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Maintaining a Balance

Most organisms are active in a limited temperature range


1. Identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical
composition and use a simple model to describe their specificity on substrates
Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions occurring in the body
There are two types of metabolic reactions; anabolic and catabolic:
Anabolic reactions: building up large molecules from small ones.
Catabolic reactions: breaking down molecules into smaller parts.
These reactions occur through the use of a:
Catalyst: Substances that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction but are not
used up in the process.
nzyme: A biological catalyst (a protein manufactured by cells, that speeds up
the rate of reactions in organisms but are not used up in the process).
ole of an !n"yme in #etabolism:
The role of an en"yme in a metabolism is to increase the rate of chemical
reactions by decreasing the acti$ation energy of a reaction. %f these reactions
were allowed to occur at their normal rate it would be too slow to keep an
organism ali$e.
!n"yme &hemical &omposition:
!n"ymes are proteins and are therefore made from amino acids. The amino
acids of a protein molecule form long chains that fold o$er to form a three
dimensional shape.
!$ery type of en"yme has a specific shape as it is made up of a specific pattern
of amino acids. 'ithin their structure, en"ymes ha$e acti$e sites that are usually
composed of three or four amino acids. The acti$e sites are the areas that
substrates will bind to and catalyse chemical reactions. 'hen an en"yme binds
to a substrate it makes a new molecule called the en"yme substrate comple(.
)ue to the specificity of their acti$e sites, each type of en"yme will only catalyse
one reaction type.
Specificity on Substrates:
!n"ymes act on substrates. %t was once belie$ed that only one specific en"yme
(or combination of en"ymes) can react with one specific substrate (or
combination of substrates).
This is demonstrated by the lock and key theory proposed by *erman scientist
!mil +ischer in ,-./.
%t e(plains en"yme action by likening the en"yme to a lock and substrates to a
key. 0nly a specific key is able to open its matching lock. 1ust as the key is
specific to the lock so is a substrate specific to an en"yme. An en"yme will not
work unless the substrate matches its acti$e site. 0nly then will the reaction be
catalysed.
2owe$er it was later disco$ered that the substrate enters in and binds to the
en"yme shaping the acti$e site and properly aligning the en"yme for the reaction
to take place. 0ther substrates may fit into the acti$e site, but unless they are
able to properly shape the en"yme, a reaction will not be catalysed.
%nduced fit theory by 3S scientist )aniel 4oshland, ,.5-
!. Identify the p" as a #ay of describing the acidity of a substance
p": A measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
p2 is a way of describing the acidity of a substance
$. %plain #hy the maintenance of a constant internal environment is important
for optimal metabolic efficiency
!n"ymes usually function at a specific temperature and p2 range. 'here the
en"yme functions in the body determines what its optimum temperature and p2
range will be.
%f an en"yme is sub6ect to e(treme p2 and temperatures changes outside its
normal ranges, it firstly slows the rate of the reaction they are catalysing and then
result in change shape and block the acti$e site of substrates.
This is called denaturing. )enaturing means that an en"yme is useless as the
substrate cannot bind with the acti$e site and will no longer be able to function
properly or catalyse reaction. 0nce an en"yme is denatured the change is
permanent, the en"yme cannot be reformed into its original shape.
&hanges in temperature and p2 can breaks bond in the protein molecule and
o$erall disrupt their three7dimensional shape 8 making them unspecific to the
substrate.
The maintenance of a constant internal en$ironment is important for optimal
metabolic efficiency as it maintains the optimum le$el that the en"ymes can react
at while maintaining their specificity.
&hy is it important to be specific'
The specificity shown by en"ymes confers upon li$ing systems enormous
potential for $ery precise control of chemical reactions. This precise control is a
basic feature of life.
(. )escribe homeostasis as the process by #hich organisms maintain a
relatively stable internal environment
"omeostasis: is the maintenance of a stable internal en$ironment
%t is a process by which organisms maintain a relati$ely stable en$ironment.
%n an organism en"ymes control all the metabolic processes. !n"ymes work
optimally in an en$ironment where their optimum conditions are met. %f the
en$ironment surrounding the organism does not remain relati$ely stable then the
rate of en"yme catalysed reaction decreases. This decreased rate could affect an
entire metabolic pathway that might produce an essential compound and could
result in fatality. Therefore maintaining the homeostasis is important9
%n multicellular organisms, cells need to maintain their internal balance regardless
of the e(ternal en$ironment. An e(ternal en$ironment may $ary greatly but the
internal en$ironment can be relati$ely unchanging and stable. This is because
when metabolic reactions occur in cells they cause changes in the intracellular
en$ironment but our bodies ha$e processes that :uickly act to counter any
changes and return to the stable state. This continual maintenance is called
homeostasis. !(ternal en$ironments ha$e abiotic and biotic factors that affect it
but an organism;s internal en$ironment is more $ariable as it is controlled by the
organism;s body processes.
*.B. : !n"ymes often ha$e the prefi( <ase=
Subtrates often ha$e the prefi( <ose=
e.g. The substrate, cellulose is broken down by the en"yme, cellulase.
+. %plain that homeostasis consists of t#o stages: detecting changes from the
stable state, counteracting changes from the stable state
*egative ,eedbac- .ystem: is where the response to the stimulus is to reduce
and counteract the change. %t causes the body to respond so that a re$ersal in
the direction of a change occurs.
/ositive ,eedbac- .ystem: is where the response to a stimulus is to amplify the
change instead of reducing it. This does not result in homeostasis.
The >egati$e +eedback System
2omeostasis works in two stages:
Stage ,: )etecting change from a stable state:
%n this stage a receptor detects a change in a specific $ariable from the desired
stable le$el of the $ariable.
Stage ?: Counteracting changes from the stable state:
An effector recei$es the message that an undesirable change must be counteracted
and the $ariable restored to its desired le$el.
This is how the negati$e feedback system occurs:
,. .timulus: All organisms recei$e information from the $arious parts of their bodies
and from their en$ironment in the form of stimuli. %t can be either e(ternal or
internal.
?. 0eceptor: A $ariation in either the internal or e(ternal en$ironment is detected by
a receptor. Sight, sound, touch, taste and smell are all receptors.
