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The oldest media forms are newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other printed material.

publications are collectively known as the print media. Although print media readership has declined in the last
few decades, many Americans still read a newspaper every day or a newsmagazine on a regular basis. The
influence of print media is therefore significant. Regular readers of print media tend to be more likely to be
politically active.
The print media is responsible for more reporting than other news sources. Many news reports on television, for
example, are merely follow-up stories about news that first appeared in newspapers. The top American
newspapers, such as the New York Times, the Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times, often set the
agenda for many other media sources.
The Newspaper of Record
Because of its history of excellence and influence, the New York Times is sometimes called the newspaper of
record: If a story is not in the Times, it is not important. In 2003, however, the newspaper suffered a major blow to
its credibility when Times journalist Jayson Blair admitted that he had fabricated some of his stories. The
Timeshas since made extensive efforts to prevent any similar scandals, but some readers have lost trust in the
Broadcast Media
Broadcast media are news reports broadcast via radio and television. Television news is hugely important in the
United States because more Americans get their news from television broadcasts than from any other source.
The main broadcast networksABC, CBS, and NBCeach have a news division that broadcasts a nightly news
show. For the past fifty years, most Americans watched one or more of these broadcasts. Since the 1980s,
however, cable news channels have chipped away at the broadcast networks. CNN and MSNBC both broadcast
news around the clock. Because the cable news channels are always broadcasting news programs, many people
who want to follow a story closely tune in to these stations first. The relatively new Fox network news program
has also drawn numerous viewers away from the big three networks.
Radio News
The other type of broadcast media is radio. Before the advent of television in the 1950s, most Americans relied
on radio broadcasts for their news. Although fewer Americans rely on radio as their primary news source, many
people still listen to radio news every day, especially during morning and evening commutes. Local news stations
have a particularly large audience because they can report on local weather, traffic, and events.
Talk Radio
Since the 1980s, talk radio has emerged as a major force in broadcasting. Talk radio is a radio format in which
the hosts mix interviews with political commentary. As a result, many talk radio shows are highly partisan.
Conservatives have a strong hold on American talk radio through programs hosted by influential commentators,
such as Rush Limbaugh and Sean Hannity.
The Internet
The Internet is slowly transforming the news media because more Americans are relying on online sources of
news instead of traditional print and broadcast media. Americans surf the sites of more traditional media outlets,
such as NBC and CNN, but also turn to unique online news sources such as weblogs. Websites can provide text,
audio, and video information, all of the ways traditional media are transmitted. The web also allows for a more
interactive approach by allowing people to personally tailor the news they receive via personalized web portals,
newsgroups, podcasts, and RSS feeds.
Weblogsknown colloquially as blogshave become very influential since the start of the twenty-first century.
Leading bloggers write their opinions on a variety of issues, and thousands of people respond on message
boards. Although many blogs are highly partisan and inaccurate, a few have been instrumental in breaking big
Transforming Traditional Media
Bloggers are not only transforming traditional media sources but holding them more accountable too. When CBS
news anchor Dan Rather challenged President George W. Bushs National Guard service record on television in
2004, bloggers countered by questioning Rathers sources. It soon became clear that Rathers information was
dubious at best, prompting CBS to issue a public apology. Many media insiders believe that this forced Rather
into an early retirement.
The Medium Is the Message
Media scholar Marshall McLuhan once said that the medium is the message. He meant that the medium, or
manner, through which the message is transmitted shapes the meaning of the message. Different types of media
have different strengths and weaknesses, and how people perceive a story depends on how they receive it. For
example, television is primarily a visual media. Strong pictures and video affect television viewers more than
words, and pictures convey emotion better than arguments or discussion. Television viewers, therefore, are more
likely to remember how a story made them feel than the actual details of the story. Print media, in contrast, are
better than visual media at communicating details and information. An average newspaper story, for example,
contains substantially more facts than a comparable television story. This is not to say that television news is
inferior to print media; the two media simply communicate information differently.
Example: A debate in 1960 between presidential candidates Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy demonstrated
that the medium truly is the message. Many people listened to the debate on the radio, whereas others watched
it on television. Although a majority of radio listeners felt that Nixon had won the debate, a majority of television
viewers thought that Kennedy had won.
History of the Internet
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The history of the Internet began with the development of electronic computers in the
1950s. The public was first introduced to the concepts that would lead to the Internet when a
message was sent over the ARPANet from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's
laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), after the second piece of
network equipment was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Packet switched
networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit Network,
Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of
protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for
internetworking, where multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of
In 1982, the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was standardized, and consequently, the concept
of a world-wide network of interconnected TCP/IP networks, called the Internet, was
introduced. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science
Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET) and again in 1986
when NSFNET provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research
and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge
in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. The Internet
was commercialized in 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned, removing the last
restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic.
Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and commerce,
including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, Voice
over Internet Protocol (VoIP) "phone calls", two-way interactive video calls, and the World
Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites.
The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such
as NSF's very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Internet2, and National
LambdaRail. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over
fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. The Internet's takeover over
the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only
communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications
networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the
telecommunicated information by 2007.
Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by
ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking.
Types of media
traditional mass media
Traditional mass media are:

1- Newspape.r
2- TV.
3- Radio.

