You are on page 1of 19
Notes for a History of Peruvian Social Anthropology, 1940-80 [and Comments and Reply] Author(s): Jorge r .o r g/stab l e/ 2 7 42 67 1 . Accessed: 11/09/2014 2 1 : 48 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, re searchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact . The University of Chicago Press and Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Current Anthropology. " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">
Notes for a History of Peruvian Social Anthropology, 1940-80 [and Comments and Reply] Author(s): Jorge r .o r g/stab l e/ 2 7 42 67 1 . Accessed: 11/09/2014 2 1 : 48 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, re searchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact . The University of Chicago Press and Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Current Anthropology. " id="pdf-obj-0-4" src="pdf-obj-0-4.jpg">

Notes for a History of Peruvian Social Anthropology, 1940-80 [and Comments and Reply] Author(s): Jorge P. Osterling, Hector Martinez, Teófilo Altamirano, Henry F. Dobyns, Paul L. Doughty, Benjamin S. Orlove, Henning Siverts, William W. Stein and James M. Wallace Source: Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Jun., 1983), pp. 343-360

Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of Wenner-Gren Foundation for

Anthropological Research

Stable URL: .

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .


JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact


Notes for a History of Peruvian Social Anthropology, 1940-80 [and Comments and Reply] Author(s): Jorge r .o r g/stab l e/ 2 7 42 67 1 . Accessed: 11/09/2014 2 1 : 48 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, re searchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact . The University of Chicago Press and Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Current Anthropology. " id="pdf-obj-0-56" src="pdf-obj-0-56.jpg">

The University of Chicago Press and Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Current Anthropology.


24, No. 3, June 1983

? 1983by The Wenner-GrenFoundation for Anthropological Research, all rightsreserved 0011-3204/83/2403-0003$1.75

Notes for a Historyof Peruvian Social Anthropology,1940 801

by Jorge P. Osterling and Hector Martinez

THE PROFESSIONAL PHASE of thedevelopment of social anthro- pology in Peru begins with the institutionalizationof the teachingand practiceof social anthropologyin Peruvianuni- versities,a processthat coincideswith the effortsof non-Peru- vian anthropologiststo study Peruvian societyand culture. What mightbe called the "nonprofessional phase" of its devel- opmenthas been fullyanalyzed by Marzal (1981) and Tamayo Herrera (1980); we shall attemptto sketchthe highlightsof theprofessional phase. The wide spectrum,necessarily descriptive, that we are presentingis thefirst stage of a projectthat will occupy us over thenext few years. An effortsuch as thiswill obviously involve inadvertentomissions, the more so because theperiod in ques- tionwas characterizedby invaluablecontributions in thepubli- cationsof limitedcirculation (often mimeographed) that con-

' This articlewas translatedby Raquel E. Ciria.

JORGE P. OSTERLING,now an independentconsultant (his mailing address: 2942 S. ColumbusSt., A-1,Arlington, Va. 22206,U.S.A.),

formerlytaught anthropologyat

the Pontificia Universidad

Cat6lica del Per(i and social sciences at the Universidaddel Paci-

fico in Lima. Born in 1945, he was educated at the Seminario Conciliar de Santo Toribio (high-schoolteacher's degree with

majors in

philosophyand religion,1967), the PontificiaUniver-

sidad Cat6lica del Perfi (B.A., social sciences, 1971), and the

Universityof California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1977). He was a visiting scholarof the Centerfor Latin AmericanStudies and Documenta- tion in Amsterdamin the winterof 1981. His publicationsinclude "Migrationand Social Mobilityin Peru: The Case ofJuan Perez" (KroeberAnthropological Society Papers 47-48:28-43), "The 1970 PeruvianDisaster and the SpontaneousRelocation of Some ofIts Victims: Ancasino Peasant Migrants in Huayopampa" (Mass Emergencies4:117-20), "San Agustin de Pariac: Su tradicion oral" (Debatesen Antropologia5:189-224), "La reubicaci6nde los vendedoresambulantes de Lima: eUn ejemplo de articulaci6n politica?" (AmericaIndigena, in press), and De campesinosa pro- fesionales: Migrantesde Huayopampa en Lima (Lima: Fondo Editorialde la UniversidadCat6lica, 1980).

HkCTOR MARTfNEZ received his Ph.D. in anthropologyat the UniversidadNacional Mayor de San Marcos in 1962 and is now Associate Professorat that university.Among his major works are Las migracionesinternas en el Peru (Caracas: Monte Avila, 1969); the JavierPrado Prize-winningLas migracionesaltipidnicas y la colonizaci6ndel Tambopata (Lima: Centro de Estudios de Poblaci6n y Desarrollo, 1969); El gxodorural en el Peru (Lima:

Centrode Estudios de Poblaci6n y Desarrollo, 1976); Migraciones internasen el Perg: Aproximaci6ncritica y bibliografia(Lima:

Institutode Estudios Peruanos, 1980); and JenaroHerrera: Una experienciade colonizaci6nen la selva baja (Lima: Coteru, 1981).

The presentpaper was submittedin finalform 20 Iv 82.

Vol. 24 * No. 3 * June 1983

stitutedthe foundationsof present-dayPeruvian ethnology. Taking into account all its limitations,we have called this




It is simplya firststep on a long and very

difficultjourney that we hope willbe enrichedby contributions and criticalcomments from our colleagues.In futureworks we will tryto continuethis studyby analyzingthe assumptions,

scope,and limitationsof thework dealt withhere. A numberof articles dealing with social anthropology in Peru

in a

broadercontext, or specializingin certainaspects of it,

have alreadybeen published,among them those of Matos Mar

(1949), Trujillo Ferrari(1952), Montoya (1972-73), Millones Santa-Gadea (1973), and Arambur(u(1978). Bibliographiesare

in a sense also preliminarycontributions to this endeavor,in

particularthose of Martinez, Cameo, and

Ramirez (1969),

GarciaBlazquez and Cordova(1969), Matos Mar and Ravines (1971), Mart'inez(1980), and Perez and Caceres (1981). Because the developmentof social anthropologyin Peru is stronglylinked to particularinstitutions or projects(research or applied), we will presentthese institutions and projectsin strictchronolog -al order.2We willbegin, however, with a brief reviewof the workof the scholarLuis Valcarcel,a Peruvian anthropologicalinstitution and the drivingand shapingforce in thebuilding of thediscipline in Peru.


If one wereforced to name the singlemost significant force in Peruvianethnology during the 1930sand 1940s,it wouldhave to be thejurist, historian, journalist, politician, and ethnologist Luis ValcarcelVizcarra. Valcarcel was bornat Ilo (Moquegua) in 1891.His parentstook him to Cuzco whenhe was a yearold, and he lived thereuntil 1930. Then, forpolitical reasons, he movedto Lima, wherehe remainedfrom then on. The 1920s in Peru were characterizedby deep reflectionon the national identityand on the major structuralproblems facingthe nation.The countrywas sufferingthe long civilian dictatorshipof Augusto Leguia (1919-30) and feelingthe effects of the world economiccrisis. The intellectualmilieu also in- cludedideas bornout of the agrarianMexican Revolution and the 1917Bolshevik Revolution. A seriesof books thathave be- come classicsin the Peruviansocial sciencesappeared in this

2 This procedurehas, however,left us no place to discuss a number of worksthat are landmarksin Peruvian social anthropology, among

them Bourque and Warren (1981); Doughty (1968);

1976); Mangin (1967);

Isbell (1974,

Mayer and Bolton (1980); Nufnezdel Prado

Bejar (1975a, b); Smith (1971, 1975); Tschopik (1951); and Zuidema



context(see, e.g., Castro Pozo 1924, Haya de la Torre 1927, Mariategui1928, Garcia 1930,Basadre 1931,Belaunde 1931); Valcarcel's Tempestaden los Andes (1972 [1927]) was among them. Tempestaden los Andesrepresents the principal expression of the indigenistcurrents of the 1910sand 1920s.In it Valcarcel maintainsthat, as a resultof the Spanishinvasion and coloni- zation, Peru is a state shaped by two nationalitiesin irrecon- cilableconflict. Cuzco is thebastion of thefirst nationality, the motherculture; Lima is thesymbol of theinvading culture and the expressionof an adaptationto European culture.Arguing that crossbreedingwill not resolvethis conflict, Valcarcel says that theonly solution is a returnto our Inca roots(pp. 23-25):

"culturewill come downagain fromthe


the race,in

the forthcomingcycle, will reappearin a dazzlingform, haloed

by its eternal values

. . .

