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MW PLANNING

MICROWAVE PLANNING WITH PATHLOSS 4

02

Update

01

1 February 2000

Creation

Jean Noel Lefoll

Serge Vicrobeck

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DATE

CHANGE NOTE

APPRAISAL AUTHORITY

ORIGINATOR

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DOCUMENT HISTORY
EDITION

DATE

ORIGINATOR

OBJECT

01

1 February 2000

Serge Vicrobeck

Creation

02

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REFERENCES DOCUMENTS
-

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Pathloss 4 User Manual

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................6
2 SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................7
3 TERRAIN DATA......................................................................................................................10
3.1
3.2
3.3

PATH PROFILE................................................................................................................10
SITE COORDINATES REFERENCE.....................................................................................11
SITE COORDINATES ENTRY............................................................................................12

4 ANTENNA HEIGHT...............................................................................................................13
4.1
4.2
4.3

CLEARANCE CRITERIA FOR ALCATEL MICROWAVE DESIGN......................................13


SET CLEARANCE CRITERIA WITH PAHLOSS VERSION 4.0............................................14
ANTENNA CONFIGURATION...........................................................................................15

5 PRINT PROFILE.....................................................................................................................16
5.1
5.2

DRAW A PROFILE WITH THE DIFFERENT FRESNEL ZONES...........................................16


TO GIVE A TITLE TO A PROFILE.....................................................................................17

6 MULTIPATH............................................................................................................................18
7 REFLECTIONS.......................................................................................................................20
7.1
REFLECTIVE PLANE........................................................................................................20
7.2
FIELD AND ANTENNAS CHARACTERISTICS.....................................................................21
7.2.1 Calculate roughness of reflective plane.......................................................................21
7.2.2 Modify Reflection parameters......................................................................................22
7.2.3 Reflections analysis......................................................................................................23
8 DIFFRACTION........................................................................................................................25
8.1
8.2

DRAW FRESNEL ZONE.................................................................................................25


DIFFRACTION METHOD..................................................................................................26

9 WORKSHEET.........................................................................................................................29
9.1
EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS......................................................................................30
9.1.1 Antenna information....................................................................................................30
9.1.2 To enter antenna characteristics using antenna database...........................................32
9.2
CABLE INFORMATION.....................................................................................................33
9.3
RADIO INFORMATION.....................................................................................................34
9.4
CHANNEL INFORMATION................................................................................................35
9.5
RELIABILITY METHOD...................................................................................................37
9.6
PATH PROFILE DATA.......................................................................................................38
9.6.1 Path profile with ITU-R 530 - 7 Recommendation method.........................................38
9.6.2 Path profile with VIGANT - BARNETT method...........................................................41
9.7
RAIN CALCULATION.......................................................................................................43
9.8
CHECK PATH RELIABILITY..............................................................................................45
9.8.1 Frequency diversity......................................................................................................46

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9.8.2 Space diversity.............................................................................................................48


10 NETWORK............................................................................................................................49
10.1
10.2

ANTENNA, CABLE AND RADIO DATABASE.....................................................................50


INTERFERENCE CALCULATION........................................................................................50

11 MICROWAVE DESIGN........................................................................................................54

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1 INTRODUCTION
In this document we will describe the different steps of Microwave Network Design with
PATHLOSS version 4.0.
PATHLOSS is a software edited by Contract Telecommunication Engineering LTD (CTE):
2007 CAPE HORN AVENUE,
COQUITLAM, B. C. Canada V3K 1 J2
Tel: (604) 522-0660
Fax: (604) 522-0624
E-mail: cte@pathloss.com
Web Site: www.pathloss.com ,
This software is composed of different modules making different kinds of calculations.
In this document we will describe only the modules useful for Microwave Network Design;
for more information it is recommended to read PATHLOSS Version 4.0 documentation.
Chapter 1 deals with Summary which is the default start-up module. It provides a central
entry display for site data and application specific options. It is also the interface to site
database.
In chapter 2, we describe the Terrain Data. This module is used to create or edit a path
profile using manual data entry or digitising table.
In chapter 3, the Antenna Heights is described. This module calculates the antenna
heights that satisfy a set of clearance criteria.
Chapter 4 presents the module Print Profile. This module prints the profile from terrain
data.
In chapter 5 we present Mutipath module; it employs ray tracing techniques to determine
the reflective characteristics of a path.
Chapter 6 deals with Reflection module which analyses the effects of a single specular
reflection on a path.
In chapter 7 Diffraction module is presented. It is used to calculate diffraction and
tropospheric scatter loss on transmission and interference paths.
Chapter 8 deals with Worksheets module. It provides detailed data entry forms for
equipment and path parameters required for transmission calculations. Multipath
propagation reliability and rain attenuation are calculated in microwave worksheet.
In chapter 9, Network module is described; it provides a graphical representation of a
network of sites. Interference calculations are made in this module.
Finally in chapter 10 we explain how to use all these modules when making Microwave
Network Design.

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2 SUMMARY
This module is the start up display in PATHLOSS program.

Figure 1: The summary module.


