. Install gripping pliers and strike
with a hammer until the drive pinion seal is
removed.
5. Using the special tool, install the pinion flange.
Installation
1. Lubricate the new drive pinion seal with grease.
2. CAUTION: If the new drive pinion
seal becomes misaligned during installation,
remove the drive pinion seal and install a
new drive pinion seal.
Using the special tool, install a new drive
pinion seal.
6. Position the new pinion nut.
3. Lubricate the pinion flange splines with axle
lubricant.
4. NOTE: Disregard the scribe marks if a new
pinion flange is being installed.
Align the pinion flange with the drive pinion
shaft.
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205-02B-5 205-02B-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
7. CAUTION: Under no circumstances is
the pinion nut to be backed off to reduce
drive pinion bearing preload. If reduced
drive pinion bearing preload is required, a
new drive pinion collapsible spacer and
pinion nut must be installed.
CAUTION: Remove the special tool
while taking drive pinion bearing preload
readings with the Nm (lb-in) torque wrench.
Using the special tool to hold the pinion flange,
tighten the pinion nut.
Rotate the drive pinion occasionally to make
9. CAUTION: If new CV joint bolts are
sure the drive pinion bearings are seating
not available, coat the threads of the original
correctly.
CV joint bolts with threadlock and sealer.
Install a Nm (lb-in) torque wrench on the
NOTE: Tighten the CV joint bolts evenly in a
pinion nut.
star pattern.
Rotating the drive pinion through several
Connect the CV joint to the pinion flange, then
revolutions, take frequent drive pinion
install the 6 new CV joint bolts and CV joint
bearing preload readings until the original
washers.
recorded drive pinion bearing preload
reading is obtained.
To install, tighten to 55 Nm (41 lb-ft).
If the original recorded drive pinion bearing
preload is lower than specifications, tighten
to the appropriate specifications for used
drive pinion bearings. If the drive pinion
bearing preload is higher than specification,
tighten the pinion nut to the original
reading as recorded. For additional
information, refer to the Specifications
portion of this section.
10. Install the 2 brake discs.
8. Position the driveshaft and align the index
marks on the pinion flange.
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205-02B-6 205-02B-6 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
11. Install the 2 disc brake caliper anchors, then 13. Install the 2 disc brake calipers and the 4 disc
install the 4 disc brake caliper anchor bolts. brake caliper bolts.
Tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft). Tighten to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
12. Install the disc brake pads. 14. Install the wheel and tire assembly. For
additional information, refer to Section 204-04.
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Rear Drive Axle and Differential
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
34 4630 Drive pinion bearing (inner) 1 4236 Differential side gears
35 4663 Drive pinion bearing 2 4228 Differential side gear thrust
adjustment shim washers
36 Differential bearing cap bolt 3 4221 Differential bearings
(4 required) (part of 4010)
4 4222 Differential bearing cups
37 4241 Differential pinion shaft lock
5 4067 Differential bearing shims
bolt
6 4216 Differential ring gear bolt (10
38 4211 Differential pinion shaft
required)
39 4N237 Axle shaft U-washers
7 4204 Differential case
40 383548 Differential housing cover
8 4209 Differential ring gear and
bolt (10 required)
pinion set
41 Axle identification tag
9 Differential bearing cap (2
42 4033 Differential housing cover required) (part of 4010)
43 4230 Differential pinion gear thrust 10 4010 Axle housing
washers
11 373098-S Filler plug
44 4215 Differential pinion gears
12 4662 Drive pinion collapsible
45 Steel plate (part of 4947) spacer
46 Clutch disc (part of 4947) 13 4670 Drive pinion shaft oil slinger
47 4214 Differential clutch spring 14 4676 Drive pinion seal
48 4947 Differential clutch pack 15 4851 Pinion flange
49 4A324 Rear axle differential clutch 16 389546-S100 Pinion nut
shim
17 4621 Drive pinion bearing (outer)
18 2C026 Brake disc The axle housing consists of a cast center section
with 2 steel tube assemblies and a stamped
19 Axle shaft flange (2 required)
(part of 4234) differential housing cover. The differential
housing cover uses silicone sealant as a gasket.
20 2C189 Anti-lock sensor indicator (2
required)
The hypoid-design gearset consists of 8.8-inch
21 2552 Disc brake caliper (2
ring gear and a drive pinion gear. Two opposed
required)
tapered roller bearings (drive pinion bearings)
22 N601951-S2 Brake line clip bolt
support the drive pinion in the axle housing.
23 N804361-S100 Brake line clip
A drive pinion collapsible spacer, located on the
24 Anti-lock sensor bolt (2
differential pinion shaft, maintains drive pinion
required)
bearing preload. The pinion nut adjusts the drive
25 2C190 Anti-lock sensor (2 required)
pinion bearing preload.
26 2C101 LH disc brake adapter
Differential bearing shims, located between the
27 2C100 RH disc brake adapter
differential bearing cups and the axle housing,
28 N8015163-S190 Disc brake caliper anchor bolt adjust the differential bearing preload and the
(4 required)
differential ring gear backlash.
29 2C028 Brake disc shield (2 required)
The differential case is a one-piece design with 2
30 N602726-S2 Brake disc shield bolt (6
openings to allow for assembly of the internal
required)
components and lubricant flow. Two opposed
31 4616 Drive pinion bearing cup
tapered roller bearings (differential bearings)
(outer)
support the differential assembly in the axle
32 Drive pinion bearing cup
housing. Removable bearing caps retain the
shim (5.4L only)
differential assembly in the axle housing.
33 4628 Drive pinion bearing cup
(Continued)
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205-02B-3 205-02B-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued)
Inside the differential assembly, the differential
pinion shaft supports 2 differential pinion gears.
The pinion gears engage the differential side
gears, to which the axle shafts are splined. The
differential pinion shaft lock bolt retains the
differential pinion shaft in the differential case.
An embossed metal tag, bolted to the differential
housing cover, contains the axle identification.
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
4 Has the driveline system been repaired
Rear Drive Axle and Differential
before or new components installed?
Special Tool(s)
X Check the vehicle service record. Note
Dial Indicator Gauge with any repairs other than driveline, such as
Holding Fixture
brakes or suspension.
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
5 Are there any special conditions affecting
equivalent
the concern or will alter the concern? For
example:
X road speed.
X type of road.
Gauge, Clutch Housing
308-021 (T75L-4201-A)
X drive mode.
X temperature.
X vehicle loaded or unloaded.
6 Is the condition constant or intermittent?
Can the concern be duplicated at any time?
7 Check for TSBs, SSM and OASIS
Inspection and Verification
messages.
The technician should have a thorough knowledge
2. NOTE: If the inspection reveals an obvious
of driveline system operation and accepted general
concern, repair the vehicle.
driveline guidelines to detect any problems.
Do a preliminary investigation. Visually inspect
A gear driven unit will produce a certain amount of
for obvious signs of damage.
noise. Some noise is acceptable and audible at
certain speeds or under various driving conditions.
1 Inspect the driveshaft:
Certain conditions, such as road conditions and
X for buildup of any foreign material.
weather, will amplify normal vehicle noise.
X for damage, such as a bent tube or
Certain rear axle and driveline concern symptoms
missing weights.
are also common to the engine, transmission, rear
X U-joints or flex couplers for wear or
wheel bearings and tire. For this reason, be sure the
damage.
cause of the concern is in the axle before repairing
or installing any axle components. 2 Inspect the axle:
The following is a guide to diagnose a driveline X for signs of leakage at the drain or fill
concern: plug, differential seal, vent or halfshaft
seals.
Verify and document the customer concern.
a plugged vent will cause a leak.
Carry out a preliminary investigation.
X for damage, such as cracks, bent
Road test the vehicle.
halfshafts or dented rear cover.
Find the cause of the problem.
X for missing fasteners.
Inspect the components.
3 Inspect other suspect components/systems:
1. Verify and document the customer concern.
X inspect the halfshaft assemblies for
1 When was it first noticed?
damaged CV joints or torn CV boots.
2 Did it appear suddenly or gradually?
X inspect the suspension for broken springs,
damaged shock absorbers and worn
3 Did anything unusual occur that would
suspension bushings.
coincide with it or precede it?
X inspect the rear brake components
lines, cables and calipers.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Diagnostic Routine Chart (Continued)
X inspect the tires; are they in good
condition and do they match?
Condition Action
3. NOTE: A road test is necessary for any
Axle noise GO to Diagnostic
customer concern of noise or vibration. (chatter/shudder)
a
in Routine Noise
tight turn, limited slip (Chatter/Shudder) In
Road test the vehicle.
differential Tight Turns, Limited
Slip Differential 1 During the road test, use the following
driving methods to diagnose the problem. Is
Axle noise (whine)
a
in GO to Diagnostic
the concern most noticeable: all or more than one Routine Noise
drive mode (Whine) In All Or More
X from a stop?
Than One Drive Modes
X on shifts from REVERSE to DRIVE?
Axle noise (tick/click)
a
GO to Diagnostic
in all or more than one Routine Noise
X on turns?
drive mode (DRIVE, (Tick/Click) In All Or
sweeping type turn.
CRUISE, COAST) More Than One Drive
Modes
tight turn (to the stop).
Axle noise GO to Diagnostic
X in DRIVE?
(howl/moan)
a
in all or Routine Noise
accelerating the vehicle, definite more than one drive (Howl/Moan) In All Or
mode (DRIVE, More Than One Drive throttle depression, applying engine
CRUISE, COAST) Modes
torque?
Axle noise (clunk)
a
on GO to Diagnostic
X in CRUISE?
changes in speed or Routine Noise
maintain a constant speed with the direction of power (Clunk) On Changes In
Speed Or Direction Of throttle applied?
Power
X in COAST?
Vibration For driveline vibration
decelerating with the throttle closed?
diagnostics, REFER to
Section 100-04
2 Record when the concern occurs. Write
down the kph (mph) range at which the
noise/vibration occurs. a. Refer to Section 100-04 for a glossary of
noise-related terms.
4. Find the cause of the problem.
5. NOTE: If the conclusion of the road test points
1 Compare the inspection and road test results
to an axle center section (ring and pinion or
with the following chart.
differential case) concern, carry out a visual
2 Use the following diagnostic routine chart
inspection of the axle.
to identify the probable cause and know
Inspect the axle components.
what corrective actions should be taken to
repair the component/vehicle, and to prevent
1 Remove the differential housing cover.
a reoccurrence.
Drain the axle lubricant through a white
cloth. Check the fluid for:
Diagnostic Routine Chart
X any foreign material.
Condition Action
X metal particles.
Fluid loss GO to Diagnostic
X burnt odor.
Routine Fluid Loss
2 NOTE: When inspecting the axle, do not Noise louder on turns GO to Diagnostic
(sweeping turn) Routine Noise clean the components immediately. Cleaning
Louder On Turns
may remove diagnostic evidence.
(Sweeping)
Inspect the axle components.
Axle noise (growl)
a
in GO to Diagnostic
X Look for: tight turn Routine Noise
(Growl) In Tight Turn
loose fasteners.
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205-02B-3 205-02B-3 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
notches or visible steps or grooves notches or visible steps or grooves
created by wear. created by wear.
pitting or cracking along gear contact pitting or cracking along gear contact
lines. lines.
scuffing or deformations. scuffing or deformations.
discolorations. discolorations.
nicks or ridges on gear teeth. nicks or ridges on gear teeth.
X Clean the axle components for inspection. X Check backlash and carry out a ring and
pinion pattern test. Refer to Checking
Remove as much lubricant as
Differential Ring Gear Backlash and
possible with clean solvent. Wipe the
Checking Tooth Contact Pattern and
components or blow them dry with
Condition of the Ring and Pinion in this
compressed air.
section.
X Re-inspect for:
loose fasteners.
Diagnostic Routines
Diagnostic Routine Fluid Loss
Possible Component Reference/Action
Vent CLEAN the axle vent.
Overfilled axle CHECK the lubricant level for specific amount.
Fill plug CLEAN the area around the plug. REMOVE the plug.
APPLY pipe sealant and INSTALL the plug.
Halfshaft oil seal INSTALL a new halfshaft oil seal.
Pinion seal INSTALL a new pinion seal.
Differential housing cover RESEAL the differential housing cover.
Pinion nut INSTALL a new pinion nut.
Diagnostic Routine Noise Louder On Turns (Sweeping)
Possible Component Reference/Action
Wheel end bearing CHECK the wheel end bearing for wear or damage.
INSTALL a new bearing.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Growl) In Tight Turn, Conventional Differential
Possible Component Reference/Action
Differential side gears and differential pinion gears DISASSEMBLE the differential carrier. INSPECT the
differential case assembly. INSTALL new side gears
and differential pinion gears or case assembly.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Chatter/Shudder) In Tight Turns, Limited Slip Differential
Possible Component Reference/Action
Clutch pack ADD 4 oz. of friction modifier and RE-VERIFY.
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205-02B-4 205-02B-4 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Chatter/Shudder) In Tight Turns, Limited Slip Differential (Continued)
Possible Component Reference/Action
VERIFY the condition. With the vehicle in cold startup,
MAKE SURE that the vehicle is in rear wheel drive
(RWD), to isolate the rear axle. TURN the wheel fully
right (or fully left) and then ACCELERATE the
vehicle. CHECK axle end play. If end play is over
specification, REMOVE and INSTALL new clutch
packs. If the condition is verified to be in the rear axle,
REMOVE and INSTALL new clutch packs.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Whine) In All Or More Than One Drive Modes
Possible Component Reference/Action
Axle ring and pinion REMOVE and INSTALL a new ring gear, pinion and
bearings.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Tick/Click) In All Or More Than One Drive Modes
Possible Component Reference/Action
Axle ring and pinion REMOVE and INSTALL a new ring gear, pinion and
bearings.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Howl/Moan) In All Or More Than One Drive Modes
Possible Component Reference/Action
Axle bearings INSPECT differential and pinion bearings. INSTALL
new bearings.
Diagnostic Routine Noise (Clunk) On Changes In Speed Or Direction Of Power
Possible Component Reference/Action
Axle and pinion system MEASURE total backlash. If end play and total
backlash are within specification, INSTALL a new
differential case assembly.
Differential pinion shaft INSTALL a new differential pinion shaft and pin.
Pinion bearings INSTALL new pinion and differential bearings and
bearing cups.
Diagnostic Routine Vibration
Possible Component Reference/Action
For additional information on driveline vibration, REFER to Section 100-04.
Checking Differential Ring Gear
Backlash
1. Remove the differential housing cover.
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205-02B-5 205-02B-5 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Item Description
2. Using a suitable dial indicator and the special
tool, measure and record the differential ring 2 Toe
gear backlash in 4 opposing points on the ring
gear.
Apply a marking compound to 1/3 of the gear teeth
on the differential ring gear. Rotate the differential
ring gear several complete turns in both directions
until a good, clear tooth pattern is obtained.
Compare the contact patterns on the ring gear teeth
with the following illustrations.
Good Contact Pattern
Pattern inspection allows the technician to detect
gross errors in set up prior to complete assembly of
the differential assembly. Pattern contact should be
within the primary area of the ring gear tooth
section. Avoid narrow or hard contact with the
outer perimeter of the ring gear tooth. Pattern
inspection should be on the drive side of the tooth.
Checking Tooth Contact Pattern and
Condition of the Ring and Pinion Correct assembly of the drive pattern will result in
satisfactory coast performance.
There are 2 basic types of conditions that will
produce ring and pinion noise. The first type is a NOTE: If a gross pattern error is detected with the
howl or chuckle produced by broken, cracked, correct backlash, check the pinion shim selection.
chipped, scored or forcibly damaged gear teeth and
Good Contact Pattern
is usually quite audible over the entire speed range.
The second type of ring and pinion noise pertains to
the mesh pattern of the gear pattern. This gear noise
can be recognized as it produces a constant pitch or
whine. Ring and pinion noise tends to peak in a
narrow speed range or ranges and will tend to
remain constant in pitch.
NOTE: In the following steps, the movement of the
contact pattern along the length is indicated as
toward the heel or toe of the differential ring
gear.
Item Description
1 Heel
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205-02B-6 205-02B-6 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Low Contact Pattern That Is Contacting Thick Contact Pattern That Is Contacting
More Toward the Heel Tooth Toward the Heel
Gross Pattern Error Gross Pattern Error
High, Thin Contact Pattern In the Center Of Thick Contact Pattern That Is Contacting
the Tooth Tooth Toward the Toe
Gross Pattern Error Gross Pattern Error
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR
Material
Rear Wheel Bearing and Axle Shaft
Item Specification
Seal
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Grease
Special Tool(s)
XG-1-C or XG-1-K (US);
Slide Hammer CXG-1-C (Canada)
100-001 (T50T-100-A)
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
Synthetic Rear Axle
Lubricant
XY-75W140-QL (US);
CXY-75W140-1L
(Canada)
Remover, Axle Bearing Removal
205-219 (T85L-1225-AH)
1. Remove the axle shaft. For additional
information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
2. NOTE: If the axle shaft oil seal is leaking, the
axle housing vent may be plugged.
Adapter For 303-224
Using the special tools, remove the rear wheel
205-153 (T80T-4000-W)
bearing and axle shaft oil seal.
Installer, Axle Shaft Bearing
205-124 (T78P-1225-A)
Installer, Rear Axle Oil Seal
205-390 (T97T-1177-B)
Installation
1. Lubricate the new rear wheel bearing with the
axle lubricant.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
IN-VEHICLE REPAIR (Continued)
2. Using the special tools, install the new rear 4. Using the special tools, install the new axle
wheel bearing. shaft oil seal.
3. Lubricate the lip of the new axle shaft oil seal 5. Install the axle shaft. For additional
with grease. information, refer to Axle Shaft in this section.
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205-02B-1 205-02B-1 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
General Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Item Specification
General Specifications
Variation between teeth 0.102 mm (0.004 in)
Item Specification maximum backlash
Lubricants and Sealers Available drive pinion 0.254 mm (0.010 in) -
bearing adjustment shim 0.965 mm (0.038 in)
Motorcraft SAE 75W-140 WSL-M2C192-A
in steps of 0.25 mm
Synthetic Rear Axle
(0.010 in)
Lubricant
XY-75W140-QL (US); Pinion flange runout 0.25 mm (0.010 in) T.I.R.
CXY-75W140-1L
a In-vehicle repair refill capacities are determined by (Canada)
filling the rear axle with the specified lubricant to
Motorcraft High Contrast
25.4-28.6 mm (1.0-1.125 in) below the bottom of
Hypoid Gear Marking
the fill hole with the axle at ride height.