it is the event that marks the reemer- "

genceof the Andeanpeoples on the stage of the cultures Duringhis lengthystay in Cuzco, Valcarcelhad been drawnto the indigenistmovements Tradicion and Resurgimiento(Val- derramaet al. 1979,Marzal 1981,Tord 1978) and had become one of theirmain spokesmen.In additionto minorworks and journalisticarticles he publishedanother important piece, "Los nuevosindios" (1927), in thisperiod. In 1930,his supportfor Luis Sanchez Cerro(president 1930- 33) motivatedhim to go to Lima. As he explains(in conversa- tion, August 8, 1981), his oppositionto the Leguia regime caused him to be called, when the regimefell, to help resolve the deep politicalcrisis that elevenyears of it had created.He was firstplaced in chargeof the Museo Bolivarianoand then, a fewmonths later, became director of the new Museo Nacional (Decree of April 9, 1931), whichhe remaineduntil 1964. The Museo Nacional was chargedwith "the preservationand study of all relicsof Peruvianhistory belonging to the state," and thereforeit was dividedinto two departments:anthropology, to studyman and culturefrom the pre-Columbianperiod, and history,to deal with the later phases. The Revistadel Museo


Nacional appeared in was its editor,and it

1932. Up until 1964 (vol. 33), Valcarcel was and is the main forumfor the best

Peruvian and foreignethnologists and archeologists.Now editedby Valcarcel'sformer student Rosalia Avalos de Matos, it has recentlypublished its 44th volume.At about the same time,by a decree of April 23, 1931, the Institutode Antro- pologia and the Institutode Historiawere created at the Uni- versidadNacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM) in Lima. These instituteswere to workin closecollaboration with appro- priate departmentsof the university.Thus the institutional- ization of the teachingand practiceof Peruviananthropology can be tracedto 1931. Some 15 years later,when Jose Luis Bustamantey Rivero took over the presidencyas leader of the FrenteDemocratico

Nacional, Valcarcelwas appointedMinister of Education. As minister,he createdthe Institutode Estudios Historicosand the Institutode Estudios Etnologicos,as componentsof the Museo Nacional de Historia(Supreme Decree ofNovember 30, 1945),and the Museo de la CulturaPeruana (SupremeDecree of March 30, 1946). The Institutode Estudios Etnologicos, firstaffiliated with the Museo Nacional de Arqueologia,became attachedto thislatter museum. At thesame time,the UNMSM

establishedits Instituto de Etnologia y Arqueologia,where Valcarceltaught until 1967. His influencein highgovernmental circlesmade it possiblein 1946 forhim to set in motionthe

InstitutoIndigenista Peruano, of

which he became the first

director.In thisperiod of his lifehe publishednumerous articles on popularmedicine, folklore, architecture, planning, and other

varied topics,an introductionto ethnology,several books on

theprehistory of Peru, and Ruta culturaldel Per

(1965 [1945]).


Valcarcelis one of thefew social scientistsalso conversantwith the greathumanistic tradition.


The publicationof the sevenvolumes of theHandbook of South AmericanIndians (Steward1946-57) markedthe beginningof a long and fruitfulcollaboration between Peruvian and foreign scholars.The goal of producinga concisesummary of existing data to serveas a generalreference for academic work, a text- book forstudents, and a guidefor the common reader (Steward 1946-57,vol. 1: 2) had firstbeen enunciatedin 1932,when the National ResearchCouncil appointeda committeechaired by RobertH. Lowie of the Universityof Californiaand made up ofJohn M. Cooperand Leslie Spier to explorethe possibility of producingsuch a work. The collectiveeffort started at the beginningof WorldWar II and employedmore than 100 social scientists,including Peruvians Luis Valcarcel, Hildebrando CastroPozo, and Rafael Larco Hoyle. For us there is particularinterest in volumes 2 (Andean Civilizations)and 3 (TropicalTribes of the Forest and Savanna), editedby JulianH. Stewardand the Frenchethnologist Alfred Metraux respectively.The two editors collaborate,in the second of these volumes,on an exhaustiveanalysis of tribal organizationsin the Peruvian jungle. Valcarcel contributes three articles, "The Archeologyof Cuzco," "The Andean Calendar,"and "Indian Marketsand Fairs"; CastroPozo, then an officialat the Ministryof Labor and Indian Affairs,is the authorof "The Social,Political, and EconomicEvolution of the Communitiesin CentralPeru"; and Larco Hoyle, at the time directorof the Larco HerreraMuseum at Trujillo,offers "The Archeologyof the CentralAndes." The restof the authorsare American:Wendell C. Bennett (Yale University),"Introduc- tion to the Sierra Andes"; John Howland Rowe (Peabody Museum,Harvard University), "The Inca Cultureat theTime of the Conquest"; George Kubler (Yale University),"The Quechuas during the Colonial Period"; Bernard Mishkin (Columbia University),"Contemporary Quechuas"; Harry Tschopik (Peabody Museum), "The Aymaras"; and Weston La Barre (RutgersUniversity), "The Uru-chipaya." The arrivalin Peru of theseethnologists and ethnohistorians, some of them quite young,was closely associated with the foundingof the UNMSM's Instituto de Etnologia y Arqueo- logia in 1946.Valcarcel has suggestedthat their fieldwork sowed the seeds of modernPeruvian social anthropology.He particu- larlyacknowledges the supportof BernardMishkin, when the Americanscholar was studyingthe communityof Kauri, near Cuzco, in the creationof thatinstitute (Valcarcel 1947:194). JohnRowe, now at the Universityof California,Berkeley, was also to play an importantrole from1942 onwardin the organizationand consolidationof the archeologyand anthro- pologysection of the UniversidadNacional San AntonioAbad in Cuzco. By 1943 John Gillin, Richard Schaedel, Harry Tschopik,Fernando Camara, and Juliode la Fuentehad joined Rowe in Cuzco, and togetherthey made that centerof anthro- pologicalstudies the best in thecountry. Oscar Nunfiez del Prado and GabrielEscobar are outstandingstudents from those years. Rowe has continuedhis Andeanstudies to thisday. His teach- ing activitieshave been enrichedby the organizationin 1960 ofthe Institute of Andean Studies and itsjournal Nawpa Pacha.


The ViriuProject was begunat the end of WorldWar II under thedirection of the American archeologist Gordon Willey of the SmithsonianInstitution. It was thefirst project systematically to bringtogether Peruvian professors and studentsin ethnology

and archeology.Ambitious in its scope, it involved seven

Americanand Peruvianacademic institutions. Its mainpurpose was to studythe present-daymodes of lifeof the inhabitants of the ViruiValley (La Libertad). Amongthe participantswere




JorgeC. Muelle, later a professorat de Etnologia y Arqueologia; Oscar

the UNMSM's Instituto Niunez del Prado, later

directorof the Kuyo Chico Project;Allan Holmberg, to become the director of the Peru-CornellProject; and Humberto Ghersi,one of thefirst students of theinstitute just mentioned. As a result of this project,several articles appeared in the Revistadel Museo Nacional (and see Nufnezdel Prado 1951),

and Holmberg published his well-known"The Wells That Failed" (1952).


PerftIndigena also containsrich ethnographicmaterial, ideas, and opinionson the so-called Peruvian native problem (see Martinezand Samaniego1978). At presentthere seem to be thebeginnings of a revivalof the InstitutoIndigenista Peruano as a decentralizedagency of the Ministryof Labor and Social Promotion.



The creationof the InstitutoIndigenista Peruano was a con- sequence of the First InteramericanIndigenist Congress in Patzcuaro,Mexico, in 1940,which recommended the establish- ment of the InstitutoIndigenista Interamericano. This insti- tute,legally based on an internationalconvention, was charged with coordinatingand encouragingindigenist policies all over America.Contracting countries were to organizenational insti- tutesto stimulateinterest in and provideinformation on native topicsto individualsand to public or privateinstitutions. The instituteswere also to carryout studiesof particularinterest to each country.Their functioning,organization, and regula- tionbelonged to thenational jurisdictions in question. On January19, 1943,the PeruvianCongress, by Legislative ResolutionNo. 9812, approvedthe convention.Later, by Su- premeResolution of May 15, 1946, it organizedthe Instituto IndigenistaPeruano as a decentralizedoffice of the Ministryof Justiceand Labor. The institutebegan operating,under Val- carcel'sdirection, on February21, 1947.Its functionsincluded, amongothers, research on variousaspects related to aboriginal populations,sponsorship of scientificresearch on theirliving conditions,collaboration with domestic and foreigninstitutions in thestudy of these topics, advice on legislationand resolutions addressedto theirwelfare, and the publicationof a journal.It undertooka series of investigationsand participatedin con- creteindigenist actions both on its own and in collaboration

withthe Peru-CornellProject, the Puno-TambopataProgram, and the Proyectode Integraciony Desarrollode la Poblacion Indigena. From 1947 until 1966, the institute'sdevelopment was characterizedby scarcityof humanand materialresources and a lack of officialsupport. This led to its becomingpart of the Ministryof Labor and Indian Affairs,a move by whichit lost its independencewithout solving its problems.The bulk of theinstitute's work at thisstage consistedof thepublication of PeruiIndigena, the implementationof studies on comunidades and haciendas,the building up ofits library, and limitedpartic-

ipationin the Vicos and Puno


When the instituteassumed responsibilityfor the research, evaluation,and trainingactivities of the Proyectode Integra- cion y Desarrollode la PoblacionIndigena in 1966,it acquired sufficientfunding to organizeseven research groups (each com- posed of two anthropologists,an agronomist,and a social worker)spread over an equal numberof "Zonas de Accion Conjunta." This, the institute'smost fruitful phase, continued until 1969; then, by an article in Decree-Law 17.716, the AgrarianReform Law, its staffbecame the Peasant Communi-

ties Office,part of the GeneralOffice of AgrarianReform and Rural Settlement.After a periodof inactivity,the personnel of thisoffice was scatteredbecause theinstitute's director thought


was time to implementwhat was alreadyknown in theory.