It provides a central location for the entry of path data parameters.
It provides also the interface to the PATHLOSS site database for data entry and interference
analysis.
Site Name : this entry can be made only from this module,
Call sign : each must have its own call sign ; this entry is required for Interference
calculations,
Station Code : information only,
State : information only,
Owner code : it is used in site database to facilitate transfer to site database,
Latitude : it can be entered in summary module but it is better to use Terrain
Data module,
Longitude : it can be entered in summary module but it is better to use Terrain
Data module,
True azimuth : it is calculated from geographic coordinates and reference
ellipsoid defined in datum,
Calculated distance : it is calculated from geographic coordinates and reference
ellipsoid defined in datum,

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Profile distance : it is the distance of the last point on profile ; it should be equal
to calculated distance,
Ellipsoid : it indicates datum or ellipsoid depending on the geographic default
settings defined in Terrain Data module,
Elevation : when a profile exists, it contains the altitude of first and last points of
the profile,
Tower height : it is used as upper limit of antenna height calculation and it
should be entered in Terrain Data module,
TR Antenna Height : It is measured from ground level and should be entered
from Terrain Data module,
Code : it is a reference to a file containing all characteristics of antennas. In
Summary module select Equipment / Antenna Index and click on New Index to
go to directory where characteristics are registered.

Figure 2: How to select an antenna database.

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Tx loss : it is loss measured from transmitter output to antenna output ; it should


be entered from Worksheet module,
Rx loss : it is loss measured from receiver output to antenna output ; it should be
entered from Worksheet module,
Operator code : it is used in site database to facilitate transfer to site database,
Radio model : it is only information,
Code : it is a reference to a file containing all characteristics of antennas. In
Summary module select Equipment / Radio Index and click on New Index to
go to directory where characteristics are registered

Figure 3: How to select a radio database.


Emission designator : it is only information,
Traffic Code : the user specify the digital capacity and modulation ; for an
ALCATEL A9400 4 Mbit/s and 4 QAM enter 4 E1 - 4QAM,
Tx power (dBm) : it is Transmitter power ; this value should be entered using
Worksheet module,
Frequency (MHz) : it is the design frequency used for performance parameters
and interference calculations.
Polarization : enter antenna polarisation,
Free Space loss (dB) : it is calculated from Worksheet module,
EIRP (dBm) : it is Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power calculated from Worksheet
module,
Rx Signal (dBm) : it is calculated from Worksheet module.

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3 TERRAIN DATA
3.1 Path profile
The terrain data module is used to create a terrain profile and it is available clicking on
Module/Terrain Data.
It consists in a table with different columns:
Scale: the scale of profile drawing,
Distance: distance in kms,
Elevation: altitude of site in m,
Structure: type of obstacle (tree, building, range of trees, range of buildings),
Height: height of obstacle in m,
Ground: kind of ground (poor, average, good, salt water, fresh water, salt water)
according to agricultural property to calculate its conductivity and its relative
dielectric constant. For example rocky terrain and desert are considered as poor
ground while fertile soil is a good terrain.

Figure 4:How to enter distance and altitude.

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If you enter manually the profile, you should enter:


the distance from site 1 to site 2 of each terrain elevation,
the elevation,
the structure if there is an obstacle,
the height of this obstacle if it exists,
the ground type if it is not average (default value of ground type).
To cancel a entry, click on F6 and choose the point(s) you want to cancel.

3.2 Site coordinates Reference


Before entering the sites coordinates geographic parameters must be specified. The choice
is made selecting Configure/Geographic Defaults.

Figure 5: Choice of reference for coordinates.


The user must select the reference used to display coordinates. This reference is an ellipsoid
used to calculate distance and azimuths from the geographic coordinates and to convert
geographic coordinates to grid coordinates such as Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM).
It can be either:
Use / datum. WGS 84 is an example of datum most commonly used by GPS
(Global Positioning System) to give coordinates. Note that when a datum is
selected a ellipsoid is automatically chosen.
Use / Ellipsoid. If the coordinates are taken from a map the ellipsoid reference is
indicated and must be entered.

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The grid coordinates system must be specified. In general UTM is used unless a specific
system is used for the map.
The option Latitude / Northern Hemisphere and Longitude / Western Hemisphere are
selected by default. That means that positive latitude like 4 24 32 will be in the north and
negative latitude like -4 24 32 will be in the south while positive longitude is in the west
and negative longitude in the east.
Click OK to validate the geographic references.

3.3 Site Coordinates Entry


When the Geographic References are selected, the user can enter the site coordinates
clicking on Coordinates / inverse.

Figure 6: How to enter coordinates.


The user enters the Latitude and Longitude Coordinates dd (space) mm (space) ss.
If Latitude and Longitude have been defined as explained in chapter 2.2, when you write 18
48 05 for latitude and 49 05 02 for longitude that means that the site in North East
Hemisphere.
True azimuth, Distance, Easting, Northing and UTM zone values are automatically
calculated.

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4 ANTENNA HEIGHT
4.1 Clearance criteria for ALCATEL MicroWave Design
Let us remember the clearance criteria rules used by ALCATEL NANTERRE:
If frequency < 3 GHz:
for K= 4/3 (K is Earth radius factor), 60% of the First FRESNEL zone must be clear
of obstacle,
for K= Kmin:
if there is a spherical obstacle (tree, building), 30% of First FRESNEL zone must be
clear,
if there is a knight edge obstacle (sea, lake, desert), 0% of First FRESNEL zone must
be clear.
Kmin is calculated from figure 2 of Recommendation UIT-R P 530-7 for distance which
exceeds 19 kms and it can be calculated by the following formula:
If 19< d (distance in kms)<= 100, Kmin= 0.414+0.512*{1-[(d-117)/102]} 1/2,
If d>100, Kmin= Log(d/100)/3.7488 + 0.9197.
If frequency > 3 GHz:
for K= 4/3, 100% of First FRESNEL must be clear of obstacle,
for K= Kmin:
if there is a spherical obstacle, 30% of First FRESNEL zone must be clear,
if there is a knight edge obstacle, 0% of First FRESNEL zone must be clear.