@. Control Centre 1Central *ervous .ystem 2 C*.3: 0nce a $ariation is detected,
a message is sent to the control centre. This then replies by sending a message
to the effector to counteract the $ariation.
/. ffector: The effector is normally either a muscle or gland that responds to the
message and counteracts the $ariation.
5. 0esponse: This is the action of counteracting the $ariation.
4. 5utline the role of the nervous system in detecting and responding to
environmental changes
The ner$ous system is made of the brain, the spinal cord and sensory and motor
neurons.
The ner$ous system enables the detection of e(ternal and internal en$ironmental
changes to the body and then coordinates the responses the body will make to
counteract these changes.
%t is made up of two interacting elements, the central ner$ous system and the
peripheral ner$ous system:
&entral >er$ous System:
&omposed of the brain and the spinal chord.
The spinal chord transmits messages from the receptor organs $ia the sensory
neurons to special regions of the brain.
'hen one of these regions recei$es stimuli from the sensory neurons it then
coordinates the correct response necessary to counteract the change by sending
out messages to the effector organs $ia the motor neurons.
Aeripheral >er$ous System (A>S):
&omposed of all neurons outside the &entral >er$ous System (&>S). These
include sensory and motor neurons.
Sensory neurons transmit messages from the receptor organs to the &>S (brain).
#otor >eurons transmit messages from the &>S (brain) to the effector organs to
acti$ate a response.
6. Identify the broad range of temperatures over #hich life is found compared
#ith the narro# limits for individual species
Bife is found o$er a broad range of temperatures on planet earth. 'here climatic
temperature can $ary from 7C5
o
& to abo$e 5D
o
&.
2owe$er, most indi$idual species ha$e narrow temperature limits and they
cannot e(ist in habitats that ha$e great $arying temperatures.
This is because they possess beha$ioural and physiological adaptations that
enable them to maintain their temperature within this narrow range.
7. Compare responses of named Australian ectothermic and endothermic
organisms to changes in the ambient temperature and e%plain ho# these
responses assist temperature regulation
ctotherms: are organisms whose body temperature is determined by their
surroundings. e.g. plants, in$ertebrates, amphibians, reptiles and fish
ndotherms: are mammals that ha$e physiological structures that enable them
to maintain their body temperature within a narrow range irrespecti$e of the
ambient temperature. e.g. birds and mammals
/hysiological Adaptations: referring to adaptations in relation to how the
organism functions
.tructural Adaptations: referring to adaptations in relation to the organism;s
shape and si"e
Behavioural Adaptations: referring to adaptations in relation to how the
organism acts.
0ed 8angaroo:
The red kangaroo is the largest marsupial in Australia. %t li$es in the grasslands of
dry arid central part of the country. %n this habitat, the red kangaroo e(periences
temperatures $arying from 5
o
& in the winter months to @-
o
& in the summer months.
+or this reason, it needs many adaptations to accommodate these dramatic changes
in temperature and retain its optimum temperature range is @C.5
o
&.
Climate Physiological Structural Behavioural
Cold
conditio
ns
(winter
months)
Increased
metabolic rate
to create more
heat within the
body
Layer of fur creates and layer of insulation
between the skin and the hair and allows
the kangaroo to stay warm
Basking in the sun
Warm
conditio
ns
(Summe
r
months)
Decrease in
metabolic rate
which reduces
the amount of
heat within the
body
7 Panting to release heat
7 Exposed areas of skin on the forelegs to
increase evaporative cooling of the blood
from this area
7 hunting blood from the tail to the
exposed areas of the skin on the forelegs
to increase heat loss!
7 "octurnal
7 Licking forelegs
to increase
evaporation from
the skin
7 itting in the
shade
)iamond /ython:
The diamond python li$es in a $ariety of habitats including rainforests, temperate
forest, grassland, ca$es and hollow trees. %t eats small mammals, bats, birds and
li"ards. %t;s optimum temperature range is around ?D
o
& howe$er this depends on the
ambient temperature the python;s surroundings.
Climate Physiological Structural Behavioural
Cold
conditions
(winter
months)
Lies on eggs
and shivers to
increase the
temperature of
incubation
Dark in colour to
absorb heat and can
therefore tolerate
colder temperatures
than most snakes
7 Basks in the sun to
raise body
temperature
7 #ibernation
7 $igration to warmer
areas
Warm
conditions
(summer
months)
7 Is nocturnal% so hunts
at night to escape
the heat during the
day
7 Burrowing during the
day
&ompare the responses of endotherms and ectotherms:
!ndotherms need to ha$e a high metabolism rate to maintain this optimum
temperature rate in cold conditions and as a result need to eat large amounts.
!ctotherms do not need to do this howe$er they ha$e greater restrictions placed on
their acti$ity as a result. %n hot conditions endotherms must ha$e specific adaptations
to these en$ironmental changes to regulate heat gain so not to raise their
temperature abo$e their optimum temperature le$el as this can cause se$ere
damage. This is the same for both endotherms and ectotherms in relation to cold
climates. !ctotherms are not found in e(tremely cold climates.
9. Identify some responses of plants to temperature change
Alants are ectothermic and so cannot maintain a constant temperature. Therefore
they ha$e a range of adaptations to help them sur$i$e in a $ariety of
temperatures.
0esponse to :emperature
Change
0eason
;eaf ,all #any plants in hot conditions reduce their surface area that is
e(posed to the sun by dropping their lea$es. This reduces the
amount of water lost in transpiration
0adiation Some plants reduce the amount of heat recei$ed by ha$ing shiny
lea$es that reflect solar radiation
"eat<shoc- /roteins Aroduced by plants when they are under stress from $ery high
temperatures. They are thought to stop the denaturing of the
en"ymes within the cell, so allow normal cell reactions to continue
:ranspiration The mo$ement of water through the plant helps to cool the plant
during hot conditions. This is also effecting when e$aporation of
water occurs from the stomates of the leaf
)ie bac- %n harsh conditions, shoots of a plant may die. 2owe$er the soil
and roots will begin to grow again when fa$ourable conditions
return
5rientation of leaves Some plants orientate their lea$es in such a way that it reduces
the amount of sun rays that make contact with the surface area of
the leaf. e.g. eucalyptus
Ice formation bet#een
cells
#ost plants are able to tolerate fairly low temperatures compared
to animals. This is due in part to their cell walls as when
temperatures drop bellowing free"ing, ice will form outside of the
plant cells. This is because the solution within the plant cells is
higher in solutes (and therefore higher free"ing point) than the
solution between the cells. %ce will therefore form between the
plant cells, which are protected from ice crystals by cell walls.