A numberof the studies listed by GarciaBlazquez and Cordova (1969) date to the 1966-69period; Martinez(1969b) describes theirnature and scope.These worksand othersprepared at the

institutecontain rich ethnographicmaterial that has so


been used only to a very limitedextent. (It inspired,for ex-

ample, Montoya's A propositodel car4cterpredominantemente capitalistade la economiaperuana actual [1970].) The journal

The Peru-CornellProject was part of the Cultureand Applied Social ScienceProgram of CornellUniversity. Begun at theend of WorldWar II, it was influencedby the experienceacquired by applied anthropologistsin the 1940sand by the theoretical assumptionsof Malinowski's "practical anthropology"(see, e.g., 1945). It presupposedstrategic intervention through action orientedtowards the raising of the standard of living of econom- ically depressedpopulations. It was to be applied to fivecom- munitiesin differentparts of the world: Bang Chan (Thailand), Senapur (India), Nova Scotia (Canada), the Navajo (U.S.A.), and Vicos (Ancash, Peru). Allan Holmbergwas in chargeof the developmentof the programin Peru. Then directingthe Vir(uProject and lecturingpart-time at the UNMSM, Holmbergselected the Vicos hacienda,the sub- ject ofVazquez Varela's (1952) doctoraldissertation, as a native groupof verylow economicstatus. Furthermore, the hacienda belonged to the Public BenefitSociety of Huaraz and was available forrent. It was located in the Callejon de Huaylas and had a monolingualQuechua populationof 2,000, spread overan area of some 7,600hectares. It was to be the object of a seriesof studiesand practicalactivities for almost two de- cades. The projectwas inauguratedin 1952,based in theInsti- tuto IndigenistaPeruano, and in Holmberg's(1966:16) words it attempted:

  • a) On the theoreticalside ...

to conducta formof experimental

researchon modernizationprocesses that

are. ..

in progressin

manyparts of the world;

  • b) ... a positionof relative dependence and submissionin a highlyre- strictedand provincial world to a positionof relative independence and freedomin theframework ofPeruvian national life.

On thepractical side

to helpthis community to changefrom

The project providedopportunities for learning and practice forseveral classes of studentsfrom the Institutode Etnologia y Antropologia,UNMSM. Many of these studentsare still activein anthropology:Francisco Boluarte, Angelino Camargo, VictorCarrera, Hernan Castillo,Alberto Cheng, Teresa Egoa- vil, Juan Elias Flores, Humberto Ghersi,Daniel Gutierrez, Federico Kauffmann,Hector Martinez, Aida Milla, Abner Montalvo, Rodrigo Montoya, Alejandro Ortiz, Pedro Ortiz, Cesar Ramon, ArcenioRevilla, HumbertoRodriguez, Carmen Rojas, Miguel Ruiz, Eduardo Soler,Froilan Soto, JorgeTrigo, and Mario Vallejos. Goingbeyond Vicos, the projectalso carriedout researchin otherAndean communities. Cornell graduates were basically in chargeof theoperations, among them David Andrews(Paucar- tambo),Stillman Bradfield and Paul Doughty(Huaylas), Joan Snyder(Recuayhuanca), William Stein (Hualcan), JohnHick-

man (Chichera),Jeanette Anderson (Sayan), and Nadine Han- sen (Arequipa). Professorsand studentsfrom Yale, Harvard, and Chicagoalso participatedin the studies. Together with Holmberg, the physician Carlos Monge


directorof the InstitutoIndigenista Peruano and

codirectorof the project,played an importantrole, as did suc- cessivefield directors William Mangin, William C. Blanchard, and Mario Vasquez. HenryF. Dobyns servedas the project's coordinatorin Peru. Holmbergand some of his associatesprepared a good intro-

Vol. 24 - No. 3 * June 1983


ductionto the project,Vicos: Mgtodoy prdcticade antropologia aplicada (1966), and it producedarticles by Dobyns (1964), Mangin (1960), Martinez(1959), and Montalvo (1957).


The Puno-TambopataProgram was part of the Andean Pro- gramof the UnitedNations and its specializedagencies (ILO, FAO, WHO, UNICEF, and UNESCO), which involved a

seriesof communitiesin Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador. It


nated basically in the InternationalLabor Organization's concernwith Latin AmericanIndian problemsand its acknowl- edgmentthat a largesector of thepopulation remained outside existingsocial legislation.At ILO's regionalmeeting in Mon- tevideoin 1949,an Experts' Committeeon Indian Labor was

formed.When the experts ended their deliberations,they recommendedto ILO the establishmentof a joint missionto

study the problemof Latin Americancountries with a


proportionof Indians. This was to be undertakenin consulta-

tionand coordinationwith the UN and its


and also

withthe Organizationof AmericanStates.

The joint missionincluded experts on severalareas and was

presided over by the New Zealand anthropologistErnest Beaglehole. The missionvisited the various countriesfor a periodof fourmonths in 1952 and, afterconsulting with their respectivegovernments, produced a regionalplan based on individualprojects for each of the countries.The plan was presentedto the UN Board of TechnicalAssistance in 1953.It was approvedin thesame yearand submittedfor consideration to the Bolivian,Peruvian, and Ecuadoriangovernments. In the Peruviancase, the plan suggestedthe introduction of two programs,the Puno-Tambopata(Puno) and the Muqui- yauyo (Junin)-the latter being the communitystudied by Adams (1959). Onlythe first of these was implemented.Accord- ing to Martinezand Samaniego (1978), the Puno-Tambopata Programhad threephases: (a) between1954 and 1957,experi- mentationand demonstration,under the directionand full responsibilityof the Andean Program;(b) between1957 and 1961,extension of the activitiesof the so-calledAymara bases of Chucuitoand Cacmichachiand the Quechuabase of Taraco to neighboringcommunities, the emphasis being on thetraining of membersof those communities;and (c) startingin 1961, transferof the directionand executiveresponsibility to Peru- vian officialsand adoptionof the Plan Nacional para la Inte- gracionde la PoblacionIndigena. Social anthropologistswere associated with the development of the programfrom its inception.Beaglehole, presiding over thejoint mission,helped design the various national programs. William C. Blanchard was programdirector from 1956 on. Abner Montalvo served as associate director.Ra(ul Galdo studiedthe communities on theshores of Lake Titicaca,Hector Martinez high-plateaumigrations to the Tambopata, and Pedro Ortiz the Villurcunihacienda (see Galdo Pagaza 1962a, b; Martinez 1969a; Ortiz Vergara1963a, b), along withtopics strictlydealing with applied activities. In spite of its theoreticaland applied relevance,the Puno- Tambopata Programdid not becomea centerfor ethnological

researchor applied anthropologyas

did the Vicos and Vir(u

projects,perhaps in part because it was an interdisciplinary researchand applied programincluding agronomists, primary- school teachers,physicians, social workers,mechanics, and carpentersas well as anthropologists.A group of researchers fromthe UniversidadNacional Tecnica del Altiplano,with financialsupport from Dutch TechnicalCooperation, is evaluat- ing theimpact of theprogram. Furthermore, Jeff Rens, former Principal Adjunct Director of ILO and an advocate of the AndeanProgram, in collaborationwith some of its participants, is writinga historyof its developmentand reflectionson what was once a programwith internationalpresence. Thus, even

today,the program remains the subject of a seriesof discussions.