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4.2 Set clearance criteria with PAHLOSS version 4.0


When a terrain profile is entered the Set clearance criteria function will help the user to
determine the height of antennas to comply with ALCATEL clearance criteria.
Select Operations/ Set Clearance Criteria.

Figure 7: Set clearance criteria.


In the table Set Clearance criteria according the rules defined in previous chapter. If there is
a diversity antenna the column diversity must be filled in.
1 st Criteria K, enter 1.33 (K=4/3),
1 st Criteria - % F1, enter clearance percentage taking into account the
frequency (above or below 3 GHz),
2 nd Criteria K, enter Kmin if distance is above 19 kms,
2 nd Criteria -%F1, enter the clearance percentage taking into account the
frequency, and the kind of obtacle.
Frequency: enter frequency in MHz.
To erase entry push F3 button.
To decide if a obstacle has to be considered as a knight edge or a spherical obstacle, use
module Print Profile in following chapter.

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4.3 Antenna Configuration


In Antenna Height module select Configure / Antenna Configuration to choose antenna
configuration.

Figure 8: How to select antenna configuration.


TR - TR : a single antenna is used at each site to transmit and receive,
TRDR - TRDR : two antennas are used at each site in a space diversity
configuration. The TR antenna is used to transmit and receive. The DR antenna is
the diversity receive only antenna,
TXRX - TXRX : two antennas are used at each site to transmit (TX) and receive
(RX),
TXRXDR - TXRXDR : three antennas are used at each site to transmit (TX),
receive (RX) and space diversity receive (DR),
TX - RX : Transmit at site 1 and receive at site 2,
TX - RXDR : Transmit at site 1, receive and diversity receive at site 2,
RX - TX : Receive at site 1 and transmit at site 2,
RXDR - TX : Receive and Diversity receive antennas at site 1 and transmit at site
2
TR - TRTH : this is an hybrid diversity configuration which uses frequency
diversity in both directions and space diversity at site 2. At site 2 TR antenna and
TH antenna each transmit and receive one pair of the frequencies.
TRTH - TR : this is an hybrid diversity configuration which uses frequency

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diversity in both directions and space diversity at site 1. At site 1 TR antenna and
TH antenna each transmit and receive one pair of the frequencies.

5 PRINT PROFILE
5.1 Draw a profile with the different FRESNEL Zones
To draw a profile, select Module / Print Profile, then select Format/Flat Earth,

Figure 9: Draw a profile.


Two options are possible: Use clearance Criteria
1) is selected: the profile and FRESNEL Ellipsoid will be drawn with Earth Radius
Factor K and corresponding percentage of FRESNEL Zone Reference as defined in
module Antenna Height/Set Clearance Criteria.
In the example above we drew
100% of First FRESNEL Ellipsoid with K=4/3,
30% of First FRESNEL Ellipsoid with K=Kmin=0.57,
2) is not selected: the user can enter his value of with Earth Radius Factor K and
corresponding percentage of FRESNEL Zone Reference.
From this drawing you can decide if an obstacle is knight edge or spherical.

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5.2 To give a Title to a profile


This is used to add information about the profile. In module Print Profile select Format/Title
block:

Figure 10: Give a title to a profile.

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First line can be the name of the country,


Second line can be site 1 name site 2 name,
Drawing number can be the PATHLOSS file name,
Initial can be initials of the profile designer,
Company name can be ALCATEL.

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6 MULTIPATH
This module is used to analyse propagation and ground reflection on line of sight paths.
Select Multipath.
Choose Method / Variable Gradient, a number of rays will be drawn about the central ray
over the user defined angle.
Those rays will be reflected on ground but not on obstacles like trees or buildings.

Figure 11:How to analyse multipath.


Complete the following parameters:
Number of Rays: number of rays to draw, choose 50 by default,
Total Display angle: the number of rays will be homogeneously distributed in
this angle,
Antenna Orientation: enter 1.33,
Site 1 Antenna Height: is the height of site 1 antenna taken from Antenna
Height module,
Site 2 Antenna Height: is the height of site 2 antenna taken from Antenna
Height module,
Ground Reflections: select the number of reflection you want to take into
account or choose Single Reflection by default.
From this draw you can identify the range of distance corresponding to the area where
microwaves are reflected towards site 2. On the example this range is 14 - 24 kms.

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Note that PATHLOSS do not consider the width of trees and buildings and for Multipath
program, reflected radio waves can be propagated around obstacles (see previous figure).
To decide if reflection will occur, you van calculate the width of FRESNEL Ellipsoid where
reflection occurs and compare this value with the width of the obstacle; if the width obstacle
is greater reflection may not occur.
The width of FRESNEL Ellipsoid can be obtain selecting Module /Diffraction:

Figure 12: How to know First FRESNEL Zone radius on a point.

Put the red arrow on the area where reflection can occur,
click on Status Bar Functions distance - elevation (on the previous figure, down
the display where 19.14 20.2 is written).