2owe$er this is ineffecti$e if temperatures drop too :uickly, such
as during a frost.
1=. Identify data sources, plan, choose e>uipment or resources and perform a
first<hand investigation to test the effect of: increased temperature, change in
p", change in substrate concentrations on the activity of named enzyme1s3
77777777777777777777777777777777See <!n"yme Action= Arac !(periment77777777777777777777777777777
77777777777See <Substrate &oncentration and !n"yme Acti$ity= Arac !(periment7777777777
777777777777777See <+irst7hand %n$estigations with !n"ymes= Arac !(periment77777777777777
77777777777777777777See <!ffect of p2 on en"yme acti$ity= Arac !(periment77777777777777777777
/0AC ?/0IM*: 1, !, $, (
11. @ather, process and analyse information from secondary sources and use
available evidence to develop a model of a feedbac- mechanism
77777777777777777777777See e(amples of feedback mechanisms in notes7777777777777777777777777
1!. Analyse information from secondary sources to describe adaptations and
responses that have occurred in Australian organisms to assist temperature
regulation
777777777777777777777777777777777777777777See :uestions in notes7777777777777777777777777777777777777777
/lants and animals transport dissolved nutrients and gases in a fluid medium
1. Identify the form1s3 in #hich each of the follo#ing is carried in mammalian
blood: carbon dio%ide, o%ygen, #ater, salts, lipids, nitrogenous #aste, other
products of digestion
.ubstance :ransported form
Carbon )io%ide
1a #aste product of
respiration in cells3
7 )issol$ed in plasma
7 &on$erted into carbonic acid and then hydrogen carbonate
ions in red blood cells
7 Eind to haemoglobin forming carbaminohemoglobin
5%ygen 1needed for
respiration3
Attached to haemoglobin in red blood cell forming
o(yhaemoglobin
&ater 1solvent of plasma3 )issol$ed in plasma
.alts 1composed of positive
and negative ions, used for
body processes3
)issol$ed in plasma as ions
;ipids 1digested lipids are re<
synthesised into tri<
glycerides in the epithelial
cells that line the small
intestine3
'rapped in a coat of protein to form a package called
chylomicron
*itrogenous #astes
1metabolic #astes e%creted
by the body3
)issol$ed in plasma as urea, uric acid and creatinine
5ther products of digestion
1amino acids, sugars,
vitamins, glycerol and
nitrogenous bases3
#ainly water soluble and are transported dissol$ed in plasma
!. %plain the adaptive advantage of haemoglobin
The red blood cell has no nucleus so can carry as many haemoglobin molecules
as possible.
2aemoglobin is a comple( protein molecule which is made up of four long amino
acid chains, each one assembled around the atom of iron. %ron easily combines
with o(ygen.
The adapti$e ad$antage of haemoglobin is that is increases the blood;s carrying
capacity of o(ygen by one hundred times. As a result of the haemoglobin being
able to carry more o(ygen, there is more o(ygen a$ailable for cells. Therefore
gi$es an organism the ability to become more comple(.
$. Compare the structure of arteries, capillaries and veins in relation to their
function
Blood
Vessel
Structure Function
Arteries
blood
travelling
away rom
the heart
7 &hick
muscular
walls
7 'alls are
elastic
7 mooth inner
layer
7 (ope with the high pressure of blood being pumped out
to the body
7 Enables expansion and contraction to ad)ust to the
amount of blood *owing through at any one time
7 +llows blood to *ow with ease
7 &hese three aspects of an arteries, structure allow the
artery to expand as it -lls with blood when the heart
beats and contract as the heart relaxes! &his results in
a force to help push the blood through the body!
Veins blood
travelling
towards the
heart
7 &hinner
muscular
walls
7 'ider
diameter
7 .alves
7 &his is in response to the lessened amount of pressure
as the blood is not being pumped hard as it returns to
the heart
7 +llows increased amounts of blood to *ow through
veins and return to heart
7 Prevent blood from *owing backwards in the vein
Ca!illaries
7 + single layer
of *at
overlapping
cells
7 +llows a single -le of red blood cells to pass through%
maximising the opportunity for the exchange of gases%
nutrients and wastes between the blood and the tissue
cells! In this way the body,s tissues are e/ciently
supplied with the substances they need while wastes
are removed!
(. )escribe the main changes in the chemical composition of the blood as it
moves around the body and identify tissues in #hich these changes occur
The chemical composition of blood changes as it mo$es around the body. This is
as a result from the continuous e(change of substances between the blood and
the surrounding tissues.
%n general, blood mo$ing through the body;s tissues deli$ers o(ygen and glucose
for cellular respiration as well as nutrients.
%n general, blood mo$ing away from the body;s tissues carries carbon dio(ide and
nitrogenous wastes for disposal.
:issue Main Changes in Blood
;ung 7 %ncrease in o(ygen
7 )ecrease in carbon dio(ide
Ailli of small
intestine
7 %ncrease in glucose and other products of digestion (amino
acids, lipids, $itamins, minerals, water)
8idneys
7 )ecrease in nitrogenous wastes (salts and water to form urea)
5ther body tissues 7 )ecrease in o(ygen
7 )ecrease in glucose
7 %ncrease in carbon dio(ide
+. 5utline the need for o%ygen in living cells and e%plain #hy removal of carbon
dio%ide from cells is essential
>eed for o(ygen in li$ing cells:
0(ygen is transported from the lungs to the tissues throughout a body.
These cells need o(ygen so that the process of cell respiration can occur.
&ell respiration is essential as it pro$ides energy that is needed for metabolic
process (e.g. protein synthesis) and if these processes do not occur it can result
in fatality.