The Plan Nacionalpara la Integracionde la PoblacionIndigena (PNIPA), createdin December1959, was orientedtowards the "integration"of the Indian populationinto nationallife, ap- plyingthe experienceacquired in the Peru-CornellProject and the Puno-TambopataProgram. It was stronglyinfluenced by Mexican anthropology,mainly through the worksof or direct

contact with Gonzalo AguirreBeltran, then directorof the InstitutoIndigenista Interamericano. It was the only project emphasizingapplied anthropologyin Peru that was developed with human and financialresources clearly belonging to the nation.Over a period of fiveyears it mobilizedthe effortsof two provincialuniversities. As a public agency,PNIPA was subordinatedto the Ministryof Labor and Indian Affairs.Its presidentwas Carlos Monge Medrano. The ministryalso had two otheragencies dealing with indigenist activities, the Insti- tuto IndigenistaPeruano and the Officeof Indian Affairs,and jurisdictionalproblems were common. Seekingnational scope, the PNIPA organizedfive depart- mentalprograms. In practicethey involved a limitednumber of communities,paradoxically because of limitedgovernment

support.The Ancash and Puno Programswere in a sense a continuationof thePeru-Cornell Project and thePuno-Tambo- pata Program,respectively. The AyacuchoProgram, limited to a series of communitiesin the Cangallo Pampa microregion,

was the charge,both in its

technicaland in its administrative

aspects,of the Universidad Nacional San Cristobalat Huaman- ga. The Cuzco Programwas sponsoredby the Universidad Nacional San AntonioAbad. Centeredin the Kuyo Chico/ Pisac/Calca microregion(which included 12 communities),it promptedan interestingpilot projectin applied anthropology underOscar Nuinezdel Prado's direction(see Niunezdel Prado 1961). He pointsout (1973) that the program'smain goal was to raisethe Indians' consciousnesswith regard to thepossibility of resistingthe exploitativesystem to which they were sub- jected by the mestizopopulation of Pisac. The ApurimacPro- gramwas establishedonly in PNIPA's finalyear. It was limited to the Uripa and Mu-napucrocommunities of Chincherosdis- trict,Andahuaylas, and its directionwas placed in thehands of an agronomist. The PNIPA was in a way replaced,in 1966,by the Proyecto de Integraciony Desarrollode la Poblacion Indigena,with a U.S. $20,000,000loan fromthe Inter-AmericanDevelopment Bank. The Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo Comunal was createdto implementit. Since then,all theprojects implement- ed in Peru have had an economicistand technologicalorienta- tion. Social anthropologistshave not been consultedor have playedonly a secondaryrole.



The establishmentof the Institutode Etnologiay Arqueologfa as a sectionof the Facultad de Letras,UNMSM, in 1946,with Luis Valcarcelas its firstdirector, marked the beginning of the institutionalizationof social anthropologyin Peru. JorgeC. Muelle (1903-74), a learned anthropologistand archeologist, was in chargeof courseson anthropologicaltheory and under- took a seriesof fieldinvestigations. Some of theirresults ap- pearedonly timidly in articlessuch as "Estudios etnologicosen Viriu"(1948a), "Pacarectambo:Apuntes de viaje" (1945b),"La

chichaen el distritode

San Sebastian" (1945a), and "El estudio

del indigena"(1948b). During the '40s Muelle workedin close coordinationwith the Museo de la Cultura Peruana and eth- nologistsfrom the SmithsonianInstitution such as Mishkin, Holmberg,and Ozzie G. Simmons,director of the Lunahuana Project(1949-52). The firstgraduates of theinstitute were Jose Matos Mar (Tupe: Una comunidaddel area del Kauke en el




Per(u,1948), Rosalia Avalos (El ciclo vital en la comunidadde

Tupe, 1950), Mario Vasquez Varela (La antropologiacultural y nuestroproblema del indio, 1952), and Humberto Ghersi (Practicasfunerarias en la comunidadde Vir?u,1950). During the '50s continuitywas providedby the firstprofessors, to which Jose Matos Mar and others were added as visiting teachers.The numberof studentsincreased, and theypartici- pated in projectsconceived by the instituteor sponsoredby internationalcooperation. The Huarochiri-YauyosProject (1953-55) was designedby the instituteand sponsoredby the Wenner-GrenFoundation. Among others,its participantswere Jose Matos Mar, Julio Cotler,Francisco Boluarte, Teresa Guillen,and Eduardo Soler. Theirtheses were to becomeclassics; most of them are included in thebook Las actualescomunidades indigenas de Huarociirien

  • 1955 (Matos Mar 1959) and in the Revistadel Museo Nacional

(see Boluarte 1959, GuillenAraoz 1953, Soler 1959). Cotler's Los cambiosen la propiedad,la comunidady la familia en San Lorenzode Quinti(1959) is also relevant.

During the '50s Hector Martinez, Abner

Montalvo, and

Pedro Ortizparticipated first in the Peru-CornellProject and then in the Puno-TambopataProgram. Federico Kauffmann and Ra?il Galdo, authorsof a seriesof worksrelated to these firstexperiences in appliedanthropology, joined the Project and the Programrespectively. The ShantytownsResearch Project, directed by JoseMatos Mar and mainlysponsored by the National Housing Corpora- tion,involved students in theinstitute and theEnglish architect John Turner. The census undertakenin the contextof this project and several case studies of shantytownsmark the beginningsof urban anthropologyin Peru (and see the later contributionsof Doughty [1970] and Uzzell [1972, 1974a, b, 1980]).William P. Manginreturned to studythe mental health

of the inhabitantsof Lima's shantytownsin 1957-58,collabo- ratingclosely with Humberto Rotondo, a professorof psychia- tryat theUNMSM, and ofcourse with Matos Mar and Turner. The mainproduct of this project was theEstudio de las barriadas limefias(Matos Mar 1966). MildredMerino de Zela's doctoral dissertation"El cerro San Cosme: Formacion de una ba- rriada" was awarded the JavierPrado National Prize for the Promotionof Culture.

In this period the presenceof Jose Maria


69) was also important,first as a


the instituteand

later as head of

the Institutode Estudios Etnologicosof the

Museo Nacional de Cultura.In 1957 he earnedhis B.A. with the thesis"La evolucionde las comunidadesindigenas," which was also awardedthe Javier Prado Prize. In 1956 he published his classicarticle "Puquio: Una culturaen procesode cambio." His comparativestudy of communitiesin Leon (Spain) and Peru (1963) is also worthyof mention. An importantevent in this decade was the Conferenceon AnthropologicalSciences of 1951,commemorating the quadri- centennialof the UNMSM. This was the firstinternational anthropologicalmeeting to be heldin Peru,and it involvedsuch renownedspecialists as Luis Valcarcel,Carlos Monge Medrano, Paul Rivet,Hugo Pesce, WendellBennett, Pedro Weiss,Ozzie Simmons,and Maria Reiche. Amongothers, the followingwere professors at the institute during the 1960s: Luis Valcarcel (director),Jorge Muelle, Pedro Weiss,Jehan Vellard, Pedro VillarCordova, Jose Matos Mar, Jose Mejia Valera, and Anibal Ismodes. Others were added to or substitutedfor these for variable lengths of time, among them Jose Maria Arguedas, Gabriel Escobar, Julio Cotler, Luis Lumbreras,Hector Martinez, Federico Kauff- mann, Carlos Delgado, Emilio Mendizabal, Stefano Varese, and Mario Vazquez. The numberof studentswas relatively large,and manyof themare stillin anthropology. The Chancay Valley Project was conceivedas a fieldfor studyand practicein the beginningof the 1960s. Under Jose Matos Mar's directorship,it involvedHeraclio Bonilla, Olinda

Vol. 24 - No. 3 * June 1983


Celestino,Carlos Degregori,Cesar Fonseca, Fernando Fuen- zalida, JurgenGolte, Rodrigo Montoya, Walter Quinteros, HumbertoRodriguez, Luis Soberon,Teresa Valiente,and Jose Luis Villaran,each of whomearned his/her B.A. degreewith a thesisrelated to some aspect of this coastal microregion(see, also, e.g., Fuenzalida et al. 1968). Special mentionmust be made ofEmilio MendizabalLozack (1922-79), who,as a studentand latera professorat the insti- tute (1966-76),wrote such distinguishedarticles as "Pacaraos:

Una comunidaden la parte alta del valle de Chancay" (1964) and "La difusion,aculturacion y reinterpretaciona trav6sde las cajas del imagineroayacuchano" (1963-64). (The latterwas awardedthe Javier Prado Prize.) The '60s werenotable for the active participation of students in the institute'slife. Throughthe Center forAnthropology Studentsthey published Cuadernos de Antropologla,with con- tributionsby bothstudents and faculty. Social anthropologyat the UNMSM was influencedby the fruitfuland meaningfulpresence of many foreignscholars as professors,researchers, or both. In chronologicalorder, the followingwere important:

Ozzie G. Simmons,as a tion's Instituteof Social

memberof the SmithsonianInstitu- Anthropology,worked in Peru be-

tween 1949 and 1952. He particularlystudied Lunahuana, assisted by his studentAlfonso Trujillo Ferrari(at presenta professorat the Free Schoolof Sociologyin Sao Paulo, Brazil). Of special importanceare Simmons'sarticles "El uso de los conceptosde aculturaciony asimilacionen el estudiodel cambio culturalen el Per(u"(1951), "The CriolloOutlook in theMestizo Cultureof Coastal Peru" (1955), and "DrinkingPatterns and InterpersonalPerformance in a Peruvian Mestizo Commu- nity" (1959). JehanVellard, a Frenchphysician and ethnographer,taught at the institutein the '50s. He is well rememberedas a keen specialiston South Americanethnography and particularlyon the Urus. JacobFried, of McGill University,established the first links betweenanthropology and psychiatrythrough a studyof mi- grationand mental health in which professionalsfrom the Workers'Hospital joined membersof the institute.Fried's (1960) article "Enfermedady organizacionsocial" is well knownin Peru. Fran?ois Bourricaud,a sociologistfrom the Universityof Bordeaux, is importantfor having linked anthropologyand sociologyin his 1956-57 courses.He also introducedto the UNMSM, among others,Karl Marx, VilfredoPareto, Max

Weber,Marcel Mauss, GeorgesGurvitch, and RobertMerton. He is betterknown for his workon thePeruvian bourgeoisie and the formationof the Alianza Popular RevolucionariaAmeri- cana. In our field,his Cambiosen Puno: Estudiosde sociologia andina (1967) is of interest.Julio Cotler and Carlos Fajardo are outstandingamong his students. HenriFavre, an anthropologistfrom the Institut des Hautes Etudes de l'AmeriqueLatine, directed the Huancavelica Project between 1963 and 1965. Products of that researchwere his "Algunosproblemas referentes a la industriaminera de Huan- cavelica" (1965) and "Evolucion y situacionde la hacienda tradicionalde la regionde Huancavelica" (1976 [1956]).Favre's students-Cesar Cerdan,Augusto Escribens, Fernando Fuen- zalida, CarlosTincopa, Luis Tord Romero,Teresa Valiente,and JoseVillaran-published articles on theirown findings. Juan Comas, as a visitingprofessor sponsored by the OAS, taught courseson physical anthropologyand Americanpre- historyin 1962.This indicatesthe broad scope of the UNMSM's curriculumat the time. (Pedro Weiss had long taughtthe first of these courses.) Comas's criticalobservations on the Peru- Cornell Project and the Puno-Tambopata Program were important.


JohnV. Murra has been connectedwith Peru since at least

1955,when he graduatedfrom the University of Chicago.In his

dissertation,recently published (1978), on the organizationof

the Inca state,one can findthe originsof his interestingworks

on Andeaneconomic and ecologicalcomplementarity, which he

calls "verticalcontrol of a maximumof ecologicallevels." He

develops this idea in Formacionesecon6micas y politicasdel

mundoandino (1975), whichhas had wide impacton Peruvian

ethnologicalstudies. His studentsCesar Fonseca and Enrique

Mayer have done outstandingwork on the Chaupihuaranga

(Huanuco), Cafiete,and Mantaro Valleys.

William Mangin and Donald Sola, of Cornell,William W.

Stein, of the Universityof Miami, Rolando Mellafe, of the

Universityof Chile, and Anibal Buitron,an Ecuadorian an-

thropologistwho was an officialin ILO's regionaloffice, were

also professorsat the UNMSM, forshorter periods, during the

'50s and '60s, and theymay not have been the onlyones.

In 1969 thepromulgation of theUniversity Law generateda

crisisin theUNMSM thatmeant the scattering of most profes-

sorsin the instituteand eventuallyJose Matos Mar's resigna-

tion as director.After a lengthyperiod of crisis,the institute

has been reassemblingits teachingstaff with UNMSM gradu-

ates, some of whomhave returnedto Peru afterpostdoctoral


Some of its presentprofessors are RobertoArroyo, a former

researcherof the Mantaro Valley from the Instituto Indigenista

Peruano and now dedicated to urban anthropology;Blas

Gutierrez,also fromthe IIP, in its Cuzco department,who is

interestedin medicalanthropology and finishingpostgraduate

studies in France; Cesar Fonseca, another formerIIP re-

searcher,continuing his researchin ecologicalanthropology;

Hector Martinez,formerly connected with severalprojects of

nativedevelopment in Peru and now concentratingon internal

migrationand junglecolonization; Rodrigo Montoya, a student

of the Peruvianeconomy, currently focusing on ideologiesand

poles of regional development;Oliverio Llanos, now doing

graduatework in Rumania afterhaving studied rural problems

in Cajamarca and in the communityof San Pedro de Casta;

Roman Robles, who has studied the colonizationof the Alto

Huallaga by victimsof the 1972 earthquakein the Callejon de

Huaylas and is now researchingpeasant participationin the

war with Chile of 1879-83; Rosina Valcarcel, who has re-

searchedthe segregation of blacks in Lima and aspectsof social

class and ideology;and Jose Vegas Pozo, who is especially

interestedin Cajamarca's cooperatives.During thisperiod the

teachingof anthropologyat the UNMSM has also involved

Luis Millonesand AlejandroOrtiz.

Emilio Choy (1915-76) was,as AlejandroRomualdo has said,

"the mostmodest of our scholarsand the wisestof our friends

and teachers." Choy participatedin conferenceson history,

ethnohistory,archeology, and anthropologyand supervised

manyUNMSM students.Antropologia e historia (1979) gathers

some of his valuable but scatteredwork (and see also 1955,

1960, 1966).




In April 1953 the Seminaron Anthropologywas establishedat

the Riva AguieroInstitute under the directionof Jehan Vellard

and the sponsorshipof OnorioFerrero. It representedthe birth

of social anthropologyat the PontificiaUniversidad Catolica

del Per(u(PUCP). At the timeVellard was a visitingresearcher

at theInstituto Frances de EstudiosAndinos, part of the French

Ministryof ForeignAffairs. He had previouslyconducted re-

search among the natives of Alto Xingui(Brazil) and Tierra

del Fuego (Chile) and amongthe Guaraniof Paraguay.He was

laterto becomea professorin the Schoolof Social Servicesand,

fromApril 1957 throughlate 1962,in the Facultyof Lettersof


the PUCP. In those years he also studied the Lake Titicaca

Urus and the Peruvianand Bolivian Aymara.

The seminarwas organizedas a small circleconceiving an-

thropologyin a broadsense as a groupof sciencesthat requires

teamwork.Its main activitieswere round tables, talks, and

analysesof researchin progress.Aida Vadillo, at the time an

anthropologystudent at the UNMSM, played an important

role,becoming the seminarassistant.

In 1957 Vellard organized the Patronato de Apoyo a la

Antropologia,presided over by JoseLuis Bustamantey Rivero

and includingJose Agustinde la Puente, AugustoDammert

Le6n, and Leopoldo Chiappe, among others. It became an

importantagency for anthropological work at thePUCP, spon-


studies of the Yagua of the upper

Amazon. Aida Vadillo was its fielddirector, based at Pebas.

Betweenlate 1957and August1960 the Yagua Projectcollected

a seriesof valuable data, someof whichwere incorporated into


At thebeginning of the 1960sethnology at thePUCP experi-

enceda slightdecline due to Vellard'smoving to othercountries

in his diplomaticcapacity and Aida Vadillo's being appointed

GeneralSecretary of the recently created Universidad Comunal

del Centro (now UniversidadNacional del Centrodel Per(u).

Afteroccupying that position from February to October1960,

Vadillo travelledto Europe forfurther study, returning to the

PUCP only in 1964. In 1965, the universityadministration

attemptedto bringnew life to the EthnologySection of the

Facultyof Lettersby placingit in her hands.

Parallel activitywas takingplace in the Instituteof Social

Studies,directed by theJesuit Father Ulpiano Lopez, and it led

to the creationof a facultyof social scienceswith four major

fieldsof study(anthropology, sociology, economics, and politi-

cal science)with the assistanceof the Dutch Catholicuniver-

sitiesof Tilburgand Nijmegen.In 1967 the EthnologySection

was incorporatedinto thisfaculty with the statusof a depart-

mentof anthropology.The Spanish paleoanthropologistEmi-

liano Aguirreof the UniversidadComplutense de Madrid was

thedepartment's advisor. Aguirre, who joined theuniversity in

1968as a visitingprofessor, was of theopinion that thedepart-

mentshould offer social anthropologycourses oriented towards

socioculturalchange and physical anthropologycourses cen-

teredon the originsof Peruvianman and the diversificationof

Americanraces. Mario C. Vasquez and Carlos Delgado were

invitedto teachsocial anthropology,but theidea ofa sectionon

physicalanthropology was not pursued.

