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LESSON

1
LECTURE
INTRODUCTION TO TURBINE
CONTROL
SUB - OBJECTIVE
At the end of the lesson the Trainee will e ale to de!onstrate an "nderstandin# of
Introd"$tion to t"rine Control%
1%& CONTROL VALVES
Power output of the turbine is controlled by regulating the quantity of steam passing
through the turbine. Steam is supplied from the boiler to the steam chest and
control !al!es regulate the amount of steam passing from the steam chest into the
turbine. "n the small turbine the steam chest is mounted abo!e the high pressure
cylinder. The one control !al!e that is shown uses a throttling action to ad#ust the
amount of steam entering the turbine.
$ig. %&'%'% is a head'on !iew of a typical o!erhead steam chest with multiple control
!al!es. "n this case there are eight control !al!es. These !al!es are opened in
sequence by an o!erhead cross arm or cam arrangement which is dri!en by the
hydraulic control gear. (ultiple control !al!es are used so that the tough duty of
throttling the steam is limited to only one !al!e at any particular load.
)n larger machines the steam chest is too hea!y to be built in with the high
pressure casing so the steam chest is placed on the side of the high pressure
turbine. "n fact it is usual to use two steam chests one on either side as shown in
$ig. %&'%'*. The multiple control !al!es are fitted into each steam chest to regulate
the amount of steam entering the turbine. The steam connecting pipes between the
steam chest and the high pressure casing are in the form of large loops to allow
fle+ibility.
, close'up of the steam chest is shown in $ig. %&'%'-. Steam enters from the boiler
through the turbine stop !al!e and into the steam chest.
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'i#% 1(-1-1% O)erhead Stea! Chest%
The control !al!es open in sequence according to the mo!ement of the o!erhead
le!er which is controlled by the hydraulic control gear.
)ne other type of control !al!e the intercept !al!e is installed in a re'heat unit.
The schematic in $ig. %&'%'& shows both the control !al!e and the intercept !al!e
installed in a reheat unit. The intercept !al!e normally remains wide open. The flow
of steam through the unit is ad#usted by the control !al!e at the steam inlet to the
high pressure turbine. "f the turbine begins to )!erspeed the intercept !al!e and
the main control !al!es close until speed returns to normal. This pre!ents any
residual steam in the reheater and pipe lines from entering the intermediate
pressure turbine. ,s soon as speed returns to normal the intercept !al!e opens
wide again. The intercept !al!e is operated by the hydraulic control gear in the
same way as the main control !al!e. The intercept !al!e beings to close only when
the )!erspeed reaches about *4 abo!e normal.
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'i#% 1(-1-*% Side Stea! Chest Lo$ation%
'i#% 1(-1-+% Stea! Chest Internals%
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'i#% 1(-1-(% S$he!ati$%
Control !al!e regulates steam to the high pressure turbine. "ntercept !al!es control
steam to the intermediate pressure turbine during )!erspeed conditions.
,nswer the $ollowing questions5
%. 6hat is the relationship between turbine power output and the turbine
control !al!e.
*. 6hat is meant by throttling7
-. Refer to $ig. %&'%'&. 1escribe how the intercept !al!e controls )!erspeed.
&. Refer to $ig. %&'%'%. 6hen the cross arm raises to a less than full position
some of the !al!es are opened. 6hat 8eeps the others closed7
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CONTROL DEVICES
The hydraulic control gear is commanded by the turbine go!ernor so that the
control !al!es automatically ad#ust to maintain constant turbine speed. The three
types of go!ernors used in power paints are the centrifugal go!ernor the electro'
hydraulic go!ernor and the oil pressure go!ernor.
$ig. %&'%'9 shows a typical centrifugal go!ernor. The turbine shaft ma8es the
go!ernor rotate and centrifugal force mo!es the weights in or out according to
speed. The mo!ing weights ad#ust the position of the slee!e against the tension of
a spring. $or e+ample if the speed increases the weights mo!e outward and the
slee!e mo!es upward. The slee!e mo!es a le!er that is connected to the pilot relay.
