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CH 3 Study Guide Part A Microscopes

Contributions of Hans Gram


Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells
Size range of Bacteria
Size range of Viruses
Range of the Human naked eye
Micrometer
Types of microscopes
First microscope invented
Types of light microscopes.
Compound light microscope has 2 lenses:
Objective lenses
Ocular lens
Key concepts: Magnification
Resolution
Contrast
Types of light microscopes: Brightfield illumination
Darkfield illumination
Phase contrast microscopy
Differential interference contrast microsope

Fluorescence microscope
Scanning laser microsope
Confocal microscope
Types of Electron microscopes
Transmission electron microscope
Scanning electron microscope
Atomic force microscope
Preparing microbes: Staining
Smear and heat fixing
Types of stains: basic dye
Acidic dye
Negative staining
Simple staining
Mordant
Differential stains: gram stain
Acidfast stain
Special stains: negative
Endospore
Flagella
Capsule



Figure
number
Question Answer

3.1
What are the two sets of magnifying lenses
called, and how do these relate to total
magnification?

3.2
Which type of microscopea light
microscope or an electron microscopehas
the higher resolving power?

3.3
What would the pencil in part (a) look like if
oil were in the glass instead of water?

3.4
How does a dark-field microscope increase
contrast?

3.5
How does a phase-contrast microscope
increase contrast?

3.6
How does a DIC microscope increase
contrast?

3.7
What is an epifluorescence microscope?
3.8
How is multiphoton microscopy different
from confocal microscopy?

3.9
Some electron micrographs are color
enhanced. What does this mean?

3.10
How is thin-sectioning different from freeze-
etching?

3.11
In what way is scanning electron microscopy
different from transmission electron
microscopy?

3.12
How does the resolving power of atomic force
microscopy compare to that of electron
microscopy?

3.13
What is the purpose of heating the smear?
3.14
Which step of the Gram stain is most critical
with respect to timing?

3.15
What characteristic of Mycobacterium cells
makes them acid-fast?

3.16
How is the India ink capsule stain an example
of a negative stain?

3.17
What color would Escherichia coli cells be
with the endospore stain shown in the photo?

3.18
How can the flagella stain be helpful in
identifying bacteria?

3.19
How can fluorescent dyes and tags be used to
identify bacteria?