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Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769

The role of string in hybrid string structure

Masao Saitoh
, Akira Okada
College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan
In general, tension structure can be classied into two groups depending on the kinds of tension elements used: (1) membrane
structures and (2) string structures. Such tension members as cable, rod and chain belong to the string. Cable especially is a most
important and representative member. Furthermore, the string structures are divided into two types: thoroughbred tension structures
and hybrid tension structures. A thoroughbred structure is a tension structure such as cable-net which is made of strings only. As
for tension member, hybrid tension structures can be divided into the following two categories: (1) structures using members, such
as semi-rigid hanging members, which are made by changing the properties of tension members for the pure tension structure; (2)
structures made by combining tension members with such rigid members as at arches, beams and struts. Beam string structures
(BSS) are typical of this type.
Here, hybrid string structures (HSS) are dened as having the characteristics of the latter. HSS are conceptually opposed to
thoroughbred tension structures. HSS are aimed not only at the structural rationality including system, detail and construction but also
the sophistication of structural expression. This paper reports mainly on the following items concerning string structure, especially the
HSS: (1) the role of string; (2) tensile force in string; (3) stress and displacement control by prestressing in string of HSS; (4)
classication of HSS by tensile force occurring in string; (5) a method for introduction of initial tensile force to string; and (6)
some actual examples of HSS which the authors have designed. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: String; String structure; Hybrid string structure; Tensile force of string; Structural design; Detail design
1. The role of string in hybrid string structure
1.1. Tensile force in strings of HSS
The initial tensile force To (PS in a broad sense)
which occurs in a string under dead load can be indicated
as the sum of the tensile force Te (existing tensile force)
caused by the equilibrium and the tensile force Tp (PS
in a narrow sense) which is introduced intentionally to
control the behavior.
To Te Tp
The value of Te changes depending on the weight of
the dead load, structural system and degree of redun-
dancy. Furthermore, Tp varies depending on the purpose
* Corresponding author. Fax: 00 81 3 3293 8253.
0141-0296/99/$ - see front matter 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0141- 0296( 98) 00029- 7
for which the PS is introduced (stress control, avoidance
of the occurrence of compression in tension members).
The tensile force T
which occurs in the string under
the additional loads can be expressed using the
incremental tensile force Ta under the additional loads:
To Ta Te Tp Ta
1.2. Classication of string structure
In string structures, the structural system, analytical
method, details and construction method greatly depend
upon the amount of Tp for string tensile force, in parti-
cular. Fig. 1 shows the classication of string structures
carried out under this concept by noting the amount of
PS applied to the string (Tp) and the role of the string.
The characteristics of each of the string structural sys-
tems are explained below.
[A]: This type of structure contains the systems of
cable net, cable girder and tensegrity. The main purpose
of PS in this system is to produce an initial tensile force
757 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
758 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
(To) which is larger than the anticipated incremental
compressive force in order to prevent the tensile force
from being reduced to zero under an additional load.
Furthermore, there is a case in which PS is set up from
the viewpoint of securing stiffness against any eccentric
distributed load. This system is also characterized by the
necessity of an existing tensile force in order to obtain
a target shape for the dead load. This structural system
contains cable grids made by setting both sag and rise
of a cable net at zero. In this case, PS is set up mainly
for the purpose of controlling deformation.
[B]: Tensegric truss is contained in this group. [B] is
greatly different from [A] in the following ways.
Although the string tensile force is established with the
same aim as that set up in group [A], the axial force of
a strut connecting each string is relatively strong and this
strut plays an important role in the structure.
[C]: This system contains a structure made by com-
bining strings with other relatively rigid members. A
beam string structure formed by combining beams or
arches with strings is typical of this structural system.
Introduction of PS can be actively utilized for the control
of the stress and deformation of rigid members. The
amount of PS (Tp) is determined by the purpose of con-
trol or the weight of the dead load.
[D]: This structural system enables strings to produce
tensile force in order to obtain a balanced target shape
of the frames. In this case, the initial tensile force is only
an existing tensile force (Te) produced by the dead load.
