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1338

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 1989

 

THE EFFECT OF HVAC

-

HVDC LINE SEPARATION IN A HYBRID

CORRIDOR

B.A.

Clairmont

G.B.

Johnson

L.E.

Zaffanella

S.

Zelingher

Member,

IEEE

Member,

IEEE

Fellow,

IEEE

Member,

IEEE

General Electric Company

New York Power Authority

 

EPRI-High

Voltage Transmission Research Center

 

10 Columbus

Circle

 
 

Lenox,

Massachusetts

 

New York City, New York

Keywords:

Transmission Line,

Hybrid,

Corona,

AC,

DC,

Fields,

Ions

 
 

-

Increasing difficulties

 

in

obtaining

ductor surface gradients were properly calculated

new

rights-of-way

(BOW) for

transporting

electric

power Over

long distances

call for

the

development

of

additional transmission

options

to maximize

the power

One such

is

(i.e. accounting for the DC bias on the

AC surface

gradient and the AC ripple on the DC surface

gradient).

transfer capability of a corridor.

 

option

and

HVDC

 

This paper

presents

the methods

and

results

of

the

sharing

of

the

same

corridor

by

HVAC

calculations made

for

corona

and

field

effects for

a

transmissioir lines (hybrid corridors). The proximity

wide range of

hybrid

corridor configurations.

A method

between HVAC and HVDC conductors causes interactions between the two line types. These interactions can

for calculating human sensation levels is also described and the results of sensation level as a

produce changes in the electrical and environmental

function of

AC/DC

line separation are shown.

A number

performance of a hybrid corridor from what would be

of graphs are presented which describe surface

expected if the two lines were acting independently.

gradients

and audible and radio noise

as

a

function of

This paper presents the results of

a

sensitivity

analysis

relating

the corona

and field

effects to

the

AC/DC separation.

In addition,

the concept

of

AC/DC

interaction i.r; discussed and a criterion for the

variation of the physical parameters of hybrid cor-

definition of

significant interaction.'

is

suggested.

ridors. with the primary focus being on the separation

 

In general.

when

an

AC

and

a

DC

line are placed

of the two line types.

 

in close proximity

to

one

another,

 

they

can

interact

 

to produce

levels of

corona and electric field effects

that

depart

fra a

simple

linear

superposition of

the

effects from the

two

lines

acting

 

separately.

This

is

The proximity between conductors of high voltage

in Figure

1.

Curve "A"

repre-

transmission lines energized with different types of

illustrated conceptually sents the magnitude of

some

corona or field

effect

voltages (HVAC and HVDC) sharing a common corridor

parameter. such as audible noise or radio inter-

(hybrid corridor) causes changes in the conductor sur-

ference.

at

ground

level when the

 

AC

and

DC

lines are

face gradients and the electrical environment in the

in close

proximity

and

both

are

energized.

Curve

"B"

vicinity of the lines. Corona and the AC and DC

represents

the

linear

superposition of

the magnitude.

electric field effects may be affected. If the inter-

at

ground

level,

of

the

corona

 

or

field

effect

action between lines is sufficiently strong to cause

parameter

produced

by

just

the

AC

line with

the

DC

significant qualitative or quantitative changes in

line de-energized

(curve "C")

and by

4.ust

the

DC

line

line performance, new experimental data and studies

with the AC line de-energized (curve

0").

The devia-

may be needed to develop new design rules to assure

tion f rm

linearity

(the difference between curves "A"

that the corridor is operating within acceptable

and "B") can be considered as the "interaction" be-

limits.

tween the two line types.

 
 

This paper

presents

the results of

a sensitivity

 

analysis relating the corona and field effects to the

variation

of

the physical

parameters

of

hybrid cor-

riders.

with the primary

focus being on the

effect

of

the separation of the two line types. The method of

 

analysis was based on calculation methods developed at the EPRI-High Voltage Transmission Research Center (HVTRC) and supported empirically by the results of full and reduced-scale line tests CJ.2.3.43.

