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Propagation Resistivity

Resistivity and the Logging Environment


Propagation Resistivity
Why are we interested in log interpretation and
formation evaluation ?
l Petrophysical log interpretation is one of the most
useful and important tools available to a Petroleum
Geologist
Propagation Resistivity
What do we get from logs and log interpretation ?
l correlation of zones and structural mapping.
l lithology, porosity and permeability.
l depth and thickness of productive zones.
l gas, oil and water within the reservoir.
l estimation of hydrocarbon reserves.
Propagation Resistivity
Rock properties which affect logging measurements
are -
l Porosity
l Permeability
l Water Saturation
Porosity
l defined as the volume of void space between
mineral grains of a rock.
l given the designation .
l thus (%) = (pore vol./bulk vol.) x 100
Porosity (cont.)
l Total Porosity is the % of Total Pore Volume
compared to Total Bulk Volume
l Effective Porosity is the % of inter-connected Pore
Volume compared to Total Bulk Volume
Porosity (cont.)
l determined from Sonic, Neutron or Density logs.
l combined Neutron / Density log is best if available.
Permeability
l is a measure of the ease with which a fluid will
pass through a sediment and is therefore a
function of the inter-connectedness of pores.
l denoted as k.
l expressed in units of millidarcy (md).
Permeability (cont.)
l can be estimated from logs.
l cores required for quantitative analysis.
Permeability (cont.)
Defined as :
ka x A x P
q = ---------------------
x L
Water Saturation
l is the percentage of pore volume in a rock which is
occupied by formation water.
l designated as Sw.
l measured in percent.
l important because it can used to determine the
hydrocarbon saturation of a rock.
l requires knowledge of the formation and fluid
resistivities in order to be calculated
Water Saturation (cont.)
l Porosity = 20%
l Water Saturation = 100%
Rock
Water
Water Saturation (cont.)
l Porosity = 20%
l Water Saturation = 75%
l H-C Saturation = 25%
Rock
Water
H-C
Basic Electricity
l electrical current is directly related to the flow of
electrons
l size of the nucleus is a major factor in determining
electron mobility
l larger the nucleus the less force likely to hold the
electrons
l metals have high number of free electrons thus are
good conductors
l hydrocarbon have electrons firmly bound within
atoms thus are electrical insulators
l it is this property of hydrocarbons which can be
used in their identification
Basic Electricity
l Charge and Current
6 x 10
18
electrons = 1 Coulomb
Current (I) measured in amperes (A), is the ammount
of charge flow per unit of time i.e.
I = C / t ( 1 ampere = 1 Coulomb per second )
l Voltage
the E.M.F. of a battery is defined as 1 volt if it gives
of 1 Joule of electrical energy to each Coulomb
passing through it i.e.
1 Volt = 1 Joule / Coulomb
Basic Electricity
l Resistance ( r )
is the property of a substance that offers opposition
to the flow of electrical current.
Ohms Law describes the behaviour of electrical
current flow through a material.
I = E / r
where: r = resistance, ohms
E = electromotive force, volts
I = current, amps
Basic Electricity
l Resistivity ( R )
is a measure of the resistance of a given volume of
material.
R = r A / L
In practice, the volume of formation measured is
constant dependent on the configuration of the
measuring instrument.
Thus the measurement is expressed in terms of
resistivity.
Resistivity
l is the property of a rock on which the whole
science of logging was first developed.
l is a measure of a rocks ability to resist the flow of
electrical current.
l measured in ohm.meters
l is the inverse of conductivity (R = 1000 / C)
l a basic assumption in all log analysis is that
saltwater alone is the conductive medium in rocks
Resistivity (cont.)
l Resistivity will vary with temperature, so Formation /
Bottom Hole Circulating temperature is important
l Transmitted from tool as TCDX
l Once the appropriate temperature is determined, the
resistivity of a fluid can be determined from -
Rt
2
= Rt
1
x (T
1
+ 6.77) / (T
2
+ 6.77) deg F
Rt
2
= Rt
1
x (T
1
+ 21.5) / (T
2
+ 21.5) deg C
Resistivity (cont.)
l Rw - is the resistivity of the formation water.
l Ro - is the resistivity of a formation 100% saturated
with water of resistivity Rw.
l Rt - is the resistivity of the undisturbed / uninvaded
formation.
Resistivity (cont.)
l The Archie equation is the fundamental premise of
all resistivity logging interpretations.
l It calculates the Formation water saturation. Sw.
l It is a measure of the actual formation resistivity, in
comparison to the same formation, were it 100%
filled with formation water of Rw.
l From Sw hydrocarbon saturation is derived.