WithAguirre's return to Spain and the eventualresignations

of Delgado, Vadillo, and Vasquez, new professors,some of

whomhad donetheir graduate work overseas, filled their places.

The developmentof anthropologyat the PUCP in the 1970sis

distinguishedby the diversityof its professors'theoretical and


TeofiloAltamirano Rua is a graduateof the UNMSM and

the Universityof Durham (England) and a studentof British

professorsBryan T. Robertsand NormanLong, in theirwork

in the Mantaro Valley. His returnto the PUCP meant the

beginningof his workin

urban anthropology,with a focuson

regionalassociations (see AltamiranoRua 1980).

Carlos E. Arambur(uLopez de Romafia,a PUCP graduate

witha thesissupervised by JorgeDandler, did graduatework

at CambridgeUniversity before obtaining a Master's degreein

demographyat theLondon Schoolof Economicsin 1976. He is

engagedin intensivestudies of migration(see Arambur(u1981)

and economicanthropology at thePUCP.

AlejandroCamino, another PUCP graduate,who also studied

at the Universityof Michigan,has been interestedin Amazo-

nian ethnicminorities (see Camino 1977) and traditionalAn-

dean ecologyand agriculture.He is the editor of Amazonfa

Persuana,a journal published by the Centro Amaz6nico de

Antropologiay AplicacionPractica.

FernandoFuenzalida Vollmar,who studiedat the UNMSM



and at the universitiesof Warsaw and Manchester,specializes

in anthropologicaltheory and social organization(see Fuenza-

lida Vollmar1970), while maintainingan interestin Andean

beliefs(see 1965,1979).

Manuel M. Marzal joined the departmentafter studying

anthropologywith Angel Palerm at the UniversidadIbero-

americana(Mexico). He is the main forcebehind studieson

Andeanreligiosity (Marzal 1971,1977) and thehistory of Latin

Americanindigenism (1981).

Enrique J. Mayer graduated fromthe London School of

Economicsand did doctoralstudies at CornellUniversity. A

specialiston economicanthropology (see Mayer B. 1974) and

Andean ecology,he moved to Mexico in 1978 to direct the

ResearchDepartment of the InstitutoIndigenista Interameri-

cano and currentlyteaches at the Universityof Illinois.

Luis Millones Santa Gadea, a graduate in historyof the

PUCP, joined the departmentafter graduate work at the

Universityof Illinois at Urbana. His maininterests are Andean

ideology,millenarianism, and belief systems (see Millones

Santa Gadea 1964).

Giovanni Mitrovic has earned Licenciado and Master's

degreesat thePUCP. At presenthe is in theanalytical stage of

a studyof medicaldiagnosis as a conversationalphenomenon.

AlejandroOrtiz Rescaniere is a UNMSM graduate,a former

studentof Jose Maria Arguedasand Claude Levi-Strauss,and

is now devotedto the structuralanalysis of Andeanmyths (see

OrtizRescaniere 1973, 1980).

Juan Ossio Acufia,a historystudent of OnorioFerrero, at-

tended OxfordUniversity, where he producedan important

study on Guaman Poma's workand later receivedhis Ph.D.

His studiesare on social organizationand Andean symbolism

and ritualism(see Ossio Acufia1973).

JorgeP. Osterlingis a graduateof the PUCP and

also of the

Universityof California,Berkeley, where he was a studentof

George M. Foster. He has broad interestsin urban anthro-

pology(Osterling 1980, 1981a, b).

StefanoVarese, still anotherPUCP graduate,taught Ama-

zonianethnology up to 1971.He was a distinguishedstudent of

Vellard and Ferreroand has produceda classic study of the

Campa of the centraljungle (Varese 1968; see also 1974).

Mildred Merino de Zela, mentionedearlier, has done out-

standingwork in the studyand teachingof Peruvianfolklore,

mainlyimplemented through the Centrode Documentaciony

Apoyo del Folklore Peruano, a branch of

the Riva Aguiero

Institutethat she foundedand sponsored.


Settingaside the currentcriticism from some quartersand

defensefrom others, the Instituto Linguiistico de Verano(ILV)

of the Universityof Oklahomais an importantelement in the

developmentof ethnologicalresearch in Peru's Amazonian

regionand in the process of change in the numeroustribal

organizations,especially in thereligious sphere. The ILV's work

in Peru and otherLatin Americancountries is closelyrelated to

thatof WycliffeBible Translators,Inc.; in general,the staffof

the two organizationsis the same and undera singledirector-

ship.The main task of thesetwo organizationsis collaboration

with the multidenominationalProtestant apostolate through

translationsof theBible into as many aboriginallanguages as

possible.According to the ILV's founder,there are morethan

3,000 differentlanguages in the world,and morethan 2,000 of

themare lackingin biblical texts.This is the implicitcontext

of the agreementsigned on June 28, 1945, betweenthe ILV

(representedby WilliamCameron Townsend, its director)and

the Peruviangovernment (through its Ministerof Education

EnriqueLaroza) to "developa cooperativeprogram to research

the nativelanguages in the Republic,especially in the Amazo-

nian jungle."

Vol. 24 - No. 3 * June 1983


This agreementalso coveredthe carryingout of cooperative

linguisticstudies, the collectionof anthropologicaldata on

herbs,dyes, etc., the study of legends, songs, and otherfolkloric

materials,the phonographicrecording of each language, the

buildingup of photographcollections, and the preparationof

articlesfor a journalon Peruviananthropology to be published

by theministry. On practicalmatters, the ILV promisedbroad

cooperationwith all organizationsinterested in scientificre-

search on tribal organizations;interpreters for educational,

health, etc., officials;linguistic training for rural teachers;

preparationof primersin native languages for reading and

writing;translations into the nativelanguages of usefulworks

for the Indians; the fosteringof sports,patriotism, and co-

operativespirit; the eradicationof "vices"; and collaboration

on advanced coursesin linguisticsto be organizedby the min-

istry.The ministrypromised to give theILV officespace at its

headquarters,to negotiate the grantingof licenses for the

operationof planes,and to obtainappropriate tax exemptions.

The ILV began operatingin April 1946 withthe arrivalof the

firstgroup of 18 linguists.Their numbersincreased to cover a

largeproportion of the Amazoniannative groups.

In relationto

the agreement'spractical aspects, or what

might be called applied anthropology,in 1952 Ministerof

Education Juan Mendoza Alvarado conceived the Peruvian

Bilingual Education System. This was a pioneer effortto

achieveliteracy and "incorporation"of theAmazonian natives

into the Peruviannationality in accordancewith the dominant

ideologyof the period. Because of the scope of the task, the

ministerrequested the ILV's collaboration.The


developedunder this system extended from 1953 to 1969. One

typeof program, at thecommunity level, established more than

150bilingual schools headed by 300 nativeteachers belonging to

19 ethnolinguisticgroups (1969 data).

A secondtype, in Yarina-

cocha (the ILV's headquarters,near Pucallpa), dealt withthe

supervisionof thoseschools and the tasks undertakenby their

teachers,in collaborationwith the ILV's technicalstaff. The

ministryalso organized,implemented, and annuallyevaluated

coursesfor the trainingof teachersfor literacy campaigns and

adult education.

A cursoryevaluation of 35 yearsof workby the ILV has to

acknowledgesome astonishing results in thearea of the transla-

tion of the Bible into native languages,but in the strictly

academicarea-linguistics and anthropology-theresults have

been limited.This is especiallyso in that the findingsof the

ILV's investigationsand its trainingcapabilities have not been

widelyshared with the Peruvianacademic community. It was

only in late 1979 that it publishedEducaci6n bilingiie:Una

experienciaen la Amazoniaperuana (Prado Pastor 1979), an

important520-page volume with contributions on the Jivaran,

Cashivo,and Arahuacalanguages, among others.


The Institutode EstudiosPeruanos (IEP) was

foundedin 1964

aftera workingmeeting at Huampani. It was chairedby then

Ministerof Education FranciscoMiro Quesada, and included,

among others,Valcarcel, Arguedas, Matos Mar, and Maria

Rostworowski.In due time the IEP became one of the most

importantprivate institutionsconcerned with issues in the

social sciences.

Luis Pasara, in his article"Politica y cienciassociales en el

Percu"(1978), presentsseveral interesting hypotheses about the

IEP's founding.He suggeststhat some of the foundingmem-

bers had played a very active role in the MovimientoSocial

Progresistain the 1950s and that a few of them had even

become a kind of

weekly study group. Among others,this

group is said to have includedValcarcel, Matos Mar, Jorge

Basadre, JorgeBravo Bresani,and the brothersAugusto and

Sebastian Salazar Bondy. Be that as it may, the IEP was

establishedduring Fernando Bela(undeTerry's firstgovern-

ment (1963-68), when severalof its membersheld important

posts in universitiesand publicadministration.

