1338
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 1989
THE EFFECT OF HVAC 
 HVDC LINE SEPARATION IN A HYBRID 
CORRIDOR 

B.A. Clairmont 
G.B. 
Johnson 
L.E. Zaffanella 
S. 
Zelingher 

Member, 
IEEE 
Member, 
IEEE 
Fellow, 
IEEE 
Member, IEEE 
General Electric Company
New York Power Authority
EPRIHigh Voltage Transmission Research Center 
10 Columbus 
Circle 

Lenox, 
Massachusetts 
New York City, New York 

Keywords: 
Transmission Line, Hybrid, Corona, 
_{A}_{C}_{,} _{D}_{C}_{,} 
Fields, 
Ions 

 
Increasing difficulties 
in 
obtaining 
ductor surface gradients were properly calculated 

new rightsofway (BOW) for transporting electric power Over long distances call for the development of additional transmission options to maximize the power One such is 
(i.e. accounting for the DC bias on the AC surface gradient and the AC ripple on the DC surface gradient). 

transfer capability of a corridor. 
option and HVDC 
This paper 
presents 
the methods 
and results 
of 

the 
sharing 
of 
the 
same 
corridor 
by 
HVAC 
calculations made for 
corona 
and 
field effects for 
a 

transmissioir lines (hybrid corridors). The proximity 
wide range of 
hybrid 
corridor configurations. 
A method 

between HVAC and HVDC conductors causes interactions between the two line types. These interactions can 
for calculating human sensation levels is also described and the results of sensation level as a 

produce changes in the electrical and environmental 
function of AC/DC 
line separation are shown. 
A number 

performance of a hybrid corridor from what would be 
of graphs are presented which describe surface 

expected if the two lines were acting independently. 
gradients and audible and radio noise 
as a function of 

This paper presents the results of a sensitivity analysis relating the corona and field effects to the 
AC/DC separation. In addition, the concept of AC/DC interaction i.r; discussed and a criterion for the 

variation of the physical parameters of hybrid cor 
definition of 
significant interaction.' 
_{i}_{s} suggested. 

ridors. with the primary focus being on the separation 
In general. when an 
AC 
and 
a 
DC line are placed 

of the two line types. 
in close proximity to 
one 
another, 
they can 
interact 

to produce levels of 
corona and electric field effects 

that 
depart 
fra a 
simple 
linear 
superposition of 
the 

effects from the two 
lines 
acting 
separately. 
This 
is 

The proximity between conductors of high voltage 
in Figure 
1. 
Curve "A" 
repre 

transmission lines energized with different types of 
illustrated conceptually sents the magnitude of 
some 
corona or field 
effect 

voltages (HVAC and HVDC) sharing a common corridor 
parameter. such as audible noise or radio inter 

(hybrid corridor) causes changes in the conductor sur 
ference. at 
ground level when the 
AC 
and DC 
lines are 

face gradients and the electrical environment in the 
in close proximity 
and both are 
energized. 
Curve 
"B" 

vicinity of the lines. Corona and the AC and DC 
represents the 
linear 
superposition of the magnitude. 

electric field effects may be affected. If the inter 
at 
ground level, of 
the 
corona 
or field 
effect 

action between lines is sufficiently strong to cause 
parameter produced 
by just 
the 
AC 
line with 
the 
DC 

significant qualitative or quantitative changes in 
line deenergized (curve "C") 
and by 
4.ust the 
DC line 

line performance, new experimental data and studies 
with the AC line deenergized (curve 
0"). The devia 

may be needed to develop new design rules to assure 
tion f rm linearity 
(the difference between curves "A" 

that the corridor is operating within acceptable 
and "B") can be considered as the "interaction" be 

limits. 
tween the two line types. 

_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{p}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r} 
_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} 
the results of 
a sensitivity 

analysis relating the corona and field effects to the 

variation 
of 
the physical 
parameters 
of 
hybrid cor 

riders. with the primary 
focus being on the 
effect 
of 

the separation of the two line types. The method of 

analysis was based on calculation methods developed at the EPRIHigh Voltage Transmission Research Center (HVTRC) and supported empirically by the results of full and reducedscale line tests CJ.2.3.43. 