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l consider a 1cubic meter tank of 10% NaCl solution.
l Voltage (V) is applied across electrodes on either
side of tank and current I1 measured.
l Ratio V / I1 is Rw.
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l 1 cubic meter tank
l 10% Na Cl Solution
l Voltage V applied
l Current I
1
measured
l Ratio V / I
1
= Rw
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l Consider same tank, now with sand poured in,
expelling water, resulting in a porous, water
bearing formation.
l The same voltage (V) is applied and current I
2
is
measured.
l I
2
< I
1
(there is less water to conduct).
l V / I
2
= Ro and Ro > Rw.
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l 1 cubic meter tank
l 10% Na Cl Solution
l Voltage V applied
l Current I
2
measured
l I
2
< I
1
l Ratio V / I
2
= Ro
l Ro > Rw
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l Ro must be directly proportional to Rw.
l Proportionality constant is Formation Factor - F.
l Thus : Ro = F x Rw
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l Ro is indirectly proportional to the amount of water
present.
l Ro is directly proportional to F , thus F is also
indirectly proportional to the amount of water
present.
l Water content must be related to porosity so F
must be related to Porosity.
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l Assuming constant Rw, if Ro increases, F must
also have increased.
l If F has increased, Porosity or water content must
have decreased.
l Thus : F = 1 /
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l Porosity is not made up of straight cylindrical
tubes.
l a factor - m- cementation exponent must be
introduced to reflect the tortuosity of the current
flow.
l Thus : F = 1 /
m
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l It was found that generally m = 2 , based on
empirical work by G.E. Archie.
l This was found not to hold true for all rock types
and other forms of the equation were introduced.
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l other forms of the equation are :
F = 1 /
2
(Archie) - carbonate
F = 0.81 /
2
(Tixier) - sandstone
F = 0.62 /
2.15
(Humble) - sandstone
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l some of the water in the tank is now replaced by oil
to represent a formation containing hydrocarbon.
l for the same voltage (V) applied, a current I
3
is
measured.
l I
3
< I
2
(again less water to conduct).
l V / I
3
= Rt and Rt > Ro > Rw.
Fundamental Interpretation Relations
l 1 cubic meter tank
l 10% Na Cl Solution
l Voltage V applied
l Current I
3
measured
l I
3
< I
2
< I
1
l Ratio V / I
3
= Rt
l Rt > Ro > Rw
Water Saturation
l is the percentage of the pore space filled with
formation water.
l designated - Sw
l Rt is dependent on F , Rw and Sw.
l if Sw = 100% , Rt = Ro.
l As Sw decreases , Rt must increase.
Water Saturation
Fundamental Relations
l Thus : Rt = Ro / Sw
l Again the actual relationship is not simply indirect,
and a factor - n - the Saturation Exponent must
be introduced.
l Thus : Rt = Ro / Sw
n
l Generally n = 2.
Water Saturation
Fundamental Relations
l A more familiar form of this equation is :
Sw = Ro / Rt
l Replacing Ro
Sw = F.Rw / Rt
l Replacing F ...............
Water Saturation
Fundamental Relations
l Sw = a . Rw / Rt .
m
l This is the fundamental equation of log
interpretation and is termed the
ARCHIE EQUATION
Hydrocarbon Saturation
l Assumed that any fluid that is not water is
hydrocarbon.
l Sh = 1 - Sw
Factors Affecting m and n
l m - tortuosity increases m (rocks with increased
tortuosity have m upto 2.2; fractured rocks have m
as low as 1.5)
l n - affected by presence of shale and oil
distribution.
Borehole Environment
l whenever a hole is drilled into a formation, the rock
and the fluids it contains, are altered in the vicinity
of the borehole.
Borehole Environment (cont.)
Some of the more important aspects to consider are -
l Hole Diameter (caving / wash out or mudcake build
up).
l Drilling Mud (excess borehole pressure over
formation pressure leads to fluid invasion).
Borehole Environment (cont.)
l Invaded Zone - the zone which is invaded by mud
filtrate.
l consists of a flushed zone (Rxo) and a transition
zone (Ri).
l the amount of invasion is dependent on the
permeability of the mudcake and the formation
porosity.
l invasion is deeper in low porosity rocks.
Invasion
l Replaces virgin water (Rw) with mud filtrate (Rmf).
l Pushes back hydrocarbons leaving only residual
oil and gas.
l Requires 3 resistivity curves to correct deep
reading to true Rt (shallow, medium, deep).
l Difference between water saturations in the
undisturbed zone (Sw) and the flushed zone (Sxo)
represents Moveable Hydrocarbon.
Invasion
Depth of invasion
Invasion
Invasion
Invasion Profile
Mud
Rm
Rxo Rt
Rs
Rmc
Rmf Rw
Sxo
Sw
Invasion Diameter
U
n
i
n
v
a
d
e
d