The radius of FRESNEL Zone is line First FRESNEL Zone (F1) m (31.04 m on the example).
This value can be compared to the width of the range of tree.

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7 REFLECTIONS
This module is used to analyse reflections over a line of sight profile

7.1 Reflective plane


Before analysing reflections a Reflective plane must be defined.
Select Module / Reflection and click on Define Plane:

Figure 13: How to define a reflective plane.


In many cases the Multipath module will indicate the extends of reflection area (for hardest
cases refer to the method given in PATHLOSS documentation book, chapter reflections, page
7 of 16).
On previous chapter we saw that reflection could occur between 14 and 24 kms. So the
reflective plane will include this range of distance.
To define the reflective plane:
click on the left button of the mouse to put the red arrow on the beginning of
reflective plane (before 14 kms on the example),
click on the right button to select this point,
click on the left button of the mouse to put the red arrow on the end of reflective
plane (after 24 kms on the example),
click on the right button to select this point.
Then click on OK.

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7.2 Field and antennas characteristics


Before analising the combination of direct and reflected signal, you must specify some
characteristics that impact on magnitude of reflected signal.

7.2.1 Calculate roughness of reflective plane


In Reflections module select, Modify roughness

Figure 14: How to define roughness.


You must define the limits of reflective plane to calculate its roughness:
click on the left button of the mouse to put the red arrow on the beginning of
reflective plane (before 14 kms on the example),
click on the right button to select this point,
click on the left button of the mouse to put the red arrow on the end of reflective
plane (after 24 kms on the example),
click on the right button to select this point.
Then click on OK

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7.2.2 Modify Reflection parameters


In Reflection module select Modify / Parameters:

Figure 15: To modify reflection parameters.

Terrain roughness: the program takes into account the value calculated using
the function Modify / roughness as seen in previous chapter,
Ground Cover Clearance Loss: a loss of reflected signal can be entered
according the following table:

Ground Cover
Water, desert or salt flats
Fields with low vegetation and low grass
Sage brush, Fields with high vegetation and high grass
Partially wooded areas including trees along roads which are perpendicular
to the path

Loss
0 to 1 dB
1 to 3 dB
3 to 6 dB
8 to 15 dB

Table 1: Loss of reflected signal.

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Site 1 Antenna 3 dB Bandwidth () : enter the bandwidth of site 1 antenna,


Site 2 Antenna 3 dB Bandwidth () : enter the bandwidth of site 2 antenna,
Use divergence: this parameter must be selected to take into account the
scattering of a reflected signal due to the curvature of the earth.

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7.2.3 Reflections analysis


In Reflections module select Variable/ Earth Radius Factor (K):

Figure 16: How to define parameters for reflection analysis


You must specify the parameter of the analysis:
Start Earth Radius Factor (K): enter Kmin value or 0.7 per default,
End Earth Radius Factor (K): enter 100 to analyse reflections for great range of
values,
Site 1 antenna Height (m): the program takes the value from antenna height
module,
Site 2 antenna Height (m): the program takes the value from antenna height
module,
Frequency (MHz): the program takes the value from antenna height module,
Polarization: select the polarization of the antennas.

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A drawing will be displayed showing the variation of Relative Received Signal (sum of direct
end reflected signal) against arctan (K) in where K is Earth Radius Factor.

Figure 17: Reflection analysis.


Due to the variation of climatic conditions, Earth Radius Factor (K) will change with time.
Because of this variation of K factor, we must ensure for a Radio path that there is no great
fading (Relative receive signal below 6 dB) around standard value of K (K=4/3).
On the previous figure we can see that there is no fading around K=4/3 as Relative Receive
Signal is positive.

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8 DIFFRACTION
This module is used to calculate loss diffraction due to terrain, over ground obstacles like
trees and buildings.
This module is available selecting Module / Diffraction.

8.1 Draw FRESNEL Zone


This function allows the user to see if terrain or over ground obstructions enters the First
FRESNEL Zone. In diffraction module click on Operations / FRESNEL Zone.

Figure 18 : How to draw FRESNEL Zone.


% First FRESNEL Zone : Enter the value of First FRESNEL Zone according
ALCATEL clearance rules,
FRESNEL number : you can choose the FRESNEL number ellipsoid you want to
display,
Type / End to end means that the ellipsoid will be drawn between site 1 and 2,
Label will put the percentage of First FRESNEL zone on the ellipsoid,
select draw to display the ellipsoid,
select erase all to cancel all ellipsoids,
close will validate your entry.

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8.2 Diffraction method


To analyse diffraction loss, it is necessary to select a diffraction method.

Figure 17: How to choose a diffraction method.


Different methods are available to calculate diffraction loss.
There are two kinds of methods :
automatics :
PATHLOSS for every kind of paths,
NSMA for paths obstructed by terrain,
TIREM for paths obstructed by terrain,
manual :
Knife edge for thin obstacle like trees or buildings,
Isolated Obstacle for spherical obstacle,
Average for obstacle between knight edge and spherical obstacle.

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Other algorithms are use by automatic methods:


Height gain is only used for paths obstructed by terrain,
Longley & Rice IRRT is used for Line of Sight or obstructed paths,
Two ray Optics is used on Line Of Sight paths.
When analysing diffraction losses over a Microwaves link use PATHLOSS method.
For critical applications PATHLOSS results can be compare to manual method results.
The functions used by PATHLOSS method can be chosen, but it is better to use the default
algorithms, selecting in Diffraction module Options / PATHLOSS Algorithm / Defaults as
shown in figure below.