A study made 
by 
Chartier et.al. C51 previously 

investigated the audible noise and radio noise from PVDC and HVAC lines in close proximity. Analytical ex pressions developed at BPA were used to calculate the 

audible noise and radio noise generated by a 500 kVAC 
I/ 
/ \ 

line 
and 
a 
bipolar 500 kVDC line sharing the same 

tower. The study concluded that 
_{} _{A}_{C} _{L}_{I}_{N}_{E} 
_{} 
 DC LINE  

noise produced 
by 
the 
AC 
and DC the audible and radio conductors could be 
LATERAL 
POSITION 

calculated using analytical expressions developed 

separately 
for 
AC 
and 
DC lines provided 
that 
the 
con 
Figure 1. Conceptual 
illustration of 
AC/DC interaction 

in 
a hybrid 
corridor. 

 

d3 
SY 5554 
h paper recom,nended and approved 

by 
the IEEE Transmission and 3istrihtitjon CommiLtec 

of 
the 17:ZF. 
Power Engineering Society €or presentat 

ion 
at the IKEK/VES 1938 Sumnwr 'leeting, 
Portland, 
The surface gradients of all the conductors in a 

Oregon, July 
24 
 29, 
1988. 
Manuscript 
subqitted 
hybrid corridor are calculated vis the method of 

September 
1, 
1987; 
available for printing 
images just as they have been traditionally calculated 

Nay 
13, 1983. 
for nonhybrid corridors C31. This method is only ap proximate in calculating DC surface gradients because it neglects the affect of the local space charge which 
08858977/89/O4001338$01 .OO0 1989 IEEE
results 
from 
DC 
corona 
activity. 
However. 
the 
use 
of 

conductor 
surface 
gradient 
neglecting 
space charge ef 

fects is commonly used with good results 
C4.5.6.7.81. 

In 
a hybrid 
situation. 
however. 
it must 
be 
real 

ized 
that the 
AC 
conductors will have 
a DC bias im 

posed 
on 
their alternating 
surface 
gradients, 
and the 

DC 
conductors will have an AC ripple imposed 
on their 

otherwise constant 
surface gradients 
C51. 
as il 

lustrated 
in 
Figures 
2 
and 
3. 
The magnitude 
of the 

hybrid phenomenon of 
the 
DC 
bias 
on 
the AC 
line 
is 

quantified 
as 
the 
fraction D/C. 
as 
illustrated 
in 

Figure 2. 
where 
C is 
the magnitude 
of 
the 
DC bias and 

D 
is 
the magnitude 
of 
the 
peak 
AC 
gradient 
above the 

DC 
bias. 
The hybrid phenomenon of 
the AC ripple 
on the 

DC 
line 
is quantified as the fraction A/B. as il 

lustrated 
in Figure 3. 
where B is the magnitude 
of the 

DC 
surface gradient 
and 
A 
is 
the magnitude of 
the peak 

AC ripple 
referenced to the DC gradient. 

t 
DC BIAS 
ON AC SURFACE 
GRADIENTS 

t 

Figure 2. 
Surface gradient 
on an AC conductor with 
a 

DC 
bias 
in 
a hybrid 
corridor. 
The hybrid interaction 

of 
the DC bias (D) 
to the 
peak AC surface 
gradient 
(C) 

is denoted as 
the ratio D/C. 

E 1AC RIPPLE 
ON DC SURFACE 
GRADIENT 

f? 

I 
TIME 

Figure 3. 
Surface gradient 
on 
a DC conductor 
with 
an 

AC 
ripple in 
a hybrid 
corridor. 
The hybrid 
interac 

tion 
of 
the 
AC 
ripple 
(A) 
to 
the 
DC 
surface 
gradient 

(8) is denoted as 
the 
ratio A/B. 

The AC component 
of 
the ground 
level 
electric 

field 
is 
due 
solely 
to 
the AC charges residing 
on the 

conductors. 
It 
is 
independent 
of 
the 
energization 
of 

nearby DC lines and is calculated 
by 
the method 
of 

images which is commonly used 
for AC lines C3.91. 
Ion Current
The DC component of the ground level electric
field 
is 
due to DC charges residing 
on 
the conductors 

and 
to 
a 
space 
charge distribution which is 
a 
result 

of 
DC 
corona 
activity. 
Maruvada 
and Drogi 
E91 have 

analytically shown that 
the space charge distribution 

is 
not 
significantly affected 
by the 
energization 
of 

nearby 
AC 
lines. 
This 
conclusion has 
been experimen 

tally 
supported by reduced scale 
line tests at HVTRC. 