Moreover, for the purpose of creating a target shape in
construction work, it is important to evaluate the dead
load accurately and to set up and regulate the length of
strings as well as to evaluate an elastic modulus. This
type of structural system also contains a one-way sus-
pended roof and a dish-shaped suspended roof to both
of which PS (Tp) is not applied as well as a hanging
roof and a cable-stayed structure.
[E]: In this system, strings are usually inserted into a
structure in order to maintain stability of its main frames.
The amount of PS (Tp) applied to the strings is estab-
lished with the aim of preserving tensile force in the
same way as seen in the system of [A]. However, it is
a characteristic that the value of the existing tensile force
(Te) is almost zero.
[F]: In structural system [F], strings are installed in
order to maintain the form resistance of a rigid frame.
The string has such a signicant effect as to exert brac-
ing effects. Also it is characterized by stiffening and
reducing stress against additional loads acting out-of-
plane. Since only a small amount of PS (Tp) is applied
to the string, a reduction in the tensile force of the string
to some degree during additional loading is allowed for.
[G]: It is a special feature that only a small amount
of PS necessary to secure the straightness of the string
and to eliminate its initial structural stretch is applied to
the string. The string functions mainly to exert in-plane
bracing effects. It is not expected that this structural sys-
tem can maintain the form resistance of a main frame
as seen in [F].
[H]: The structural system belonging to this category
is formed by combining two or more of the aforemen-
tioned systems from [A] to [E]. The SKELSION struc-
tural system which is made by adding vertical stiffness
to a beam string structure is included in this system.
1.3. Role of string in HSS and classication of HSS
HSS is a structure which has obtained new excellent
degrees of efciency by adding strings [1,2,5]. The
additional areas of efciency can be divided broadly into
the following two categories: architectural expressions
in which the clearness, lightness and logic of a structure
can be explained and the degree of freedom in the
exterior design can be expanded, and development in
structural efciency. With regard to the latter, the role
or effects of strings can be arranged as follows:
[Passive effects of strings]
(1) Formation of a balanced system, stabilization of a
frame and elimination of reaction to external forces.
(2) Bracing effects.
(i) In-plane stiffening;
(ii) maintenance of form resistance and increase in
global buckling load.
[Active effects of strings]
(3) Stress control of bending or compressive members
(active stress control).
(4) Control of displacement and shape of frames
(active displacement control).
(5) Increase in stiffness achieved by expecting geo-
metrical stiffness.
With regard to the active effects of strings, the struc-
tural efciency of a frame can be changed by controlling
the amount of PS applied to strings. The passive effects
of strings indicates the efciency which can be obtained
simply by installing strings.
It is a characteristic feature that structural members
for the HSS such as bending or compressive members
and strings are as important as each other in the struc-
ture. Therefore, (2 ii), (3) and (4) are listed under the
string effects of the HSS. When viewing Fig. 1 from this
point of view, the HSS can be divided into [B], [C], [F]
and [H]. Fig. 2 indicates the analytical results obtained in
cases where the HSS has actually been applied in Japan.
2. Method of establishing PS
2.1. Purpose of PS
With regard to a cable structure, in general, PS is
introduced to strings with the following points as a tar-
759 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
Fig. 2. Role of string in actual building projects.
get. These purposes of PS are closely related to the role
of the strings as mentioned above.
1. Additional performance in resistance for compressive
force of strings.
2. Security of straightness for strings.
3. Additional stiffness, especially geometrical stiffness.
4. Elimination of initial stretch of strings.
5. Decrease in the stress of bending members and com-
pressive members (active stress control).
6. Control of deformation and the shape of frames
(active deformation control).
7. Stiffening of frames (addition of bracing effects and
increase in buckling load).
The stress control function in point (5) and the defor-
mation control function in (6), both of which are often
utilized in recent cable structures, are explained briey
as follows.
2.2. Stress control by prestressing in string
In order to explain the stress control function, a beam
string structure with trussed beams is taken as an
example (Fig. 3). The beam stress (shown with an axis
of upper and lower chords) can be expressed as the sum
of the following three stresses: stress under the loading
of simple beams, stress induced by the introduction of
PS into strings and stress caused by the eccentricity (the
disagreement between a strings end and a neutral axis
of the beam).