Figure 18 : Configuration of PATHLOSS method.

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In the following table we describe how to calculate diffraction losses using the methods that
suit with microwave applications.
Method
PATHLOSS
Knife edge

How to calculate diffraction losses


F9 button to display the results
Put red arrow on peak,
F9 to display results.
Put red arrow on peak,
F9 to display results.
Put red arrow on peak,
F7 to initiate the calculation,
move the mouse cursor to one of grip box at the of arc to fit
with the obstacle (see figure below),
F9 button to display results.

Average
Isolated
Obstacle

Table 2 : Methods for diffraction loss calculation.

Figure 19 : Example of calculation with Isolated Obstacle method.


Some remarks about PATHLOSS method :
when PATHLOSS calculates losses due to buildings and trees, knight edge method
is used to calculate loss due to these obstacles,
when several trees enter into the path profile, the loss of each tree is calculated

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and the path tree will be the maximum of individual losses.

9 WORKSHEET
This module is used to calculate path budget and to check path reliability according
recommendation ITU-R F.634-4. To access to this module select Module / Worksheet.

Figure 20 : The Worksheet Module.

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9.1 Equipment characteristics


To calculate path budget, information concerning cable, antenna, radio equipment have to
be entered by the user.
We will describe how to fill in the different table.

9.1.1 Antenna information


In the drawing of Worksheet module, click on the antenna.

Figure 21 : Antenna information table.


Antenna information can be entered manually or selecting an antenna in antenna database
when this data base is available.

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9.1.1.1 To enter antenna characteristics manually


The user specifies :
Antenna model : enter antenna reference, it is only for information,
Antenna diameter (m) : enter antenna diameter, it is only for information,
Antenna Height (m) : this value is taken from antenna height module by default
but it can be entered manually,
Antenna Gain (dBi) : enter antenna gain in dBi,
Radome loss (dB ) : in general this loss is taken into account in the antenna
gain,
Code: it is the antenna code, it remains blank unless a antenna database is used,
Antenna 3 dB Beamwidth () :enter antenna beamwidth,
True azimuth () : it is calculated from site coordinates in Terrain data module,
Vertical Angle () : it is calculated from site elevation in Terrain data module,
Antenna Azimuth () : for point to multi - point application one antenna can be a
hub for remote sites as shown on figure below, and the azimuth has to be entered
by the user.

Figure 22 : A Multi-point application.


On this figure Grande Prairie has one directional antenna that communicates with
BEAVERLODGE and WOKING.
The antenna of Grande Prairie can be oriented to azimuth 315. This azimuth is

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different from true azimuth between Grande Prairie - WOKING (0) and Grande Prairie BEAVERLODGE (270), and that will imply an orientation loss between the hub and remote
sites.
Antenna Downtilt (+/-) : for point to multi - point application one antenna can
be a hub for remote sites as shown on figure below, and the tilt has to be entered
by the user,
Orientation Loss (dB) : orientation loss is calculated if Antenna azimuth and Tilt
are specified by user and also if a antenna database is available.

9.1.2 To enter antenna characteristics using antenna database


To user specifies antenna characteristics selecting in antenna database the desired antenna.
After clicking on the antenna drawing, select Code index.

Figure 23 : How to specify antenna characteristics using Antenna DataBase.


New index : to go to the directory where the antenna database is when it is
available,
View : to see the antenna diagram,
Site 1 : to select the antenna of site 1,
Site 2 : to select the antenna of site 2,
Both : to select antenna for both sites,
Close : to validate the choice.

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Then Antenna model, Antenna diameter, Antenna Height, Antenna Gain, Radome
loss, Code, Antenna 3 dB Beamwidth are filled in, while True azimuth, Vertical
Angle, Orientation loss are calculated.
The user can enter Antenna azimuth and Antenna Downtilt in case of Point - Multi Point
applications.

9.2 Cable information


In the Worksheet module click on cable.

Figure 24 : Cable information table.


The user can enter manually the characteristics of cable or load them using the cable
database when available :
Tx Line Type : the user can enter the cable characteristics or it can be loaded
from cable database ; it is only information,
Tx Line length : enter the length of cable,
Tx Line Unit loss (dB/100 m) : the user can enter Tx Line loss or it can be
loaded from cable database,
Tx Line loss (dB) : the cable loss is calculated from line length and line unit loss,
Connector loss (dB) : enter the connector loss.
To enter cable characteristics using database, click on the cable drawing, select lookup /
Open to go to the directory where the cable database is when it is available.
Site 1 : to select the cable of site 1,

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Site 2 : to select the cable of site 2,


Both : to select cable for both sites,
Close : to validate the choice.

9.3 Radio information


In the Worksheet module click on TR.

Figure 25 : Radio information table.