Compound XG-14
Premium Long-Life ESA-M1C75-B
Rear Axle Backlash Shim Adjustment Table
Grease XG-1-C or
XG-1-K (US); CXG-1-C
Backlash Change Thickness Change
(Canada)
Required Required
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
mm Inch mm Inch
Anti-Seize Lubricant XL-2
0.025 0.001 0.050 0.002
(US); CXG-2-B (Canada)
0.050 0.002 0.050 0.002
Silicone Gasket and WSE-M4G323-A4
Sealant TA-30
0.076 0.003 0.101 0.004
Threadlock and Sealer WSK-M2G351-A5
0.101 0.004 0.152 0.006
TA-25
0.127 0.005 0.152 0.006
Stud and Bearing Mount WSK-M2G349-A1
0.152 0.006 0.203 0.008
TA-27
0.177 0.007 0.254 0.010
Additive Friction Modifier EST-M2C118-A
XL-3 (US); CXL-3 0.203 0.008 0.254 0.010
(Canada)
0.228 0.009 0.304 0.012
Lubricant Capacities
0.254 0.010 0.355 0.014
Approximate axle fill 1.7 liters (3.15 pints)
0.279 0.011 0.355 0.014
capacity
a
25.4-28.6 mm (1.0-1.125
in) below the bottom of 0.304 0.012 0.406 0.016
the fill hole with the axle
0.330 0.013 0.457 0.018
at ride height
0.335 0.014 0.457 0.018
Additive friction modifier 118 mi (4 oz)
0.381 0.015 0.508 0.020
Clearance, Tolerance and Adjustments
Maximum differential case 0.076 mm (0.003 in)
runout Torque Specifications
Differential side gear 0.762-0.813 mm
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
thrust washer thickness (0.030-0.032 in)
Anti-lock sensor bolt 7 62
Differential pinion gear 0.762-0.813 mm
Differential bearing cap 105 77
thrust washer thickness (0.030-0.032 in)
bolts
Maximum axle shaft end 0.762 mm (0.030 in)
Differential housing 45 33
play
cover bolts
Pinion bearing preload 1.8-3.3 Nm (16-29 lb-in)
Differential pinion 30 22
Ring gear backlash 0.203-0.304 mm
shaft lock bolt
(0.008-0.012 in)
Differential ring gear 105 77
bolts (4.6L)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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205-02B-2 205-02B-2 Rear Drive Axle/Differential Ford 8.8-Inch Ring Gear
SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
Torque Specifications (Continued) Torque Specifications (Continued)
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
Differential ring gear 135 100 Rear support brace 63 46
bolts (5.4L) bolts (convertible)
Disc brake caliper 103 76 Stabilizer bar 70 52
anchor bolts bracket-to-frame bolts
Disc brake caliper bolts 33 24 Tool 205-135 nut 6.7 60
Driveshaft flange bolts 103 76 Trackbar flagnuts 175 129
Filler plug 30 22 Trailing arm nut 175 129
Front support brace 63 46 Upper support brace 63 46
bolts (convertible) bolts (convertible)
Handle adapter for 2.2 20 Upper suspension arm 175 129
205-S127 nut
Lower shock absorber 115 85
nuts
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206-00-1 206-00-1 Brake System General Information
General Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Item Specification
General Specifications
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Item Specification Motor Vehicle Brake WSS-M6C62-A
Fluid PM-1 or PM-1-C
Brake Pads 4.0L SOHC and 4.6L (3V)
(US); CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
Minimum brake pad 3.0 mm (0.118 inch)
(Canada)
thickness
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
Maximum brake pad 2.0 mm (0.079 inch)
Anti-Seize Lubricant XL-2
thickness variation
(US); CXG-2-B (Canada)
(pad-to-pad)
Silicone Brake Caliper ESE-M1C171-A
Maximum brake pad taper 3.0 mm (0.118 inch)
Grease and Dielectric
wear (in any direction)
Compound XG-3-A
Brake Disc 4.0L SOHC and 4.6L (3V)
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
PM-4-A or PM-4-B (US);
Minimum front brake disc 28.4 mm (1.11 in)
CPM-4 (Canada)
thickness
Minimum rear brake disc 17.4 mm (0.68 in)
thickness
Torque Specifications
Minimum thickness to 29 mm (1.14 in)
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
machine front brake disc
Brake caliper bolts
a
33 24
Minimum thickness to 18 mm (0.71 in)
machine rear brake disc Front brake caliper 10 89
bleeder screw 4.0L
Brake Pads 5.4L
SOHC and 4.6L (3V)
Minimum front brake pad 1.8 mm (0.071 in)
Front brake caliper 18 13
thickness
bleeder screws 5.4L
Minimum rear brake pad 3.0 mm (0.118 in)
Master cylinder brake 17 13
thickness
tube fittings
Brake Disc 5.4L
Rear brake caliper 10 89
Minimum front brake disc 3.0 mm (1.18 in) bleeder screw all
thickness vehicles
Minimum thickness to 30.6 mm (1.20 in)
a The bolts retaining the front caliper halves together
machine front brake disc
on 5.4L equipped vehicles are not serviceable.
Lubricant
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-00-1 206-00-1 Brake System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES
2. For vehicles with a 2-piece brake disc and hub
Brake Disc Machining
assembly:
Material 1 Mark the brake disc and the wheel stud for
correct indexing during re-assembly.
Item Specification
2 Remove the brake disc from the hub.
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
Anti-Seize Lubricant
3 CAUTION: Do not use an abrasive
XL-2 (US); CXG-2-B
sanding disc since it will remove paint or
(Canada)
other protective finishes from the wheel
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
or metal from the mounting surfaces,
PM-4-A or PM-4-B (US);
adversely affecting corrosion protection
CPM-4 (Canada)
and brake disc lateral runout.
CAUTION: Do not use a bench lathe to
Remove corrosion from the wheel mounting
machine the brake discs.
surface, both disc mounting surfaces and
hub mounting surface.
NOTE: Read the entire operating manual and view
4 Align the match marks and install the brake
the video shipped with the lathe before installing,
disc on the hub.
operating or repairing the lathe.
3. Machine the brake disc using an on-vehicle
NOTE: If the thickness of the brake disc is less
brake lathe.
than the minimum thickness to machine
specification, install a new brake disc. This will
1 Install the hub adapter and silencer belt if
make sure that the brake disc will be above
necessary.
minimum thickness after machining.
2 Install the cutting lathe.
NOTE: Do not machine new brake discs. 3 If the lathe is not self adjusting, adjust the
lathe oscillation using a dial indicator. Total
NOTE: Lateral runout and disc thickness variation
indicated reading (TIR) target is 0.000 mm
measurements are not required because correct
(0.000 in), maximum is 0.08 mm (0.003 in).
adjustment of the on-vehicle brake lathe will make
4 Center the cutting head, adjust the cutting
sure that these dimensions are within specifications.
bits and install the chip deflector.
5 NOTE: The depth of cut should be between
1. NOTE: It is not necessary to disconnect the
0.10 and 0.20 mm (0.004 and 0.008 in).
brake line from the brake caliper.
Lighter cuts will cause the bit to heat up
Position the brake caliper and brake caliper
and wear faster. Heavier cuts will cause
anchor bracket aside. For additional
poor brake disc surface finish.
information, refer to Section 206-03 for front
Machine the brake disc.
brake discs or Section 206-04 for rear brake
discs.
6 Remove the lathe and, if installed, the
silencer belt.
7 Remove the hub adapter.
4. Remove the metal shavings.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-00-2 206-00-2 Brake System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
5. For vehicles with a 2-piece brake disc and hub 6. NOTE: It is not required to install new brake
assembly: pads if friction material properties are within
guidelines. For additional information, refer to
1 Remove the brake disc from the hub.
Brake Pads in this section.
2 Remove metal shavings from the hub, the
Install the brake caliper and brake caliper
brake disc mounting surfaces and from the
anchor bracket. For additional information, refer
ABS sensors.
to Section 206-03 for front brake discs or
3 Apply anti-seize lubricant to the hub
Section 206-04 for rear brake discs.
mounting surface to prevent corrosion.
4 Align the match marks and install the brake
disc on the hub.
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206-00-1 206-00-1 Brake System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Brake System Bleeding CAUTION: After the installation of a
hydraulic control unit replacement, conduct the
Brake System Pressure Bleeding procedure Special Tool(s)
before the scan tool based bleed procedure. A
Vehicle Communication Module
scan tool based bleed procedure is then required
(VCM) and Integrated
to completely bleed the system. Follow the
Diagnostic System (IDS)
instructions from the scan tool. software with appropriate
hardware, or equivalent scan
tool NOTE: If the hydraulic control unit (HCU), or any
component upstream of the HCU are installed new,
carry out the Brake System Pressure Bleeding
procedure first without the scan tool, followed by
Material
the Brake System Bleed procedure using the scan
Item Specification
tool. The Component Bleeding Rear Brake
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or Caliper procedure is not required as new rear
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
calipers were not installed.
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
NOTE: When any part of the hydraulic system is
(Canada)
disconnected for repair or installation of new
components, air can get into the system and cause
Manual
spongy brake pedal action. This requires bleeding of
the hydraulic system after it is correctly connected.
WARNING: Use of any other than
The hydraulic system can be bled manually or with
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
pressure bleeding equipment.
cause permanent damage to brake components
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
All vehicles
follow these instructions may result in personal
injury.
1. Connect the scan tool cable adapter into the
vehicle data link connector (DLC) under the
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
dash and follow the scan tool instructions.
information on product label. For additional
information, see product Material Safety Data
2. Clean all the dirt from the area, remove the
Sheet (MSDS). For 24-hour MEDICAL
brake master cylinder reservoir cap and fill the
EMERGENCY INFORMATION on
brake master cylinder reservoir with clean,
Ford/Motorcraft products call: 1-800-959-3673
specified brake fluid.
(FORD). Failure to follow these instructions may
result in personal injury.
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
immediately wash it with water.
CAUTION: Do not allow the brake master
cylinder reservoir to run dry during the bleeding
operation. Keep the brake master cylinder
reservoir filled with clean, specified brake fluid.
Never reuse the brake fluid that has been
drained from the hydraulic system.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-00-2 206-00-2 Brake System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
3. Remove the RH rear bleeder cap and place a
box-end wrench on the RH rear bleeder screw.
Attach a rubber drain hose to the RH rear
bleeder screw and submerge the free end of the
hose in a container partially filled with clean,
specified brake fluid.
9. Have an assistant hold firm pressure on the
brake pedal.
10. Loosen the RH front brake caliper bleeder
screw until a stream of brake fluid comes out.
While the assistant maintains pressure on the
brake pedal, tighten the RH front brake caliper
4. Have an assistant hold firm pressure on the bleeder screw.
brake pedal.
Repeat until clear, bubble-free fluid comes
out.
5. Loosen the RH rear bleeder screw until a
Refill the brake master cylinder reservoir as
stream of brake fluid comes out. While the
necessary.
assistant maintains pressure on the brake pedal,
tighten the RH rear bleeder screw.
11. Tighten the RH front brake caliper bleeder
Repeat until clear, bubble-free fluid comes
screw and install the bleeder cap.
out.
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Refill the brake master cylinder reservoir as
necessary.
12. Repeat Steps 8 through 11 for the LH front
brake caliper bleeder screw.
6. Tighten the RH rear brake caliper bleeder screw
and install the bleeder cap.
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
7. Repeat Steps 3 through 6 for the LH rear brake
caliper bleeder screw.
Vehicles equipped with a 4.0L SOHC or 4.6L
(3V) engine
8. Remove the RH front bleeder cap and place a
box-end wrench on the RH front brake caliper
bleeder screw. Attach a rubber drain hose to the
RH front brake caliper bleeder screw and
submerge the free end of the hose in a
container partially filled with clean, specified
brake fluid.
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206-00-3 206-00-3 Brake System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Vehicles equipped with a 5.4L engine
21. Repeat Steps 13-16 for the LH front inner brake
caliper bleeder screw.
13. Remove the RH front inner bleeder cap and
Pressure
place a box-end wrench on the RH front inner
brake caliper bleeder screw. Attach a rubber
WARNING: Use of any other than
drain hose to the RH front inner bleeder screw
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
and submerge the free end of the hose in a
cause permanent damage to brake components
container partially filled with clean, specified
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
brake fluid.
follow these instructions may result in personal
injury.
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
information, consult the product Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
these instructions may result in personal injury.
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface, 14. Have an assistant hold firm pressure on the
immediately wash it with water. brake pedal.
15. Loosen the RH front inner brake caliper bleeder CAUTION: Do not allow the brake master
screw until a stream of brake fluid comes out. cylinder reservoir to run dry during the bleeding
While the assistant maintains pressure on the operation. Keep the brake master cylinder
brake pedal, tighten the RH front brake caliper reservoir filled with clean, specified brake fluid.
bleeder screw. Never reuse the brake fluid that has been
drained from the hydraulic system.
Repeat until clear, bubble-free fluid comes
out.
CAUTION: After the installation of a
Refill the brake master cylinder reservoir as
hydraulic control unit replacement, conduct the
necessary.
Brake System Pressure Bleeding procedure
before the scan tool based bleed procedure. A
16. Tighten the RH front inner brake caliper
scan tool based bleed procedure is then required
bleeder screw and install the bleeder cap.
to completely bleed the system. Follow the
Tighten to 18 Nm (13 lb-ft).
instructions from the scan tool.
17. Repeat Steps 13-16 for the RH front outer NOTE: If the hydraulic control unit (HCU), or any
brake caliper bleeder screw. component upstream of the HCU are installed new,
carry out the Brake System Pressure Bleeding
18. Repeat Steps 13-16 for the RH front inner
procedure first without the scan tool, followed by
brake caliper bleeder screw.
the Brake System Bleed procedure using the scan
tool. The Component Bleeding Rear Brake
19. Repeat Steps 13-16 for the LH front inner brake
Caliper procedure is not required as new rear
caliper bleeder screw.
calipers were not installed.
20. Repeat Steps 13-16 for the LH front outer brake
caliper bleeder screw.
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206-00-4 206-00-4 Brake System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
NOTE: When any part of the hydraulic system is
disconnected for repair or installation of new
components, air can get into the system and cause
spongy brake pedal action. This requires bleeding of
the hydraulic system after it is correctly connected.
The hydraulic system can be bled manually or with
pressure bleeding equipment.
All vehicles
1. Clean all the dirt from the area and remove the
brake master cylinder filler cap. Fill the brake
master cylinder reservoir with clean, specified
4. Open the valve on the bleeder tank.
brake fluid.
Vehicles equipped with a 4.0L SOHC or 4.6L
(3V) engine
5. Loosen the RH rear brake caliper bleeder
screw. Leave open until clear, bubble-free brake
fluid flows, then tighten the RH rear brake
caliper bleeder screw and remove the rubber
hose and install the RH rear bleeder cap.
To install, tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
6. Continue bleeding the system, going in order
from the LH rear brake caliper bleeder screw to
the RH front brake caliper bleeder screw ending
2. NOTE: Master cylinder pressure bleeder
with the LH front brake caliper bleeder screw.
adapter tools are available from various
manufacturers of pressure bleeding equipment.
7. Close the bleeder tank valve. Remove the tank
Follow the instructions of the manufacturer
hose from the adapter, and remove the adapter.
when installing the adapter.
Vehicles equipped with a 5.4L engine
Install the bleeder adapter to the brake master
cylinder reservoir and attach the bleeder tank
8. Loosen the RH rear brake caliper bleeder
hose to the fitting on the adapter.
screw. Leave open until clear, bubble-free brake
fluid flows, then tighten the RH rear brake 3. NOTE: Bleed the longest line first. Make sure
caliper bleeder screw and remove the rubber the bleeder tank contains enough clean,
hose and install the RH rear bleeder cap. specified brake fluid to complete the bleeding
operation.
To install, tighten to 18 Nm (13 lb-ft).
Remove the RH rear bleeder cap and place a
box-end wrench on the RH rear bleeder screw.
Attach a rubber drain hose to the RH rear
bleeder screw and submerge the free end of the
hose in a container partially filled with clean,
specified brake fluid.
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206-00-5 206-00-5 Brake System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
9. Continue bleeding the system in the following 10. Close the bleeder tank valve. Remove the tank
order: hose from the adapter, and remove the adapter.
1 LH rear brake caliper bleeder screw
2 RH front inner brake caliper bleeder screw
3 RH front outer brake caliper bleeder screw
4 RH front inner brake caliper bleeder screw
5 LH front inner brake caliper bleeder screw
6 LH front outer brake caliper bleeder screw
7 LH front inner brake caliper bleeder screw
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206-00-1 206-00-1 Brake System General Information
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
rear disc brakes with an integral parking brake,
Brake System
using a single piston brake caliper and disc
The brake system consists of the following
system
components:
a 4-wheel anti-lock brake system (ABS). Refer to
a vacuum-assisted power brake booster
Section 206-09.
a front-to-rear split hydraulic system
front disc brakes using a dual piston brake caliper
and disc system
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-00-1 206-00-1 Brake System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Inspection and Verification
Brake System
WARNING: Use of any brake fluid other
Special Tool(s)
than the approved DOT 3 will cause permanent
Vehicle Communication Module
damage to brake components and will render the
(VCM) and Integrated
brakes inoperative. Failure to follow these
Diagnostic System (IDS)
instructions may result in personal injury.
software with appropriate
hardware, or equivalent scan
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
tool
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
73III Automotive Meter
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
105-R0057 or equivalent
information, consult the product Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
these instructions may result in personal injury.
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
Flex Probe Kit spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
105-R025B or equivalent
immediately wash it with water.
NOTE: Always check the fluid level in the brake
master cylinder reservoir before carrying out the test
procedures. If the fluid level is below the MIN level
mark, clean the reservoir cap before removing, then
add clean, specified brake fluid.
Material NOTE: Prior to carrying out any diagnosis, make
sure the red brake warning indicator is functional.
Item Specification
Refer to Section 413-01.
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
The first indication that something may be wrong in Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US); the brake system is a change in the feeling through
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
the brake pedal. The brake warning indicator in the
(Canada)
instrument cluster and the brake fluid level in the
Silicone Brake Caliper ESE-M1C171-A
brake master cylinder reservoir are also indicators
Grease and Dielectric
of system concerns.
Compound
XG-3-A If a wheel is locked and the vehicle must be moved,
open a bleeder screw at the locked wheel to let out
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
PM-4-A or PM-4-B (US); enough fluid to relieve the pressure. Close the
CPM-4 (Canada)
bleeder screw. This bleeding operation may release
the brakes but does not correct the concern. If this
does not relieve the locked wheel condition, repair
the locked components before proceeding.
Inspect all hoses and connections. All unused
vacuum connectors should be capped. Make sure
hoses and their connections are correctly secured
and in good condition with no holes, soft or
collapsed areas.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-00-2 206-00-2 Brake System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Road Test
Inspect and measure the thickness of the brake
pad friction material.
The technician should have a thorough knowledge
of the brake system operation and accepted general
Install new brake pads if the thickness of the
braking guidelines in order to detect any problems.
friction material is less than 3.0 mm (0.118
inch). Refer to Section 206-03 for front disc
Select a road that is reasonably smooth and level.
brakes or Section 206-04 for rear disc brakes.
Gravel or bumpy roads are not suitable because the
surface does not allow the tires to grip the road
Compare all 4 front or rear pads for uneven
equally. Avoid crowned roads.
wear. Install new brake pads if the thickness
of the friction material varies from pad to pad
A key factor in evaluating brake concerns is the
by more than 2.0 mm (0.079 inch). Refer to
deceleration rate. This varies from vehicle to vehicle
Section 206-03 for front disc brakes or Section
and with changes in operating conditions. It is
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
evident how well the brakes are working after just a
few applications.
Install new brake pads if there are missing
chunks or cracks in the lining through to the
For low or spongy brake pedal concerns:
backing plate. Refer to Section 206-03 for
bleed the brake system and retest the brake pedal
front disc brakes or Section 206-04 for rear
feel.
disc brakes.
if the brake pedal is still low or feels spongy,
If the friction material shows taper wear and
check the brake pedal mounting for looseness and
the thickness varies by more than (3.0 mm
correct installation. Check the brake booster and
[0.118 inch] in any direction), or if the pads
the brake master cylinder for loose mounting.
show uneven wear (2.0 mm [0.079 inch]
Correct as necessary and retest the system for
difference between the inboard and the
normal operation.
outboard pad), verify the caliper guide pins
are functioning correctly. Refer to Section
check the fluid level. The fluid level must be at or
206-03 for front disc brakes or Section 206-04
above the minimum mark. If the fluid level is
for rear disc brakes.
below the minimum mark, check the system for
leaks.