Z
o
n
e
F
l
u
s
h
e
d

Z
o
n
e
T
r
a
n
s
i
t
i
o
n

Z
o
n
e
Adjacent
Bed
Invasion - Transition & Annulus Profiles
Borehole
Wall
R
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
dj
Distance
Rxo
Ro
Borehole
Wall
R
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
dj
Distance
Rxo
Ro
Ri
Ri
Ran
Rt
Invasion - Step Profile
Borehole
Wall
R
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
dj
Distance
Rxo
Ro
Invaded Invaded
Flushed Flushed
Hole
Rm
Hole
Rm
Rxo Rxo
Ri Ri
Uninvaded
Rt
Sw >> 60%
Uninvaded
Rt
Sw >> 60%
Rxo >> Rw
Fresh Mud
Rxo = Rw
Salt Mud
Rxo
Rxo = Ro
Ro Ro
Invasion Profile - Water Zone
R
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
R
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
Rxo >> Rw
Fresh Mud
Invasion Profile - Hydrocarbon Zone
Annulus
Invaded Invaded
Flushed Flushed
Hole
Rm
Hole
Rm
Rxo Rxo
Ri Ri
Uninvaded
Rt
Sw >> 60%
Uninvaded
Rt
Sw >> 60%
Rxo = Rw
Salt Mud
Rxo
Rxo = Ro
Ro Ro
R
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
R
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y
Annulus
Rt Rt
Ran
Ran
Invasion
Profile
Moveable Oil Saturation
l once located, is the hydrocarbon that is present
moveable ?
Moveable Oil Saturation (cont.)
l if invasion is moderate or deep, the flushed zone
formation water (Rw) is completely replaced by
mud filtrate (Rmf).
l if oil is present in the flushed zone, then the
moveable oil saturation can be determined from
the difference between Sxo (flushed zone
saturation) and Sw.
Moveable Oil Saturation (cont.)
For the invaded zone, Archies Equation becomes -
Sxo = a . Rmf / Rxo .
m
Moveable Oil Saturation (cont.)
l if hydrocarbons do not move during the drilling
process Sxo = Sw.
l if hydrocarbons have been flushed by invasion
fluids Sxo > Sw.
l therefore (1-Sxo) < (1-Sw).
l MOS = Sh - Sho.
Recoverable Hydrocarbons
l Oil :
l N
R
= 7758 . (1 - Sw) . h . A . RF
B
l Gas :
l G
R
= 43560 . (1 - Sw) . h . A . Pr . 520 . RF
14.7 (460+Tr).Z