When introducing PS, stress reverse to that of simple
beams occurs. (In this example, tensile stress occurs in
upper chords and compressive stress occurs in lower
By using this property, the stress of beams can be
changed with the amount of PS. The optimum amount
of PS is usually set up so that the stress of beams is mini-
The conditions for this are as follows:
1. Equalization of members: to let the positive bending
moment be the equal to that of the negative.
2. Minimization of a section: to make the stress intensity
for beams the minimum.
3. Minimization of weight: to make the sum of the strain
energy of beams the minimum.
In cases where a rise of beams is low and a section
area is not changed depending on the stress, (1) is gener-
ally adopted.
Fig. 3 shows the stress of beams when introducing the
optimum tensile force (the PS amount which is 1.02
times the total load) obtained under condition (1) into the
strings. The stress of the beams in this case is reduced by
about 20% of the stress of simple beams. It is clearly
shown that the introduction of PS exerts an effect on the
reduction of stress.
2.3. Displacement control by prestressing in strings
In this section, a beam string structure is also
explained as an example. The introduction of PS into
strings causes upward deformation in this structure.
When producing and constructing beams for ordinary
structures, coordinates made by cambering a nished
shape by deection induced by dead load are often used
for control values. As for beam string structures, since
deection can be eliminated due to the introduction of
PS into strings, it is possible to x control values on the
basis of coordinates for a nished shape through the
whole process extending from design and production of
members to construction work.
In addition to that, production and construction work
can be improved by utilizing the deformation control
function in order to simplify supports and to eliminate
construction errors.
3. Method for introduction of initial tensile force to
The most important problem in the investigation of
the introduction of the string tensile force To under the
dead load is one of deciding when the installation of the
strings, the induction and regulation of the tensile force
should be carried out. In cases where the tensile force
which occurs with the installation of strings is Ts and
the incremental tensile force induced by the execution
work is To, To can be expressed by the following equ-
To Ts To
760 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
761 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
The value for Ts is determined according to the instal-
lation time for the strings. For example, the Ts value
when strings are tted before nishing work is smaller
than when they are tted. However, after installation,
relatively large deformation occurs in the strings.
A method for introducing the tensile force to the string
is decided in consideration of the length of members,
the degree of error produced in the manufacture and the
construction, construction term, workability, safety and
cost as well as the amount of Ts. Standard methods for
introducing the tensile force are shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 5 shows the effects of the combinations of two
kinds of method on the introduced tensile force for the
BSS, a temporary stage lowering method and a method
for hauling-in strings.
4. Detail design
The most popular material used for strings of HSS is
wire rope. Wire rope made by bundling ne high tensile
strength materials has exibility and the strength to
weight ratio is high. Also a great advantage of wire rope
is that there is no limit to the length of members from
a manufacturing and a transportation viewpoint.
At the stage of planning and designing HSS, the fol-
lowing points must be noted in order to exhibit the
characteristics and advantages of cables:
1. To use cables continuously with as long a length as
2. To lessen the number of points for adjusting the
length of a cable.
3. To introduce the prescribed amount of PS accurately
with little force at a reduced number of points.
4. To reduce the number of metallic materials tted to
Fig. 4. Method of introduction of tensile force to string.
the middle of a cable and to simplify their mechanism
to follow the movement of the cable.
In the design of HSS based on these points, it is of
import to establish a design method for clamps tted to
the middle part of cables (hereafter referred to as middle
clamp). The middle clamp is a metal tting attached to
the middle part of a cable to join it to other members.
It has the following characteristics:
A cable can be used continuously without the necess-
ity of cutting it at the clamping part.
A cable can be bent in a shape of a polygonal line
with a system utilizing its exibility.
The clamps grip is caused by friction. Namely, slid-
ing of clamps caused by the difference (sliding force)
in the tensile force between both sides of the clamps
does not occur as frictional force is produced through
the exertion of a compressive force (clamping force)
in a direction at right angles to the axis of the cable.
The resistance against the sliding of clamps induced
by this clamping force is called grasping force.
A representative example of a middle clamp is shown
in Fig. 6. The middle clamp is composed of two plates
which contain both sides of a cable and bolts for con-
necting and tightening these two plates.