 

A

study

made

by

Chartier et.al. C51 previously

investigated the audible noise and radio noise from PVDC and HVAC lines in close proximity. Analytical ex- pressions developed at BPA were used to calculate the

audible noise and radio noise generated by a 500 kVAC

 

I/

 

/ \

 

line

and

a

bipolar 500 kVDC line sharing the same

tower.

The study concluded that

-

AC LINE

-

- DC LINE -

noise produced

by

the

AC

and

DC

the audible and radio conductors could be

 

LATERAL

POSITION

 

calculated using analytical expressions developed

 

separately

for

AC

and

DC lines provided

that

the

con-

Figure 1.

Conceptual

illustration of

AC/DC

interaction

 

in

a

hybrid

corridor.

 

-

 

d3

SY

555-4

h paper recom,nended and approved

 

by

the

IEEE Transmission and 3istrihtitjon CommiLtec

of

the

17:ZF.

Power Engineering Society €or presentat-

 

ion

at

the IKEK/VES 1938 Sumnwr 'leeting,

Portland,

 

The surface gradients of all the conductors in a

Oregon,

July

24

-

29,

1988.

Manuscript

subqitted

hybrid corridor are calculated vis the method of

September

1,

1987;

available for

printing

 

images just as they have been traditionally calculated

Nay

13,

1983.

 

for non-hybrid corridors C31. This method is only ap- proximate in calculating DC surface gradients because it neglects the affect of the local space charge which

0885-8977/89/O400-1338$01 .OO0 1989 IEEE

results

from

DC

corona

activity.

However.

the

use

of

conductor

surface

gradient

neglecting

space charge ef-

fects is commonly used with good results

C4.5.6.7.81.

 
 

In

a

hybrid

situation.

however.

it must

be

real-

ized

that

the

AC

conductors will have

a

DC bias

im-

posed

on

their

alternating

surface

gradients,

and

the

DC

conductors will have an AC ripple imposed

on their

otherwise

constant

surface gradients

C51.

as

il-

lustrated

in

Figures

2

and

3.

The magnitude

of

the

hybrid

phenomenon of

the

DC

bias

on

the AC

line

is

quantified

as

the

fraction D/C.

as

illustrated

in

Figure 2.

where

C

is

the magnitude

of

the

DC bias

and

D

is

the magnitude

of

the

peak

AC

gradient

above

the

DC

bias.

The hybrid phenomenon of

the AC ripple

on

the

DC

line

is quantified as the fraction A/B. as il-

lustrated

in Figure 3.

 

where B is the magnitude

of

the

DC

surface

gradient

and

A

is

the magnitude of

the peak

AC ripple

referenced to the DC gradient.

 
 

t

DC BIAS

ON AC SURFACE

GRADIENTS

t

Figure 2.

 

Surface gradient

on an AC conductor with

a

DC

bias

in

a

hybrid

corridor.

The hybrid

interaction

of

the

DC bias

(D)

to the

peak AC surface

gradient

(C)

is denoted

as

the ratio D/C.

 
 

E 1

AC RIPPLE

ON DC SURFACE

GRADIENT

 

f?

 

I

TIME

 

Figure 3.

Surface gradient

on

a

DC conductor

with

an

AC

ripple

in

a hybrid

 

corridor.

 

The hybrid

interac-

tion

of

the

AC

ripple

(A)

to

the

DC

surface

gradient

(8)

is denoted as

the

ratio A/B.

 
 

The AC component

 

of

the

ground

level

electric

field

is

due

solely

to

the AC charges residing

on

the

conductors.

It

is

independent

of

the

energization

of

nearby DC lines and is calculated

by

the method

of

images which is commonly used

for AC lines

C3.91.

 

Ion Current

The DC component of the ground level electric

field

is

due

to DC charges residing

on

the

conductors

and

to

a

space

charge distribution which

is

a

result

of

DC

corona

activity.