Brake Discs
For a slow or incomplete brake pedal return
CAUTION: Using an impact tool without a
concern:
torque socket leads to unevenly tightened wheel
inspect for binding, damage, correct installation or
nuts. This causes brake disc on-vehicle lateral
interference at the brake pedal.
runout and brake roughness.
check the brake booster for binding, damage and
NOTE: It is generally not required to install new
correct installation.
brake discs to address noise issues.
Brake Pads
Remove the brake disc. Refer to Section 206-03
for front disc brakes or Section 206-04 for rear
NOTE: New brake pads are not required if friction
disc brakes.
material properties are within guidelines. New brake
pads are not required when the brake discs are
machined.
Remove the brake pads. Refer to Section 206-03
for front disc brakes or Section 206-04 for rear
disc brakes.
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206-00-3 206-00-3 Brake System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Brake Hoses and Tubes
Inspect the brake discs and measure the brake disc
thickness in a minimum of 4 places around the
CAUTION: Never use copper tubing. It is
circumference of the brake disc. Record the
subject to fatigue, cracking and corrosion, which
measurements.
could result in brake tube failure.
Install new brake discs if any thickness
Double-wall steel tubing is used throughout the
measurement is less than the minimum
brake hydraulic system. All brake tube fittings
specification. Refer to Section 206-03 for front
must be correctly flared to provide strong,
disc brakes or Section 206-04 for rear disc
leakproof connections. When bending tubing to fit
brakes.
the underbody or rear axle contours, be careful
Install new brake discs if cracked. Refer to
not to kink or crack the tube.
Section 206-03 for front disc brakes or Section
If a section of the brake tube is damaged, the
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
entire section must be installed new with a tube
Machine the brake discs if the diagnosis has
of the same type, size, shape and length.
revealed vibration in the steering wheel, seat
When installing the hydraulic brake tubing, hoses,
or pedal while braking. Heavily scored brake
or connectors, tighten all connections to
discs, similar to that caused by pads worn
specifications. After installation, bleed the brake
down to the backing plate, should also be
system. Refer to Brake System Bleeding in this
machined. In order to machine, discs must be
section.
above the minimum thickness to machine
specification. Refer to Specifications and The wet appearance on the outer cover of rubber
Brake Disc Machining in this section. brake hoses is called sweating. This is a normal
condition for neoprene rayon-braided hose and is
Brake Caliper
not a sign of leakage or cause to install a new
Inspect the brake calipers for the following: hose.
Install a new flexible brake hose if the hose shows
Brake fluid leaks.
signs of softening, cracking or other damage.
Boots and seals for tears or cracks.
When installing a new brake hose, position the hose
Caliper piston for binding and corrosion.
to avoid contact with other vehicle components.
Guide pins for correct operation. Refer to Section
Non-Pressure Leaks
206-03 for front disc brakes or Section 206-04 for
rear disc brakes.
The only part of the brake system that could have a
brake fluid loss that does not appear when the
Brake Caliper Guide Pins
system is under pressure is the brake master
cylinder reservoir under the following conditions:
CAUTION: Do not use power tools for
caliper guide pin bore cleaning.
Missing or poorly-fitted brake master cylinder
NOTE: Guide pin kits are not available.
filler cap.
The guide pins should slide with a reasonable
Punctured or otherwise damaged brake master
amount of hand force. If the brake pads show taper
cylinder reservoir.
wear or the guide pins are difficult to move, install
Missing or damaged brake master cylinder filler
a new caliper assembly. For additional information,
cap gasket.
refer to Section 206-03 or Section 206-04.
Missing, damaged or poorly-fitted sealing
grommets between the brake master cylinder and
the brake master cylinder reservoir.
The brake master cylinder reservoir grommets are
not repairable and must be installed new as part of
a new brake master cylinder reservoir.
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206-00-4 206-00-4 Brake System General Information
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Brake Master Cylinder Normal Conditions Brake Booster
The following conditions are considered normal and Inspect the brake booster for the following:
are not indications that the brake master cylinder is
Excessive corrosion or damage.
in need of service.
Vacuum connections for leakage.
Condition 1: During normal operation of the brake
Vacuum hoses for kinks or leakage.
master cylinder, the fluid level in the brake master
cylinder reservoir rises during brake application and
Brake booster check valve for correct operation.
falls during release. The net fluid level (such as
Changes in the brake pedal feel or travel are
after brake application and release) remains
indicators that something could be wrong in the
unchanged.
brake system. GO to Symptom Chart for abnormal
Condition 2: A trace of brake fluid exists on the
condition diagnosis.
booster shell below the master cylinder mounting
Parking Brake
flange. This results from the normal lubricating
action of the master cylinder bore and seal.
Check the operation of the parking brake system
with the vehicle on a hoist and the parking brake
Condition 3: Fluid level decreases with pad wear.
control fully released. Check for any damaged
Brake Master Cylinder Abnormal
cables and install new components as necessary.
Conditions
Check the rear brake adjustment or carry out the
brake system diagnosis. Refer to Section 206-05.
Changes in brake pedal feel or travel are indicators
that something could be wrong in the brake system.
GO to Symptom Chart for abnormal condition
diagnosis.
Symptom Chart
Symptom Chart
Condition Possible Sources Action
The red brake warning Brake fluid level If the fluid level is below the
indicator is always on Brake fluid leak minimum level, CHECK the
system for leaks. REPAIR as
necessary.
Parking brake switch GO to Pinpoint Test A.
Brake fluid level switch
Circuitry
Instrument cluster
Smart junction box (SJB)
The red brake warning Circuitry REFER to Section 413-01.
indicator is inoperative Instrument cluster
The brakes pull or drift Tire air pressure CHECK the tires for uneven
or excessive wear and
CORRECT the inflation.
Brake pads CHECK the brake pads for
Brake components uneven taper or excessive
wear. REPAIR as necessary.
Suspension components CHECK the suspension
Wheel alignment components and the wheel
alignment. REFER to Section
204-00.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
The brake pedal goes down Brake fluid level INSPECT the system for
fast leaks, REPAIR as necessary.
FILL the brake master
cylinder reservoir. BLEED
the system. REFER to Brake
System Bleeding in this
section.
Air in the system INSPECT the system for
leaks, REPAIR as necessary.
BLEED the system. REFER
to Brake System Bleeding in
this section.
Brake master cylinder CARRY OUT the brake
master cylinder component
test in this section.
The brake pedal eases down Air in the system INSPECT the system for
slowly leaks, REPAIR as necessary.
BLEED the system. REFER
to Brake System Bleeding in
this section.
Brake master cylinder CARRY OUT the brake
master cylinder component
test in this section.
Brake lockup under light Brake pads CHECK the brake pads for
brake pedal force uneven taper or excessive
wear. REPAIR as necessary.
Brake component CHECK the brake
components for correct
operation. REPAIR as
necessary.
Parking brake component REPAIR or INSTALL new
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 206-05.
Anti-lock brake control CHECK the anti-lock brake
system control system. REFER to
Section 206-09.
Excessive/erratic brake pedal Leak in the hydraulic system INSPECT the system for
travel Air in the system leaks, REPAIR as necessary.
Brake caliper BLEED the system. REFER
to Brake System Bleeding in
this section.
Brake master cylinder CARRY OUT the brake
master cylinder component
test in this section.
Brake pads CHECK the brake pads for
excessive wear. REPAIR as
necessary.
Brake pedal CHECK the brake pedal for
binding or obstructions.
REPAIR as necessary.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Brakes drag Parking brake component REPAIR or INSTALL new
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 206-05.
Brake caliper guide pins REPAIR or INSTALL new
brake calipers as necessary.
REFER to Section 206-03 for
front disc brakes or Section
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
Brake caliper REPAIR or INSTALL new
brake calipers as necessary.
REFER to Section 206-03 for
front disc brakes or Section
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
Brake switches REMOVE and REINSTALL
the stoplamp switch and the
speed deactivation switch.
REFER to Section 310-03.
Brake booster CARRY OUT the brake
booster component test in this
section.
Brake master cylinder CARRY OUT the brake
master cylinder component
test in this section.
Excessive brake pedal effort Brake booster CARRY OUT the brake
booster component test in this
section.
Brake booster check valve CARRY OUT the check
valve component test in this
section.
Brake booster manifold REROUTE, REPAIR or
vacuum hose INSTALL new components
as necessary.
Rattling noise Caliper mounting bolts loose CHECK the caliper bolts.
TIGHTEN to specifications.
REFER to Section 206-03 for
front disc brakes or Section
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
Damaged or worn caliper CHECK the caliper guide
guide pins or retainers pins and retainers for
lubrication and correct
operation. LUBRICATE or
INSTALL new components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 206-03 for front disc
brakes or Section 206-04 for
rear disc brakes.
Missing or damaged CHECK the brake pads for
anti-rattle clips or springs missing clips or broken
springs. INSTALL new
components as necessary.
REFER to Section 206-03 for
front disc brakes or Section
206-04 for rear disc brakes.
Loose brake disc shield TIGHTEN the brake disc
shield bolts to specification.
REFER to Section 206-03 for
front disc brakes or Section
206-04 for rear disc brakes
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
Clicking noise with brakes ABS hydraulic control unit Acceptable condition.
applied with anti-lock brake (HCU)
system (ABS)
Squealing noise occurs on Brake pads Acceptable condition. Caused
first brake application by humidity and low brake
pad temperature.
Squealing noise a Brake pads or linings worn INSPECT the brake pads for
continuous squeal below minimum thickness excessive wear, taper wear or
uneven wear. VERIFY the
brake pads are within
minimum specifications.
REFER to Brake Pads in this
section.
Squealing noise an Brake pads Acceptable condition.
intermittent squeal brought on
by cold, heat, water, mud or
snow
Groaning noise occurs at Brake pads Acceptable condition.
low speeds with brake lightly
applied (creeping)
Grinding noise continuous Brake pads or linings worn INSPECT the brake pads,
below minimum thickness brake discs and attaching
hardware for damage.
VERIFY brake pads are
within minimum
specifications. REFER to
Brake Pads in this section.
Moaning noise Brake linings contaminated INSPECT the brake pads for
with grease or oil contamination. REPAIR or
INSTALL new components
as necessary. REFER to
Section 206-03 for front disc
brakes or Section 206-04 for
rear disc brakes.
Vibration when the brakes are Uneven brake pad wear COMPLETE the brake
applied Brake disc pad transfer system inspection described
Brake disc in Inspection and Verification
Suspension components in this section.
GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Brake vibration/shudder Brake caliper guide pins INSPECT the brake caliper
occurs when the brake pedal guide pins for correct
is released operation. REFER to Section
206-03 for front disc brakes
or Section 206-04 for rear
disc brakes.
Brake drag INSPECT the brake pads for
premature wear. REPAIR or
INSTALL a new caliper as
necessary. REFER to Section
206-03 for front disc brakes
or Section 206-04 for rear
disc brakes.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Possible Causes Pinpoint Tests
Circuit shorted
Pinpoint Test A: The Red Brake Warning
Indicator is Always On Low brake fluid level
Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 60, Instrument Brake fluid level switch
Cluster for schematic and connector information.
Parking brake engaged
Normal Operation
Parking brake switch
The red brake warning indicator is located in the
Instrument cluster
instrument cluster and illuminates when the brake
SJB
fluid in the brake master cylinder reservoir is below
a specific level or when the parking brake is
engaged. When the parking brake is applied, the
instrument cluster receives a ground input on circuit
1309 (RD/YE) through the parking brake switch and
circuit 1205 (BK), turning on the brake warning
indicator. The smart junction box (SJB) provides a
voltage to the brake fluid level switch through
circuit 547 (LG/YE) and back through the SJB
return circuit 512 (TN/LG). When the brake fluid
level is low, the brake fluid level switch closes and
connects circuit 547 (LG/YE) to circuit 512
(TN/LG). The voltage reference signal the SJB is
sending to the brake fluid level switch drops to
zero, then the SJB sends a message over the
medium speed communication area network
(MS-CAN) to the instrument cluster to turn on the
brake warning indicator.
PINPOINT TEST A: THE RED BRAKE WARNING INDICATOR IS ALWAYS ON
CAUTION: Use the Flex Probe Kit for all test connections to prevent damage to the
wiring terminals. Do not use standard multi-meter probes.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A1 CHECK THE PARKING BRAKE SWITCH
Verify the parking brake is fully released. Yes
Key in OFF position. GO to A2.
Disconnect: Parking Brake Switch C306.
No
Key in ON position.
INSTALL a new parking brake switch.
Is the red brake warning indicator illuminated?
CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
A2 CHECK THE BRAKE FLUID LEVEL SWITCH
Disconnect: Brake Fluid Level Switch C124. Yes
Is the red brake warning indicator illuminated? GO to A3.
No
INSTALL a new brake fluid reservoir.
REFER to Section 206-06. CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
A3 CHECK CIRCUIT 1309 (RD/YE) FOR A SHORT TO GROUND
Key in OFF position.
Disconnect: SJB C2280c.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: THE RED BRAKE WARNING INDICATOR IS ALWAYS ON (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A3 CHECK CIRCUIT 1309 (RD/YE) FOR A SHORT TO GROUND
(Continued)
Measure the resistance between parking brake switch C306-1,
circuit 1309 (RD/YE), harness side and ground.
Yes
REPAIR circuit 1309 (RD/YE). CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
No
Is the resistance less than 5 ohms? GO to A4.
A4 CHECK CIRCUIT 547 (LG/YE) FOR A SHORT TO GROUND
Measure the resistance between brake fluid level switch C124-1,
circuit 547 (LG/YE), harness side and ground.
Yes
REPAIR circuit 547 (LG/YE). CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
No
Is the resistance less than 5 ohms? GO to A5.
A5 CHECK FOR A SHORT BETWEEN CIRCUIT 512 (TN/LG) AND
CIRCUIT 547 (LG/YE)
Measure the resistance between brake fluid level switch C124-1,
circuit 547 (LG/YE), harness side and between brake fluid level
switch C124-2, circuit 512 (TN/LG), harness side.
Yes
GO to A6.
No
INSTALL a new brake fluid reservoir.
REFER to Section 206-06. CLEAR the
Is the resistance less than 5 ohms? DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: THE RED BRAKE WARNING INDICATOR IS ALWAYS ON (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A6 CHECK THE SMART JUNCTION BOX (SJB) OUTPUT
Connect: SJB C2280c. Yes
Disconnect: SJB C2280b. GO to A7.
Observe the red brake warning indicator.
No
Is the red brake warning indicator illuminated?
GO to A8.
A7 CHECK FOR CORRECT INSTRUMENT CLUSTER OPERATION
Connect: SJB C2280b.
Yes
Disconnect all the instrument cluster connectors.
INSTALL a new instrument cluster.
Check for:
REFER to Section 413-01. CLEAR the
corrosion.
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
pushed-out pins.
spread terminals. No
Connect all the instrument cluster connectors and make sure The system is operating correctly at this
they seat correctly. time. The concern may have been caused
Operate the system and verify if the concern is still present. by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
Is the concern still present? the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
A8 CHECK FOR CORRECT SJB OPERATION
Disconnect all the SJB connectors. Yes
Check for: INSTALL a new SJB. REFER to Section
corrosion. 419-10. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the
pushed-out pins. self-test.
spread terminals.
No
Connect all the SJB connectors and make sure they seat
The system is operating correctly at this
correctly.
time. The concern may have been caused
Operate the system and verify if the concern is still present.
by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
Is the concern still present?
the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
Pinpoint Test B: Vibration When the Brakes
are Applied
Possible Causes
Uneven brake pad wear
Brake disc pad transfer
Brake disc
Suspension components
PINPOINT TEST B: VIBRATION WHEN THE BRAKES ARE APPLIED
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B1 CHECK OASIS AND FOR TSBs
Check the On-Line Automotive Service Information System Yes
(OASIS) and Technical Service Bulletins (TSBs) for applicable REFER to OASIS or the TSB. CARRY
brake concerns. OUT any necessary repairs that are
Is there applicable information available on OASIS or in a indicated by OASIS or the TSB. If the
TSB? concern is still present, GO to B2.
No
GO to B2.
B2 ROAD TEST THE VEHICLE LIGHT BRAKING
Inspect the wheels and tires. Refer to Section 204-00.
Road test the vehicle. Warm the brakes by slowing the vehicle
from 80-32 km/h (50-20 mph) using light brake force. At highway
Yes
speeds of 89-97 km/h (55-60 mph), apply the brake using light
GO to B5.
pedal force.
Is there a vibration/shudder felt in the steering wheel, seat No
or brake pedal? GO to B3.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: VIBRATION WHEN THE BRAKES ARE APPLIED (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B3 ROAD TEST THE VEHICLE MODERATE TO HEAVY
BRAKING
Road test the vehicle. At highway speeds of 89-97 km/h (55-60 Yes
mph), apply the brake using a moderate to heavy pedal force. GO to B4.
Is there a vibration/shudder?
No
The concern is not present at this time.
B4 NORMAL ACTUATION OF THE ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM
(ABS) SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS
During moderate to heavy braking, noise from the hydraulic
control unit (HCU) and pulsation in the brake pedal can be
observed. Pedal pulsation coupled with noise during heavy
braking or on loose gravel, bumps, wet or snowy surfaces is
acceptable and indicates correct functioning of the ABS system.
Yes
Pedal pulsation or steering wheel nibble (frequency is
GO to B5.
proportioned to the vehicle speed) indicates a concern with a
brake or suspension component. No
Is the vibration/shudder vehicle speed sensitive? The concern is not present at this time.
B5 CHECK THE FRONT SUSPENSION
Check the front suspension. Refer to Section 204-00. Yes
Are all the suspension components in satisfactory GO to B6.
condition?
No
REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
necessary. REFER to Section 204-01.
TEST the system for normal operation.
B6 RESURFACE THE FRONT BRAKE DISCS
CAUTION: Do not use a bench lathe to machine the
brake discs.
NOTE: Follow the manufacturers instructions to machine the
brake discs. After machining, make sure the brake disc meets
the thickness specification.
Yes
Resurface the front brake discs. Refer to Brake Disc Machining
GO to B7.
in this section.
Road test the vehicle. No
Is the vibration/shudder present? The concern is not present at this time.
B7 CHECK THE REAR SUSPENSION
Check the rear suspension. Refer to Section 204-00. Yes
Are all the suspension components in satisfactory GO to B8.
condition?
No
REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
necessary. REFER to Section 204-02.
TEST the system for normal operation.
B8 RESURFACE THE REAR BRAKE DISC
CAUTION: Do not use a bench lathe to machine the
brake discs.
NOTE: Follow the manufacturers instructions to machine the
brake discs. After machining, make sure the brake disc meets
Yes
the thickness specification.
REFER to Section 100-04 to continue
Resurface the rear brake discs. Refer to Brake Disc Machining
diagnosis of the vibration.
in this section.
Road test the vehicle. No
Is the vibration/shudder present? The concern is not present at this time.
Component Tests 2. With the transmission in NEUTRAL, stop the
engine and apply the parking brake control.
Brake Booster
Apply the brake pedal several times to exhaust
1. Check the hydraulic brake system for leaks or
all vacuum in the system.
insufficient fluid.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
3. Apply the brake pedal and hold it in the applied To test the function of the brake booster check
valve: position. Start the engine. If the vacuum system
is operating, the brake pedal tends to move
start and run the engine for at least 10 seconds.
downward under constant foot pressure. If no
operate the brake pedal to check for power assist.
motion is felt, the brake booster system is not
functioning. Continue with the following steps.
disconnect the vacuum booster hose from the
brake booster check valve. Do not remove the
4. Remove the vacuum booster hose from the
brake booster check valve from the brake booster.
check valve connection. Manifold vacuum must
be available at the check valve end of the there should be enough vacuum retained in the
vacuum booster hose with the engine at idle brake booster for at least one more power-assisted
speed and the transmission in NEUTRAL. If brake operation.
the manifold vacuum is available to the brake
Brake Master Cylinder Bypass Condition
booster, connect the vacuum booster hose to the
1. Disconnect the brake tubes at the brake master brake booster check valve and repeat Steps 2
cylinder. and 3.