The middle clamps are designed usually in the order
of stages mentioned below:
1. To set up grasping force and clamping force, both of
which are necessary to resist the assumed sliding
2. To compute the number of bolts and their diameter
necessary to produce clamping force.
3. To compute the length of the plates on the basis of
the allowable surface pressure of the cables.
4. To compute the thickness of the plates in regard to
their bending strength.
Grasping force and clamping force established in
(1) are the foundation for the computations in (2)(4)
and the factors which are greatly concerned with their
design and cost in the stage of determining the size of
clamps. However, under the present conditions, design
data necessary for the establishment of the clamping
force of cables has yet to be prepared.
In order to obtain basic data regarding the clamping
force which is necessary for HSS, experiments were car-
ried out using a model shown in Fig. 7.
The experimental model was made for a tting part
for a strut of HSS and a cable. In the experiments, sliding
force was produced by introducing tensile force into one
end (T1) of the cable after the cable was clamped with
a plate installed at the lower part of the strut. This was
done under the condition that the initial tensile force was
produced in the cable. The bending angle of the cable
and its clamping force were adopted as main experi-
762 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
763 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
Fig. 6. A representative example of a middle clamp.
mental parameters. During the experiments, a steel rod
was tted to the end of the strut to protect it from hori-
zontal deformation. Figs. 8 and 9 show examples of the
experimental results. The ordinate in the gure indicates
a value obtained by non-dimensioning sliding force, the
difference in the tensile force of the cable between both
sides of the clamp with its clamping force. The abscissa
shows the sliding amount of the cable at the location
where the clamp is installed.
Fig. 8 shows the results obtained in the case of the
bending angle being 0 with the clamping force of the
cable (target value: 216 tf) as a parameter. The non-
dimensional sliding force when the cable begins to slide
shows xed values almost at the range of 0.30.4. As a
result, the linear relationship between the clamping force
and the grasping force for the clamp was conrmed.
Furthermore, after the cable begins sliding, the grasp-
ing force tends to increase. It is thought that this is
caused by wedging effects due to the difference between
the diameter of the clamping part of the cable and that
of the non-clamping part. This tendency is marked by
an increase in the clamping force.
Fig. 9 shows the experimental results when the clamp-
ing force of the cable is constant (target value: 8 tf) with
the bending angle of the cable as a parameter. It is seen
that the wider the bending angle of the cable, the greater
the sliding force when the cable begins to slide. It can
be evaluated that this is caused by the effects of existing
Fig. 7. Experimental apparatus for obtaining grasping force of middle clamp.
friction resulting from the compressive force of the strut
under the initial conditions.
As mentioned above, the basic characteristics of the
grasping force and the clamping force of cables were
explained based on the experimental results. It is
expected that middle clamps will be smaller and simpli-
ed in the future.
5. The role of strings in actual hybrid string
HSSs which were designed by the authors and con-
structed in Japan are presented in view of [a] image and
technology ([b] structural system, [c] method for intro-
duction of tensile force and [d] construction)[3].
5.1. Project 1: Green Dome Maebashi (1990)168 m
122 m
[a]: Since the construction site is located in a favored
place which is contiguous to a river with an abundance
of owing water and surrounded by grand mountains,
the buildings rst requirement was for harmony with
nature. The exterior view is one of both sharpness and
[b]: In order to actualize a at dome covering an oval
plan, the BSS was employed. Since the horizontal thrust
of the BSS is small and a large opening can be installed
at the eaves, the exterior view has one of both sharpness
and lightness.
[c] and [d]: The tensile force of the strings was estab-
lished with the aim of minimizing and equalizing the
bending moment in bending members. On a central
stage, after the BSS was erected, the tensile force was
introduced to the strings using jacks installed at the ends
of the 68 strings (Figs. 10 and 11).
764 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
Fig. 8. Relationship between sliding force and sliding amount obtained from experiment ( 0).
Fig. 9. Relationship between sliding force and sliding amount obtained from experiment (target value of clamping force: Nt 8 tf).
5.2. Project 2: Urayasu Municipal Sports Center
(1995)108 m 52 m
[a]: The image was one of waves lapping the beach.
A curved large roof covers two arenas, large and small.