This relay operates through the hydraulic oil system and causes the control !al!es
to close reducing speed to normal.
'i#% 1(-1-,% Centrif"#al -o)ernor%
The tension of the spring and therefore the Setpoint of the go!ernor can be
regulated by a nut. The ad#ustment of the nut can be carried out on'load by a
de!ice 8nown as the speeder gear. , small electric motor operated from the control
room dri!es the nut up or down and so !aries spring tension. The Setpoint of the
go!ernor can be ad#usted by the speeder gear while the unit is in ser!ice.
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The elector'hydraulic go!ernor shown in $ig. %&'%': consists of a tuned electric
circuit that is responsi!e to frequency. The frequency is proportional to the speed of
the turbine. ,ccording to the frequency measured the pilot !al!e le!er is mo!ed.
This mo!ement transmitted through the hydraulic control gear opens or closes the
main control !al!es and thereby ad#usts turbine speed. "n this case the speeder
gear consists of an electrical ad#ustment to the circuit but the effect is the same5 it
regulates the Setpoint of the go!ernor. ,nother type of electro'hydraulic go!ernor
uses a magnetic sensor to measure shaft speed.
'i#% 1(-1-.% Ele$tro-/0dra"li$ #o)ernor%
The oil pressure go!ernor is shown in $ig. %&'%';. The speed'sensing element is a
special type of centrifugal pump that causes oil pressure to !ary with the square of
shaft speed. This !arying oil pressure is then fed into the hydraulic control system
to ad#ust the control !al!e in the normal way. The speeder gear ad#usts the Setpoint
on the go!ernor by regulating the amount of oil permitted to pass through the
control !al!es.
The .orth ,merica normal turbine generator speed is -:<< rpm or %=<<. This is
for use with :< cycles. "n Europe >apan and many other areas system frequency
is 9< cycles and turbine generator speed is -<<< rpm or %9<< rpm.
.o matter what type of go!ernor is used the effect of ad#usting the speeder gear is
the same. 6ith the unit off'load ad#ustment of the speed gear results in a change
in turbine speed. 0owe!er with the unit on'load ad#ustment of the speeder gear
results in a change in load.
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$ig. %&'%'= shows a typical go!ernor speed characteristic. 6ith the machine on full
load the speed is about 94 less than the minimum load position. This is 8nown as
speed droop. Speed droop is designed into the go!ernor to pro!ide stability and
pre!ent hunting. .ormally as load is pic8ed up on the turbine the operator ad#usts
the speeder gear thereby ad#usting the Setpoint of the go!ernor. This has the effect
of trimming the speed and maintaining it at normal. 6here automatic frequency
control is used the frequency relay ad#usts the speeder gear automatically to
maintain constant speed at any load. "f no speed trimming were attempted the
turbine would change speed between ?ero load and full load@ this would mean a
change in frequency.
'i#% 1(-1-1% Oil 2ress"re -o)ernor%
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'i#% 1(-1-3% -o)ernor S4eed Chara$teristi$%
)ne other important control de!ice is the acceleration go!ernor. The acceleration
go!ernor a assists the main go!ernor in case of )!erspeed. "t accomplishes this by
measuring the rate of acceleration of the turbine shaft. "f the rate of increase in
speed e+ceeds a certain limit the acceler9ation go!ernor slams the control !al!es
shut without waiting for the speed to rise appreciably. "n other words it anticipates
the action of the main go!ernor. "f the rise in speed is slow then the acceleration
go!ernor plays no part in the main go!ernor controls.
