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CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN SECONDARY

SCHOOLS
ABSTRACT
This research was designed to investigate the reasons students cheat at examinations, the
methods they adopt in cheating, the main sources of examination leakages and the effects of
examination malpractices in secondary schools in Ovia South-West Local Government rea!
Literature review showed that students cheat in examination "ecause they want to ac#uire a
certificate through examination for which they have not prepared well! These studies show
that students cheat "ecause examinations are not well-conducted and supervised "y
examiners! The main research instrument used was the #uestionnaire to which two hundred
$%&&' randomly-selected senior secondary school $SS(' students responded! The research
procedure also involved oral interviews to which sixteen principals and randomly-selected
teachers responded! )nformation gathered were used in testing the hypothesis of study
among which were $a' there is a relationship "etween the urge for success and violating
examinations norms* $"' students who have not prepared well enough are most likely to
cheat t the examination!! )t was concluded that $i' candidates cheat at examinations "ecause
they want to pass the examinations for which they are ill prepared, which is too much pri+ed
"y the society! $ii' ,ost mem"ers of the school community particularly, the office personnel
and to some extent, the teachers and often guilty of examination malpractices! The study
therefore recommended that examination papers should "e set few days to the examinations
in order to reduce the chances of teachers discussing such papers with the favoured students
"efore that examinations!
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACK GROUND OF STUDY
There is evidence that examinations are some of the
controversial issues in educational system. Due to its nature it
was attracted much criticism. Some of should be laid on
examinations while others advocate understanding of subject
matter rather than recourse of examinations.
However, examinations are known to play very important
roles in our educational system. s stated by Stephen !"#$#%
&There are numerous examples in all countries of examinations
while are reality, and fre'uently in name also, competitions
designed to eliminate the majority of candidates and allocate
the remainder to certain known vacancies in, for example, the
civil services in secondary schools, in college or university
(n essence, examinations are used to determine pass or
fail of a student or group of students in the opinion of Stephen
)*history seems to support the view that setting children against
one another in trials and competitions has always been a
respectable means of inciting them of deal**. student who
knows that he might fall on examination which will in turn
determine his progress or promotion will strive hard in order to
pass. This once more encourage p kind of competition within
groups of students who will dim at nigh position in their classes.
+xaminations are also used for academic stratification or
for assigning grades to students. ,or decade, the -est frica
+xamination .ouncil awards results on the basis of some
stratification*s and three. The contemporary practice of !/...+%.
Students are stratified into distinction, credit merit and pass,
while in the university also, students are stratified into first,
second !upper and lower% or third class degrees having gone
through an examination.

These grades are a measure of success and prestige.
child with a division one pass in school certificate examination
will be regarded by those around him as academically
precocious.
He is also likely to have a place in the institution of higher
learning or in job situation within the society easier than a child
with a division three pass.
ll these conditions have combined to influence a child*s
attitude to an examination0 attitude which always colonnade in
an urge for success in any particular examination whether or
not he had prepared for it. These competitions in school have
their parallel in the society. (n /wana*s !"#1#% view &in the
business sector, the more theoretical examinations one passes,
the better chances of advancement eve it productivity does not
increase.
This is the social context in which candidate and staff operates2.
The society is known to consist of speciali3ed functions
re'uiring from its members ability to cope with.
The society also accords some functions higher status than
others. Thus we find that two graduates from the same school
and in the same field may be given different functions with one
being look upon with more respect than the other. There are
often more claimants who have gone through an examination.
+xaminations are also used for other purpose. They are
designed as a basis for licensing. n example according to
Stephen* is the driving text. /o one so far, wishes to put a limit
to the number of drivers on the road or ton set motorists
competing against each other in a series of proficiency text
designed to knock out all but a small pre4determined 'uantity
to top grade performance. The authority have every desire to
ensure that those who handle cars are capable of doing so with
at least a minimum of efficiency2 ll licensing examinations
area mans of screening undesirables, so as to make life safer
for many on our roads.
Stephen the educationist also posses the believes that
examinations are used as tools for social engineering. &(n this
respect they have been used as tools for breaking through
social class barriers and speeding social mobility2 These are the
reasons we find that we cannot escape one kind the
examination or the other. +mphasis is always on pass because
this will again determine who should have a particular job in the
absence of it on the spot of examinations such as 5ral
examinations.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
,rom the background given to this study, it could be seen
that examination plays an important role in our educational
system as well as the society we live in. but hones
examinations are hard to find nowadays. 6alpractices in
examinations have been reported since "#"7 when there was a
leakage or 'uestion papers in the senior .ambridge local
examination. +ver since, there have been cases of irregularities
reported on a yearly basis. 8ut, the outstanding years were
"#$9, "#$1, "#1:, "#19, "#11, "#1#, "#;", "#;<, "#;1, "##",
"##7, "##<, "##$, "##1, "##;, "###, =:::, !-est frican
+xamination .ouncil, =::7%.
6alpractice*s have spread nationwide including +do State
but no one seems to know the extent it has gone in particular
areas and why they occur there. This investigation is therefore
designed to in'uire into the problem of examination
malpractice*s in secondary schools in 5via South -est >ocal
?overnment rea of +do State.
SUB PROBLEMS:
(n order to be able to effectively investigate the main
problems as stated above the following sub problems are to be
investigated.
a. -hat are the examination malpractices in Secondary
Schools in 5via South -est >ocal ?overnment rea@
b. -hat is the extent of those involved in the examination
malpractice@
c. -hy do they involve in examination malpractices@
d. How do they cheat in examination@
e. -hat are the effects of this malpractice*s on the students,
school and the society in general@
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
5n the basis of the problems, the following were formulatedA
a. There is a relation between parents and teacher
expectancy rate and students cheating in an examination.
b. Students who have not being properly taught by the
teachers are most likely to violate examination integrity.
c. Students unserious attitude towards studying hard enough
are most likely to cause cheating in an examination.
d. There is a relationship between students strong desire to
succeed and violating examination norms.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
+xamination malpractice have been on the increase since
"#$9*s, these malpractice*s indulgent learn new tactics or
methods of the crime. The purpose of this study therefore is to
investigate into some important expects of examination
malpractice*s. This study will help specifically to find outA
a. Beasons students cheat at examinations.
b. The method student use in cheating at examination.
c. The extent of the involvement of the society, teachers,
parents and the pupils on the malpractice*s.
d. The effect of examination malpractice*s on pupils, school
and the society at large.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
8enefits will be derived from this study. ,irstly, it will
expose the extent to which students, parents and teachers are
involved in these malpractice*s secondly it will provide a remedy
or a lasting solution to examination malpractice*s.
Thirdly, it will guide educators who can suggest ways of
eliminating the sources of examination malpractices