The user can enter manually the characteristics of cable or load them using the cable
database when available :
Radio model : the user can enter the radio characteristics or it can be loaded
from cable database ; it is only information,
Traffic code : enter traffic code n - modulation code as 2 E1 -4 QAM ; it is
used for interference calculations,
Emission designator : the user can enter the radio characteristics or it can be
loaded from cable database ; it is only information,
Code : the user can enter the code or it can be loaded from cable database, this
code is used for interference calculations,
Tx power (watts) : enter Tx power in watt then Tx power will be calculated dBm,
Tx power (dBm) : enter Tx power in dBm then Tx power will be calculated in
Watt,

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Rx Threshold criteria : enter the kind of threshold BER=10-3,


Rx Threshold level (dBm) : enter Rx threshold level for BER=10-3,

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Maximum Receive signal (dBm) : this value is only for information,


Dispersive fade margin (dB) : it is define for medium and high microwave
capacity ; it is given by formula :
Dispersive Fade Margin (Ad)= 17.6 -10.Log(S/158.4) where S is signature area
for BER=10-3.
Rx Threshold BER 10-6 (dBm) : enter Rx threshold level for BER=10-6,
T to I Cochannel (dB) : The T to I ratio is defined as the ratio of the desired to
the undesired signal power that degrades the digital receiver threshold at BER=10 6
by 1 dB.

To enter radio characteristics using database, click on the TR, select Code index,
New index : to go to the directory where the radio database is when it is
available,
View : to see the radio diagram,
Site 1 : to select the radio of site 1,
Site 2 : to select the radio of site 2,
Both : to select radio for both sites,
Close : to validate the choice.

9.4 Channel information


In Worksheet module click on Ch.

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Figure 26 : Channel information table.


Ch ID : enter the channel number and letter L (low) or H (High) to identify the
upper and the lower frequency of a channel,
Tx (MHz) : enter the corresponding frequency,
ATPC : it is Automatic Transmit Power Control range in dB,
Power reduction : the transmit power from the designed power for an individual
channel,
Polarization : press enter to change polarisation H (Horizontal) or V (Vertical).

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9.5 Reliability Method


In worksheet module select operations / reliability method.
When a microwave link is designed, the reliability of the path has to be checked using a
reliability method.
To choose a reliability method in Worksheet module, select Operations / Reliability
Method.

Figure 27 : How to choose a reliability method.


To be compliant with ITU, the recommendation ITU-R 530-7 must be used for Microwave
design.
This method has to be used for microwave design.
Reliability method : choose Rec. ITU-R P. 530-7 when dimensioning microwave
link,
Time percentage : the user can calculate an availability (99.9999 %) or an
unavailability (0.0001 %) select 0.0001 % per default,
Calculation method :
Total time below level : the results are reported for worst month and
annually,
Worst Month Unavailability - SES (Severely Errored Seconds) : the
results are reported for worst month only select this option when you check
path reliability.

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9.6 Path profile Data


9.6.1 Path profile with ITU-R 530 - 7 Recommendation method
To calculate a path reliability when recommendation ITU-R 530-7 is selected, click on path
drawing and fill in the Path Profile Data.

Figure 28 : The Path Profile Data.


Frequency (MHz) : this value is downloaded from Antenna Height module.
Path length (km) : this value is transferred from Terrain Data module.
Field margin (dB) :it is a safety factor which represents the long term
degradation of connectors and antenna orientation in practical installation. Enter 1
dB.
Diffraction loss (dB) : diffraction loss calculations are carried out in diffraction
module are not automatically transferred.

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Geoclimatic Factor : In the table Path Profile Data, select Geo Clim,

Figure 29 : Geoclimatic factor calculation.

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Latitude : the latitude of mid path is calculated from sites coordinates,


Longitude : the longitude of mid path is calculated from sites coordinates,
Path classification :
Low altitude antenna (0 - 400 m) - Plains : overland or partially links
for which the lower antenna altitude less than 400 m above mean see level
located in largely plains area.
Low altitude antenna (0 - 400 m) - Hills : overland or partially links for
which the lower antenna altitude less than 400 m above mean see level
located in largely hilly area.
Medium altitude antenna (400 - 700 m) - Plains : overland or partially
links for which the lower antenna altitude in the range 400 - 700 m above
mean see level located in largely plains area.
Medium altitude antenna (400 - 700 m) - Hills : overland or partially
links for which the lower antenna altitude in the range 400 - 700 m above
mean see level located in largely hilly area.
High altitude antenna (> 700 m) - Plains : overland or partially links
for which the lower antenna altitude less than 700 m above mean see level
located in largely plains area.
High altitude antenna (> 700 m) - Hills : overland or partially links for
which the lower antenna altitude less than 700 m above mean see level
located in largely hilly area.
High altitude antenna (> 700 m) - Mountains : overland or partially

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links for which the lower antenna altitude less than 700 m above mean see
level located in largely mountainous area.
Use Over water modification : if the link is within an interval of 50 kms
far from coasts or close to many lakes like Southern Finland, select this
option.
Over water classification : when Use Over water modification is
tagged the user has to select :
rc (0 to 1) : it is the fraction of link which is less than 50 kms far from
coasts or medium / large body of water,
large bodies of water : they include bodies of water as English Channel,
North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean Sea which have a width greater than 70
kms.
Medium bodies of water : they include bodies of water as Bay of Fundy
which have a width smaller 70 kms.
Medium to large bodies of water : select this option when classification
between large and medium body of water is difficult.
Regions with many lakes : select this option when the link passes over
many lakes as Southern Finland.
Probability dN / dh <-100 NUnits / km (%) : Refer to the refractivity
gradient atlases in the annex (Percentage of Time Gradient <= 100 N
units/km - for the months of February, May, August and November). Select
the value from the month with the highest values of Percentage of Time
Gradient (10 for France for example).
Note 1 : links passing over a small lake or river should normally be
classified as overland links.
Note 2 : an overland path is:
a path with all altitudes above 100 m,
or a path 50 kms far from coasts,
or a path with altitudes below 100 m and which is less than 50
kms far from coasts but with an elevation above 100 m between coasts
and this profile.
Path inclination (mr) : this value is calculated from site elevation, antenna
heights and path length.
Average Annual Temperature (C) : see in annex Average Annual Temperature
- World in F. Convert this temperature in C. T (C) = [T (F) - 32] x 5/9. It is used
to calculate annual unavailability.
Dispersive Fade Occurrence Factor : this factor derates the dispersive fade
margin. This value is calculated from measurements carried out on the microwave
link PALMETTO - ANTLANTA. To select this parameter, see Figure C Factors World in annex :
for regions where C = 0.25 enter 0.5,
for regions where C = 1 enter 1,
for regions where C = 2 enter 3,
for regions where C = 4 enter 5, 6 or 7 depending on difficulty of
propagation conditions,
for regions where C = 6 enter 9.