The 
calculation method 
used 
in 
this 
study was 

+sed 
upon 
a technique which utilizes the concepts 
of 

corona 
saturation" 
and the "degree of 
corona 

saturation 
Cl.2.41. 

The level 
of corona 
activity on 
a DC conductor, 

and 
the resulting 
space 
charge 
density. 
tends 
to rise 
1339
as 
the 
corona source 
density on 
the 
conductor 
in 

creases. 
Hbwever. corona activity is a selflimiting 

process 
and will approach a finite limit 
if the number 

of 
corona 
sources increased 
indefinitely. 
This state 

of 
maximum 
corona activity 
is 
called 
the "corona 

sat ura t ed " 
s tat e. 

The corona saturated 
state (maximum corona) 
of 
a 

conductor 
is the opposite extreme 
of the electrostatic 

state (no corona). Whereas in the electrostatic state 

all charge is confined to the conductor and there is 

no 
local 
space charge. 
in 
the 
saturated 
state 
all 

charge 
is 
released into 
s??ce 
through corona activity 

due 
to 
the 
extreme, 
or 
saturated". 
abundance 
of 

corona 
sources on the 
conductor 
surface. 
No charge 

can reside on the conductor and there _{i}_{s} 
a high degree 

of local space charge. In an actual transmission line situation the 

corona 
level 
will lie 
somewhere between 
the electros 

tatic and 
saturated levels. 
and _{i}_{s} 
characterized 
by 

the '.degree 
of saturation.' 
(DS). 
The 
degree 
of 

saturation 
is a function of surface 
gradient 
and 

weather 
condition 
given by: 

DS 
= 1  C41 and is ea(GGo) 

where: 
G 
= surface 
gradient 

a. 
Go 
= weather 
dependent 
constants 
(Go can 
be 

thought of 
as 
a 
corona 
onset gradient) 

The 
ground 
level DC 
electric field and 
ion current 

density are 
then given by 

E 

J 

where: 
Eo = 

E, 
electrostatic electric field corona saturated electric field corona 

J, 
= 
saturated ion current density 

The electrostatic electric field is calculated by 

the method 
of images just 
as 
the 
AC electric field 
is 

calculated. 
The corona 
saturated values 
of electric 
field and current density are calculated simul taneously by making The assumption that the field lines do not change their shape frm the electrostatic
case. 
This assumption 
is 
often 
referred 
to 
as 
the 

Deutsch assumption 
[12]. 
Charge released by 
corona 
on 

the 
conductor mwes 
out 
and awdy 
from 
the 
conductor 

and 
flows to ground along the field 
lines. 
Concep 

tually. the charge flowing from a point 
on the conduc 

tor 
to ground can be thought 
of 
as 
forming a 
tube of 

flux. 
The flux 
tube 
reaches 
a saturated 
conditipa 

when 
the potential 
along 
the 
length 
of 
the 
flux tube 

from 
ground to the 
conductor. 
due only 
to 
the 
charge 

within 
the flux tube. 
is 
equal 
to the voltage 
on 
the 

conductor (all the 
charge 
is 
in 
space; 
none 
is 
on 
the 

conductor). 

The ground level 
AC electric field in 
a 
hybrid 

corridor can be 
calculated. 
regardless of 
the 
ener 

gization level of 
the DC conductors. 
by 
existing tech 

niques for pure AC corridors 
[SI. 
For purposes 
of 
the 

AC field calculations the DC conductors are treated 
as 

grounded. Similarly. the ground level DC electric 

field 
and ion levels can be calculated by 
techniques 

developed for pure 
DC 
transmission 
C41. treating 
the 

AC 
conductors as 
ground wires. 
There 
is 
no 
interac 

tion 
between the 
AC and 
DC 
lines 
as far 
as 
the 

electric fields 
and 
ions 
are 
concerned 
based 
on 

reduced scale and full scale line tests at HVTRC. 
A 

similar conclusion 
was 
reached 
by 
Maruvada 
and 
Drogi 

C91 based on there calculation 
techniques. 