[b]: Seven duplex type BSS units with Vierendeel
trussed beams composed of H-shaped cross-section steel
are installed in the longitudinal direction of the building.
The roof surface, which is supported by six cylindrical
columns at the periphery and is raised about 5 m by V-
shaped supports on the columns, appears to be oating.
[c] and [d]: After structural steel work was carried out
on stages, the tensile force was introduced using a jack
for a couple of BSS and two ties connecting columns
(Figs. 12 and 13).
5.3. Project 3: Amagi Dome (1991)diameter 43 m
[a]: The concept for the shape of a membrane roof
placed on massive folded plate walls was created from
the image of a bird folding its wings or a cloud oat-
ing above a green forest.
[b]: This structure originates in the double-layer BSS
system. The roof is a cable structure which is called a
tension strut dome. Its basic formation is one in which
765 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
Fig. 10. Exterior view, Project 1.
Fig. 11. Interior view, Project 1.
Fig. 12. Exterior view, Project 2.
wheel type cable girders are supported by tension truss
at the periphery.
[c]: This system has the property of introducing axial
force to all members by hauling in the ends of the upper
chord cables of the roof. The tensile force of strings was
Fig. 13. Structural model, Project 2.
introduced with jacks utilizing this property after the
lengths of all the strings (made of cables and rods) con-
stituting the roof were regulated.
[d]: A method was employed in which the entire roof
is raised up by using temporary compression rings
installed at the periphery after the roof was erected at
the level of the arena. After raising up the roof, nal
introduction of the tensile force to the strings was carried
out (Figs. 14 and 15).
5.4. Project 4: Izumo Dome (1992)diameter 140 m,
rise 49 m
[a]: The design expresses the elaborate neness found
on traditional Japanese umbrellas and, by using large-
section glulam, skeleton with shadows. The exterior
view looks like an uneven lighting hood made of folded
papers designed by Le Crint.
[b]: The three-dimensional tension string dome struc-
ture with a relatively high rise is designed to increase
both strength and stiffness by combining radially
arranged wooden arches with strings. Hoop cables work
effectively against symmetrical loads, and braces made
Fig. 14. Exterior view, Project 3.
766 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
Fig. 15. Interior view, Project 3.
of rods are effective against additional loads, especially
asymmetrical loads such as those of snow and wind.
[c]: For hoops to which a large amount of tensile force
is introduced, the method of installation after hauling-
in was used. In this method, hoops are tted to xed
locations while being extended outward by jacks.
[d]: The push-up method, in which after the arches
are formed on the ground, the central stage is pushed up
accompanied by moving of periphery supports, was used
(Figs. 16 and 17).
5.5. Project 5: Sakata Municipal Gymnasium (1991)
53 m 68 m, 41 m 31 m
[a] To construct as at and light a gymnasium as
possible was the theme established in rst consideration
of harmony with the adjacent art museum. The two
arenas are gures that appear as though two white swans
are about to rise from a paddy eld and into the air
[b]: This building has a distinctive characteristic in
that the canti-truss (CT) at both sides support the BSS.
Backstays are installed at the outsides of the CTs. A
Fig. 16. Exterior view, Project 4.
Fig. 17. Interior view, Project 4.
large amount of tensile force occurs in the backstays
under the self-load, but when it snows an arch mech-
anism is formed, and the tensile force in the backstays
is reduced.
[c]: After the lengths of strings were regulated, the
tensile force was introduced to the strings by pulling
down the middle parts of the cables and tting them to
struts. This was done by human power under both the
skeleton and nished loads.
[d]: After the BSS units were assembled on the
ground, they were raised by the lift-up method, in which
three BSS units were lifted as a set pair using ropes
which were hung from the CTs (Figs. 18 and 19).
5.6. Project 6: Kita-Kyushu Anoh Dome (1994)
61.8 m 108 m
[a]: This building is near Mount Sarakura, where the
paraglider originated in Japan. The image of a parag-
lider which landed in a green forest resulted in the basic
concept for this dome. The interior view is suggestive
of trees in a forest because of the soft sunlight which
Fig. 18. Exterior view, Project 5.
767 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
Fig. 19. Interior view, Project 5.
pours through the membrane and onto the wooden arches
and supports.