The modern mass media are:
1- Internet.
2- Mobile Devices (Mobile Phone - iMode - iPod).
3- Interactive Kiosks.
4- Interactive TV.
Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end-user
(audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media),
which today are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed
by the end-user in the printed form. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the
general public are better known as video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia
presentations, slide presentations, CD-ROM and online content. Most new media are in the
form of digital media. However, electronic media may be in either analog or digital format.
Although the term is usually associated with content recorded on a storage medium,
recordings are not required for live broadcasting and online networking.
Any equipment used in the electronic communication process (e.g. television, radio,
telephone, desktop computer, game console, handheld device) may also be considered
electronic media.
Electronic media are ubiquitous in most of the developed world. As of 2005, there are reports
of satellite receivers being present in some of the most remote and inaccessible regions of
China. Electronic media devices have found their way into all parts of modern life. The term
is relevant to media ecology for studying its impact compared to printed media and
broadening the scope of understanding media beyond a simplistic aspect of media such as one
delivery platform (e.g. the World Wide Web) aside from many other options. The term is also
relevant to professional career development regarding related skill sets.
Folk Media is a developing movement in experimental film and video art which is concerned
with the use of existing media for artistic expression without regard for copyright or
ownership. The movement traces its roots in Joseph Cornell and his film Rose Hobart and
other found footage films. It can also be traced to Sergei Eisenstein's aborted film project Que
Viva Mexico which has been edited by countless filmmakers and artists including Kenneth
Anger. Other early examples that have influenced the development of New Folk Media can
be found in the works of Bruce Conner, Jonas Mekas, Ken Jacobs, Craig Baldwin and
Kenneth Anger.
New Folk Media is a reaction to the growing ownership of every form of media. Practitioners
of New Folk Media consider existing media to be the same as paint or words that can be used
by the artist to create a new work.
New Folk Media is also often concerned with issues such as postcolonialism and ownership
of culture. Often the works involve world cultural events that are broadcast on television, but
according to practitioners of New Folk Media are not truly owned by anyone because they
are part of world culture. Through there works this group of artists seek to represent these
televised cultural events in a personal way, creating a new meaning for the media as it relates
to their own experience of the event.
Youtube can be seen as part of the New Folk Media movement, as many videos are mash-ups
of pre-existing content given new meaning. Snakes on a Plane is also considered by some to
have some relationship to New Folk Media, although there is no consensus regarding its
inclusion in the movement.
The earliest definitive examples of the movement include Inauguration (2004), Brooklyn
Waterfront/North Sixth (2004) and Televised Pope Funeral (2004).
Other influences on the movement include the sampling in music such as the KLF and
New Folk Media is also seen as a descendant of Pop Art and Post-Modernism, but it is
generally considered a 21st Century art movement
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any
audio or visual mass communications medium, but usually one using electromagnetic
radiation (radio waves). The receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively
large subset thereof. Broadcasting has been used for purposes of private recreation, non-
commercial exchange of messages, experimentation, self-training, and emergency
communication such as amateur (ham) radio and amateur television (ATV) in addition to
commercial purposes like popular radio or TV stations with advertisements
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any
audio or visual mass communications medium, but usually one using electromagnetic
radiation (radio waves). The receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively
large subset thereof. Broadcasting has been used for purposes of private recreation, non-
commercial exchange of messages, experimentation, self-training, and emergency
communication such as amateur (ham) radio and amateur television (ATV) in addition to
commercial purposes like popular radio or TV stations with advertisements
Types of electronic broadcasting
Historically, there have been several types of electronic media broadcasting:
Telephone broadcasting (18811932): the earliest form of electronic broadcasting (not
counting data services offered by stock telegraph companies from 1867, if ticker-tapes are
excluded from the definition). Telephone broadcasting began with the advent of
Thtrophone ("Theatre Phone") systems, which were telephone-based distribution systems
allowing subscribers to listen to live opera and theatre performances over telephone lines,
created by French inventor Clment Ader in 1881. Telephone broadcasting also grew to
include telephone newspaper services for news and entertainment programming which
were introduced in the 1890s, primarily located in large European cities. These telephone-
based subscription services were the first examples of electrical/electronic broadcasting and
offered a wide variety of programming.
Radio broadcasting (experimentally from 1906, commercially from 1920): radio broadcasting
is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, broadcast through the air as radio waves from a
transmitter to a radio antenna and, thus, to a receiver. Stations can be linked in radio
networks to broadcast common radio programs, either in broadcast syndication, simulcast
or subchannels.
History of television broadcasting (telecast), experimentally from 1925, commercial
television from the 1930s: this television programming medium was long-awaited by the
general public and rapidly rose to compete with its older radio-broadcasting sibling.
Cable radio (also called "cable FM", from 1928) and cable television (from 1932): both via
coaxial cable, serving principally as transmission mediums for programming produced at
either radio or television stations, with limited production of cable-dedicated programming.
Direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) (from circa 1974) and satellite radio (from circa 1990): meant
for direct-to-home broadcast programming (as opposed to studio network uplinks and
downlinks), provides a mix of traditional radio or television broadcast programming, or both,
with dedicated satellite radio programming. (See also: Satellite television)
Webcasting of video/television (from circa 1993) and audio/radio (from circa 1994) streams:
offers a mix of traditional radio and television station broadcast programming with
dedicated internet radio-webcast programming.