2. Plug the outlet ports of the brake master 5. If no downward movement of the brake pedal is
cylinder. felt, install a new brake booster. For additional
information, refer to Section 206-07.
3. Apply the brakes. If brake pedal height cannot
be maintained, the brake master cylinder has an
6. Operate the engine a minimum of 10 seconds at
internal leak and a new brake master cylinder
fast idle. Stop the engine, and let the vehicle
must be installed.
stand for 10 minutes. Then apply the brake
pedal with approximately 89 N (20 lb) of force.
Brake Master Cylinder Compensator Port
The brake pedal feel should be the same as that
Check
noted with the engine operating. If the brake
The purpose of the compensator ports in the brake
pedal feels hard (no power assist), install a new
master cylinder is to supply any additional brake
brake booster check valve and retest. If the
fluid required by the system due to brake pad wear
brake pedal feels spongy, bleed the hydraulic
and to allow brake fluid returning from the brake
system to remove air. Refer to Brake System
hoses and tubes to the brake master cylinder to
Bleeding in this section.
enter the brake master cylinder reservoir.
Check Valve
The returning brake fluid causes a slight turbulence
The function of the brake booster check valve is to in the brake master cylinder reservoir. Turbulence
allow manifold vacuum to enter the brake booster seen in the brake master cylinder reservoir upon
and prevent the escape of vacuum in case manifold application or release of the brake pedal is normal
vacuum is lost during sustained full throttle and shows that the compensating ports are not
operation. plugged.
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GENERAL PROCEDURES
Component Bleeding CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface, Special Tool(s)
immediately wash it with water.
Vehicle Communication Module
(VCM) and Integrated
NOTE: When any part of the hydraulic system is
Diagnostic System (IDS)
disconnected for repair or installation of new
software with appropriate
components, air can enter the system and cause
hardware, or equivalent scan
tool spongy brake pedal action. This requires bleeding of
the hydraulic system after it is correctly connected.
The hydraulic system can be bled manually or with
Adapter for Adjuster, Rear
pressure bleeding equipment.
Brake Caliper Piston
206-026 (T87P-2588-A)
NOTE: When a new brake master cylinder is
installed, or the system is emptied or partially
emptied, it should be primed to prevent air from
entering the system.
1. For in-vehicle priming, disconnect the brake
Material
tubes.
Item Specification
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
(Canada)
Master Cylinder
WARNING: Use of any brake fluid other
than approved DOT 3 will cause permanent
damage to brake components and will render the
brakes inoperative. Failure to follow these
instructions may result in personal injury.
2. For bench priming, mount the brake master
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
cylinder in a vise.
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
information, consult the product Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
these instructions may result in personal injury.
CAUTION: Do not allow the brake master
cylinder reservoir to run dry during the bleeding
operation. Keep the brake master cylinder
reservoir filled with clean, specified brake fluid.
Never reuse the brake fluid that has been
drained from the hydraulic system.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-00-2 206-00-2 Brake System General Information
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Rear Brake Caliper
3. Install short brake tubes onto the primary and
secondary ports with the ends submerged in the
brake master cylinder reservoir.
WARNING: Use of any other than
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
cause permanent damage to brake components
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
follow these instructions may result in personal
injury.
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
information, consult the product Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
these instructions may result in personal injury.
4. Fill the brake master cylinder reservoir with
clean, specified brake fluid.
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
5. Have an assistant pump the brake pedal, or
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
slowly press the primary piston until clear fluid
immediately wash it with water.
flows from the brake tubes, without air bubbles.
CAUTION: Do not allow the brake master
6. If the brake master cylinder has been primed at
cylinder reservoir to run dry during the bleeding
the bench, install it in the vehicle. For
operation. Keep the brake master cylinder
additional information, refer to Section 206-06.
reservoir filled with clean, specified brake fluid.
Never reuse the brake fluid that has been
7. Remove the short brake tubes and install the
drained from the hydraulic system.
master cylinder brake tubes.
Tighten to 17 Nm (13 lb-ft).
NOTE: When any part of the hydraulic system is
disconnected for repair or installation of new
8. Bleed each brake tube at the brake master
components, air can get into the system and cause
cylinder as follows:
spongy brake pedal action. This requires bleeding of
the hydraulic system after it is correctly connected.
1 Have an assistant pump the brake pedal,
The hydraulic system can be bled manually or with
and then hold firm pressure on the brake
pressure bleeding equipment.
pedal.
2 Loosen the rear-most brake tube fittings
NOTE: Due to the complexity of the fluid path
until a stream of brake fluid comes out.
within the rear integral parking brake calipers, it
While the assistant maintains pressure on
may be necessary to follow this procedure when
the brake pedal, tighten the brake tube
new calipers are installed.
fitting.
1. NOTE: This procedure is necessary only when
3 Repeat this operation until clear, bubble-free
installing a new rear brake caliper. To bleed the
fluid comes out.
brake system, refer to Brake System Bleeding
4 Refill the brake master cylinder reservoir as
in this section.
necessary. Repeat the bleeding operation at
With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
the front brake tube.
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
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GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
2. Remove the 2 brake caliper bolts and position 5. Slowly apply the brake pedal to extend the
the brake caliper aside. brake caliper piston outward.
6. Remove the 2 brake caliper bolts and position
the brake caliper aside.
3. Remove the outer brake pad.
7. Bleed the brake caliper.
Remove the bleeder screw cap and place a
box end wrench on the brake caliper bleeder
screw. Attach a rubber drain hose to the
brake caliper bleeder screw and submerge
the free end of the hose in a container
partially filled with clean, specified brake
fluid.
4. NOTE: Place a shop towel between the caliper
and the brake disc.
Install the brake caliper using the 2 brake
caliper bolts.
Tighten to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
8. Loosen the brake caliper bleeder screw.
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GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
9. Using the special tool, fully retract the brake 13. Position the brake caliper and install the 2
caliper piston and tighten the bleeder screw. brake caliper bolts.
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in). Tighten to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
Refill the brake master cylinder reservoir as
necessary.
Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU)
NOTE: This procedure is only required when a new
10. Repeat Steps 5 through 9 until clear, bubble
HCU is installed.
free fluid comes out.
Install the bleeder screw cap. NOTE: When any part of the hydraulic system has
been disconnected for repair or new installation, air
11. Remove the 2 brake caliper bolts and the shop
may get into the system and cause spongy brake
towel.
pedal action. This requires bleeding of the hydraulic
system after it has been correctly connected. The
12. Install the outer brake pad.
hydraulic system can be gravity bled, manually bled
or bled with pressure bleeding equipment.
1. Connect the scan tool and follow the anti-lock
brake system (ABS) bleed instructions.
2. Use the pressure or manual bleed procedure(s)
to bleed the system. Begin at the RH rear brake
caliper.
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Disc Brake System Exploded View
4.0L SOHC and 4.6L (3V)
NOTE: LH shown, RH similar.
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
3 2001 Brake pads kit 1 Brake caliper guide pin bolts
(2 required) (part of 2B134,
4 Spring clips (4 required) (part
also part of 2001)
of 2001)
2 2C357 RH/ Brake caliper
5 W710233 Brake caliper anchor plate
2C358 LH
bolts (2 required)
(Continued)
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-03-2 206-03-2 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
6 2B134 Brake caliper anchor plate 13 Brake tube fittings
7 Guide pins (part of 2B134) 14 N802191 Brake flexible hose bracket
bolts
8 1125 Brake disc
15 2078 RH/ Brake flexible hose
9 W500020 Brake disc shield bolts (3
2B557 LH
required)
16 Bleeder screw cap (part of
10 2K004 Brake disc shield
2208)
11 W712275 Brake caliper flow bolt
17 2208 Bleeder screw
12 W712362 Copper washers (2 required)
(Continued)
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206-03-3 206-03-3 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
5.4L
NOTE: RH shown, LH similar
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
7 Brake pad mounting pin (2 1 383609 Retaining nut
required) (part of 2B164)
2 1125 Brake disc
8 Spring retainer clip (part of
3 2B220 RH/ Brake caliper
2K583)
2B221 LH
9 N802191 Brake hose-to-strut bolt
4 W500020 Brake disc shield bolt (3
10 W710233 Brake caliper bolt (2 required)
required)
5 2K004 Brake disc shield
11 Brake tube fitting
6 2001 Brake pad (2 required)
(Continued)
(Continued)
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206-03-4 206-03-4 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
1. NOTE: A revised part, with the same base part
Item Part Number Description
number, has been released for the RH brake
12 N802191 Brake hose bracket-to-body
hose. When installing a new RH brake hose,
bolt
position the anti-rotation tab on the mounting
13 2078 RH/ Brake flexible hose
bracket toward the front of the vehicle and
2B557 LH
install the bolt with the head toward the rear of
14 W712362 Copper washer (2 required)
the vehicle.
15 W712275 Brake caliper flow bolt
For additional information, refer to the
procedures in this section.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
Brake Caliper 4.0L SOHC and 4.6L
hoist. For additional information, refer to
(3V)
Section 100-02.
Material
2. Remove the brake caliper flow bolt and discard
Item Specification the 2 copper washers.
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
3. CAUTION: Do not use the caliper
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
sight hole to retract pistons as this can
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
damage the pistons and boots.
(Canada)
Remove and discard the 2 brake caliper guide
Removal
pin bolts and remove the brake caliper.
4. Inspect the brake caliper.
WARNING: Use of any other than
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
If leaks or damaged boots are found, install
cause permanent damage to brake components
a new brake caliper.
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
Installation
follow these instructions may result in personal
injury.
1. Position the brake caliper and install 2 new
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
guide pin bolts.
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
Tighten to 34 Nm (25 lb-ft).
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
2. Using 2 new copper washers, position the brake
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
flexible hose on the brake caliper and install the
information, consult the product Material Safety
brake caliper flow bolt.
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
Tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
these instructions may result in personal injury.
3. Bleed the brakes. For additional information,
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
refer to Section 206-00.
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
4. Test the brakes for normal operation.
immediately wash it with water.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
Brake Caliper 5.4L
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
Material
Item Specification
2. Remove the brake pads. For additional
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or information, refer to Brake Pads 5.4L in this
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
section.
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
3. Remove the brake caliper flow bolt and discard
(Canada)
the 2 copper washers.
Removal and Installation
To install, tighten to 48 Nm (35 lb-ft).
WARNING: Use of any other than 4. CAUTION: Do not remove the bolts
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will securing the 2 caliper halves together. Do not
cause permanent damage to brake components attempt to separate the 2 caliper halves.
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
Remove the 2 brake caliper anchor plate bolts
follow these instructions may result in personal
and the brake caliper.
injury.
To install, tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
5. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
Bleed the brakes. For additional information,
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
refer to Section 206-00.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
Test the brakes for normal operation.
information, consult the product Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
these instructions may result in personal injury.
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
immediately wash it with water.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
2. NOTE: Clean any residual thread lock
Brake Caliper Anchor Plate 4.0L
compound from the anchor plate threads before
SOHC and 4.6L (3V)
installing the bolts.
Remove and discard the 2 anchor plate bolts
Material
and remove the brake caliper anchor plate.
Item Specification
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
Silicone Brake Caliper ESE-M1C171-A
Grease and Dielectric
3. Inspect the brake caliper anchor plate assembly.
Compound
XG-3-A
Check the guide pins and boots for binding
and damage.
Removal and Installation
Replace worn or damaged pins. Lubricate
the pins with the specified grease.
1. Remove the brake pads. For additional
Install a new brake caliper anchor plate if it
information, refer to Brake Pads 4.0L SOHC
is worn or damaged.
and 4.6L (3V) in this section.
4. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Disc Shield
Removal and Installation
1. Remove the brake disc. For additional
information, refer to Brake Disc in this section.
2. Remove the 3 bolts and the brake disc shield.
To install, tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
3. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Disc
Material
Item Specification
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
Anti-Seize Lubricant
XL-2 (US); CXG-2-B
(Canada)
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
PM-4-A or PM-4-B (US);
CPM-4 (Canada)
Removal
4. Remove the brake disc.
4.0L SOHC and 4.6L (3V) equipped vehicles
Installation
1. CAUTION: Do not allow the brake All vehicles
caliper, brake pads and anchor plate
assembly to hang from the brake hose or
1. CAUTION: Do not use an abrasive
damage to the hose can occur.
sanding disc since it will remove paint or
Remove and discard the 2 brake caliper anchor
other protective finishes from the wheel or
plate bolts and position the brake caliper, brake
metal from the mounting surfaces, adversely
pads and anchor plate aside as an assembly.
affecting corrosion protection and brake disc
Support the brake caliper, brake pads and lateral runout.
anchor plate assembly using mechanics
Remove corrosion from the wheel mounting
wire.
surfaces, both disc mounting surfaces and hub
mounting surfaces.
5.4L equipped vehicles
Use brake parts cleaner to clean the brake
disc and hub surfaces.
2. CAUTION: Do not allow the brake
Apply anti-seize lubricant to the hub
caliper assembly to hang from the brake
mounting surfaces to prevent future
hose or damage to the hose can occur.
corrosion.
Remove and discard the 2 brake caliper bolts
and position the caliper assembly aside.
2. Install the brake disc.
Support the caliper assembly using
4.0L SOHC and 4.6L (3V) equipped vehicles
mechanics wire.
All vehicles
3. NOTE: Clean any residual thread lock
compound from the anchor plate threads before
installing the bolts.
3. If equipped, remove and discard the retainer
nuts.
Position the brake caliper, brake pads and
anchor plate assembly.
Install 2 new brake caliper anchor plate
bolts and tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-2 206-03-2 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
5.4L equipped vehicles
4. Position the brake caliper assembly and install 2
new caliper bolts.
Tighten the bolts to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
1. Remove the brake caliper flow bolt and discard
Brake Flexible Hose
the 2 copper washers.
Material To install, tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
Item Specification
2. Disconnect the brake tube fitting from the brake
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
flexible hose.
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
To install, tighten to 17 Nm (13 lb-ft). PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
(Canada)
3. Remove the 2 bracket bolts and the brake
flexible hose.
Removal and Installation
To install, tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
WARNING: Use of any other than
4. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
Bleed the brake system. For additional
cause permanent damage to brake components
information, refer to Section 206-00.
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
follow these instructions may result in personal
injury.
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
information, consult the product Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
these instructions may result in personal injury
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
immediately wash it with water.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Pads 4.0L SOHC and 4.6L 3. CAUTION: Do not use the caliper
sight hole to retract pistons as this can (3V)
damage the pistons and boots.
Material
CAUTION: Do not allow the brake
caliper, brake pads and anchor plate Item Specification
assembly to hang from the brake hose or
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
damage to the hose can occur.
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
Remove and discard the 2 brake caliper guide
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
pin bolts and position the brake caliper aside.
(Canada)
Support the brake caliper using mechanics
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
wire. PM-4-A or PM-4-B (US);
CPM-4 (Canada)
Silicone Brake Caliper ESE-M1C171-A 4. CAUTION: Install new brake pads if
Grease and Dielectric
worn past the specified thickness above the
Compound
metal backing plate or rivets. Install brake
XG-3-A
pads in complete axle sets.
Removal
Remove the brake pads and discard the 4 spring
clips.
WARNING: Use of any other than
5. Inspect the brake caliper.
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
cause permanent damage to brake components
If leaks or damaged boots are found, install
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
a new brake caliper. For additional
follow these instructions may result in personal
information, refer to Brake Caliper 4.0L
injury.
SOHC and 4.6L (3V) in this section.
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary 6. Inspect the brake caliper anchor plate assembly.
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
Check the guide pins and boots for binding
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
or damage.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
Lubricate the guide pins with the specified
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
grease.
information, consult the product Material Safety
Install a new brake caliper anchor plate if it
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
is worn or damaged. For additional
these instructions may result in personal injury.
information, refer to Brake Caliper 4.0L
SOHC and 4.6L (3V) in this section. CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
immediately wash it with water.
1. Check the brake fluid level in the brake fluid
reservoir.
If required, remove fluid until the brake
master cylinder reservoir is half full.
2. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
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206-03-2 206-03-2 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Installation
2. CAUTION: Do not allow grease, oil,
brake fluid or other contaminants to contact
1. NOTE: Protect the pistons and the boots when
the pad lining material. Do not install
compressing the brake caliper piston into the
contaminated pads.
caliper bore.
NOTE: Install all the hardware supplied with
Using a suitable tool, compress the caliper
the brake pad kits.
pistons into the brake caliper bore.
Install 4 new spring clips and the 2 brake pads.
3. Position the brake caliper on the anchor plate
and install 2 new guide pin bolts.
Tighten to 34 Nm (25 lb-ft).
4. If necessary, fill the brake fluid reservoir with
clean, specified brake fluid.
5. Test the brakes for normal operation.
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Pads 5.4L 3. CAUTION: Do not allow the brake
caliper to hang from the brake hose or
damage to the hose can occur. Removal and Installation
Remove and discard the 2 brake caliper bolts
and position the brake caliper aside. CAUTION: Install new brake pads in
complete axle sets.
Support the brake caliper using mechanics
wire.
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
To install, tighten to 115 Nm (85 lb-ft).
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
4. NOTE: Use a wood block or old brake pad to
protect the caliper piston and dust boots. Use a
2. NOTE: Inspect and install new brake pad
soft cloth to protect the painted surface of the
mounting hardware as necessary.
brake caliper.
Remove the brake pad mounting pins and
Using a C-clamp or similar tool, compress the
spring retainer clip.
caliper pistons.
Remove the brake pads from the caliper
assembly.
5. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
6. Apply the brake pedal several times before
driving the vehicle.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Front Disc Brake
The front disc brake system includes the brake
caliper, the disc brake pads, the anchor plate and the
brake disc. The brake caliper on 4.0L SOHC and
4.6L (3V) equipped vehicles is a dual piston
floating design. The brake caliper is mounted to the
anchor plate by the caliper guide bolts. The brake
caliper slides, or floats, on the caliper guide bolts.
The brake caliper on 5.4L equipped vehicles is a
quad piston, non-floating design. The brake caliper
is mounted directly to the wheel knuckle and does
not have an anchor plate. The brake disc is a cast,
ventilated type rotor. When mechanical force is
applied by the driver to the brake pedal, the force is
converted into hydraulic pressure by the master
cylinder. The hydraulic force is directed to the
brake calipers. The brake pads are then forced
against the brake disc friction surfaces by the brake
caliper pistons. The friction of the brake pads on the
brake disc causes the slowing of wheel rotation and
the vehicle. The brake disc shield, mounted to the
wheel knuckle, protects the inner surface of the
brake disc from foreign material.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Front Disc Brake
Refer to Section 206-00.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-03-1 206-03-1 Front Disc Brake
General Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Item Specification
General Specifications
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Item Specification Motor Vehicle Brake WSS-M6C62-A
Fluid PM-1 or PM-1-C
Brake Pads 4.0L SOHC and 4.6L (3V)
(US); CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
Minimum brake pad 3.0 mm (0.118 in)
(Canada)
thickness
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
Maximum brake pad 2.0 mm (0.079 in)
Anti-Seize Lubricant XL-2
thickness variation
(US); CXG-2-B (Canada)
(pad-to-pad)
Silicone Brake Caliper ESE-M1C171-A
Maximum brake pad taper 3.0 mm (0.118 in)
Grease and Dielectric
wear (in any direction)
Compound XG-3-A
Brake Disc 4.0L SOHC and 4.6L (3V)
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
PM-4-A or PM-4-B (US);
Minimum front brake disc 28.4 mm (1.11 in)
CPM-4 (Canada)
thickness
Minimum rear brake disc 17.4 mm (0.68 in)
thickness
Torque Specifications
Minimum thickness to 29 mm (1.14 in)
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
machine front brake disc
Bleeder screw 10 89
Minimum thickness to 18 mm (0.71 in)
machine rear brake disc Brake caliper anchor 115 85
plate bolts
Brake Pads 5.4L
Brake caliper guide pin 34 25
Minimum front brake pad 1.8 mm (0.071 in)
bolts
thickness
Brake caliper flow bolt 40 30
Minimum rear brake pad 3.0 mm (0.118 in)
thickness Brake disc shield bolts 20 15
Brake Disc 5.4L Brake flexible 20 15
hose-to-body bolt
Minimum front brake disc 3.0 mm (1.18 in)
thickness Brake flexible 20 15
hose-to-strut bolt
Minimum thickness to 30.6 mm (1.20 in)
machine front brake disc Brake tube fittings 17 13
Lubricant Brake caliper bolt 115 85
5.4L
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Installation
Brake Caliper Anchor Plate
Material 1. CAUTION: In order for the brake
caliper anchor plate bolts to attain the
Item Specification
proper clamp load when installed, the
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
residual thread lock compound must be
PM-4-A or PM-4-B (US);
cleaned out of the bolt threads of the anchor
CPM-4 (Canada)
plate.