>eed for remo$al of carbon dio(ide in li$ing cells:
The products of respiration are carbon dio(ide and water.
+or most li$ing cells that do not photosynthesis, carbon dio(ide is a waste that
must be remo$ed as it can become poisonous if too concentrated in a cell.
A high concentration of carbon dio(ide dissol$ed in the cytoplasm of a cell can
lower of the p2 le$el making the li:uid more acidic.
This would result in denaturing en"ymes in the cell and lowering their acti$ity
which can result in fatality of the cell.
4. )escribe current theories about processes responsible for the movement of
materials through plants in %ylem and phloem tissue
"ylem (dead tissue)
trans!orts water and dissolved
minerals
Phloem (living tissue)
trans!orts sucrose#
!roduced in
!hotosynthetic tissue to
other regions o a !lant# as
well as hormones and any
other organic material
made by the !lant$
7 'ater has tensile strength because of the
cohesion of the molecules. They tend to stick
together as well as to the tube by adhesion. The
smaller the diameter of the tube the molecules are
in, the greater the tensile strength. This results in a
capillary action that helps the water mo$e through
the plant.
7 Transport of the organic material
through the plant is called
translocation.
7 The organic material is actively
transported around the plant
through the use of sie$e tubes.
7 The energy re:uired for the
acti$e transport is pro$ided by
companion cells.
7 A high concentration of water in the soil is absorbed
by the root hairs which ha$e a lower concentration
of water. This is caused by osmosis and is called
osmotic pressure.
7 The water then mo$es through the corte( into the
7 'hen the sugar lea$es the
phloem to enter a sin- (a place
that uses organic material made
elsewhere) there is an increase
(ylem in the $ascular tissue and transported
through the plant. This o$erall process is called
root pressure.
of water in the sie$e tube in that
region. This increases pressure
in the sieve tubes.
7 'ater then mo$es out of the
sink tubes and this results in
higher pressure in the sie$e
tube and lower pressure at the
sink tube.
7 The difference in pressure
pushes the materials to mo$e to
the sink to be used in different
ways.
7 *ases enter and lea$e the leaf through the
stomata. #ost of the water lost by the plant is in
transpiration through the stomata.
7 The walls of the mesophyll cells are moist and
when the sun shines the air spaces around them
e$aporate the water.
7 As water e$aporates, water mo$es out of the cells
to ensure that the walls of the mesophyll are kept
moist. %n turn, water mo$es from the small (ylem
$essels into the mesophyll cells. This is called
transpiration pull.
6. /erform a first<hand investigation to demonstrate the effect of dissolved
carbon dio%ide on the p" of #ater
7777See <!ffect of )issol$ed &arbon )io(ide 0n the p2 of 'ater= Arac !(periment7777
/0AC ?/0IM*: +
7. /erform a first<hand investigation using the light microscope and prepared
slides to gather information to estimate the size of red and #hite blood cells
and dra# scaled diagrams of each
77777777777777See <#easurement of the Si"e of Elood &ells= Arac !(periment77777777777777
/0AC ?/0IM*: 4
9. Analyse information from secondary sources to identify current technologies
that allo# measurement of o%ygen saturation and carbon dio%ide
concentrations in blood and describe and e%plain the conditions under #hich
these technologies are used
&hat is o%ygen
saturation'
7 0(ygen saturation is relating to the measured amount of o(ygen in the blood.
7 >ormal o(ygen saturation in the human body is about .FG.
"o# does
measuring these
concentrations
help'
7 helps doctors in diagnosis of patients and in monitoring them while in hospital
7 gi$es information about the ability of the lungs both in pro$iding o(ygen to the
body and remo$ing carbon dio(ide from the body.
7 gi$es information on the kidneys; ability to reabsorb or e(crete bicarbonate
ions to maintain normal body p2.
&ho needs this
tested
Bmonitored'
Aatients:
7 undergoing any procedure that re:uires anaesthesia or sedation
7 with abnormal breathing
7 in intensi$e care
7 in accident and emergency facilities
7 who are premature new born babies
7 who shows dangerously low o(ygen le$els or high le$els of carbon dio(ide
"o# is it
measured'
Ad$ances in biotechnology and electronics ha$e resulted in the production of
biosensors that ha$e made analysing blood more accurate.
%n hospitals, a Aulse 0(imeter is used to monitor the o(ygen saturation of the
blood and in dramatic cases, blood is taken from an artery for Arterial Elood
*as Analysis.
&hat is a
biosensor'
A sensor is a de$ice that translates a physical or chemical property into an
electrical signal that can be measured.
The key component is the transducer or signal7con$erting element that
con$erts the property to be measured into a signal.
&hat is a /ulse
5%imeter'
7 Aulse o(imeters measure the amount of o(ygen in arterial blood (blood being
pumped from the heart to the body cells).
7 They consist of a sensor or probe that is attached to a part of the body such
as a fingertip.
7 'hen o(ygen combines with haemoglobin the colour of the blood changes
from dark red (unsaturated) to bright red (saturated).
7 Bight from two light emitting diodes is passed through the finger and the
amount of light energy transmitted is detected by two light detecting sensors.
The light energy $aries depending on the le$el of o(ygenation of haemoglobin
in the blood.
7 Two diodes are commonly used, one emitting red light (F5Dnm) and the other
infrared (./Dnm). 0(ygenated blood absorbs red light whereas deo(ygenated
blood absorbs more infrared light. There is a large difference in the amount of
red light absorbed by the o(yhaemoglobin compared to haemoglobin.
7 Ey calculating the absorption at the two wa$elengths the processor can
compute the proportion of haemoglobin which is o(ygenated.
7 The signal is first amplified, then the o(ygen saturation is calculated and the
result displayed on the screen. An alarm rings if o(ygen saturation falls below
a certain le$el, usually about .DG.
7 0(imeters gi$e no information about the le$el of carbon dio(ide and therefore
ha$e limitations in the assessment of patients de$eloping respiratory failure
due to carbon dio(ide retention.
&hat is Arterial
Blood @as 1AB@3
Analysis'
7 Arterial blood is taken from easily accessible artery; either the wrist, upper
arm or groin.