Maruvada

and Drogi

E91 have

analytically

shown that

the space charge distribution

is

not

significantly

affected

by

the

energization

of

nearby

AC

lines.

This

conclusion has

been experimen-

tally

supported by reduced scale

line tests at HVTRC.

 
 

The

calculation method

used

in

this

study was

+sed

upon

a

technique which utilizes the

concepts

of

corona

saturation"

and the "degree of

 

corona

saturation

Cl.2.41.

 
 

The level

of

corona

activity

on

a

DC

conductor,

and

the

resulting

space

charge

density.

tends

to

rise

1339

as

the

corona

source

density

on

the

conductor

in-

creases.

 

Hbwever. corona activity is a self-limiting

process

and will approach a finite limit

if

the number

of

corona

sources

increased

indefinitely.

This state

of

maximum

corona

activity

is

called

the

"corona

sat ura t ed "

s tat e.

 

The corona

saturated

state

(maximum corona)

of

a

conductor

is the opposite extreme

of

the electrostatic

state (no corona).

Whereas in the electrostatic state

all charge is confined to the conductor and there is

no

local

space charge.

 

in

the

saturated

state

all

charge

is

released

into

s??ce

through

corona

activity

due

to

the

extreme,

or

saturated".

abundance

of

corona

sources on the

conductor

surface.

No charge

can reside on the conductor and there

is

a

high degree

of local space charge. In an actual transmission line situation the

corona

level

will

lie

somewhere between

the

electros-

tatic and

saturated

levels.

and

is

characterized

by

the '.degree

of

saturation.'

(DS).

The

degree

of

saturation

is

a

function of

surface

gradient

and

weather

condition

given by:

 
 

DS

= 1

-

C41 and is e-a(G-Go)

 

where:

 

G

= surface

gradient

 

a.

Go

= weather

dependent

constants

(Go can

be

 

thought

of

as

a

corona

onset gradient)

The

ground

level

DC

electric

field and

ion current

density are

then given by

 
 

E

J

where:

Eo =

 

E,

electrostatic electric field corona saturated electric field

corona

 

J,

=

saturated ion current density

 

The electrostatic electric field is calculated by

the method

 

of

images just

as

the

AC electric field

is

calculated.

The

corona

saturated values

of

electric

field and current density are calculated simul- taneously by making The assumption that the field lines do not change their shape frm the electrostatic

case.

This

assumption

is

often

referred

to

as

the

Deutsch

assumption

[12].

Charge released

by

 

corona

on

the

conductor mwes

out

and

awdy

from

the

conductor

and

flows

to

ground

along the field

lines.

 

Concep-

tually.

the

charge flowing from a point

on the conduc-

tor

to ground

can be

thought

of

as

forming a

tube of

flux.

The

flux

tube

reaches

a

saturated

 

conditipa

when

the

potential

along

the

length

of

the

flux

tube

from

ground

to

the

conductor.

due

only

to

the

charge

within

the

flux

tube.

is

equal

to

the voltage

on

the

conductor

(all

the

charge

is

in

space;

none

is

on

the

conductor).

 
 

The ground

level

AC electric

field

in

 

a

hybrid

corridor

can

be

calculated.

regardless of

the

ener-

gization

level of

the DC conductors.

by

existing tech-

niques for pure AC corridors

[SI.

For purposes

of

the

AC field

calculations

the DC conductors are treated

as

grounded. Similarly. the ground level DC electric

field

and

ion

levels

can be calculated by

techniques

developed

for

pure

DC

transmission

C41.

treating

the

AC

conductors

as

ground wires.

 

There

is

no

interac-

tion

between

the

AC

and

DC

lines

 

as

far

as

the

electric fields

and

ions

are

concerned

 

based

on

reduced

scale and full scale line tests at HVTRC.

A

similar

conclusion

was

reached

by

Maruvada

 

and

Drogi

C91 based

on there calculation

techniques.