Removal
Clean any residual thread lock compound, and
any other foreign material, from the threads of
1. Remove the brake pads. For additional
the brake caliper anchor plate.
information, refer to Brake Pads in this section.
2. Position the brake caliper anchor plate and
2. Remove the 2 brake caliper anchor plate bolts
install 2 new anchor plate bolts.
and the brake caliper.
Tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
Discard the bolts.
3. Install the brake pads. For additional
information, refer to Brake Pads in this section.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
3. NOTE: Make sure the anti-moan bracket holes,
Brake Caliper Support Bracket
the brake caliper support bracket and the brake
caliper anchor plate holes line up during
Removal and Installation
installation.
Remove the anti-moan bracket.
1. Remove the rear axle shaft. For additional
information, refer to Section 205-02A or
To install, tighten to 35 Nm (26 lb-ft).
Section 205-02B.
4. Remove the 4 brake caliper support bracket
2. Remove the 3 bolts and the brake disc shield.
nuts, bolts and the bracket.
To install, tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
To install, tighten to 68 Nm (50 lb-ft).
5. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Caliper
Material
Item Specification
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
(Canada)
Removal
WARNING: Use of any other than
3. Remove the brake caliper flow bolt and discard
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
the 2 copper washers.
cause permanent damage to brake components
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
4. Remove the 2 brake caliper guide pin bolts and
follow these instructions may result in personal
the brake caliper.
injury.
5. Inspect the brake caliper.
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
If leaks or a damaged piston boot are found,
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
install a new brake caliper.
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
Installation
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
information, consult the product Material Safety
1. Position the brake caliper and install the 2
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
brake caliper guide pin bolts until snug.
these instructions may result in personal injury.
Tighten the RH caliper guide pin bolts in
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to the following sequence:
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
X Tighten the top bolt to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
X Tighten the bottom bolt to 33 Nm (24
immediately wash it with water.
lb-ft).
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a Tighten the LH caliper guide pin bolts in
hoist. For additional information, refer to the following sequence:
Section 100-02.
X Tighten the bottom bolt to 33 Nm (24
lb-ft).
2. Remove the retaining clip and the parking brake
X Tighten the top bolt to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
cable and conduit from the brake caliper.
2. Using 2 new copper washers, position the front
brake hose on the brake caliper and install the
flow bolt.
Tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
3. Connect the parking brake cable and conduit to
the brake caliper.
Install the retaining clip.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-2 206-04-2 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
4. Bleed the caliper. For additional information,
refer to Section 206-00.
2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Disc Shield
Removal and Installation
1. Remove the brake disc. For additional
information, refer to Brake Disc in this section.
2. Remove the 3 bolts and the brake disc shield.
To install, tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
3. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
3. Remove the brake disc.
Brake Disc
Installation
Material
Item Specification
1. Clean any rust or foreign material from the
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A brake disc and the wheel hub.
Anti-Seize Lubricant
Use brake parts cleaner to clean the brake
XL-2 (US); CXG-2-B
disc and hub surfaces.
(Canada)
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
2. CAUTION: In order for the brake PM-4-A or PM-4-B (US);
CPM-4 (Canada) caliper anchor plate bolts to attain the
proper clamp load when installed, the
Removal
residual thread lock compound must be
cleaned out of the bolt threads of the anchor
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
plate.
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Clean any residual thread lock compound, and
Section 100-02.
any other foreign material, from the threads of
the brake caliper anchor plate.
2. CAUTION: Care must be used when
servicing rear brake components without
3. CAUTION: Do not allow the lubricant
disconnecting the parking brake cable from
to make contact with the wheel studs, brake
the brake caliper lever. Carefully position the
pads or brake disc.
caliper aside using a suitable support or
Apply a thin coat of anti-seize lubricant to the
damage to the parking brake cable end
hub flange.
fittings can occur.
CAUTION: Do not allow the brake
4. Position the brake disc onto the wheel hub.
caliper and anchor plate assembly to hang
from the brake hose or damage to the hose
5. Position the brake caliper anchor plate and
can occur.
install 2 new anchor plate bolts.
Remove and discard the 2 anchor plate bolts
Tighten to 103 Nm (76 lb-ft).
and position the brake caliper anchor plate and
brake caliper assembly aside. 6. Test the brakes for normal operation.
Support the caliper using mechanics wire.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
1. Remove the brake caliper flow bolt and discard
Brake Flexible Hose
the 2 copper washers.
Material To install, tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
Item Specification
2. Disconnect the brake tube fitting from the brake
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
flexible hose.
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A)
To install, tighten to 17 Nm (13 lb-ft). PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
(Canada)
3. Remove the bracket bolt and the brake hose.
To install, tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
Removal and Installation
4. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
WARNING: Use of any other than
Bleed the brake caliper. For additional
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
information, refer to Section 206-00.
cause permanent damage to brake components
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
follow these instructions may result in personal
injury.
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
information, consult the product Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
these instructions may result in personal injury.
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
immediately wash it with water.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Pads 2. CAUTION: Care must be used when
servicing rear brake components without
disconnecting the parking brake cable from Special Tool(s)
the brake caliper lever. Carefully position the
Adapter, Rear Brake Caliper
caliper aside using a suitable support or
Piston Adjuster
damage to the parking brake cable end
206-026 (T87P-2588-A) or
fittings can occur. equivalent
CAUTION: Do not use caliper sight
hole to retract pistons as this can damage the
pistons and boots.
CAUTION: Do not allow the caliper to Material
hang from the brake hose or damage to the
Item Specification
hose can occur.
Silicone Brake Caliper ESE-M1C171-A
Remove the 2 brake caliper guide pin bolts and
Grease and Dielectric
position the brake caliper aside. Compound
XG-3-A
Support the caliper using mechanics wire.
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
3. CAUTION: Install new pads if worn to
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
or past the specified thickness above the
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
(Canada) metal backing plate or rivets. Install pads in
complete axle sets.
Removal
Remove the brake pads and discard the spring
clips.
WARNING: Use of any other than
approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
4. Measure the brake disc thickness.
cause permanent damage to brake components
Install a new brake disc if not within
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
specification. For additional information,
follow these instructions may result in personal
refer to Brake Disc in this section.
injury.
5. Inspect the brake caliper.
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
If leaks or damaged boots are found, install
information on product label. For EMERGENCY
a new brake caliper. For additional
MEDICAL INFORMATION seek medical advice.
information, refer to Brake Caliper in this
In the USA or Canada on Ford/Motorcraft
section.
products call: 1-800-959-3673. For additional
information, consult the product Material Safety
6. Inspect the brake caliper anchor plate assembly.
Data Sheet (MSDS) if available. Failure to follow
these instructions may result in personal injury. Check the guide pins and boots for binding
and damage.
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
Replace worn or damaged pins. Lubricate
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
the pins with the specified grease.
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
Install a new brake caliper anchor plate if it
immediately wash it with water.
is worn or damaged.
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
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206-04-2 206-04-2 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Installation 4. Position the brake caliper on the anchor plate
and install the 2 brake caliper guide pin bolts
until snug.
1. Using the special tool, compress the brake
caliper piston into the brake caliper bore.
Tighten the RH caliper guide pin bolts in
the following sequence:
X Tighten the top bolt to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
X Tighten the bottom bolt to 33 Nm (24
lb-ft).
Tighten the LH caliper guide pin bolts in
the following sequence:
X Tighten the bottom bolt to 33 Nm (24
lb-ft).
X Tighten the top bolt to 33 Nm (24 lb-ft).
5. Test the brakes for normal operation.
2. Position the notch in the caliper piston up and
down to align with the alignment pin on the
brake pad.
3. CAUTION: Do not allow grease, oil,
brake fluid or other contaminants to contact
the pad lining material. Do not install
contaminated pads.
NOTE: Install all hardware supplied with the
pad kit.
Install the 2 new spring clips and the brake
pads.
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Disc Brake System Exploded View
NOTE: 4.0L SOHC and 4.6L (3L) shown, 5.4L similar.
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
5 Guide pin and boot (part of 1 2N386 Brake caliper guide pin bolts
kit 2B296)
2 2552 RH/ 2553 Brake caliper
6 W705821 Brake caliper anchor plate LH
bolt kits (2 bolts each side)
3 2218 Brake pads (kit)
7 2B511 Brake caliper anchor plate
4 Spring clips (part of kit 2200)
8 2C026 Brake disc
(Continued)
(Continued)
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206-04-2 206-04-2 Rear Disc Brake
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
9 W500020 Brake disc shield bolts (3 19 Anti-moan bracket U-bolt and
required) (part of 2C029) clamp (part of 2C371)
10 2C029 Brake disc shield 20 2C371 Anti-moan bracket (4.0L
SOHC and 4.6L [3V] only)
11 Brake tube fitting
21 Brake caliper support bracket
12 W712275 Brake caliper flow bolt
bolts (4 required) (part of
13 W712362 Copper washers (2 required)
4001)
14 2A442 RH/ Brake hose
22 Brake caliper support bracket
2A478 LH
flag nuts (4 required) (part of
4001) 15 N802191 Brake hose bracket bolt
23 Brake caliper support bracket 16 Bleeder screw cap (part of
(part of 4001) 2N033)
17 2N033 Bleeder screw
1. For additional information, refer to the
18 W520112 Anti-moan bracket U-bolt
nuts (2 required) procedures in this section.
(Continued)
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Rear Disc Brake
The braking system includes the brake caliper, the
brake pads and the brake disc. The brake caliper is
a single piston, floating design. The brake caliper is
mounted to the brake caliper anchor plate by the
caliper guide bolts. The brake caliper slides, or
floats, on the caliper guide pins. The brake disc is a
cast, non-ventilated type rotor. When mechanical
force is applied by the driver to the brake pedal, the
force is converted into hydraulic pressure by the
master cylinder. The hydraulic force is directed to
the disc brake calipers and transferred to the brake
pads. The brake pads are then forced against the
brake disc friction surfaces by the brake caliper
pistons slowing the vehicle.
The brake caliper is also used for the parking brakes
and is activated by the rear parking brake cable.
When the cable is actuated, a lever on the caliper
engages a self-adjusting ratchet assembly inside the
brake caliper piston. This applies pressure to the
brake pads, preventing the brake disc from moving.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Rear Disc Brake
Refer to Section 206-00.
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206-04-1 206-04-1 Rear Disc Brake
General Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Item Specification
General Specifications
Silicone Brake Caliper ESE-M1C171-A
Item Specification Grease and Dielectric
Compound XG-3-A
Brake Pads
Metal Brake Parts Cleaner
Minimum brake pad 3.0 mm (0.118 in)
PM-4 or PM-4-B (US);
thickness
CPM-4 (Canada)
Maximum brake pad 2.0 mm (0.079 in)
thickness variation
(pad-to-pad)
Torque Specifications
Maximum brake pad taper 3.0 mm (0.118 in)
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
wear (in any direction)
Anti-moan bracket 35 26
Brake Disc
U-bolt nuts
Minimum brake disc 17.4 mm (0.68 in)
Bleeder screw 10 89
thickness
Brake caliper flow bolt 40 30
Minimum thickness to 18.0 mm (0.7 in)
Brake disc shield bolts 20 15 machine brake disc
Brake caliper anchor 103 76 Lubricant
plate bolts
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Brake hose bracket 15 11 Motor Vehicle Brake WSS-M6C62-A
bolts Fluid PM-1 or PM-1-C
(US); CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
Brake caliper guide pin
(Canada)
bolts
a
High Temperature Nickel ESE-M12A4-A
Brake tube fitting 17 13
Anti-Seize Lubricant XL-2
Brake caliper support 68 50
(US); CXG-2-B (Canada)
bracket bolts
a Refer to the procedure for the proper tightening
sequence and torque specifications.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-05-1 206-05-1 Parking Brake and Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Parking Brake Exploded View
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
7 2A635 Rear parking brake cable 1 N804796 Parking brake control nuts (2
(RH) required)
8 2A823 Rear parking brake cable 2 W704911 Parking brake control bolt (2
(LH) required)
9 Front parking brake cable 3 2780 Parking brake control
(part of 2780)
4 2860 Parking brake cable retaining
clips (2 required)
1. For additional information, refer to the
5 W505263 Parking brake cable bracket
bolts procedures in this section.
6 W704911 Parking brake cable
crossmember bracket bolt
(Continued)
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206-05-1 206-05-1 Parking Brake and Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
5. Remove and discard the appropriate support
Parking Brake Cable Rear
brace front bolts.
Removal and Installation To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
All vehicles
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
2. Release the tension on the parking brake cable.
For additional information, refer to Parking
Brake Cable Tension Release in this section.
Convertible vehicles
3. Remove and discard the appropriate support
All vehicles
brace rear bolts.
To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
6. Disconnect the appropriate rear parking brake
cable from the front parking brake cable at the
equalizer, and release the cable from the body
bracket.
4. Remove and discard the appropriate support
brace upper bolts.
To install, tighten to 63 Nm (46 lb-ft).
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206-05-2 206-05-2 Parking Brake and Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
8. Remove the parking brake cable bracket bolt.
7. CAUTION: Verify that the boot is
attached to the conduit end fitting and the
To install, tighten to 27 Nm (20 lb-ft).
strand end fitting. A clamp must be secured
on the strand end fitting (t-end). There 9. If removing the RH cable, remove the parking
should be no exposed strand at the wheel end brake cable crossmember bracket bolt.
of the parking brake cable.
To install, tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
Remove the parking brake cable retaining clip
10. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
from the parking brake cable and disconnect the
rear parking brake cable from the brake caliper.
Adjust the parking brake cable tension. For
additional information, refer to the Parking
Brake Cable Adjustment in this section.
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206-05-1 206-05-1 Parking Brake and Actuation
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
CAUTION: Do not overtighten the parking
brake cable adjustment nut. Overtightening will
cause the brakes to drag or lock up.
1. Remove the access cover inside the floor
console bin.
4. Apply the tension by tightening the parking
brake cable adjustment nut until there is no lash
in the system with the handle in the lowered
position.
5. Cycle the parking brake control 4 times and
adjust as necessary.
6. Lower the parking brake handle and install the
access cover.
2. Position the parking brake handle up at the
fourth notch to access the adjuster nut.
7. Test the parking brake system for proper
operation.
3. NOTE: The rod is staked to prevent the
removal of the nut.
Loosen, but do not remove, the parking brake
cable adjuster nut.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-05-1 206-05-1 Parking Brake and Actuation
GENERAL PROCEDURES
2. Position the parking brake control handle at the
Parking Brake Cable Tension Release
fourth notch to access the parking brake cable
adjuster nut.
CAUTION: Do not overtighten the parking
brake cable adjustment nut. Overtightening will
3. NOTE: The rod is staked to prevent the
cause the brakes to drag or lock up.
removal of the nut.
Loosen, but do not remove, the parking brake
1. Remove the access cover inside the floor
cable adjuster nut.
console bin.
4. Lower the parking brake control handle.
5. To adjust the parking brake cable tension, refer
to Parking Brake Cable Adjustment in this
section.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-05-1 206-05-1 Parking Brake and Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
5. Disconnect the parking brake switch electrical
Parking Brake Control
connector.
Removal and Installation
6. Remove the 2 nuts from the parking brake
control.
1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a
To install, tighten to 17 Nm (13 lb-ft).
hoist. For additional information, refer to
Section 100-02.
7. Remove the 2 bolts from the parking brake
control.
2. Remove the floor console. For additional
information, refer to Section 501-12. To install, tighten to 30 Nm (22 lb-ft).
3. Release the tension on the parking brake cable. 8. Remove the parking brake control.
For additional information, refer to Parking
Position the cable and equalizer through the
Brake Cable Tension Release in this section.
floorpan.
4. Disconnect the front parking brake cable from
9. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
the 2 rear parking brake cables at the equalizer
Adjust the parking brake cable tension. For
and release the front cable from the body
additional information, refer to Parking
bracket.
Brake Cable Adjustment in this section.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-05-1 206-05-1 Parking Brake and Actuation
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
The parking brake cable tension is not
Parking Brake
self-adjusting. Refer to Parking Brake Cable
Parking Brake
Adjustment in this section.
The parking brake system is a mechanical system
that activates a self-adjusting brake system within
the rear brake caliper.
The parking brake system is cable-actuated and
controlled by an independent hand-operated parking
brake control. The parking brake system is actuated
when the parking brake control is pulled up and
released by pressing the release button on the end
of the parking brake control handle. The parking
brake control applies tension to rear brake pads
through the front parking brake cable and conduit
and the LH and RH rear parking brake cables. The
respective rear parking brake assemblies are then
applied.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-05-1 206-05-1 Parking Brake and Actuation
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
2. Visually inspect for obvious signs of
Parking Brake
mechanical damage.
Principles of Operation
Visual Inspection Chart
Parking Brake System
Mechanical
The parking brake system is cable-actuated and
controlled by an independent hand-operated parking Parking brake control
Parking brake cables
brake control that is not self adjusting, The parking
Parking brake release handle
brake system is actuated when the parking brake
control is pulled up. The parking brake control
applies tension to the brake pads through the front
3. If an obvious cause for an observed or reported
parking brake cable and conduit and the LH and RH
concern is found, correct the cause (if possible)
rear parking brake cables.
before proceeding to the next step.
4. If the cause is not visually evident, verify the
Inspection and Verification
symptom and GO to Symptom Chart.
NOTE: Prior to carrying out any diagnosis, make
sure the red brake warning indicator is functional.
Refer to Section 413-01.
The first indication that something may be wrong in
the brake system is a change in the feeling through
the parking brake control. The parking brake not
holding on an incline or dragging after being
released are also indicators of system concerns.
Check the operation of the parking brake system
with the vehicle on a hoist and the parking brake
control fully released. Check for any damaged
cables and install new components as necessary.
Carry out the brake system diagnosis.
1. Verify the customer concern.
Symptom Chart
Symptom Chart
Condition Possible Sources Action
Rear brakes drag Parking brake component REPAIR or INSTALL new
parking brake components as
necessary. REFER to Parking
Brake Control or Parking
Brake Cable Rear in this
section.
Brake caliper guide pins REPAIR or INSTALL new
brake caliper guide pins.
REFER to Section 206-04.
Brake caliper REPAIR or INSTALL new
brake calipers as necessary.
REFER to Section 206-04.
Brake booster CARRY OUT the Brake
Booster Component Test.
REFER to Section 206-00.
Brake master cylinder CARRY OUT the Brake
Master Cylinder Component
Test. REFER to Section
206-00.