7 The syringe that is used contains a small amount of heparin, to pre$ent the
blood from coagulating. 0nce the sample is obtained, care is taken to
eliminate $isible gas bubbles, as these bubbles can dissol$e into the sample
and cause inaccurate results.
7 The sample is then packed in ice and taken to the laboratory. 2ere, the blood
sample is put into a machine which measures the o(ygen saturation, p2, the
partial pressures of o(ygen, carbon dio(ide and the bicarbonate concentration
(amount of carbon dio(ide carried in blood).
7 The p2 is measured with a glass bulb that contains a known solution of
known p2. 'hen this sensor is placed in an unknown p2 the difference
between the two solutions is calculated and so p2 of the solution is
determined.
7 Elood p2 is a reflection of the concentration of hydrogen ions in blood. A high
concentration gi$es a low p2 (acidic) and a low concentration gi$es a high p2
(alkaline).
7 Aartial pressure of o(ygen shows the concentration of a gas in a medium and
therefore displays how much o(ygen the lungs are deli$ering to the blood. %t is
measured using a &lark o(ygen sensor. 0(ygen from the blood sample
diffuses through a gas7permeable membrane where it causes an electrical
current to be generated. The amount of current generated is proportional is
proportional to the concentration of o(ygen in the sample. This is measured
and the result reported.
7 &arbon dio(ide le$els are tested by a sensor, based on the design in$ented in
,.F5 by Se$eringhaus. The sensor detects p2 changes in a small $olume of
bicarbonate solution separated from the sample by a gas permeable
membrane. As carbon dio(ide crosses the membrane, the following reactions
occurs:
carbon dio(ide (&0
?
)

H water (2
?
0) carbonic acid (2
?
&0
@
) hydrogen
ions (2
H
) H hydrogen bicarbonate ions (2&0
@7
)
Any change in hydrogen ion concentration changes the p2. This is measured
by the internal p2 sensor. p2 as a measure of the concentration of hydrogen
ion can be related to the concentration of carbon dio(ide. This calculation is
made and the result reported.
7 'hen carbon dio(ide is present in normal amounts, the ratio of carbonic acid
to bicarbonate creates an acid7base balance in the blood, helping to keep the
p2 at a le$el where the body;s cellular functions are most efficient. The lungs
control the carbonic acid le$el and the kidneys regulate the bicarbonate. %f
either organ is not functioning properly, an acid base imbalance can result.
)etermination of bicarbonate and p2 le$els, then, aids in diagnosing the
cause of abnormal blood gas $alues.
1=. Analyse information from secondary sources to identify the products
e%tracted from donated blood and discuss the uses of these products
Component Composition Cse
&hole blood &ell and plasma Iolume replacement in cases with
large blood loss
Blood cells ed blood cells, white blood cells,
come platelets and little plasma
Anaemia
/latelets Alatelets Se$ere bleeding
/lasma Alasma, all coagulation factor Eleeding, where there is a deficiency
in coagulation
@ranulocytes Bymphocytes, neutrophils, some
red blood cells and platelets
Bow neutrophil count
Cryoprecipitate +ibroginogen Ion 'illebrand;s disease
2aemophilia A
Antiheamophillic
factor
+actor I%%% 2aemophilia A
,actor I? concentrate +actor %J 2aemophilia E
,actor I? comple% +actor %%,I%%, %J, J 2ereditary factor I%%, %J, J deficiency
2aemophilia A with factor I%%
inhibitors
Albumin Albumin 5G, ?5G Eurns, $olume e(pansion needed
Intravenous gamma
globulin
%g* antibodies %mmunodeficiency diseases
Antithrombin III
concentrate
Antithrombin %%% isk of thrombosis
11. Analyse and present information from secondary sources to report on
progress in the production of artificial blood and use available evidence to
propose reasons #hy such research is needed
&hat is
artificial blood'
A blood substitute that can be used to pro$ide fluid $olume and carry
o(ygen in the $essels. %t remains in circulation until blood $olume is
restored and then artificial is safely e(creted.
&hy is it not
al#ays used'
7 %s routinely used but not commonly. This is because it only transmits
o(ygen but not nutrients, so cannot be used in long term treatments.
7 Also it does not contain white blood cells, so cannot resist $iruses
from outer en$ironment.
&hy does it
7 there are not enough blood donors
e%ist' 7 there is a shortfall in blood supply
7 it has a longer shelf life then donated blood
7 it is easily produced and de$eloped at a fast rate and works for all
blood types
&hat is the
demand for it'
Scientists ha$e been trying to de$elop a blood substitute since the
,.@Ds. The military ha$e been seeking a $iable product at least a in the
,.CDs and commercial $entures ha$e added to this research since the
early ,.-Ds.
&hat research
e%ists today'
>orthfield Baboratories %nc in &hicago ha$e de$eloped KAoly 2ome;. This
is basically recycled human blood that is uni$ersally compatible,
substantially free of $iral contamination and has a one7year shelf life.
&hat has been
achieved
today'
Aerfluorocarbons:
These are compounds deri$ed from hydrocarbons by replacement of
hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms. They are commonly used in eye
surgery as temporary replacements of the $itreous humour in retinal
detachment surgery.
Alasma substitutes:
Any li:uid used to replace blood plasma and $olume of blood. %t is also
used to treat dehydration.
1!. Choose e>uipment or resources to perform a first<hand investigation to gather
first<hand data to dra# transverse and longitudinal sections of phloem and
%ylem tissue
777777777See <%n$estigating the mo$ement of materials in plants= Arac !(periment7777777
/0AC ?/0IM*: 6,7
/lants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, #ater and #aste
products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid
1. %plain #hy the concentration of #ater in cells should be maintained #ithin a
narro# range for optimal function
'ater inside a cell is essential for life. Too little or too much can result in serious
problems and most cells will die if their water content is changed significantly.
%t is necessary for many reasons:
%t is the medium that transports and distributes many substances (such as
nutrients and wastes) in and between cells.
%t is the sol$ent in which many important ions and molecules re:uired for
metabolic reactions are dissol$ed. They are only able to mo$e when in a:ueous
solution as can they diffuse across and between cells.