However, the electric fields and ions interact 
to 

cause 
human sensations 
when 
under 
or 
very 
near 
the 

lines. 
For instance, 
if 
an 
AC 
field 
and 
a 
DC 
field 

acting separately each cause a 
sensation which 
is just 
1340
perceptible. 
their simultaneous presence may cause a 

sensation level which is very annoying. To provide a data base for the evaluation of 

ception 
levels 
as 
a function of per the local electrical 

environment. observations were made under a hybrid 

test line 
at WTRC 
by a number 
of utility and 
GE 
en 

gineers. Because sensation meters do not 
exist 
"measurements" were made based on the judgments of the participating individuals.
Each person rated various sensations at measure
ment 
locations 
along the lateral 
profile 
of 
a hybrid 

test 
line while 
the DC field. 
AC field. 
and ion cur 

rent density were 
simultaneously monitored at 
each of 

the locations. 
The sensations were rated 
_{o}_{n} _{a} 
scale 
of 

0 
to 5 as follows: 

0 
 not perceptible 

1 
 just 
perceptible 

2 
 definitely perceptible. 
but not annoying 

3 
 slightly annoying 

4 
 very 
annoying 

5 
 intolerable 
Similar perception scales and
sensation "measurement"
techniques have been previously used to ewaluate the sensations produced under RVDC transmission lines cl01 and €WAC transmission lines 131. Three types of human sensation were considered;
head hair sensation. spark discharge of a grounded person to an insulated object (umbrella). and spark discharge of an insulated person to a groimded object (ground rdd).
Head hair 
sensation is the perception experienced 

by electrical stimulation of the hair on the head and 

back of the neck. It also includes facial hair such 

as eyebrows. mustache. 
beard. 
and 
sideburns. 

The 
spark 
discharge 
to 
an 
umbrella 
sehsation 
is 

experienced by 
standing on the ground while holding an 

open umbrella. The umbrella is held by its insulated hand grip with four fingers while the thumb is slowly 

moved toward the metal 
shaft. 
Under proper electrical 

conditions a spark will jump between the thumb and the umbrella's shaft6 

The spark discharge 
to 
a 
grounded 
object sensa 

tion 
is very 
similar 
to 
the 
spark 
to 
umbrella sensa 

tion. 
In this 
case, an observer stands on an insu 

lated pad while 
slowly moving an index'finger 
toward a 

three foot high 
metal 
rod 
which 
extends 
into 
the 

ground. 

Analysis of 
the data 
indicates that 
the head hair 

sensation 
level is best characterized 
as 
a 
function of 

both the AC and DC electric fields. 
and that 
the 
spark 

discharge type sensations are best described as a 

function of AC 
electric field and DC 
ion 
current 
den 

sity. 
The results of 
the sensation 
"measurements" made 

in fair weather are summarized 
in Figures 
4. 5. and 
6. 

Figure 4 shows the head 
hair 
sensation level as a 

function of DC electric field for five different 

values of 
AC electric field. 
Figures 
5 
and 
6 
show the 

spark sensation levels, 
for an insulated umbrella 
to 
a 

grounded person and for an insulated person to a 

grounded 
rod, 
as 
a fuhction of 
DC 
ion 
current 
density 

for 
five different 
values 
of 
AC electric field. 
If 

the AC field. 
De 
field. 
and ion 
current density 
are 

known at 
a particular 
place 
near 
a hylyid 
line. 
then 

the 
expected 
sensation levels 
can 
be 
calculated'. 
by 

referring to the graphs of Figures 4. 
5. 
and 6. 
and 

properly interpolating. 

The 
audible 
noise 
in 
fair 
and 
foul weather 
is 

calculated using 
equations developed 
as 
a 
result 
of 

HVAC C31 and BVDC C21 research  programs 
at HVTRC. 

The 
audible 
noise 
of 
the AC lines 
ill 
a hybrid 
HEAD HAIR SENSATION
0 
0 
9 
2 CC Clectrr e 5' Field 'k"'I1) A'.l,o. 
x 
15 

AC Electric Field (kV/m) 

Figure 
4. 
Averaged 
head hair sensation 
levels 
as 
a 

function of 
DC 
electric 
field for AC 
electric 
fields 

of 
0. 2. 5. 10. and 15 kV/M. as indicated. 