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206-05-2 206-05-2 Parking Brake and Actuation
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
The parking brake will not Parking brake control GO to Pinpoint Test A.
apply Parking brake cables
Parking brake rear wheel
components
The parking brake will not Parking brake cables GO to Pinpoint Test B.
release Parking brake control
Parking brake rear wheel
components
Possible Causes Pinpoint Tests
Parking brake control
Pinpoint Test A: The Parking Brake Will Not
Apply Parking brake cables
Parking brake rear wheel components
Normal Operation
The parking brake system is cable-actuated and
controlled by an independent hand-operated parking
brake control that is not self adjusting, The parking
brake system is actuated when the parking brake
control is pulled up. The parking brake control
applies tension to the brake pads through the front
parking brake cable and conduit and the LH and RH
rear parking brake cables.
PINPOINT TEST A: THE PARKING BRAKE WILL NOT APPLY
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A1 CHECK THE PARKING BRAKE CABLES
With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a hoist. Refer to Yes
Section 100-02. INSTALL a new parking brake cable as
Inspect for broken or binding parking brake cables. necessary. REFER to Parking Brake
Is there a parking brake cable concern? Cable Rear in this section. TEST the
system for normal operation.
No
GO to A2.
A2 CHECK THE PARKING BRAKE CONTROL
Operate the parking brake control. Yes
Does the parking brake control operate smoothly? GO to A3.
No
INSTALL a new parking brake control.
REFER to Parking Brake Control in this
section. TEST the system for normal
operation.
A3 CHECK THE PARKING BRAKE COMPONENTS
Operate the parking brake control and observe the parking brake Yes
components. CHECK the brake pad installation. REFER
Do the parking brake components operate correctly? to Section 206-04.
No
INSTALL new components. TEST the
system for normal operation.
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206-05-3 206-05-3 Parking Brake and Actuation
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Possible Causes
Pinpoint Test B: The Parking Brake Will Not
Release
Parking brake cables
Normal Operation
Parking brake control
The parking brake system is cable-actuated and
Parking brake rear wheel components
controlled by an independent hand-operated parking
brake control that is not self adjusting. The parking
brake system is actuated when the parking brake
control is pulled up. The parking brake control
applies tension to the brake pads through the front
parking brake cable and conduit and the LH and RH
rear parking brake cables.
PINPOINT TEST B: THE PARKING BRAKE WILL NOT RELEASE
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B1 CHECK THE FRONT PARKING BRAKE CABLE
Release the parking brake control. Yes
If the vehicle cannot be moved, raise and support it. INSPECT the front parking brake cable for
Release the parking brake cable tension. Refer to Parking Brake binding. INSPECT the parking brake
Cable Tension Release in this section. control for wear or damage. INSTALL new
Disconnect the parking brake cable at the parking brake lever. components as necessary. Refer to
Does the parking brake release? Parking Brake Control in this section.
TEST the system for normal operation.
No
GO to B2.
B2 CHECK THE PARKING BRAKE REAR CABLES
Disconnect the RH parking brake rear cable and conduit and the Yes
LH parking brake rear cable and conduit from the parking brake INSPECT the parking brake rear cable
lever at each wheel. and conduits for wear or damage.
Does the parking brake release? INSTALL new components as necessary.
Refer to Parking Brake Cable Rear in
this section. TEST the system for normal
operation.
No
REPAIR the worn or damaged rear wheel
parking brake components as necessary.
TEST the system for normal operation.
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206-05-1 206-05-1 Parking Brake and Actuation
Torque Specifications (Continued)
SPECIFICATIONS
Description Nm lb-ft
Torque Specifications
Parking brake control bolts 30 22
Description Nm lb-ft
Parking brake control nuts 17 13
Parking brake cable 20 15
Support brace bolts 63 46
crossmember bracket bolt
Parking brake cable bracket 27 20
bolts
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206-06-1 206-06-1 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Fluid Reservoir
Material
Item Specification
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
(Canada)
NOTE: Automatic transmission shown, all others similar.
Item Part Number Description
1 2462 Brake fluid reservoir pin
2 Brake fluid reservoir seals (2
required) (part of 2422)
3 2422 Brake fluid reservoir
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206-06-2 206-06-2 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
WARNING: Use of any other than spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
approved DOT 3 brake fluid will cause immediately wash it with water.
permanent damage to brake components and will
1. Using a suitable tool, remove the brake fluid
render the brakes inoperative. Failure to follow
from the brake fluid reservoir.
these instructions may result in personal injury.
2. Remove the brake fluid reservoir pin.
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
information on product label. For additional
To install, tighten to 8 Nm (71 lb-in).
information, see product Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS). For 24-hour MEDICAL
3. NOTE: Use new seals provided with a new
EMERGENCY INFORMATION on
brake fluid reservoir.
Ford/Motorcraft products call: 1-800-959-3673
Remove the brake fluid reservoir and discard
(FORD). Failure to follow these instructions may
the seals.
result in personal injury.
When installing the brake fluid reservoir,
lubricate the new seals with brake fluid.
4. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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206-06-1 206-06-1 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Master Cylinder
Material
Item Specification
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid WSS-M6C62-A
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C
(Canada)
NOTE: Automatic transmission and ABS shown, all others similar.
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
3 N808159 Brake master cylinder nut (2 1 Brake tube fittings
required)
2 Brake fluid level sensor
4 2A032 Brake master cylinder electrical connector
(Continued)
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206-06-2 206-06-2 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
5.4L equipped vehicles
Removal and Installation
2. If equipped, remove the suction accumulator. WARNING: Use of any other than
For additional information, refer to Section approved DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid will
412-01. cause permanent damage to brake components
and will render the brakes inoperative. Failure to
All vehicles
follow these instructions may result in personal
injury.
3. Disconnect the brake fluid sensor electrical
WARNING: Carefully read cautionary
connector.
information on product label. For additional
information, see product Material Safety Data 4. If equipped with a manual transmission, remove
Sheet (MSDS). For 24-hour MEDICAL the clutch hose clamp and disconnect the clutch
EMERGENCY INFORMATION on hose from the brake fluid reservoir.
Ford/Motorcraft products call: 1-800-959-3673
5. NOTE: Cap the brake lines and plug the master
(FORD). Failure to follow these instructions may
cylinder ports.
result in personal injury.
Disconnect the 2 brake tubes from the master
CAUTION: Brake fluid is harmful to
cylinder.
painted and plastic surfaces. If brake fluid is
To install, tighten to 17 Nm (13 lb-ft).
spilled onto a painted or plastic surface,
immediately wash it with water.
6. Remove and discard the 2 nuts and remove the
brake master cylinder.
All vehicles
To install, tighten 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. For
7. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
additional information, refer to Section 414-01.
Bleed the master cylinder. For additional
information, refer to Section 206-00 in this
section.
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206-06-1 206-06-1 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Pedal and Bracket
NOTE: Manual transmission pedal assembly shown, automatic transmission pedal assembly similar.
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
4 2475 Redundant self-locking clip 1 Speed control deactivator
cover switch (brake)
5 380699-S100 Self-locking clip 2 Stoplamp switch
6 2A309 Brake booster rod bushing 3 Speed control deactivator
switch (clutch)
7 2N513 Brake booster rod pin
(Continued)
(Continued)
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-06-2 206-06-2 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Item Part Number Description
8 W520112-S440 Brake booster nuts (4
required)
9 W701834-S439 Brake pedal bracket bolts (2
required)
10 2450 Brake pedal bracket
Removal and Installation
All vehicles
1. CAUTION: The brake pedal must be
7. NOTE: The clutch master cylinder is connected to the booster rod and in the at
self-bleeding. Pump the clutch pedal until all rest position before removing or installing
the air is forced back into the brake master the speed control deactivator switch. Failure
cylinder reservoir. to follow this instruction will damage the
switch.
Remove the hairpin clip and disconnect the
clutch pedal high pressure hydraulic hose from Remove the stoplamp switch and, if equipped,
the clutch master cylinder. the speed control deactivator switch (brake).
Install the hairpin clip into the clutch master
2. Remove the redundant self-locking pin cover
cylinder.
and the self-locking pin.
3. Remove the booster rod pin and bushing from
the brake pedal.
Manual transmission vehicles
4. CAUTION: The clutch pedal must be
connected to the clutch master cylinder
actuation rod and in the at rest position
before removing or installing the speed
control deactivator switch. Failure to follow
this instruction will damage the switch.
Remove the speed control deactivator switch
All vehicles
(clutch) and position it aside.
8. Remove the 4 brake booster nuts
5. Disconnect the clutch pedal interlock switch
electrical connector.
To install, tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
6. Disconnect the clutch pedal low pressure
9. Remove the top 2 bolts from the brake pedal
hydraulic hose from the master cylinder
bracket assembly.
reservoir.
To install, tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
10. Remove the brake pedal bracket assembly from
the vehicle.
11. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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206-06-1 206-06-1 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Brake Pedal and Bracket
Hydraulic Brake Actuation
The brake pedal is connected to the power brake
Brake Master Cylinder
booster, which is connected to the brake master
The dual brake system is split front and rear with
cylinder. When the brake pedal is pressed, brake
the front wheel brakes comprising one circuit and
fluid is forced from the brake master cylinder
the rear wheel brakes the other circuit.
through the steel tubing and flexible hoses to the
front and rear brake calipers.
The brake master cylinder is a dual piston type.
When the brake pedal is pressed, pressure is applied
The brake pedal bracket provides a mounting
by mechanical linkage to the primary and secondary
location for the clutch pedal and clutch pedal master
piston. The pistons then apply hydraulic pressure to
cylinder for vehicles with manual transmissions. The
the two hydraulic circuits. The brake master
bracket also provides a mounting location for the
cylinder can not be repaired. Install a new master
speed control deactivator switches, stoplamp
cylinder if replacement is necessary.
switch, and on vehicles with manual transmissions,
the starter interlock switch, mounted just below the
The brake master cylinder consists of:
clutch.
brake master cylinder reservoir
Brake Tubes and Hoses
brake master cylinder body
CAUTION: Never use copper tubing. It is
Brake Master Cylinder Reservoir
subject to fatigue, cracking and corrosion which
The brake master cylinder reservoir:
could result in brake tube failure.
Steel tubing is used throughout the brake hydraulic
is mounted to the brake master cylinder.
system. All brake tube fittings must be correctly
holds fluid supply for each brake master cylinder
flared to provide strong leakproof connections.
hydraulic piston.
When bending the tubing to fit the underbody or
provides visual fluid level markings.
rear axle contours, be careful not to kink or crack
contains the brake master cylinder fluid level the tube.
sensor.
If a section of brake tube is damaged, the entire
section must be removed and a new tube of the
same type, size, shape and length installed.
When replacing hydraulic brake tubing, hoses, or
connectors, tighten all connections securely. After
installation, bleed the brake system. For additional
information, refer to Section 206-00.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-06-1 206-06-1 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Hydraulic Brake Actuation
Refer to Section 206-00.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-06-1 206-06-1 Hydraulic Brake Actuation
Torque Specifications
SPECIFICATIONS
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
General Specifications
Brake booster nuts 25 18
Item Specification
Brake fluid 25 18
Lubricant proportioning valve
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or Brake fluid reservoir 8 71
Motor Vehicle Brake WSS-M6C62-A pin
Fluid
Brake tube fittings 17 13
PM-1 or PM-1-C (US);
CPM-1 or CPM-1-C Brake master cylinder 25 18
(Canada) nuts
Brake pedal bracket 25 18
bolt
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-07-1 206-07-1 Power Brake Actuation
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
is divided into separate chambers by the
Brake Booster
diaphragms.
The vacuum type power brake booster:
will not operate if vacuum fails.
is a dual diaphragm, vacuum assisted power brake
is installed as an assembly.
booster.
If the power assist fails, the brake system continues
reduces brake pedal force and travel distance.
to operate with increased brake pedal effort.
is located on the LH side of the cowl in the
engine compartment, between the brake pedal and
the brake master cylinder.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-07-1 206-07-1 Power Brake Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Brake Booster
Item Part Number Description Item Part Number Description
5 2N513 Brake booster rod pin 1 9C482 Brake booster vacuum hose
6 13480 Stop lamp switch 2 Brake booster vacuum check
valve (part of 2B195)
7 9C872 Speed deactivation switch
3 2475 Redundant self-locking clip
8 W520112-S440 Brake booster nuts (4
cover
required)
4 380699-S100 Self-locking clip
9 2B195 Brake booster
(Continued)
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206-07-2 206-07-2 Power Brake Actuation
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
4. NOTE: Do not apply the brake pedal during
the removal or installation of the speed
deactivation switch.
1. Remove the brake master cylinder. For
additional information, refer to Section 206-06.
Disconnect the electrical connector and remove
the speed deactivation switch.
2. Disconnect the brake booster vacuum hose from
the brake booster vacuum check valve.
5. Remove the redundant self-locking pin cover,
self-locking pin and the booster rod pin.
3. NOTE: Do not apply the brake pedal during
the removal or installation of the stop lamp
6. Remove the 4 brake booster nuts.
switch.
To install, tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
Disconnect the electrical connector and remove
the stop lamp switch.
7. Remove the brake booster assembly from the
vehicle.
8. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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206-07-1 206-07-1 Power Brake Actuation
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Power Brake System
Refer to Section 206-00.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-07-1 206-07-1 Power Brake Actuation
SPECIFICATIONS
Torque Specifications
Description Nm lb-ft lb-in
Brake booster nuts 25 18
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
Last updated: 6/19/2006 2007 Mustang, Mustang GT 8/2006
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206-09-1 206-09-1 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)
Module
Item Part Number Description
1 Anti-lock brake system (ABS)
module electrical connector
(part of 14A005)
2 ZD061 ABS module screws (4
required)
3 2C219 ABS module
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206-09-2 206-09-2 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued)
Removal and Installation
4. Remove the 4 screws and the ABS module.
To install, tighten to 3 Nm (27 lb-in) in the
CAUTION: Electronic modules are
sequence shown.
sensitive to electrical charges. The anti-lock
brake system (ABS) module can be damaged if
exposed to these charges.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. For
additional information, refer to Section 414-01.
2. Remove the air cleaner assembly. For additional
information, refer to Section 303-12.
3. Disconnect the ABS module electrical
connector.
5. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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206-09-1 206-09-1 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Rear wheel speed sensors
Anti-Lock Control
Rear wheel speed sensor rings
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) with
Traction control switch
Traction Control
Traction control switch indicator
The anti-lock brake system (ABS) consists of the
following components:
Trac off indicator
Yellow ABS warning indicator
Hydraulic control unit (HCU)
ABS module
Front wheel speed sensors
Front wheel speed sensors rings
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206-09-1 206-09-1 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
The ABS module is self-monitoring. When the
Anti-Lock Control
ignition switch is turned to the run position, the
Special Tool(s)
ABS module does a preliminary electrical check
and, at approximately 12 km/h (8 mph), the pump
Vehicle Communication Module
motor is turned on for approximately one
(VCM) and Integrated
Diagnostic System (IDS) half-second. Any malfunction of the ABS causes
software with appropriate
the ABS to shut OFF and the yellow ABS warning
hardware, or equivalent scan
indicator to illuminate, however normal power
tool
assisted braking remains.
The traction control system controls wheelspin by
73III Digital Multi-meter modulating engine torque and by applying and
105-R0057 or equivalent
releasing the appropriate rear brake to restore
traction when driving on slippery or loose surfaces.
The traction control system can be disabled by
pressing the traction control switch and is indicated
by an indicator lamp in the traction control switch.
The traction control will reset and return to normal
Flex Probe Kit
traction assist when the ignition switch is cycled or
418-F090 (105-R025B) or
when the traction control switch is pressed and
equivalent
released a second time.
Inspection and Verification
1. Verify the customer concern.
2. Verify the stoplamps operate correctly by
Principles of Operation
applying and releasing the brake pedal with the
ignition switch in the OFF position. If the
The anti-lock brake system (ABS) module receives
stoplamps do not operate correctly, refer to
wheel speed readings from each wheel speed sensor
Section 417-01. If the stoplamps operate
and processes this information to determine if an
correctly, proceed to the next step.
ABS event is necessary. The wheel speed sensor
electrically senses each tooth of the wheel speed
3. Visually inspect for obvious signs of
sensor indicators as it passes through the wheel
mechanical or electrical damage:
speed sensors magnetic field.
Visual Inspection Chart
The ABS module continuously monitors and
Mechanical Electrical compares the rotational speed of each wheel and,
when it detects an impending wheel lock, modulates
Brake fluid level Bussed electrical center
hydraulic brake pressure to the appropriate brake Tire inflation (BEC) fuse(s):
Wheel and tire sizes 8 (40A)
caliper. This is accomplished by the ABS module
Steering components 65 (30A)
triggering the hydraulic control unit (HCU) to open
and suspension Smart junction box
and close the appropriate solenoid valves. Once the
components (SJB) fuse 18 (10A)
affected wheel returns to normal speed, the ABS
Base brake system Circuitry
module returns the solenoid valves to their normal
Wheel speed sensor ring Brake fluid level switch
HCU Stoplamp switch position and normal (base) braking resumes.
Wheel speed sensor
Anti-lock brake system
(ABS) module
Traction control switch
4. If an obvious cause for an observed or reported
concern is found, correct the cause (if possible)
before proceeding to the next step.
Copyright 2006, Ford Motor Company
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206-09-2 206-09-2 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
5. NOTE: Make sure to use the latest scan tool refer to Section 418-00 to diagnose no
software release. response from the powertrain control module
(PCM).
If the cause is not visually evident, connect the
scan tool to the data link connector (DLC). 8. Carry out the network test.
6. NOTE: The vehicle communication module If the scan tool responds with no
(VCM) LED prove out confirms power and communication for one or more modules,
ground from the DLC are provided to the refer to Section 418-00.
VCM.
If the network test passes, retrieve and
If the scan tool does not communicate with the record continuous memory diagnostic
VCM: trouble codes (DTCs).
check the VCM connection to the vehicle. 9. Clear the continuous DTCs and carry out the
self-test diagnostics for the anti-lock brake
check the scan tool connection to the VCM.
system (ABS) module.
refer to Section 418-00, No Power To The
10. If the DTCs retrieved are related to the concern,
Scan Tool, to diagnose no communication
go to the Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)
with the scan tool.
Module Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart.
7. If the scan tool does not communicate with the
For all other DTCs, refer to Section 419-10.
vehicle:
11. If no DTCs related to the concern are retrieved,
verify the ignition key is in the ON position.
GO to Symptom Chart.
verify the scan tool operation with a known
good vehicle.
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart
DTC Description Source Action
B1317 Battery Voltage High ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test A.
B1318 Battery Voltage Low ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test A.
NOTE: If other DTCs are present, repair B1342 ECU is Faulted ABS Module
them before installing a new module.
CLEAR the DTCs. RETRIEVE the
DTCs. If DTC B1342 is retrieved again,
INSTALL a new ABS module. REFER
to Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)
Module in this section. REPEAT the
self-test.
C1093 Traction Control Disable Switch Circuit Instrument GO to Pinpoint Test H.
Failure Cluster
C1095 ABS Hydraulic Pump Motor Circuit ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Failure
C1096 ABS Hydraulic Pump Motor Circuit ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test B.
Open
C1115 ABS Power Relay Output Short Circuit ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
to Battery DTC C1115 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1145 Wheel Speed Sensor RF Input Circuit ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test C.
Failure
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206-09-3 206-09-3 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart (Continued)
DTC Description Source Action
C1155 Wheel Speed Sensor LF Input Circuit ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test C.
Failure
C1165 Wheel Speed Sensor RR Input Circuit ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test C.
Failure
C1175 Wheel Speed Sensor LR Input Circuit ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test C.