 
 

However,

the electric fields and ions interact

to

cause

human sensations

when

under

or

very

near

the

lines.

For

instance,

if

an

AC

field

and

a

DC

field

acting separately each cause a

sensation which

is just

1340

perceptible.

their simultaneous presence may cause a

sensation level which is very annoying.

To provide a data base

for

the evaluation

of

ception

levels

as

a

function of

per- the local electrical

environment. observations were made under a hybrid

test

line

at

WTRC

by

a number

of

utility

and

GE

en-

gineers. Because sensation meters do not

exist

"measurements" were made based on the judgments of the participating individuals.

Each person rated various sensations at measure-

ment

locations

along

the

lateral

profile

of

a

hybrid

test

line while

the

DC field.

AC field.

and ion cur-

rent

density were

simultaneously monitored at

each of

the

locations.

The sensations were rated

on a

scale

of

0

to

5 as follows:

 
 

0

- not perceptible

 

1

- just

perceptible

2

- definitely perceptible.

but

not annoying

 

3

- slightly annoying

 

4

- very

annoying

5

- intolerable

 

Similar perception scales and

sensation "measurement"

techniques have been previously used to ewaluate the sensations produced under RVDC transmission lines cl01 and €WAC transmission lines 131. Three types of human sensation were considered;

head hair sensation. spark discharge of a grounded person to an insulated object (umbrella). and spark discharge of an insulated person to a groimded object (ground rdd).

 

Head hair

sensation is the perception experienced

by electrical stimulation of the hair on the head and

back of the neck. It also includes facial hair such

as eyebrows.

mustache.

beard.

and

sideburns.

 
 

The

spark

discharge

to

an

umbrella

 

sehsation

is

experienced

by

standing on the ground while holding an

open umbrella. The umbrella is held by its insulated hand grip with four fingers while the thumb is slowly

moved toward

the metal

shaft.

Under proper electrical

conditions a spark will jump between the thumb and the umbrella's shaft6

 

The spark discharge

to

a

grounded

object sensa-

tion

is very

similar

to

the

spark

to

umbrella

sensa-

tion.

In this

case, an observer stands on an insu-

lated pad while

slowly moving an index'finger

toward a

three

foot

high

metal

rod

which

extends

 

into

the

ground.

 
 

Analysis of

the data

indicates that

the head hair

sensation

level is best

characterized

as

a

function of

both the AC and DC electric fields.

and that

the

spark

discharge type sensations are best described as a

function of

AC

electric

field

and DC

ion

current

den-

sity.

The results of

the sensation

"measurements" made

in fair weather are summarized

in Figures

4. 5.

and

6.

 

Figure 4 shows

the head

hair

sensation level as a

function of DC electric field for five different

values of

AC electric field.

Figures

5

and

6

show the

spark sensation levels,

for an insulated umbrella

to

a

grounded person and for an insulated person to a

grounded

rod,

as

a

fuhction of

DC

ion

current

density

for

five different

values

of

AC electric field.

 

If

the AC field.

De

field.

and

ion

current density

are

known at

a

particular

place

near

a

hylyid

line.

then

the

expected

sensation

levels

can

be

calculated'.

 

by

referring to the graphs of Figures 4.

 

5.

and

6.

and

properly interpolating.

 
 

The

audible

noise

in

fair

and

foul weather

is

calculated using

equations developed

as

a

result

of

HVAC C31 and BVDC C21 research - programs

at HVTRC.

 
 

The

audible

noise

of

the

AC

lines

 

ill

a

hybrid

HEAD HAIR SENSATION

 

0

0

9

2

CC Clectrr

e

5'

Field 'k"'I1)

A'.l,o.

x

15

 

AC Electric Field (kV/m)

 

Figure

4.

Averaged

head

hair

sensation

levels

as

a

function of

DC

electric

field

for

AC

electric

fields

of

0.

2. 5. 10. and 15 kV/M.

as indicated.