SPARK TO UMBRELLA 

0 

Ion Current Density (6 MZ) 

00 
C2 
OS Ad 
X10 

AC Electric Field (kV/l) 

Figure 
5. 
Averaged 
spark discharge of grounded person 

to 
insulated umbrella 
sensation as 
a function 
of 
DC 

ion current density for AC electric fields of 01 2. 5. 

8. 
and 
10 kV/M. 

SPARK TO GROUND 
ROD 

00 
+2 
Ion Curnnt (&/U2 os All 
x10 
Figure 6.
Averaged
AC Electric Field (kVlm)
spark discharge from
insulated per
son to ground rod sensation as a function of DC ion
current density for AC electric fields of and 10 kV/M.
0.
2.
5. 8.
corridor is a function of the 
positive peak 
of 
the 

conductor surface gradient. 
This peak 
gradient 
is 
the 

result of both AC and DC voltages and is calculated 

without accounting for space charge. The space charge 

has two effects: 
the DC space charge tends to increase 

the 
DC component 
of the surface gradient 
on 
the 
AC 

conductors. while 
the 
AC space 
charge 
tends 
to 
reduce 

the effect of the DC bias on the AC conductors' sur 

face 
gradient. 
Sincethese 
two effects will tend 
to 

cancel each other and are difficult to take into ac 

count. 
they are 
neglected. The effect 
of space 
charge 

on the conductor surface gradient _{i}_{s} typically neglected in the calculations of audible noise and 

radio 
noise for 
both 
AC and 
DC lines 
C5.6.71. 
Excep 

tions are the 
papers by 
Sunaga et. 
al. 
C81 and 

Fukushima et. al. 
cl11 where 
they calculate 
the con 

ductor 
surface gradient 
including the contribution due 
to space charge. Sunaga reports on the radio inter ference performance and Fukushima reports on the
audible noise performance of DC conductor configura
tions. However.
these papers report studies at
gradients higher than typical DC line gradienta. At
the higher gradients the contribution of space charge
to the gradient would
be more noticeable and should
not be neglected. The electrostatic (space charge not considered)
conductor 
surface gradient 
is 
used 
here 
in 
the 
cal 

culations 
of 
audible noise. 
The 
following 
equations 

are used: 

For n < 3 the following empirical equation is 
used: 

_{A}_{H}_{R} _{=} _{}_{3}_{9}_{.}_{1} 
+ 
44 
log 
d 
+ 
20 
log 
n 
+ 
Kn 
where 

AHR 
is the generated acoustic power in 

heavyrain (dB above 
lUW/m) 

E 
is the maximum positive peak surface electric 

field (kV/cm) 

d 
is 
the subconductor diameter 
(cm) 

n 
is the number of subconductors in a bundle 

Kn = 
2.6 
for 
n 
= 2 

Kn = 
7.5 
fpr 
n 
= 
1 

For 
n 
> 2 the following empirical 
equation is used: 

_{A}_{H}_{R} 
_{=} _{4}_{6}_{.}_{4} 
+ 44 
log 
d 
+ 
20 
log 
n 
where D is the bundle diamete: in centimeters.
The acoustic 
power 
is 
also calculated for the 

maximum negative peak surface gradient. E(). on each conductor using the same equations as above. but with 

the absolute value 
of 
E() 
instead 
of 
E(+) and 
sub 

tracting 4 dB from the equation due to the lower 

amount of audible noise produced 
by 
negative polarity 

corona. 

The value of 
AR~used 
for 
each 
conductor 
when 

calculating the total 
audible 
noise 
produced 
by 
the 

line is the maximum among the two values obtained 

using E(+) and E(). 
The audible noise level for wet
conductor condi
tions is determined by
calculating a correction factor
(CF) to apply to the results obtained for heavy rain
conditions. The techniques used for calculating the heavy rain to wet conductor correctio?. factor are
those used
for
AC
audible
noise
in
the
Transmission
Line Reference Book  345 kV and Above" C31.
1341
The "critical gradient' 
.. 
E,, 
at which 
the audible 

noise 
in wet 
condition 
is 
6 
dB 
lower 
than 
the audible 

noise 
in heavy 
rain 
depends 
on the 
subconductor 

diameter 
d. 
and 
is calculated with the 
following 
em 

pirical 
equation: 