Failure
C1185 ABS Power Relay Output Circuit Failure ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. If DTC C1185 is
retrieved again, INSTALL a new ABS
module. REFER to Anti-Lock Brake
System (ABS) Module in this section.
CARRY OUT the self-test with the brake
pedal not applied.
C1194 ABS Outlet Valve Coil LF Circuit ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Failure DTC C1194 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1198 ABS Inlet Valve Coil LF Circuit Failure ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
DTC C1198 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. INSTALL a new
ABS module. REFER to Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) Module in this
section. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
C1210 ABS Outlet Valve Coil RF Circuit ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Failure DTC C1210 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. INSTALL a new
ABS module. REFER to Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) Module in this
section. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
C1214 ABS Inlet Valve Coil RF Circuit Failure ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
DTC C1214 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. INSTALL a new
ABS module. REFER to Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) Module in this
section. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
C1222 Wheel Speed Mismatch ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test D.
C1233 Wheel Speed LF Input Signal Missing ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test D.
C1234 Wheel Speed RF Input Signal Missing ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test D.
C1235 Wheel Speed RR Input Signal Missing ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test D.
C1236 Wheel Speed LR Input Signal Missing ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test D.
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206-09-4 206-09-4 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart (Continued)
DTC Description Source Action
C1242 ABS Outlet Valve Coil LR Circuit ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Failure DTC C1242 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. INSTALL a new
ABS module. REFER to Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) Module in this
section. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
C1246 ABS Outlet Valve Coil RR Circuit ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Failure DTC C1246 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. INSTALL a new
ABS module. REFER to Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) Module in this
section. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
C1250 ABS Inlet Valve Coil LR Circuit Failure ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
DTC C1250 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. INSTALL a new
ABS module. REFER to Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) Module in this
section. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
C1254 ABS Inlet Valve Coil RR Circuit Failure ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
DTC C1254 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. INSTALL a new
ABS module. REFER to Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) Module in this
section. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
C1329 ABS Valve Outlet Coil Over RF ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1329 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1330 ABS Valve Outlet Coil Over LR ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1330 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1331 ABS Valve Outlet Coil Over RR ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1331 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
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206-09-5 206-09-5 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart (Continued)
DTC Description Source Action
C1332 ABS Valve Outlet Coil Over LF ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1332 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1333 ABS Valve Inlet Coil Over RF ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1333 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1334 ABS Valve Inlet Coil Over LR ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1334 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1335 ABS Valve Inlet Coil Over RR ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1335 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1336 ABS Valve Inlet Coil Over LF ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1336 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1404 Traction Control Valve Rear Circuit ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Failure DTC C1404 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1446 Brake Switch Circuit Failure ABS Module GO to Pinpoint Test F.
C1527 ABS TC Valve Inlet Coil Over ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1527 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
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206-09-6 206-09-6 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) Chart (Continued)
DTC Description Source Action
C1531 ABS TC Valve Outlet Coil Over ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
Temperature DTC C1531 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
C1730 Reference Voltage Out of Range (+5 V) ABS Module If any other DTC(s) are present,
DIAGNOSE those DTC(s) first. CLEAR
all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If the
DTC is still present, INSTALL a new
ABS module. REFER to Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) Module in this
section. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
C1958 ABS TC Valve Outlet Coil Failure ABS Module CLEAR all DTCs. DRIVE the vehicle. If
DTC C1958 is retrieved again, INSTALL
a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
in this section. CARRY OUT the
self-test with the brake pedal not
applied.
U0073 CAN Bus Off Transmit Error ABS Module REFER to Section 418-00.
U1900 CAN Communication Bus Fault ABS Module REFER to Section 418-00.
Receive Error
U2011 Module Transmitted Invalid Data ABS Module VERIFY powertrain control module
(PCM) configuration. If PCM is not
correctly configured, CONFIGURE the
PCM. If the PCM is correctly configured,
REFER to Section 418-00.
Symptom Chart
Symptom Chart
Condition Possible Sources Action
No communication with the Circuitry Refer to Section 418-00 to
anti-lock brake system (ABS) ABS module diagnose the no
module communications problem.
No communication with the Circuitry Refer to Section 418-00 to
instrument cluster Instrument cluster diagnose the no
communication problem.
The red brake warning Circuitry Refer to Section 413-01 to
indicator does not self-check Instrument cluster continue diagnosis of the red
brake warning indicator.
The red brake warning Base brake system Refer to Section 413-01 to
indicator stays on when the Circuitry continue diagnosis of the red
ignition is in RUN Low brake fluid warning brake warning indicator.
switch
Parking brake switch
Anti-lock brake system (ABS)
module
Instrument cluster
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206-09-7 206-09-7 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Symptom Chart (Continued)
Condition Possible Sources Action
The yellow anti-lock brake Circuitry Refer to Section 413-01 to
system (ABS) warning Instrument cluster continue diagnosis of the
indicator does not self-check yellow brake warning
indicator.
Spongy/soft/low brake pedal Air in brake hydraulic system GO to Pinpoint Test F.
with no warning indicator Base brake system
Hydraulic control unit (HCU)
Poor vehicle tracking during Tire pressure Refer to Section 206-00 to
anti-lock function Air in the brake system continue diagnosis of the
Base brake system brake system.
Hydraulic control unit (HCU) GO to Pinpoint Test G.
The traction control is Circuitry Install a new ABS module.
inoperative Traction control switch Refer to Anti-Lock Brake
Anti-lock brake system (ABS) System (ABS) Module in this
module section.
The traction control system Circuitry GO to Pinpoint Test H.
cannot be disabled Traction control switch
Instrument cluster
Anti-lock brake system (ABS)
module
The traction control switch Circuitry GO to Pinpoint Test I.
indicator is never/always on Traction control switch
Anti-lock brake system (ABS)
module
Instrument cluster
Possible Causes Pinpoint Tests
Fuse(s)
Pinpoint Test A: DTCs B1317 and B1318
Battery Voltage High/Low Circuit open
Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 42, Vehicle Charging system
Dynamic Systems for schematic and connector
Anti-lock brake system (ABS) module
information.
Normal Operation
The vehicle electrical system voltage supplied is
within the range of 10-16 volts. Above or below
that voltage range, the DTC B1317 (Battery Voltage
High) or the DTC B1318 (Battery Voltage Low)
will be set.
Fused ignition voltage is supplied to the anti-lock
brake system (ABS) module from smart junction
box (SJB) fuse 18 (10A) along circuit 1844
(LG/RD), bussed electrical center (BEC) fuse 65
(30A) along circuit 601 (LB/BK) and BEC fuse 8
(40A) along circuit 534 (YE/LG). Ground is
provided along circuit 1205 (BK). There are 2
ground circuits, both share the same circuit number
and wire color.
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206-09-8 206-09-8 Vehicle Dynamic Systems
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: DTCs B1317 AND B1318 BATTERY VOLTAGE HIGH/LOW
CAUTION: Use the Flex Probe Kit for all test connections to prevent damage to the
wiring terminals. Do not use standard multi-meter probes.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A1 CHECK THE BATTERY VOLTAGE
Measure the battery voltage between the positive and negative
Yes
battery terminals with:
GO to A2.
the key ON and the engine OFF (KOEO).
the engine running. No
Is the battery voltage between 10 and 13 volts with KOEO, REFER to Section 414-00 to continue
and between 13 and 17 volts with the engine running? diagnosis of the charging system.
A2 CHECK VOLTAGE TO THE ABS MODULE
Key in OFF position.
Disconnect: ABS Module C135.
Key in ON position.
Measure the voltage between ground and:
ABS module C135-2, circuit 601 (LB/PK), harness side.
ABS module C135-32, circuit 1844 (LG/RD), harness side.
Yes
GO to A3.
No
VERIFY SJB fuse 18 (10A) is OK. If OK,
REPAIR circuit 1844 (LG/RD).
VERIFY BEC fuse 65 (30A) is OK. If OK,
REPAIR circuit 601 (LB/PK).
CLEAR the DTCs. CARRY OUT the
Are the voltages greater than 10 volts? self-test with the brake pedal not applied.
A3 CHECK THE ABS MODULE GROUND
Key in OFF position.
Measure the resistance between ground and:
ABS module C135-45, circuit 1205 (BK), harness side.
ABS module C135-16, circuit 1205 (BK), harness side.
Yes
GO to A4.
No
REPAIR the affected circuit(s). REPEAT
Are the resistances less than 5 ohms? the self-test.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST A: DTCs B1317 AND B1318 BATTERY VOLTAGE HIGH/LOW (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
A4 CHECK FOR CORRECT ABS MODULE OPERATION
Disconnect: ABS Module C135. Yes
Check for: INSTALL a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module in
corrosion.
this section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT
spread terminals.
the self-test.
pushed-out pins.
Connect the ABS module connector and make sure it seats No
correctly. The system is operating correctly at this
Operate the system and verify the concern is still present. time. The concern may have been caused
Is the concern still present? by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
the DTCs. CARRY OUT the self-test with
the brake pedal not applied.
Pinpoint Test B: DTCs C1095 and C1096
Fused battery voltage is supplied from the bussed
ABS Hydraulic Pump Motor Circuit
electrical center (BEC) fuse 8 (40A) along circuit
Failure/Open
534 (YE/LG). Ground is provided along circuit
1205 (BK).
Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 42, Vehicle
Dynamic Systems for schematic and connector
Possible Causes
information.
Fuse
Normal Operation
Circuit open
Anti-lock brake system (ABS) diagnostic trouble
Hydraulic pump motor
code (DTC) C1095 sets only when the motor is
initially commanded on for 100 ms (+/-6 ms) and
Anti-lock brake system (ABS) module
the ABS hydraulic pump motor is then commanded
off and the voltage back is read after 6 ms. If the
voltage indicates the motor is spinning at less than
500 rpm, there may be a locked motor. If this
condition is detected 4 times, then a locked motor
DTC C1095 is set. The pump motor is checked for
an open circuit 2 seconds after the most recent
successful pump motor off command. If the pump
motor feedback remains greater than 0.75 volt for
more than 50 ms (+/-6 ms) after these conditions
have been met, then DTC C1096 is set.
PINPOINT TEST B: DTCs C1095 AND C1096 ABS HYDRAULIC PUMP MOTOR CIRCUIT
FAILURE/OPEN
CAUTION: Use the Flex Probe Kit for all test connections to prevent damage to the
wiring terminals. Do not use standard multi-meter probes.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B1 CHECK THE ABS PUMP MOTOR
Key in ON position. Yes
Is the ABS pump motor running all the time? INSTALL a new ABS module and
hydraulic control unit (HCU). REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module
and Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU) in this
section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the
ABS self-test.
No
GO to B2.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: DTCs C1095 AND C1096 ABS HYDRAULIC PUMP MOTOR CIRCUIT
FAILURE/OPEN (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B2 CHECK THE PUMP MOTOR OPERATION
Trigger the ABS module pump motor ON active command. Yes
Does the ABS pump motor run for approximately 2 CLEAR the DTCs. CHECK the yellow ABS
seconds? warning indicator while driving the vehicle
(brakes must not be applied) above 32
km/h (20 mph). If the yellow ABS warning
indicator illuminates, RETRIEVE the
DTCs. If DTC C1096 is retrieved, GO to
B5.
If DTC C1095 is retrieved, INSTALL a new
HCU. REFER to Hydraulic Control Unit
(HCU) in this section. CLEAR the DTCs.
REPEAT the self-test.
No
TRIGGER the ABS module pump motor
OFF active command. GO to B3.
B3 CHECK CIRCUIT 534 (YE/LG) FOR AN OPEN
Disconnect: ABS Module C135.
Measure the voltage between ABS module C135-31, circuit 534
(YE/LG), harness side and ground.
Yes
GO to B4.
No
VERIFY BEC fuse 8 (40A) is OK. If OK,
REPAIR circuit 534 (YE/LG). CLEAR the
Is the voltage greater than 10 volts? DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
B4 CHECK CIRCUIT 1205 (BK) FOR AN OPEN
Key in OFF position.
Measure the resistance between ground and:
ABS module C135-45, circuit 1205 (BK), harness side.
ABS module C135-16, circuit 1205 (BK), harness side.
Yes
REPAIR the affected circuit(s). CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
No
INSTALL a new HCU. REFER to Hydraulic
Control Unit (HCU) in this section. CLEAR
Are the resistances greater than 10,000 ohms? the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: DTCs C1095 AND C1096 ABS HYDRAULIC PUMP MOTOR CIRCUIT
FAILURE/OPEN (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
B5 CHECK FOR CORRECT ABS MODULE OPERATION
Disconnect: ABS Module C135. Yes
Check for: INSTALL a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module in
corrosion.
this section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT
spread terminals.
the self-test.
pushed-out pins.
Connect the ABS module connector and make sure it seats No
correctly. The system is operating correctly at this
Operate the system and verify the concern is still present. time. The concern may have been caused
Is the concern still present? by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
Pinpoint Test C: DTCs C1145, C1155, C1165
Voltage and ground signals are supplied to the
and C1175 Wheel Speed Sensor Input
wheel speed sensors from the ABS module.
Circuit Failure
Possible Causes
Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 42, Vehicle
Circuit open
Dynamic Systems for schematic and connector
information. Circuit shorted
Wheel speed sensor
Normal Operation
The active wheel speed sensors generate a square
Anti-lock brake system (ABS) module
wave signal that is sent to the anti-lock brake
system (ABS) module. The wheel speed sensor
circuitry connects to the ABS module through 2
wires and a connector at each wheel speed sensor.
When the ignition is turned to the run position, the
ABS module carries out a self-test by sending a
reference voltage to all of the wheel speed sensors
and their circuitry to determine if they are
functional.
PINPOINT TEST C: DTCs C1145, C1155, C1165 AND C1175 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR INPUT CIRCUIT
FAILURE
CAUTION: Use the Flex Probe Kit for all test connections to prevent damage to the
wiring terminals. Do not use standard multi-meter probes.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
C1 CHECK THE WHEEL SPEED SENSOR CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT
TO VOLTAGE
NOTE: Both circuits must be checked for each DTC.
Key in OFF position.
Disconnect: ABS Module C135.
Disconnect: Suspect Wheel Speed Sensor.
Key in ON position.
For DTC C1145, measure the voltage between:
ABS module C135-26, circuit 514 (YE/RD), harness side
and ground.
ABS module C135-27, circuit 516 (YE/BK), harness side
and ground.
For DTC C1155, measure the voltage between:
ABS module C135-13, circuit 522 (TN/BK), harness side
and ground.
ABS module C135-12, circuit 521 (TN/OG), harness side
and ground.
For DTC C1165, measure the voltage between:
ABS module C135-44, circuit 524 (PK/BK), harness side
and ground.
ABS module C135-43, circuit 523 (RD/PK), harness side
and ground.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST C: DTCs C1145, C1155, C1165 AND C1175 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR INPUT CIRCUIT
FAILURE (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
C1 CHECK THE WHEEL SPEED SENSOR CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT
TO VOLTAGE (Continued)
For DTC C1175, measure the voltage between:
Yes
ABS module C135-42, circuit 518 (LG/RD), harness side
REPAIR the affected circuit(s). CLEAR the
and ground.
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
ABS module C135-41, circuit 519 (LG/BK), harness side
and ground. No
Is voltage present? GO to C2.
C2 CHECK THE WHEEL SPEED SENSOR CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT
TO GROUND
NOTE: Both circuits must be checked for each DTC.
Key in OFF position.
For DTC C1145, measure the resistance between:
ABS module C135-26, circuit 514 (YE/RD), harness side
and ground.
ABS module C135-27, circuit 516 (YE/BK), harness side
and ground.
For DTC C1155, measure the resistance between:
ABS module C135-13, circuit 522 (TN/BK), harness side
and ground.
ABS module C135-12, circuit 521 (TN/OG), harness side
and ground.
For DTC C1165, measure the resistance between:
ABS module C135-44, circuit 524 (PK/BK), harness side
and ground.
ABS module C135-43, circuit 523 (RD/PK), harness side
and ground.
For DTC C1175, measure the resistance between:
Yes
ABS module C135-42, circuit 518 (LG/RD), harness side
GO to C3.
and ground.
ABS module C135-41, circuit 519 (LG/BK), harness side No
and ground. REPAIR the affected circuit(s). CLEAR the
Are the resistances greater than 10,000 ohms? DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
C3 CHECK THE WHEEL SPEED SENSOR CIRCUITS FOR AN OPEN
NOTE: Both circuits must be checked for each DTC.
For DTC C1145, measure the resistance between:
ABS module C135-26, circuit 514 (YE/RD), harness side
and RH front wheel speed sensor C160-1, circuit 514
(YE/RD), harness side.
ABS module C135-27, circuit 516 (YE/BK), harness side
and RH front wheel speed sensor C160-2, circuit 516
(YE/BK), harness side.
For DTC C1155, measure the resistance between:
ABS module C135-13, circuit 522 (TN/BK), harness side
and LH front wheel speed sensor C150-2, circuit 522
(TN/BK), harness side.
ABS module C135-12, circuit 521 (TN/OG), harness side
and LH front wheel speed sensor C150-1, circuit 521
(TN/OG), harness side.
For DTC C1165, measure the resistance between:
ABS module C135-44, circuit 524 (PK/BK), harness side
and RH rear wheel speed sensor C3117-2, circuit 524
(PK/BK), harness side.
ABS module C135-43, circuit 523 (RD/PK), harness side
and RH rear wheel speed sensor C3117-1, circuit 523
(RD/PK), harness side.
For DTC C1175, measure the resistance between:
ABS module C135-42, circuit 518 (LG/RD), harness side
and LH rear wheel speed sensor C3116-1, circuit 518
Yes
(LG/RD), harness side.
GO to C4.
ABS module C135-41, circuit 519 (LG/BK), harness side
and LH rear wheel speed sensor C3116-2, circuit 519 No
(LG/BK), harness side. REPAIR the affected circuit(s). CLEAR the
Are the resistances less than 5 ohms? DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST C: DTCs C1145, C1155, C1165 AND C1175 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR INPUT CIRCUIT
FAILURE (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
C4 CHECK FOR SHORTED WHEEL SPEED SENSOR CIRCUITS
Measure the resistance between the suspect wheel speed
sensor pins, harness side with the meter in the 10 mega ohm
range.
Yes
REPAIR the affected circuit(s). CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
No
Is there any continuity? GO to C5.
C5 CHECK THE ABS MODULE OUTPUT
Connect: ABS Module C135.
Key in ON position.
Measure the voltage between the suspect wheel speed sensor
pins, harness side.
Yes
INSTALL a new wheel speed sensor.
REFER to Wheel Speed Sensor Front
or Wheel Speed Sensor Rear in this
section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the
self-test.
No
Is the voltage greater than 10 volts? GO to C6.
C6 CHECK FOR CORRECT ABS MODULE OPERATION
Disconnect: ABS Module C135. Yes
Check for: INSTALL a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module in
corrosion.
this section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT
spread terminals.
the self-test.
pushed-out pins.
Connect the ABS module connector and make sure it seats No
correctly. The system is operating correctly at this
Operate the system and verify the concern is still present. time. The concern may have been caused
Is the concern still present? by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
Pinpoint Test D: DTCs C1222, C1233, C1234, Normal Operation
C1235 and C1236 Wheel Speed Sensor
The wheel speed sensor and sensor ring generate a
Input Signal Missing/Mismatch
square wave signal to the anti-lock brake system
(ABS) module that is proportional to wheel speed.
Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 42, Vehicle
The ABS module compares wheel speed inputs
Dynamic Systems for schematic and connector
from all wheel speed sensors to determine an
information.
impending wheel lockup. Incorrect tire size can set
these DTCs as well.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Possible Causes
Wheel speed sensor
ABS module
PINPOINT TEST D: DTCs C1222, C1233, C1234, C1235 AND C1236 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR INPUT
SIGNAL MISSING/MISMATCH
CAUTION: Use the Flex Probe Kit for all test connections to prevent damage to the
wiring terminals. Do not use standard multi-meter probes.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
D1 CHECK THE DTCs FROM THE SELF-TEST
Retrieve the recorded results from the anti-lock brake system Yes
(ABS) module continuous and on-demand self tests. GO to Pinpoint Test C.
Are DTCs C1145, C1155, C1165 or C1175 present?
No
If DTC C1222 is present, GO to D3. All
others, GO to D2.
D2 CHECK THE WHEEL SPEED SENSOR OUTPUT
NOTE: The ignition switch must be in the OFF position until the
connections are made or a DTC will set and the ABS warning
indicator will illuminate, cutting voltage to the wheel speed sensors.
If this happens, turn the ignition switch to the OFF position and
make sure that no jumper connections are shorted to ground or
shorted together. Turn the ignition switch to the ON position and
wait for the ABS warning indicator to prove out.
Disconnect: Suspect Wheel Speed Sensor.
Connect a fused (5A) jumper wire between the suspect wheel
speed sensor, component side, and the wheel speed sensor,
harness side, as follows:
For DTC C1233: LH front wheel speed sensor C150-1,
circuit 521 (TN/OG), harness side and LH front wheel speed
sensor C150 pin 1, circuit 521 (TN/OG), component side.
For DTC C1234: RH front wheel speed sensor C160-1,
circuit 514 (YE/RD), harness side and RH front wheel speed
sensor C160 pin 1, circuit 514 (YE/RD), component side.
For DTC C1235: RH rear wheel speed sensor C3117-1,
circuit 523 (RD/PK), harness side and RH rear wheel speed
sensor C3117 pin 1, circuit 523 (RD/PK), component side.
For DTC C1236: LH rear wheel speed sensor C3116-1,
circuit 518 (LG/RD), harness side and LH rear wheel speed
sensor C3116 pin 1, circuit 518 (LG/RD), component side.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST D: DTCs C1222, C1233, C1234, C1235 AND C1236 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR INPUT
SIGNAL MISSING/MISMATCH (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
D2 CHECK THE WHEEL SPEED SENSOR OUTPUT (Continued)
Connect a digital multi-meter between the suspect wheel speed
sensor, component side, and the wheel speed sensor, harness
side, as follows:
For DTC C1233: LH front wheel speed sensor C150-2,
circuit 522 (TN/BK), harness side and LH front wheel speed
sensor C150 pin 2, circuit 522 (TN/BK), component side.
For DTC C1234: RH front wheel speed sensor C160-2,
circuit 516 (YE/BK), harness side and RH front wheel speed
sensor C160 pin 2, circuit 516 (YE/BK), component side.
For DTC C1235: RH rear wheel speed sensor C3117-2,
circuit 524 (PK/BK), harness side and RH rear wheel speed
sensor C3117 pin 2, circuit 524 (PK/BK), component side.
For DTC C1236: LH rear wheel speed sensor C3116-2,
circuit 519 (LG/BK), harness side and LH rear wheel speed
Yes
sensor C3116 pin 2, circuit 519 (LG/BK), component side.
GO to D4.
Key in ACCESSORY position.
NOTE: The wheel must be moved very slowly to allow the meter
No
to read the high and low current as the sensor tone ring
INSTALL a new wheel speed sensor.
openings pass the sensor.
REFER to Wheel Speed Sensor Front
Measure the current while rotating the wheel slightly. or Wheel Speed Sensor Rear in this
Does the digital multi-meter switch between the low state section. CLEAR the DTC(s). REPEAT the
(5-8 mA) and the high state (11-18 mA)? self-test.
D3 CHECK FOR CORRECT ABS MODULE CONFIGURATION
OPERATION
NOTE: DTC C1222 indicates there is a problem with the Yes
configuration in the ABS module. GO to D4.
Carry out the ABS module configuration. Verify the vehicle data
No
matches the vehicle options. Refer to Section 418-01.
The system is operating correctly at this
Clear the DTCs and carry out the self-test.
time. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the
Is DTC C1222 still present?
self-test.
D4 CHECK FOR CORRECT ABS MODULE OPERATION
Disconnect: ABS Module C135. Yes
Check for: INSTALL a new ABS module. REFER to
Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module in
corrosion.
this section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT
spread terminals.
the self-test.
pushed-out pins.
Connect the ABS module connector and make sure it seats No
correctly. The system is operating correctly at this
Operate the system and verify the concern is still present. time. The concern may have been caused
Is the concern still present? by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
Possible Causes
Pinpoint Test E: DTC C1446 Brake Switch
Circuit Failure
Circuit shorted
Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 42, Vehicle
Brake pedal switch
Dynamic Systems for schematic and connector
Brake fluid level sensor (master cylinder)
information.
Anti-lock brake system (ABS) module
Normal Operation
The anti-lock brake system (ABS) module receives
a voltage signal from the smart junction box (SJB)
along circuit 535 (LB/RD) through the brake pedal
switch. When the brake pedal is applied the voltage
signal is no longer referenced by the ABS module.
The SJB provides 5 volts to the brake fluid level
switch along circuit 547 (LG/YE). When the brake
fluid reaches a certain level, the switch closes and
the 5 volts are sent back to the SJB along circuit
512 (TN/LG).
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST E: DTC C1446 BRAKE SWITCH CIRCUIT FAILURE
CAUTION: Use the Flex Probe Kit for all test connections to prevent damage to the
wiring terminals. Do not use standard multi-meter probes.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
E1 MONITOR THE SMART JUNCTION BOX (SJB) STOPLAMP
SWITCH PID
Connect the scan tool. Yes
Key in ON position. GO to E2.
Press and release the brake pedal while monitoring the SJB
No
stoplamp switch PID.
For further diagnosis of the stoplamps,
Do the stoplamps illuminate and does the PID agree?
REFER to Section 417-01.
E2 MONITOR THE ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS) MODULE
STOPLAMP SWITCH PID
Press and release the brake pedal while monitoring the ABS Yes
module stoplamp switch PID and observing the stoplamps. GO to E3.
Does the PID agree with the brake pedal position?
No
REPAIR circuit 535 (LB/RD). CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
E3 CHECK THE BRAKE FLUID LEVEL SWITCH FOR A SHORT
Key in OFF position.
Yes
Disconnect: Brake Fluid Level Switch C124.
GO to E4.
Key in ON position.
No
Clear the DTCs.
INSTALL a new brake fluid reservoir.
Perform the smart junction box (SJB) self test. Retrieve and
REFER to section Section 206-06.
record any DTCs.
Did DTC C1446 return? CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
E4 CHECK CIRCUIT 512 (TN/LG) FOR A SHORT TO VOLTAGE
Key in OFF position.
Yes
Disconnect: Smart Junction Box (SJB) C2280c.
REPAIR circuit 512 (TN/LG). CLEAR the
Key in ON position.
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
Measure the voltage between brake fluid level switch C124-2,
circuit 512 (TN/LG), harness side and ground. No
Is any voltage present? GO to E5.
E5 CHECK THE ABS MODULE CONNECTOR
Key in OFF position. Yes
Disconnect: ABS Module C135. INSTALL a new ABS module. REFER to
Check the ABS module connector for: Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Module in
corrosion. this section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT
pushed-out pins. the self-test.
spread terminals.
No
Connect: ABS Module C135.
The system is operating correctly at this
Make sure the ABS module connector seats correctly, then
time. The concern may have been caused
operate the system and verify if the concern is still present.
by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
Is the concern still present?
the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test with the
brake pedal not applied.
Possible Causes
Pinpoint Test F: Spongy/Soft/Low Brake
Pedal with No Warning Indicator
Base brake system
Normal Operation
Hydraulic control unit (HCU)
The brake pedal should be firm when applied.
PINPOINT TEST F: SPONGY/SOFT/LOW BRAKE PEDAL WITH NO WARNING INDICATOR
Test Step Result / Action to Take
F1 CHECK THE BASE BRAKE COMPONENTS
Visually inspect the brake hoses and tubes from the hydraulic Yes
control unit (HCU) to the brake calipers. REPAIR or INSTALL new components as
Visually inspect the calipers and brake components. necessary. TEST the system for normal
Are any of these components damaged? operation.
No
GO to F2.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST F: SPONGY/SOFT/LOW BRAKE PEDAL WITH NO WARNING INDICATOR (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
F2 CHECK FOR A LEAKING DUMP VALVE
Key in OFF position.
Remove the rubber boots from the 2 HCU low pressure
accumulators (LPA) and insert a clean steel implement (e.g.
paper clip or a small screwdriver) into each LPA.
Key in ON position.
Yes
NOTE: A leaking dump valve is similar to the master cylinder
INSTALL a new HCU. REFER to Hydraulic
bypass condition. It is important that the pedal be quickly and
Control Unit (HCU) in this section.
forcefully applied to rule out master cylinder bypass as a
condition.
No
Have an assistant press hard on the brake pedal while REMOVE the steel implements. INSTALL
observing the steel implements. the rubber boots on each LPA. REFER to
Do either of the implements move out 6.35 mm (0.25 in) or Section 206-00 to continue diagnosis of
more? the base brake system.
Pinpoint Test G: Poor Vehicle Tracking
Fused ignition voltage is supplied by the smart
During Anti-lock Function
junction box (SJB) through circuit 1844 (LG/RD)
and fused battery voltage is supplied by the bussed
Normal Operation
electrical center (BEC) through circuit 601 (LB/PK)
The operating voltage required to supply the
and circuit 534 (YE/LG). Ground is provided
anti-lock brake system (ABS) module, hydraulic
through circuit 1205 (BK).
pump and isolation valves is in a range between 10
and 16 volts. Possible Causes
Base brake system
Hydraulic control unit (HCU)
PINPOINT TEST G: POOR VEHICLE TRACKING DURING ANTI-LOCK FUNCTION
Test Step Result / Action to Take
G1 BLEED THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Bleed the brake system using the scan tool. Refer to Section Yes
206-00. The brake system is operating correctly.
Test drive the vehicle. The concern may have been caused by
Does the vehicle track correctly? air in the hydraulic system or a sticky
valve.
No
GO to G2.
G2 CHECK THE ABS INLET VALVE (CLOSED POSITION)
Key in ON position. Yes
Rotate all the wheels to make sure they rotate freely (the TRIGGER the LF INLET OFF active
transmission must be in NEUTRAL). command. GO to G3.
Trigger the ABS module LF INLET ON active command.
No
Apply moderate brake pedal effort.
INSTALL a new HCU. REFER to Hydraulic
Have an assistant attempt to rotate the LF wheel.
Control Unit (HCU) in this section. TEST
Does the LF wheel rotate?
the system for normal operation.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST G: POOR VEHICLE TRACKING DURING ANTI-LOCK FUNCTION (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
G3 CHECK THE ABS INLET VALVE (OPEN POSITION)
Apply moderate brake pedal effort. Yes
Have an assistant attempt to rotate the LF wheel. INSTALL a new HCU. REFER to Hydraulic
Does the LF wheel rotate? Control Unit (HCU) in this section. TEST
the system for normal operation.
No
GO to G4.
G4 CHECK THE ABS OUTPUT VALVE (OPEN POSITION)
Apply moderate brake pedal effort.
Trigger ABS module LF INLET ON active command.
Trigger ABS module ABS POWER ON active command (turns
Yes
on the pump motor) for 6 seconds. (The trigger must be pressed
TRIGGER all active commands OFF. GO
3 times. Each press runs the pump for 2 seconds.)
to G5.
Trigger the ABS module LF OUTLET ON active command, then
trigger the ABS module LF OUTLET OFF active command. No
Repeat 3 times. INSTALL a new HCU. REFER to Hydraulic
Have an assistant attempt to rotate the LF wheel. Control Unit (HCU) in this section. TEST
Does the LF wheel rotate? the system for normal operation.
G5 CHECK THE ABS INLET AND OUTLET VALVES (CLOSED
POSITION)
Apply moderate brake pedal effort. Yes
Have an assistant attempt to rotate the LF wheel. INSTALL a new HCU. REFER to Hydraulic
Does the LF wheel rotate? Control Unit (HCU) in this section. TEST
the system for normal operation.
No
REPEAT this procedure (beginning with
Step H2) for the RF, LR and RR wheels
using the appropriate active commands. If
no failure occurs, the system is operating
normally.
Possible Causes
Pinpoint Test H: DTC C1093 Traction
Control Disable Switch Circuit Failure and/or
Circuit open
the Traction Control System Cannot be
Circuit shorted
Disabled
Traction control switch
Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 60, Instrument
Cluster for schematic and connector information.
Anti-lock brake system (ABS) module
Instrument cluster Normal Operation
Engine torque modulation is achieved by regulating
fuel and spark to the cylinders. The traction control
system operates using the anti-lock brake system
(ABS) module to interact with the powertrain
control module (PCM) to reduce engine torque and
apply the brakes if the wheels lose traction and
begin to spin during acceleration.
The instrument cluster circuit 1412 (WH/PK)
monitors for a ground (change of state). When the
traction control switch is pressed, a momentary
ground occurs through circuit 1205 (BK). The
instrument cluster then sends a voltage to the
traction control switch through circuit 939 (VT)
illuminating the traction control switch and
disabling the system.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST H: DTC C1093 TRACTION CONTROL DISABLE SWITCH CIRCUIT FAILURE AND/OR
THE TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM CANNOT BE DISABLED
CAUTION: Use the Flex Probe Kit for all test connections to prevent damage to the
wiring terminals. Do not use standard multi-meter probes.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
H1 MONITOR THE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER PID
Key in ON position. Yes
Monitor the instrument cluster traction control switch status PID GO to H6.
while pressing the traction control disable switch repeatedly.
No
Does the PID agree with the switch position?
GO to H2.
H2 CHECK THE TRACTION CONTROL SWITCH INPUT
Key in OFF position.
Disconnect: Instrument Cluster C220.
Measure the resistance between instrument cluster C220-20,
circuit 1412 (WH/PK), harness side and ground while pressing
and releasing the traction control switch.
Yes
GO to H3.
No
INSTALL a new traction control switch.
REFER to Traction Control Switch in this
Is the resistance less than 5 ohms with the switch pressed section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the
and greater than 10,000 ohms with the switch released? self-test.
H3 CHECK CIRCUIT 1412 (WH/PK) FOR A SHORT TO GROUND
Key in OFF position.
Disconnect: Traction Control Switch C2039.
Measure the resistance between traction control switch C2039-7,
circuit 1412 (WH/PK), harness side and ground.
Yes
REPAIR circuit 1412 (WH/PK). CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
No
Is the resistance less than 5 ohms? GO to H4.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST H: DTC C1093 TRACTION CONTROL DISABLE SWITCH CIRCUIT FAILURE AND/OR
THE TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM CANNOT BE DISABLED (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
H4 CHECK CIRCUIT 1412 (WH/PK) FOR AN OPEN
Measure the resistance between instrument cluster C220-20,
circuit 1412 (WH/PK), harness side and traction control switch
C2039-7, circuit 1412 (WH/PK), harness side.
Yes
REPAIR circuit 1412 (WH/PK). CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
No
Is the resistance greater than 10,000 ohms? GO to H5.
H5 CHECK CIRCUIT 1205 (BK) FOR AN OPEN
Measure the resistance between traction control switch C2039-1,
circuit 1205 (BK), harness side and ground.
Yes
REPAIR circuit 1205 (BK). CLEAR the
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
No
INSTALL a new traction control switch.
REFER toTraction Control Switch in this
section. CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the
Is the resistance greater than 10,000 ohms? self-test.
H6 CHECK FOR CORRECT INSTRUMENT CLUSTER OPERATION
Disconnect: Instrument Cluster C220. Yes
Check for: INSTALL a new instrument cluster.
REFER to Section 413-01. CLEAR the
corrosion.
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
spread terminals.
pushed-out pins. No
Connect the instrument cluster connector and make sure it seats The system is operating correctly at this
correctly. time. The concern may have been caused
Operate the system and verify the concern is still present. by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
Is the concern still present? the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
Pinpoint Test I: The Traction Control Switch Normal Operation
Indicator is Never/Always On
The instrument cluster circuit 1412 (WH/PK)
monitors for a ground (change of state). When the
Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 42, Vehicle
traction control switch is pressed momentary ground
Dynamic Systems for schematic and connector
occurs through circuit 1205 (BK). The instrument
information.
cluster then sends a voltage to the traction control
switch through circuit 939 (VT) illuminating the
traction control switch and disabling the system.
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Possible Causes
Circuit open
Circuit shorted
Traction control switch
Instrument cluster
PINPOINT TEST I: THE TRACTION CONTROL SWITCH INDICATOR IS NEVER/ALWAYS ON
CAUTION: Use the Flex Probe Kit for all test connections to prevent damage to the
wiring terminals. Do not use standard multi-meter probes.
Test Step Result / Action to Take
I1 VERIFY THE TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATION
Operate the system and verify the traction control system can be Yes
enabled and disabled. GO to I2.
Does the traction control system operate correctly?
No
REFER to symptom chart to continue
diagnosis.
I2 CHECK CIRCUIT 939 (VT) FOR VOLTAGE
Key in OFF position.
Disconnect: Traction Control Switch C2039.
Key in ON position.
Measure the voltage between traction control switch C2039-4,
circuit 939 (VT), harness side and ground.
Yes
GO to I3.
No
Is voltage present? GO to I4.
I3 CHECK CIRCUIT 939 (VT) FOR A SHORT TO VOLTAGE
Key in OFF position.
Disconnect: Instrument Cluster C220.
Key in ON position.
Measure the voltage between traction control switch C2039-4,
circuit 939 (VT), harness side and ground.
Yes
REPAIR circuit 939 (VT). TEST the
system for normal operation.
No
Is voltage present? GO to I6.
(Continued)
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DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST I: THE TRACTION CONTROL SWITCH INDICATOR IS NEVER/ALWAYS ON (Continued)
Test Step Result / Action to Take
I4 CHECK CIRCUIT 939 (VT) FOR AN OPEN OR SHORT TO
GROUND
Key in OFF position.
Disconnect: Instrument Cluster C220.
Measure the resistance between instrument cluster C220-21,
circuit 939 (VT), harness side and:
traction control switch C2039-4, circuit 939 (VT), harness
side.
ground.
Yes
REPAIR circuit 939 (VT). TEST the
system for normal operation.
Is the resistance greater than 10,000 ohms between the
instrument cluster and the traction control switch, and less No
than 5 ohms between the instrument cluster and ground? GO to I5.
I5 CHECK THE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER OPERATION
Connect: Traction Control Switch C2039.
Connect a fused (10A) jumper wire between instrument cluster
C220-21, circuit 939 (VT), harness side and instrument cluster
C220-3, circuit 1001 (WH/YE), harness side.
Yes
Remove the jumper wire. GO to I6.
No
Remove the jumper wire. INSTALL a new
traction control switch. REFER to Traction
Control Switch in this section. CLEAR the
Does the traction control switch indicator illuminate? DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
I6 CHECK FOR CORRECT INSTRUMENT CLUSTER OPERATION
Disconnect: Instrument Cluster C220. Yes
Check for: INSTALL a new instrument cluster.
REFER to Section 413-01. CLEAR the
corrosion.
DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
spread terminals.
pushed-out pins. No
Connect the instrument cluster connector and make sure it seats The system is operating correctly at this
correctly. time. The concern may have been caused
Operate the system and verify the concern is still present. by a loose or corroded connector. CLEAR
Is the concern still present? the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test.
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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU)
Material
Item Specification
High Performance DOT 3 ESA-M6C25-A or