#etabolic reactions that occur within cells can only occur in solution.
'ater itself is a reactant or product of many cellular reactions e.g. cellular
respiration
+or optimal functioning of cells is reliant on their water content being kept within a
$ery narrow range. The concentration water inside the cell (intracellular fluid) must
match the concentration of water outside the cell (interstitial fluid). This is called
isotonic.
%f these concentrations do not match, water will mo$e by osmosis from the area of
higher concentration to lower concentration. This lea$es cells $enerable to losing or
gaining to much water.
!. %plain #hy the removal of #astes is essential for continued metabolic activity
777777777777777777777777777777777777See Aoint 5 in abo$e section77777777777777777777777777777777777777
&ells are the sites of many metabolic reactions which keeps the cell function and
therefore the organism ali$e and healthy. 2owe$er these metabolic reactions
produce wastes and if these wastes are not properly remo$ed it can poison the cell.
%t can also change the p2 of the cell and pre$ent en"ymes from working which stops
metabolic acti$ity that are $ital for the cell and organisms life.
$. Identify the role of the -idney in the e%cretory system of fish and mammals
The kidney is part of the urinary system and is the main organ in$ol$ed in the
e(cretion of wastes and osmoregulation in fish and mammals.
5smoregulation: maintenance of a constant concentration of salt ions and
therefore water le$els within the body regardless of the concentrations within
the en$ironment
The role of the kidney is to:
7 !(crete wastes
7 #aintain osmoregulation
7 #aintain appropriate p2 le$els in the blood
(. %plain #hy the processes of diffusion and osmosis are inade>uate in
removing dissolved nitrogenous #astes in some organisms
%n unicellular organisms, the e(cretion of dissol$ed nitrogenous wastes occurs
solely by the processes of diffusion and osmosis. These are both forms of
passi$e transport.
The cell membrane is selecti$ely permeable, allowing water molecules to enter
by osmosis when necessary and nitrogenous wastes to e(it by diffusion.
2owe$er, multicellular organisms are too large to rely on the processes of
L...diffusion and osmosis to e(crete their nitrogenous wastes. They are made up of
L...millions of cells so therefore must rid themsel$es of their wastes by other
L...methods.
Acti$e transport is one method whereby ions are mo$ed against a concentration
L..gradient through proteins.
+. )istinguish bet#een active and passive transport and relate these to
processes occurring in the mammalian -idney
/assive :ransport: diffusion of molecules from regions of high concentration to
low concentration without the e(penditure of energy
Active :ransport: The net mo$ement of particles against a concentration
gradient from an area of high concentration, with the e(penditure of energy
The mammalian kidney is designed to use acti$e transport to mo$e ions against their
concentration gradient and therefore e(crete wastes.
/rocess )efinition Application to -idney function
)iffusion The mo$ement of
substances from areas
where they are in high
concentration to regions
where they are in low
concentration.
Solutes in the filtrate will tend to diffuse
out through the tubule walls into the
tissue fluid and the blood, but once the
concentrations are e:ual there will be no
further net diffusion. %f all of a substance
needs to be reabsorbed then acti$e
uptake must occur.
5smosis 0smosis is the mo$ement
of water only through a
semi7permeable membrane
from a region where there
are less solutes in the
water to a region where
there are more solutes.
(egion from higher to
lower concentration)
.-G of water needs to be reabsorbed
from the filtrate and returned to the
blood. %t can mo$e by osmosis only if
there are more solutes outside the
tubule than inside the tubule.
Active upta-e 'here the cell membrane
acti$ely selects which
substances can pass
through it into the cell.
Barge protein molecules in
the cell membrane are
in$ol$ed in this.
%n order to absorb all the useful
molecules from the filtrate, acti$e uptake
must be in$ol$ed. This is because
diffusion will no longer work once the
concentration of the substance is the
same of the inside and outside of the
tubule.
.ecretion The cells lining the tubule
can acti$ely secrete
harmful substances into the
tube.
)rugs such as penicillin and aspirin and
other poisons are added to the fluid in
the tube. Eecause a lot of the urea
which forms part of the glomerulus
filtrate diffuses out of the tubule, this
must be secreted back into the tubule.
#ost of the process of reabsorption is by acti$e uptake. This is why the kidney has
such a high respiration rate. 'ater can only mo$e by osmosis so the kidney must
ensure that there is a high enough salt concentration around the Boop of 2enle to
absorb the sufficient amounts of water.
4. %plain ho# the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian
nephron regulate body fluid composition
The functional unit of the kidney is called the nephron.
The nephron functions to filter the blood of metabolic wastes, make and secrete
urine and reabsorb water to maintain homeostasis. There are millions of
nephrons in the kidney;s corte( and medulla.
The reabsorption of water from the urine allows the nephron to regulate body fluid
composition.
Aurpose of nephrons
7 To reabsorb useful molecules
7 4eep unwanted molecules in the tubule
7 Ealance the p2 of the blood
7 #aintain the correct osmotic balance in the blood (waterMsalt)
/art of the *ephron Main function 1and ho# it is achieved3
@lomerulus An area of high blood pressure in a knot of capillaries
which has a semi7permeable membrane allowing for
the remo$al of small molecules and ions from the
blood stream.
Bo#mans Capsule A cup shaped structure surrounding the glomerulus
that collects material forced out of the blood
/ro%imal Convoluted
:ube
7 The first substances reabsorbed by acti$e transport
are glucose, sodium chloride, bicarbonate and
potassium ions.
7 2ydrogen ions are pumped into the tubule at this
point to help maintain blood p2.
7 'ater is also reabsorbed by passi$e transport.
(sodium gradient)
;oop of "enle 'ater is reabsorbed into the blood through passi$e
diffusion. %f the concentration of blood is $ery high then
more water is reabsorbed.
)istal Convoluted :ube 7 The end point for acti$e reabsorption.
7 Some sodium and potassium are reabsorbed here to
ad6ust the p2 of the blood.
7 'ater will also pass out by passi$e diffusion.
7 The final filtrate is formed.
Collecting )uct 7 #aterials remaining after reabsorption of wastes
mo$e through this tubule.