 
 

SPARK TO UMBRELLA

 

0

 

Ion Current Density (6 MZ)

 
 

00

C2

OS

Ad

X10

 

AC Electric Field (kV/l)

Figure

5.

Averaged

spark discharge of

grounded person

to

insulated umbrella

sensation

as

a

function

of

DC

ion current density for AC electric fields of

01 2. 5.

8.

and

10 kV/M.

 
 

SPARK TO

GROUND

ROD

 
 

00

+2

Ion Curnnt (&/U2

os

All

x10

 

Figure 6.

Averaged

AC Electric Field (kVlm)

spark discharge from

insulated per-

son to ground rod sensation as a function of DC ion

current density for AC electric fields of and 10 kV/M.

0.

2.

5. 8.

corridor is a function of

the

positive

peak

of

the

conductor surface gradient.

This peak

gradient

is

the

result of both AC and DC voltages and is calculated

without accounting for space charge. The space charge

has two effects:

the DC space charge tends to increase

the

DC component

of

the

surface

gradient

on

the

AC

conductors.

while

the

AC

space

charge

tends

to

reduce

the effect of the DC bias on the AC conductors' sur-

face

gradient.

Since-these

two

effects will

tend

to

cancel each other and are difficult to take into ac-

count.

they

are

neglected.

The effect

of

space

charge

on the conductor surface gradient is typically neglected in the calculations of audible noise and

radio

noise

for

both

AC

and

DC

lines

C5.6.71.

Excep-

tions are

the

papers

by

Sunaga

et.

al.

C81 and

Fukushima

et.

al.

cl11 where

they

calculate

the

con-

ductor

surface gradient

including the contribution due

to space charge. Sunaga reports on the radio inter- ference performance and Fukushima reports on the

audible noise performance of DC conductor configura-

tions. However.

these papers report studies at

gradients higher than typical DC line gradienta. At

the higher gradients the contribution of space charge

to the gradient would

be more noticeable and should

not be neglected. The electrostatic (space charge not considered)

conductor

surface

gradient

is

used

here

in

the

cal-

culations

of

audible

noise.

 

The

following

equations

are used:

For

n < 3 the following empirical equation is

used:

 

AHR = -39.1

 

+

44

log

d

+

20

log

n

+

Kn

where

 
 

AHR

is the generated acoustic power in

 
 

heavyrain

(dB above

lUW/m)

 

E

is the maximum positive peak surface electric

 

field (kV/cm)

 
 

d

is

the subconductor diameter

(cm)

 

n

is the number of subconductors in a bundle

Kn

=

2.6

for

n

= 2

Kn

=

7.5

fpr

n

=

1

For

n

> 2 the following empirical

equation is used:

AHR

=

46.4

+ 44

log

d

+

20

log

n

where D is the bundle diamete: in centimeters.

The

acoustic

power

is

also calculated for the

maximum negative peak surface gradient. E(-). on each conductor using the same equations as above. but with

the absolute value

of

E(-)

instead

of

E(+)

and

sub-

tracting 4 dB from the equation due to the lower

amount of

audible noise produced

by

negative polarity

corona.

The value

of

AR~used

for

each

conductor

when

calculating the

total

audible

noise

produced

by

the

line is the maximum among the two values obtained

-

using E(+) and E(-).

The audible noise level for wet

conductor condi-

tions is determined by

calculating a correction factor

(CF) to apply to the results obtained for heavy rain

conditions. The techniques used for calculating the heavy rain to wet conductor correctio?. factor are

those used

for

AC

audible

noise

in

the

Transmission

Line Reference Book - 345 kV and Above" C31.

1341

The "critical

gradient'

..

E,,

at which

the audible

noise

in wet

condition

is

6

dB

lower

than

the audible

noise

in

heavy

rain

depends

on

the

subconductor

diameter

d.

and

is

calculated with

the

following

em-

pirical

equation:

 

= 24.4/d0.24

 

d

in

cm.