The IEP developedout of the UNMSM researchproject

earliermentioned on the Chancay Valley microregion,which

was directedby Matos Mar underan agreementwith the New

York State Schoolof Industrial and Labor RelatiQnsat Cornell

Universitysigned by William F. Whyte and Lawrence K.

Williams.In 1967 the IEP began publishingthe resultsof this

research,along withearlier investigations by scholarssuch as

Henri Favre. Anotherimportant element in theIEP's develop-

mentwas the supportgiven it by a numberof Peruvianistsin

theUnited States and Europe,together with its association with

such foreignprofessors as Murra, Bourricaud, Favre, and


Perroux. Equally importantwas its organization,

almost singlehanded,of the 1970 XXXIX InternationalCon-

gressof Americanistsin Lima.

Stronglyinfluenced by Perroux,the IEP frequentlyorga-

nized round tables in whichmembers or invitedscholars pre-

sentedprogress reports or researchresults, many of themin

mimeographedform. Besides developingoriginal research, it

is undoubtedlyPeru's most importantpublisher, in both the

numberand theselection of titles. Its director,Jose Matos Mar,

not only has providedit enthusiasmand dedication,but also

has been influentialin gettingfinancial support from a number

of foreigninstitutions and foundations.

The IEP has managedto developa coremade up ofan inter-

disciplinarygroup of professionals with degrees in socialanthro-

pology.Some of thesehave becomespecialists in otherareas.

For example,Heraclio Bonilla is a specialistin economichistory


the authorof El mineroen los Andes(1974), one of thefew

anthropologicalstudies on the topic; JulioCotler is one of the

best-knownpolitical scientists in Peru and theauthor of Clases,

estadoy naci6nen el Pers (1978); and Carlos Ivan Degregoriis

a politicalanalyst and chiefeditorialist of El Diario de Marka.


During the 1970s therewas constantcreation of centersfor

social research.In Peru as a whole,it is estimatedthat there

are nowmore than 100 of these centers. Basically, they are small

groups of a fundamentallyinterdisciplinary nature-anthro-

pologistsand sociologistsat work on problemsolving with

regardto the main social issues of the country.Only a few

examplescan be givenhere. The CentroAmazonico de Antro-

pologia y AplicacionPractica (CAAAP) and the Centro de

Investigaci6ny PromocionAmazonica (CIPA) are the two

main centers dealing with ethnic minoritiesin Peruvian

Amazonia. The first,already mentioned,publishes the best

local journal in the field,Amazonia Peruana. It has also pub-

lishedvaluable studiespredominantly of an ethnographicand

ethnohistoricalnature. CIPA was foundedin 1977, and its

board of directorsis devoted to counsellingthe Amazonian

populationon obtaining title to its lands. More recently,it

has begun to publish a series of studies on ecological,legal,

ethnic,and healthproblems in native communities(see, e.g.,

Chirif1979). In thearea ofAndean studies, the more important

centersare the Institutode Pastoral Andina,with its journals

AllpanchisPhuturinga and Pastoral Andina; the Centro de

EstudiosRurales Andinos "Bartolome de las Casas," whichhas

publishedvaluable volumeson Andeanoral traditionas wellas

autobiographicaltestimonies; and the Institutode Estudios

Sociales, which publishes another local classic, the journal

CriticaAndina. All these researchcenters have incorporated

intotheir staffs young professionals who combine research tasks

with advising communitieson theirmain legal and human-




It is quiteout ofthe question to summarizein a fewpages what

has happenedin Peruviansocial anthropologyduring the last

  • 40 years.This is evenmore so in viewof the fact that at present

    • 7 ofPeru's 35 universitiesgrant higher degrees in anthropology:

the UniversidadNacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima), the

UniversidadNacional San

AntonioAbad (Cuzco),

the Univer-

sidad Nacional de San

Cristobalde Huamanga (Ayacucho),the

UniversidadNacional de Trujillo (Trujillo), the Universidad

Nacional del Centro(Huancayo), the UniversidadNacional de

San Agustin(Arequipa), and the PontificiaUniversidad Cato-

lica del Per(u (Lima). The Baccalaureate in Anthropologyis

grantedby all universities,which also award the professional

degreeof Licenciado in anthropology(of whichan estimated50

have so farbeen awarded). The Master'sdegree in anthropology

is grantedonly by theAcademic Program of HigherStudies of

the PUCP (since 1972,only 16 have been awarded). Doctoral

studieswere suspended by themilitary government in theearly

'70s, but some 25 Peruvian anthropologistshad already been

awardedthat degreein the countrybefore the suspension,and

othershave since receivedit fromU.S. and European univer-


At presentthere is the prospectof a new stage of highaca-

demic productivityin Peruvian anthropology.An increasing

numberof professional journals and specializedbooks are being

publishedin Peru. All this is takingplace aftera period of

criticalstagnation generated by the UniversityLaw of 1969,

whichcompounded one ofthe worst crises on recordin Peruvian

universities.Many younganthropologists have begunto return

to Peru afterperiods of highertraining in importantforeign

graduateschools to enrichstudents with their knowledge.



Departamentode Ciencias Sociales, Pontificia Universidad

Cat6licadel Pers, Lima, Peru. 16 xi 82

This articleis a well-organizedintroduction to Peruviansocial

anthropology,accurately summarizing the major stages of its

developmentand the names, dates, and work of the people

involvedin it. However,perhaps forlack of informationon

what has been done at the provinciallevel, it


the workof Lima-based anthropologists;more could be said

on anthropologicalwork in provincialuniversities.


Centerfor the History of theAmerican Indian, The Newberry

Library,Chicago, Ill. 60610, U.S.A. 9 XII 82

Osterlingand Martinezcorrectly write that it is verydifficult

to summarizebriefly 40 yearsof Peruviansocial anthropology.

It is equallydifficult to commentor augmentsignificantly their

outlinein 500 words.

One importantomission is that Luis Valcarcel installed

Abraham Guillen M. as National Museum photographer.

There,and fromhis own studio,Guillen created a majorvisual

anthropologyof Peru years beforeJohn Collier,Jr., labeled

thisgenre (Dobyns and Guillen1970).

A primaryreality of Peruviansocial anthropologynot men-

tioned is Native Andean Americanhigh-altitude adaptation.

One cannot accuratelycomprehend Andean social behavior

withoutunderstanding that native populationsare adapted

geneticallyto an oxygen-shortenvironment. Carlos Monge

Medrano (1948, 1949) discoveredthis biologicalreality and

long directedthe researchinstitute studying the phenomenon.

DiscussingValcarcel and nonacademicprojects, the authors

implya fundamentalcharacteristic of Peruviansocial anthro-



pology.Foreign and governmentsupport significantly developed

it. Social anthropologistsand theirfindings have, moreover,

influencedgovernmental policies and programs.

Afterthe armed forces seized power in October1968, General-

PresidentJuan Velasco A. recruitedCarlos Delgado 0. (1969)

as principalspeech writer.The National Planning Institute

paid his salary.Long secretaryto theAmerican Popular Revo-

lutionaryAlliance party's leader, Delgado had studiedanthro-

pologyat CornellUniversity. Less thana yearlater, the regime

recruitedMario C. Vazquez V. as the secondhighest official of

theAgriculture Ministry's General Bureau ofAgrarian Reform.

Thus, lessons social scientistslearned at Vicos and elsewhere

influencedprograms the militaryregime imposed. Guiding

action with policy science research,Vazquez assembled the

largest Peruvian social science research unit yet-approxi-

mately90 individualstrained in variousdisciplines.

Two decades earlier,Monge assumed the presidencyof the

InstitutoIndigenista Peruano and convertedthat paper tiger

into a precedent-settingaction agency. He contractedwith

Cornell University(Cornell Peru Project), the International

Labor Organization(Puno-Tambopata Project), Cuzco Uni-

versity(Kuyo ChicoProject), and theUniversity of Huamanga

(Pampas de Cangallo Project). Thus, Monge sowed the seeds

that produceda bumpercrop of government-sponsoredsocial


How a UnitedStates universitybecame committed to Peru-

vian policy researchand action deservessome explanation.

Leonard H. Cottrell,R. Lauriston Sharp, and AlexanderH.