7 #ore water is collected into the bloodstream. The
waste in the tubule is urine which is passed into the
pel$is of the kidney.
6. 5utline the role of the hormones, aldosterone and A)" 1anti<diuretic hormone3
in the regulation of #ater and salt levels in blood
The kidneys play a ma6or role in maintaining water and salt le$els in the blood. They
are aided by hormones produced by the body;s endocrine system. The two main
hormones in$ol$ed in osmoregulation are Anti7diuretic hormone (A)2) and
Aldosterone.
Aldosterone: hormone produced by the adrenal corte( that regulates salt and
water balance
Anti<diuretic hormone 1A)"3: hormone produced by the hypothalamus that
control reabsorption of water in the kidneys
Aldosterone Anti<diuretic "ormone
7 A conse:uence of low water le$els is
low blood pressure, as a result of
lessened blood $olume. This change
in blood pressure is detected by the
receptors in the kidnies resulting in
the release of Aldosterone
7 Aroduced by the adrenal glands
located 6ust abo$e each kidney
7 Aldosterone acts to control the
reabsorption of solutes, specifically
sodium. The higher the le$el of
aldosterone, the more permeable the
walls of the nephrons are to sodium.
So sodium ions and therefore water
are absorbed back into the blood.
7 2ypothalamus has osmoreceptors that
detect a rise in the concentrations of
solutes in the blood (low concentration
of water).
7 As a result A)2 is released into the
blood stream by the pituitary gland
7 Tra$els in blood to distal tubule of
kidney
7 %ncrease the permeability of distal and
collecting tubule walls so that more
water is reabsorbed
7 This resulted in an increase in the
amount of water returned to the blood
and a decrease in the amount of urine
produced.
7. )efine enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in
response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine
organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations
nantiostasis: maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in
response to $ariations in the en$ironment
!stuaries are areas where saltwater from the ocean mi(es with freshwater from
one or more ri$ers. This results in fluctuating salt le$els caused by tidal
mo$ements.
0rganisms that li$e in this habitat undergo enantiostasis. This means they
employ $arious tactics to cope with changing salinity.
0rganisms that ha$e special physiological mechanisms that allow them to control
salt le$els in their bodies are called osmoregulators. e.g crabs
0rganisms that can tolerate their body salt le$els mo$ing up and down in parallel
with the le$el of the en$ironment are called osmocomformers. They conform to
the e(ternal en$ironment. e.g. some species of algae
Alant e(ample: *rey #angro$e (see point ,5) Animal e(ample: )ugong
7 )ugongs li$e in wide shallow bays and areas protected by large inshore islands such
as Shark Eay in 'estern Australia. They are herbi$ores feeding on seagrass. )rinks
seawater and acti$ely secrete minimal amounts of concentrated urine.
9. )escribe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in
minimising #ater loss
'ater loss generally occurs as a by7product of transpiration. %f a plant needs to reduce water loss it
must close its stomata to do this. 2owe$er, the plant also needs to photosynthesise and respire,
processes that need the stomata to be open for gas e(change.
Adaptation /lant "o#'
/hyllodes Acacia group eplaced lea$es with a modified leaf steams
called phyllodes. They are green and able to
photosynthesise life a leaf but contain fewer
stomata per s:uare centimetre than normal
lea$es. Therefore reduces transpiration and
water loss for the plant.
0educe size of
leaves
Casuarina
equisetifolia
educes the amount of stomata present on the
leaf;s surface and therefore reduces
transpiration stream.
.un-en
stomates
'ollemi Aine Bea$es ha$e stomates that are set into or
Ksunken; into the leaf. The stomates ha$e no
direct contact with the sunlight so water
e$aporation is reduced.
"airy ;eaves Aaper )aisy Bea$es and sometimes stems are co$ered in
hairs to reduce water loss. The hairs trap water
that has e$aporated from the plant, increasing
the humidity around this area. This humidity
decreases the transpiration rate.
;eaf curl +la( Bilies 'ill curl their lea$es when temperatures get too
high. #ost of their stomates are located on the
upper side of their lea$es so when the lea$es
roll up, the stomates are on the inside protected
from heat and e$aporation.
;eaf shape >ati$e Aig +ace *rows on sand dunes so e(posed to sunlight
practically all day. Bea$es are triangular in
shape to reduce the surface area e(posed to
sunlight and decreasing water loss.
1=. /erform a first<hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian -idney by
dissection, use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved
in the e%cretion of #aste products
7777777777777777777777777777See <)issection of 4idney= Arac !(periment77777777777777777777777777
/0AC ?/0IM*: 9
11. @ather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare
the process of renal dialysis #ith the function of the -idney
:reatment /eritoneal )ialysis "aemodialysis 8idney :ransplant
"o# it #or-s Elood is purified inside the
body using the peritoneum
(the membrane that lines
the abdominal ca$ity) as a
natural filter
)ialysis solution enters the
abdominal ca$ity $ia
catheter
'astes diffuse and e(cess
water mo$es by osmosis
from inside peritoneum
membrane down the
concentration gradient into
the fluid
The waste filled solution is
then drained from the
ca$ity and disposed of
This process is performed
twice in each session both
morning and night.