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9.6.2 Path profile with VIGANT - BARNETT method


To calculate a path reliability when VIGANT BARNET method is selected, click on path
drawing and fill in the Path Profile Data.

Figure 30 : Parameters for VIGANT BARNETT method.


Frequency (MHz) : this value is downloaded from Antenna Height module.
Path length (km) : this value is transferred from Terrain Data module.
Field margin (dB) :it is a safety factor which represents the long term
degradation of connectors and antenna orientation in practical installation. Enter 1
dB.
Diffraction loss (dB) : diffraction loss calculations are carried out in diffraction
module are not automatically transferred.
Climatic Factor :
enter 0.5 for good propagation conditions in mountainous and dry climates,
enter 1 for average propagation conditions for average terrain and climatic
conditions,
enter 2 difficult propagation conditions over water paths and in gulf coastal
areas.

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Terrain Roughness : click on Rough.

Figure 31 : How to calculate roughness.


The display uses the flat earth profile.
To calculate terrain roughness, place the arrow just after site 1 and click the right mouse
button. The arrow will changed colour. Place the arrow at the opposite end just before site 2
and click the right mouse button. Then roughness is calculated for whole profile.
C Factor : it is calculated with roughness and climatic factor.
Average Annual Temperature (C) : see in annex Average Annual Temperature
- World in F. Convert this temperature in C. T (C) = [T (F) - 32] x 5/9. It is used
to calculate annual unavailability.
Dispersive Fade Occurrence Factor : this factor derates the dispersive fade
margin. This value is calculated from measurements carried out on the microwave
link PALMETTO - ANTLANTA. To select this parameter, see Figure C Factors World in annex :
for regions where C = 0.25 enter 0.5,
for regions where C = 1 enter 1,
for regions where C = 2 enter 3,
for regions where C = 4 enter 5, 6 or 7 depending on difficulty of
propagation conditions,
for regions where C = 6 enter 9.

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9.7 Rain calculation


To determine the influence of rain on a path, click on the cloud above path profile drawing in
the worksheet module.

Figure 32 : Rain calculation method.


Method : select ITU Rec 530 method,
Load Rain File : load a rain file from directory Plw40 / Rain / Itu according the ITU
World Rain Map in annex,
Polarisation : select the polarisation of antennas,
Calculate using :the rain calculation is based on the path fade margin and it
depends on geographic layout of path to be designed and interfering paths.
if the rain cell attenuates the desired and the interfering signal
simultaneously, select Thermal Fade Margin,
if the rain cell attenuates only the desired signal then select Flat Fade
Margin.
Close : to calculate rain attenuation.

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Rain calculation results are reported if rain influence is significant on path.

Figure 33 : Rain Error Message.


If rain portion of the calculation display is blank, it means that the calculation failed.
To see the reasons of failure, click on red X button on the status bar to display the error
message.
Different reasons are possible :
frequency out of range (1 GHz to 100 GHz),
negative rain rate due to failure of interpolation algorithm,
lower limit exceeded - ITU 530 due to failure of interpolation algorithm.

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9.8 Check path reliability


When the user has entered antenna, cable, radio characteristics, when Reliability method is
selected and rain calculation is performed, select Report / Full Report in worksheet
module.

Figure 34 : How to check path reliability.


Worst Month Unavailability - SES has to be selected in Operations / Reliability
Method / Calculation Method when checking path reliability.
On report sheet, compare the value read on line :
Worst Month Multipath + Rain (% - sec) when rain influence is significant,
Worst Month Multipath (% - sec) when rain influence is not significant.
to the recommendation ITU-R F.634-4 objectives.
According this recommendation, for worst month, unavailability must be :
lower than 0.4 x L / 2500 % for BER = 10-6,
lower than 0.054 x L / 2500 % for BER = 10-3,
with L = path length in km.
If objectives are not reached, the user can select a better cable or antenna.

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9.8.1 Frequency diversity


If path remains below objectives, the user can opt for Frequency Diversity.
In Worksheet Module, select Operations / Diversity Calculation

Figure 35 : Frequency diversity option.