Leightonconceived a long-rangecomparative study of culture

changeand obtainedCarnegie Corporation of New York fund-

ing. They recruitedAllan R. Holmbergto join


and directPeruvian research. Study participants did not pre-

supposestrategic intervention. They learnedduring their over-

seas investigationshow to intervenestrategically and foster

culturalchange (Dobyns et al. 1967). Monge, Holmberg,and

Vazquez originallyanticipated studying changes rural electri-

ficationwould generate.They establishedthe Cornell Peru

Project (CPP) and intervenedonly aftera deglaciationflood

washed away the hydroelectricdam (Holmbergand Dobyns



personnelcarried out phased studies outside Vicos

reflectingincreasing anthropological knowledge about Peruvian

society.Many morewere publishedthan Osterlingand Mar-

tinezindicate. Ghersi B. (1959-61) conducteda baselinestudy

ofa mestizotrading village, while Vazquez (1952) firstanalyzed

Vicos,stimulating imitative intergroup relations analyses. Then

Snyder (1957) studied the Recuayhuanca Indigenous Com-

munityand Stein (1961) the half-hacienda,half-autonomous

Hualcan hamlet,while Holmberg,Vazquez, and othersinter-

venedin Vicos.

AnotherCarnegie Corporation of New York grantin 1959

fundedstudies of differentcommunity types and otherregions:

a politicaldistrict without haciendas (Doughtyand Doughty

1968),an Aymara-speakingzone near Lake Titicaca (Hickman

1975),an eastern-slopecolonizing population (Andrews 1963),

migrantsto the coastal steel mill/portof Chimboteand to

Lima (Bradfield1963), squattersin urban Arequipa (Rund

1966),and ruraleducation throughout the intermontane Calle-

jon de Huaylas (Vazquez 1965). Additionalfunding supported

Cornellsociologist J. M. Stycos'sstudy of Peruvian fertility,

withCara E. Richards(1963) in Lima supervisinginterviewers

studyingat theNational Schoolof Social Work.Institutionally,

a CPP researchcoordinator with a Ministryof Labor and Indian

Affairsoffice in Lima supersededthe Vicos field director.

Dobyns (1964, 1966, 1970) served in 1960-62. Organizinga

1961 symposium,Dobyns and Vazquez (1963) stimulatedan-

thropologicaland otherresearch on internalmigration, probably

the mostimportant domestic phenomenon of thiscentury.

The U.S. Peace Corpsasked CornellUniversity anthropolo-

gists to evaluate the achievementsof its firstvolunteers in


Peru. The CPP staffmeasured success in termsof institutional

change (Dobyns, Doughty,and Holmberg1965). This meant

studyingnumerous communities. Peruvian provincialuniver-

sityanthropology student teams led by a staffPh D. or experi-

encednational investigator analyzed eastern-slope Paucartambo

(Andrewset al. 1965), western-slopestock-growing Pararin

(Doughty and Negron 1964), Mantaro Valley progressive

Chaquicocha (Castillo et al. 1964),and decayingMito (Castil-

lo et al. 1964),measuring institutional changes in manyvalley

communities(Maynard 1964) and describingan upperCallejon

de Huaylas disintegratingfarm village (Castillo et al. 1964). A

bonus volunteer-writtenstudy describedTicaco, a western-

slopeAymara colony (Korb 1965). Doughty(1964, 1972, 1976)

became CPP Lima researchcoordinator in 1962-64,beginning

studiesthat materially advanced scientific understanding of the

primate-cityroles that migrants play.

The U.S. Agencyfor International Development contracted

with Cornellfor a regionalrural developmentdemonstration

effort.Maynard (1965) headed the Ecuador teamworking with

the Instituteof AgrarianReform and Colonization.Paul H.

Ezell (1966) led the Bolivia team workingwith the Indian

Instituteand COMIBOL until Vazquez moved there.Susan

Bourque (Bourque et al. 1967) led the Peru team studyingthe

developmentpotential of one western-slopedistrict. Then rural

sociologistEarl W. Morris(1968) led theCPP duringa studyof

simultaneousaction and researchin a western-slopemixed-

farmingvillage constructing its farm-marketaccess road.

The binational CPP terminatedin 1966. USAID funding

ended. Holmbergdied in October.The twice-extended1952

accord lapsed. Vazquez's (1967) 370-title bibliographyof

Peruviansocial science English-languagepublications showed

themassive CPP contribution. Dobyns, Doughty, and Lasswell

(1971) edited a generalsummary of strategicVicos interven-

tions and theirconsequences. Himes (1981) wrote a critical

analysisof theVicos experiment.

UnitedStates university demand for professors placed former

CPP personnelpossessing first-hand experience with the real

Andean social world in numerousinstitutions. Middlebury

College has Andrews,Smith College Bourque, the University

of Florida Doughty,San Diego State UniversityEzell, Rhode

Island CollegeMaynard, Iowa State UniversityMorris, Syra-

cuse UniversityWilliam P. Mangin, StanfordUniversity Clif-

fordR. Barnett.Delgado died workingfor UNICEF. FAO sent

Vazquez to Hondurasas an agrarianreform consultant.


AnthropologyDepartment, University of Florida,1350 GPA,

Gainesville,Fla. 32611, U.S.A. 14 xii 82

Osterlingand Martinezhave takenan importantinitiative by

beginningan examinationof the developmentof modern Peru-

vian socioculturalanthropology, a task obscuredby popular

fascinationwith Andean prehistory. ("Somewhere in the world

oncea month,"a colleagueonce remarked,"a bookis published

on theIncas!") This conciseand evenhandedsummary from a

Peruvian point of view

modernanthropology by

makes a significantcontribution to

aiding all of us to place our interests

in national, historical,theoretical, and methodologicalcon-

texts (Doughty 1977). The authors do not, perhaps rightly,

attemptany criticalanalysis of the developments they describe.

Their effortis morean "ethnohistory"of the subject,a contri-

bution to understandingthe recentinternational growth of

anthropology.In the case of Peru, anthropologyhas changed

radicallyfrom its earlybeginnings and even fromits stateonly

20 yearsago.

Through the early 1960s, the relativelysmall numberof

Andeanscholars worked in a "gemeinschaft"atmosphere which

includedpersons from all the anthropologicalfields, something

Vol. 24 - No. 3 . June1983


whichis no longertrue by and large.The Peruviananthropolo-

gists at that time could still largelybe foundat San Marcos

University,the PeruvianIndian

Institute,or one of the three

Lima museums.Oscar Nufinezdel Prado and his colleaguesheld

forthin Cuzco, theother pole ofanthropological concentration.

For foreigners,there was a "clubhouse"of sorts,the Pension

Morris,located in Bre-na,near downtownLima. It was a gra-

ciousand crumblyold mansionwhich reportedly had been Max

Uhle's home,where Kroeber may have stayed.

The two-storeyadobe building(bulldozed away in 1969),with

66), the UN and U.S. foreign-assistance-funded programs in

southernPeru (1959), and othersmentioned here. What is in-

terestingin these developmentsis the special influenceof

particularindividuals, such as Valcarcel, Holmberg, Rowe,

Muelle, Schaedel, Vazquez, Murra, Matos, and Whyte. For

example,some 30% of all the culturalanthropologists working

in Peru at the time of Holmberg'sdeath in 1966 had been

trainedor sponsoredby him.

Accordingto my conservativeestimates (gathered from

acquaintanceship,the AAA Guide to Departments,bibliogra-

ample surroundingporches, was centeredon a hectare-sized

phies,and the like), thereare about 145 socioculturalanthro-

lotabove whosewalls towered some very tall palm trees.Behind

pologistswith U.S.

universitydoctorates specializing in Peru-

the house was the semblanceof a lawn on whichone mightsit

vian research.Of

these, over 85% received their doctoral

in a sturdygarden chair while observinganimated games of

"sapo" playedby guestsat siesta time.This establishmenton

OrbegosoStreet was reignedover by theaging and marvelously

opinionatedEnglish-Peruvian Nora Bryson de Andrade,her

daughter,and a star boarder.In the livingroom, beneath the

encirclingbalcony, the well-wornoverstuffed furniture was

degreesafter 1960. The same is no doubttrue of Peruvianand

European professionalsas well. I cannot estimatethe present

numberof the latter.While in 1947 therewere about 20 Peru-

vian professionalanthropologists of all kinds,today Osterling

and Martinezestimate that thereare approximately91 in the

socioculturalfield alone.

normallyweighed down by a good sample of transitoryNorth

Americanand (occasionally) European anthropologistsand

theirstudent proteges, particularly in themonths from June to

This explosionof interest has obviouslyled to an everincreas-

ing expansionof researchtopics. In contrastto the status of

researchin 1944,when the Handbookwas written,today bib-

September.It was here,with proper references from my mentor,

Allan Holmberg,that my wifeand I werefirst given roomsin


Old Lima: High ceilings,old leather furniture,ingenious

Victorianplumbing, stiff servants serving stiff pisco sours,and,

above all, anthropologicaltales ofPeru, anthropological gossip,


people you wanted to meet. In 1960, the Pension Morris

was the place wherea newcomercould be "properly"initiated

into Peruvianstudies in thesemimodern comfort of Max Uhle's

legacy.Archaeologists covered the porches with potsherds, and

liographicreferences indicate that over 600 differentplaces have