E,

in kV/cm

 

The correction factor CF is:

 

for

n

<

4

CF

=

8.2

-14.2

 

E,/E

and

for

n

>

3

CF

=

10.4

-14.26

 

Ec/E

*(n-l)*d

 
 

D

where

E

is

the maximum positive

(or

negative)

peak

 

surf ace electric field

 

n

is the number

of

subconductors

in

a

bundle

d

is the subconductor diameter

 

D

is the bundle diameter

 

The generated acoustic power for a wet

conductor

is:

 

&wc = AHR

+

CF

where %R

is

the

generated

acoustic

power

determined

for heavy rain

 
 

The audible noise

level

in

summer fair

weather

conditions

is

 

determined

in

the

same way

as

that

used

for wet conductor conditions.

A

correction

factor

to

apply to the results obtained for heavy rain condi-

tions is calculated. The focus of the audible noise calculations is on heavy rain conditions because the highest levels of audible noise for AC corridors and

hybrid corridors will usually dit ions.

occur

in heavy

rain

con-

 

The "critical

gradient"

 

for

sumer fair weather

ECF

is calculated with

the

 

following

empirical

equation:

 

ECF

=

E,

+

10

ECF.

E,

in kV/cm;

E,

 

is

calculated as

shown

 

above

 
 

The

correction

factor

CF

is

calculated.

for

any

number of

subconductors

in

a

bundle,

 

with

the

follow-

ing empirical equation:

 
 

CF

=

8.2

-14.2fi

EcF/E

 
 

The

generated

acoustic

power

in

summer

fair

weather

is:

AFW =

&R

+

CF

 

Few

experimental

data

are available for

hybrid

situations.

 

It

is

assumed

that

the

AC

ripple

on

the

DC surface gradient

has

little effect

on the noise.

at

least if

this ripple is

small.

 

The generated acoustic

power is primarily a function of the positive DC

gradient

only.

 

Negative polarity corona produces much

less noise then positive polarity corona and is neglected .

The following

empirical

equation

is used

for

the

1342

summer fair weather

 

acoustic

power

generated

by

the

positive polarity DC conductors:

 
 

AFW

=

-57.4

 

+

124 logo

+

25

log 4

 

+

18

10-

+

25

Kn

4.45

 

2

where :

AFW is

the generated acoustic

power

i n

f a i r

 

weather

(dB above 1aW/m)

g

is

the positive DC conductor

surface

 

gradient (kV/crc)

 

d

is the subconductor diameter (cm)

 

n

is

the number of

subconductors

Kn

= o

 

for

n z

3

Kn

=

2.6

for

n

=

2

Kn

=

7.5

for

n

Kn = 7.5 for n 1

1

 

and Wet Conductor

 
 

The following

equation

is used

for

the

acoustic

power

of

the

positive

polarity

DC

conductor

in

wet

conditions

(Aw,-) Or heavy

rain conditions

(ABR).

 
 

AHR

=

Awc

=

AFW -6

dB

 

a1 Drou

of

aal~

no&.The

lateral

profile of audible noise for each weather condition

(fair weather. wet conductor. heavy rain) is calcu-

lated from the generated acoustic power of

each

con-

ductor using the following equation:

P

P A + 114.3 - 10 log R - 0.02R

A +

114.3

-

10

log

R

- 0.02R

where :

A is the generated acoustic power (dB above

 

1

w/m)

P is the audible noise pressure

(dB-A)

R

is

the distance between conductor

and

measuring

point

(m)

The

term

"10

log

R"

accounts for

dispersion of

the acoustic power with distance. The term "0.02R" ac-

counts for

atmospheric

absorption

of

 

the acoustic

power with distance.

 
 

The total audible noise is calculated combining

the audible noise of

all

 

the

AC

and

DC

conductors.

The total audible noise pressure is equal to the

square root

of

the

sum

of

the

squares

of

the audible

noise produced caused by each conductor.

 

. -