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The user can:


either enter value for Frequency spacing at Site 1 (MHz) and Frequency
spacing at Site 2 (MHz). This value is the difference between channel n and
channel n+2.
Frequency plan
7.1 - 7.7 GHz
7.7 - 8.3 GHz
8.2 - 8.5 GHz
7.7 - 8.3 GHz

Frequency spacing
54 MHz (channel
1&8)
59.3 MHz (channel
1&3)
46.6 MHz (channel
1&5)
59.3 MHz (channel
1&3)

Table 5 : Frequency spacing values examples.


or select Use TX channel assignments when transmit channel table contains
more than one frequency entry. It can be checked clicking on Ch box as shown in
figure below.

Figure 36 : Transmit channel table.

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9.8.2 Space diversity


If objectives are not reached, the user can combine Frequency Diversity and Antenna
Diversity (see chapter 3.2 antenna configuration).
In Worksheet module select Configure / Antenna Configuration to choose the desired
space diversity system (see chapter 3.2 Antenna Configuration). Antenna diversity height
will be determined according clearance criteria in Antenna Height module.
In worksheet module, select Operations / Diversity Calculation.

Figure 37 : Space diversity module.


Diversity Radio Type : select Baseband switching for realistic calculations.
Space diversity Method : select ALCATEL - Richardson method to calculate
the fade probability.
Quad / Hybrid Diversity Method : choose sqrt (Ifd + Isd) except on hybrid
diversity systems (frequency diversity on both sites and space diversity at one end
of the path only) where maximum (Isd, Ifd) should be selected.

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10 NETWORK
This module provides :
a geographic representation of the sites in a network,
the interface to the intra system interference calculations,
access to the design modules for individual PATHLOSS data files.
Select Module / Network.

Figure 38 : How to build a network.

Click on Site Data/ Site List / Import / PATHLOSS file,


choose the PATHLOSS files corresponding to the network,
Select Import / Close,
Save the network file (.gr4) clicking on Files / Save.

To print the network select Print / print in Network module.

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10.1 Antenna, Cable and Radio database


In order to perform interference calculations, the user has to specify the directories where
PATHLOSS program will find antenna, cable and radio database.
In Network module select Configure / Directories / Microwave Antenna Codes and go
to the directory where Antenna characteristics (diagram patterns, gains etc.) are recorded.
In Network module select Configure / Directories / Microwave Radio Codes and go to
the directory where Radio characteristics (Interference Reduction Factor, Threshold levels
etc.) are recorded.

10.2 Interference calculation


To perform interference calculations, in Network module select Interference / Calculate
Intra.

Figure 39 : Interference calculation procedure.


Coordination distance (km) : interference is not calculated if the interfering
path length is greater than this distance,
Maximum frequency Separation (MHz) : Interference is calculated if the
difference the interfering transmitter and victim receiver frequencies is greater
than this value.
Default Minimum Interference Level (dBm) : the calculation will determine
the interference objective using BER= 10-6 threshold level and the Threshold to
interference (T/I) ratio specified in the PATHLOSS data file. If this data is
incomplete the default minimum interference level will be used as the objective.

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Margin (dB) : the calculation margin sets a tolerance on the reporting of


interference cases. If the interference level objective for the receiver under test is
-104 dBm and the calculation margin is set to 10 dB, then all interference cases
greater than -144 dBm will be reported.
Digital interference Objective / Threshold Degradation (dB) :the objective
is specified in terms of the allowable receiver threshold degradation, the usual
value is 1 dB.
Ignore diversity antennas : this option ignores all receive frequencies
associated with a space diversity receive only antenna. If the main and diversity
antenna gains are different, then final analysis should consider the diversity
antennas.
Ignore adjacent channels : once the threshold degradation of the adjacent
channels has been established, use this option to limit the number of cases.
Select Calculate to perform calculations ; PATHLOSS data files are loaded,
transmit and received tables are created, interference calculation are stored in
another table.
When calculation aborts Click on Interference / View Error Log to see errors
encountered.
To see interference results select Interference / Reports / Case Detail.

Figure 40 : Interference Case Detail Report.

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This report arranges the interference results into cases and sub - cases.
A case is one receiver. A sub - case is a transmitter which is causing interference in that
receiver.
The display for the last sub-case shows the interference levels and the composite threshold
degradation due to all sub - cases.
Green arrows allow the use to go from one case to another while red arrows give access to
sub - cases.
To go quickly to an interference case number click on little green arrow and enter the case
number described in Cross Reference Report.

Figure 41 : Quick access to an interference case.

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To have a general view of all cases select Interference / Reports / Cross Reference. This
report serves as a cross reference to the case detailed report.

Figure 42 : Interference Cross Reference Report.


The abbreviation used in this report are :

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obj : interference objective level (dBm),


v-i : Victim to interferer path length (km)
tad : Total antenna discrimination (dB)
ifl : Interfering signal (dBm),
td : Threshold degradation (dB).

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11 MICROWAVE DESIGN
When the user designs a microwave link he should :
1) Enter path profile with coordinates, altitude and distance obstacles using Terrain
Data module (chapter 2).
2) Calculate antenna height using according ALCATEL rules using Antenna Height
module (chapter 3).
3) Analyse reflection on the path using Multipath and Reflection modules (chapters 5
and 6).
4) Analyse diffraction on the path with Diffraction module (chapter 7).
5) With Worksheet module the user check path reliability (chapter 8).
6) Network module (chapter 9) is used to display a microwave network and to
analyse threshold degradation when interference risks exist.
For these modules it is necessary to have cable, antenna and radio equipment
characteristics or to load them using databases.
_____ END OF DOCUMENT _____

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