= 24.4/d0.24 

d 
in cm. 
E, 
in kV/cm 

The correction factor CF is: 

for 
n < 
4 

CF 
= 8.2 
14.2 
E,/E 

and 
for 
n 
> 
3 

CF 
= 10.4 
14.26 
Ec/E 
*(nl)*d 

D 

where 

E 
is the maximum positive 
(or negative) peak 

surf ace electric field 

n 
is the number 
of 
subconductors 
in 
a bundle 

d 
is the subconductor diameter 

D 
is the bundle diameter 

The generated acoustic power for a wet 
conductor is: 

&wc = AHR 
+ 
CF 

where %R 
is 
the 
generated 
acoustic 
power 
determined 

for heavy rain 

The audible noise 
level 
in summer fair weather 

conditions is 
determined in 
the 
same way 
as that 
used 

for wet conductor conditions. 
A 
correction factor 
to 
apply to the results obtained for heavy rain condi
tions is calculated. The focus of the audible noise calculations is on heavy rain conditions because the highest levels of audible noise for AC corridors and
hybrid corridors will usually dit ions. 
occur in heavy rain 
con 

The "critical 
gradient" 
for 
sumer fair weather 

ECF 
is calculated with 
the 
following empirical 

equation: 

ECF 
= 
E, 
+ 
10 

ECF. 
E, 
in kV/cm; E, 
is 
calculated as shown 

above 

The 
correction 
factor 
CF 
is 
calculated. for 
any 

number of 
subconductors 
in 
a 
bundle, 
with the follow 

ing empirical equation: 

CF = 
8.2 
14.2fi 
EcF/E 

The 
generated 
acoustic 
power 
in 
summer 
fair 

weather 
is: 

AFW = 
&R 
+ 
CF 

Few 
experimental 
data 
are available for hybrid 

situations. 
It 
is 
assumed 
that 
the 
AC 
ripple on 
the 

DC surface gradient 
has 
little effect 
on the noise. 
at 

least if 
this ripple is 
small. 
The generated acoustic 

power is primarily a function of the positive DC 

gradient 
only. 
Negative polarity corona produces much 
less noise then positive polarity corona and is neglected _{.}
The following
empirical
equation
is used
for
the
1342
summer fair weather 
acoustic 
power 
generated 
by 
the 

positive polarity _{D}_{C} conductors: 

AFW 
= 
57.4 
+ 124 logo 
+ 25 log 4 

+ 
18 
10 + 25 Kn 
4.45 

2 

where _{:} 

AFW is 
the generated acoustic 
power i n f a i r 

weather 
(dB above 1aW/m) 

g 
is 
the positive DC conductor surface 

gradient (kV/crc) 

d 
is the subconductor diameter (cm) 

n 
is 
the number of subconductors 

Kn 
= o 
for 
n z 
3 

Kn 
= 
2.6 
for 
n 
= 
2 

Kn 
= 
7.5 
for 
n 

1 

and Wet Conductor 

The following 
equation 
is used for the 
acoustic 

power 
of 
the 
positive 
polarity 
_{D}_{C} conductor 
in 
wet 

conditions 
(Aw,) Or heavy rain conditions (ABR). 

AHR 
= 
Awc 
= 
AFW 6 
dB 

a1 Drou 
of 
aal~ no&.The 
lateral 
profile of audible noise for each weather condition
(fair weather. wet conductor. heavy rain) is calcu
lated from the generated acoustic power of
each
con
ductor using the following equation:
P 

A + 
114.3 
 
10 
log 
R 
 0.02R 
where : 
A is the generated acoustic power (dB above
1 
w/m) 

P is the audible noise pressure 
(dBA) 

R 
is 
the distance between conductor 
and 

measuring point 
_{(}_{m}_{)} 

The 
term "10 log 
R" 
accounts for 
dispersion of 

the acoustic power with distance. The _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m} "0.02R" ac 

counts for 
atmospheric 
absorption of 
the acoustic 

power with distance. 

The total audible noise is calculated combining 

the audible noise of all 
the 
AC and 
DC 
conductors. 
The total audible noise pressure is equal to the
square root of 
the 
sum 
of 
the squares 
of the audible 

noise produced caused by each conductor. 

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