!ach e(change takes /5
mins
Elood is remo$ed from
patient;s artery
Eefore passing through
the dialyser an anticlotting
factor, 2eparin is added to
the blood
Aasses through the
dialyser 8 blood tra$els
ne(t to and in the opposite
direction to dialysate
Separated by a cellulose
acetate membrane that
allows diffusion of wastes
and e(cess water out of
the blood down the
concentration gradient
'ater bath 8 maintained
at body temperature
(@C
o
&) pre$ents shock and
organ failure
oller pump 8 maintains
pressure
+unctioning kidney
from li$ingMbrain
deadMrecently dead
person is surgically
implanted
0ther kidneys need
not be remo$ed
)onor must be an
e(act match to
decrease risk that the
patient;s body with
re6ect the foreign
organ
#ost dialysis patients
are on the donor list
in hope of a matching
kidney
e:uires in$asi$e
surgery with general
anaesthetic
:reatment /eritoneal )ialysis "aemodialysis 8idney :ransplant
Advantages Aersonal choice of
treatment time
%n$ol$ement in self care
Bess se$ere
cardio$ascular instabilities
Bess diet and fluid
restriction
StaffMorganises treatment
0nly @ sessions a week
egular contact with
people in dialysis centre
>o need for dialysis
treatment
Eetter :uality of life
educed medical
costs
>o dietMfluid intake
restrictions
)isadvantages Aermanent catheter in
abdomen
2igh risk of infection
Aotential weight gain
+our e(changes needed a
day
%nfle(ible treatment
schedule
Tra$el to dialysis centre
Two needle sticks to
e(tract blood as part of
treatment
&annot mo$e during
treatment
)ietMfluid intake restrictions
>eed for fre:uent
physician $isits
Aain from surgery
Bifelong medication to
pre$ent re6ection
Suppressed immune
system
1!. /resent information to outline the general use of hormone replacement
therapy in people #ho cannot secrete aldosterone
The pituitary produces a hormone that influences the secretion of hormones from
the adrenal corte(, including aldosterone. %f the adrenal corte( gland is affected
by a disease (e.g. Addison;s disease) it can result in the gland producing
insufficient le$els of all adrenal corte( hormones. This includes the hormone
aldosterone.
As a result people with insufficient le$els of adrenal corte( hormones re:uire
multiple hormone replacement therapy.
This includes a synthetic form of aldosterone which is called fludrocortisone.
The replacement is needed because the aldosterone secreted from the adrenal
gland carries out the $ital process of:
7 control of blood pressure and body fluid composition.
1$. Analyse information from secondary sources to compare and e%plain the
differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and
fresh#ater fish
Isotonic: 'hen the two solutions ha$e the same concentration of solutes. There
is therefore no net mo$ement of solutes by diffusion and no net mo$ement of
water by osmosis
"ypertonic: The name gi$en to the fluid which contains the greater amount of
solutes. 'ater will flow into a hypertonic solution by osmosis
"ypotonic: The name gi$en to the solution which contains the lesser amount of
solutes. 'ater will flow out of this solution by osmosis.
*itrogenous
#aste product
:o%icity .olubility in #ater :ypes of animals
producing this #aste
Ammonia 2igh 2igh +ish
Crea #edium #edium Terrestrial mammals
Cric acid Bow Bow %nsects, reptiles, birds
0reshwater 0ish $arine 1altwater2 0ish
7 &issues hypertonic to
surroundings
7 (oncentration gradient results
in a loss of salts and an uptake
of water
7 0ish must counter these
changes to maintain
homeostasis
3! Does not drink
4! 5idney contains glomeruli
and secretes copious
amounts of very dilute urine
that contains ammonia!
&ubules actively reabsorb
"a(l!
6! 7ill membranes permeable
to water
8! 7ills actively absorb ions!
ome ammonia leaves gills
at the same time
7 &issues hypotonic to
surroundings
7 (oncentration gradient results
in a loss of water and an
uptake of salts
7 0ish must counter these
changes to maintain
homeostasis
3! Drinks seawater
4! $inimal urine produced!
5idneys lack glomeruli!
&ubules actively secrete
$g9
8
6! 7ill membranes are
relatively impermeable to
water
8! 7ills actively secrete sodium
from chloride cells: chloride
ions follow!
0reshwater and saltwater -sh are both osmoregulators!
&errestrial $ammal Desert &errestrial $ammal
7$ammals must produce urine to
be able to excrete their
nitrogenous waste; urea
79xidation of proteins results in
7 Produces very concentrated
urine
7 Little water loss occurs as
most is retained through
urea% as well as carbon dioxide
and water
7&his can cause water loss
kidneys 1long loop of henle2
1(. Cse available evidence to e%plain the relationship bet#een the conservation of
#ater and the production and e%cretion of concentrated nitrogenous #astes in
a range of Australian insects and terrestrial mammals
Tarrkawarra (Spinife( 2opping #ouse):
Bi$es in desert and semi7desert regions of &entral and 'estern Australia
#ain food is dry seeds. The amount of water these contain depends on the
humidity of the air. This is greater at night than day.
The mice are nocturnal so collect food at the most humid time so absorbs water.
&omes out at night to a$oid heat of day
Iery little water loss in urine
#ice huddle together in burrows during hot days. The air surrounding the group
increases in humidity and has the effect of reducing water loss from the skin and
allows water to enter the mouse (instead of water loss to the en$ironment).
The longer the loop of henle for the animal the greater water preser$ation (li$e in
desert)
1+. /rocess and analyse information from secondary sources and use available
evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in
saline environments
"alophytes: A plant that successfully inhibits areas of high salinity. Aossess
$arious adaptations to assist them in sur$i$ing high salt le$el in their
surroundings.
#ost plants cannot tolerate salty condition in saline en$ironments the solute
concentration in the soil is greater than it is inside the plant;s root and so water
tends to mo$e out by osmosis.
%n addition, an e(cess of sodium ions inside cells inhibits en"ymes acti$ity and
can result in a decrease in the uptake of essential potassium ions.
/lant /rocess of .alt 0egulation
.alt marsh plant
1Sarcocornia quinqueflora)
Salt collected in swollen leaf bases then are shed from the
plant
Atriple% 1saltbush3 Sodium ions are concentrated in salt glands within the leaf
which e$entually e(pand and burst, releasing the e(cess
salt.
/almerDs @rass 1Distichlis
palmeri3
Salt lea$es the plant through the cells on the leaf, builds
up on the leaf surface and is ultimately washed away
*orthfol- Island /ine !(posed to salty air and pre$ent salt from entering their
lea$es by co$ering the stomates with a thin layer of cuticle
@rey Mangrove 7 Salt is secreted in from the cells of the plant onto the
lower surface of the leaf and into bark. The lea$es are
then dropped and water dissol$es the salt off the bark.
7 The endodermis in the roots forms a barrier against the
passage of most salt into the (ylem so the (ylem
contains reasonable fresh desalinated water.
14. /erform a first<hand investigation to gather information about structures in
plants that assist in the conservation of #ater
777777See <%n$estigating 'ater &onser$ing Structures in Alants= Arac !(periment7777777
/0AC ?/0IM*: 1=