[b]: The system is the same as that of Project 5 in
which the BSS was combined with the CT. The con-
struction site is well known for its typhoons so it was
important to plan a wind-resistant building. The system
is designed so that a tension arch, which is formed with
valley cables and backstays, can resist blow-up winds
of typhoon.
[c]: The introduction of the tensile force to the strings
was conducted by pulling down the strings and inserting
them into the lower end of the struts under the weight
of the beams.
[d]: A pair of two BSS units equipped with temporary
braces was elevated using a crane and welded to the CTs
which have been exactly set by the pre-loading system
(Figs. 20 and 21).
5.7. Project 7: Subway station for Nihon University
(1996)20 m 40 m
[a]: A futuristic subway station suffused with bright
light was proposed. The design was done with the aim
Fig. 20. Exterior view, Project 6.
Fig. 21. Interior view, Project 6.
of constructing a new system which embraces people in
an atmosphere of lightness and transparency radiating
from an atrium space.
[b]: The structural system SKELSION [4] was used,
which can resist horizontal loads by adding bracing
strings (BS) to the BSS. The SKELSION was created
with the concept of uniting columns and beams, both of
which are arbitrarily arranged, in a body with strings
arranged in a woven pattern. There is a high degree of
freedom for space planning.
[c]: The tensile force of the SS was introduced by
pulling both ends of the string using a jack. As for the
BS, by shortening the distance between two plates at the
point where the six BSs are connected, the tensile force
was introduced to these BSs simultaneously by using a
[d]: The tensile force to the SS and BS was introduced
in stages. Although a sliding method using the self-bal-
ancing system of SKELSION was possible, it was not
employed for this building (Figs. 2224).
Fig. 22. Exterior view, Project 7.
768 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
Fig. 23. Interior view, Project 7.
Fig. 24. Face joint for six bracing strings, Project 7.
5.8. Project 8: Horinouchi Town Gymnasium (1996)
span 38 m, spacing 3 m
[a]: This project was designed in order to actualize a
snow-resistant wooden vault which can be constructed
at low cost in heavy snowfall districts (snow load
1050 kg/m
, snowfall depth 3.5 m). The design was
made with the aim of expressing local color and fresh-
[b]: Under the self-load, the self-balancing mechanism
of the BSS is formed and the structural rationality is
realized. Furthermore, when it snows, a trussed mech-
anism is formed with inclined posts and strings. This
results in a string truss structure (STS) with reduced
stress and additional stiffness.
[c]: When the BSS units were assembled on the
ground, the lengths of the rods for the lower chords were
regulated and then the tensile force was introduced by
the self-load. After the BSS units were assembled, a turn
buckle was used to tension the diagonal strings to the
degree necessary to secure their straightness.
[d]: Each BSS unit fabricated on the ground was lifted
by a crane for installation at a xed location. When the
Fig. 25. Exterior view, Project 8.
work was completed, compressive force which occurred
during the nishing work was released by loosening
screws at the lower parts of the posts (Figs. 25 and 26).
5.9. Project 9: Iwadeyama School Gymnasium
(1996)span 36 m, spacing 3.5 m
[a]: Under the basic concept of the creation of a
bright futuristic space for children in snowy districts, a
transparent building with a light and sharp appearance
was planned for the building.
[b]: In order to make the roof as thin and at as poss-
ible, a structural system combining the string truss struc-
ture (STS: see Project 8) with the SKELSION was
[c]: The introduction of tensile force to the strings for
the lower chords of the STS was carried out by inserting
struts after regulating the lengths of the strings. A small
amount of tensile force was introduced to the diagonal
strings with rods using a turn buckle. The bracing strings
of the SKELSION were tensioned by a jack pulling
down all the lower joint connections simultaneously.
[d]: After the completion of the STS for the entire
Fig. 26. Interior view, Project 8.
769 M. Saitoh, A. Okada/ Engineering Structures 21 (1999) 756769
Fig. 27. Interior view, Project 9.
roof, the roof was raised to the xed height by ropes
hanging from the tops of the peripheral columns. The
introduction of tensile force to the bracing strings was
carried out after the roof was lifted (Fig. 27).
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[4] Saitoh M, Okada A. Development and application of SKEL-
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