,nother control de!ice is the load limiter. The load limiter can be set by the operator
to any predetermined position so that the control !al!e will not open beyond that
point. This is useful if some limit is to be set on the turbine load for e+ample
because of a limitation in the boiler or au+iliary equipment. "f the load limit is set at
9<4 the turbine go!ernor is in control as normal at any load below 9<4 the turbine
go!ernor is in control as normal at any load below 9<4. 0owe!er the turbine would
not be able to rise abo!e that load.
"f steam pressure falls rapidly there is a possibility of bringing water o!er from the
boiler into the turbine which could cause physical damage to the turbine blades. To
pre!ent this the machine is fitted with an initial pressure regulator. "n the e!ent of
pressure falling below for e+ample =94 the regulator closes in the turbine control
!al!es to reduce the load. The initial pressure regulator tries to maintain steam
pressure abo!e =94 of normal. "f the boiler suffers a serious outage perhaps due
to loss of fire the load would rapidly be reduced to ?ero by the initial pressure
regulator as the steam pressure continues to fall. 1uring startup of the turbine and
initial loading the initial pressure regulator must be left out of ser!ice because
these operations are often carried out at low pressure.
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, similar de!ice is the low !acuum deloader. "f the !acuum falls the control !al!es
are closed to reduce the turbine load.
"n summary the main control de!ices are5
Speed go!ernor
Speeder gear
,cceleration go!ernor
Load limiter
"nitial pressure regulator
Low !acuum
Control is normally carried out by the speed go!ernor which must be trimmed by
ad#ustment of the speeder gear. This can be carried out manually or by automatic
frequency control.
,nswer the following questions5
9. The three types of go!ernors used in power plants are 5
:. Refer to $ig. %&'%'9. 6hat is the relationship between the go!ernor Setpoint
and the ad#usting nut7
;. 6hat is the relationship between shaft speed and oil pressure in the oil
pressure go!ernor7
=. 6hat is the relationship between speed droop and generator output
frequency7
A. List four turbine protection controls5
%<. True or false. The load limiter can be used to control turbine load.
TURBINE STO2 VALVES
"n addition to the main control !al!es a turbine stop !al!e is fitted. The stop
!al!e is installed in the steam line ahead of the steam chest as shown in
$ig. %&'%'&. Under any emergency condition the stop !al!e slams closed
and shuts off all steam immediately and completely. There normally are two
steam lines from the boiler so there are two stop !al!es one on each side.
The !al!e is often incorporated into the steam chest as shown in $ig. %&'%'*
and %&'%'-.
The stop !al!e is normally completely open or completely closed. "t pro!ides
protection not regulation. The stop !al!e is operated hydraulically as shown
in $ig. %&'%'A. "t is held open by the pressure of oil below the piston in the
hydraulic cylinder. ,s long as oil is maintained at high pressure it
o!ercomes the force e+erted by the spring and 8eeps the !al!e open. "f the
pressure of oil is reduced the spring slams the !al!e closed.
(o!ement of the small pilot !al!e either supplies oil below the piston
opening the !al!e or allows the oil to drain out closing the !al!e. The pilot
!al!e is operated either manually or by protecti!e de!ices. 1uring a normal
shutdown the stop !al!e is tripped by the operator who presses a remote
control button or a le!er mounted on the turbine front end of the pedestal.
The stop !al!e can usually be opened in the same way.
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2efore opening the stop !al!e care should be ta8en to warm up the steam
chest slowly to a!oid temperature shoc8. ,n internal bypass arrangement is
usually fitted tot he stop !al!e. , handwheel is pro!ided so that it can be
opened slowly tow arm up the steam chest. "n some machines the
handwheel is used to control the steam during turbine start'up. "n this case
the stop !al!e actually regulates steam and it is called a throttle !al!e or a
combined throttle'emergency stop !al!e.
'i#% 1(-1-5% Sto4 Val)e%
)ne other type of stop !al!e is required '' the reheat stop !al!e $ig. %&'%'&.
The reheat stop !al!e acts in e+actly the same way as the main steam stop
!al!e and it is usually operated by the same hydraulic oil circuit so that the
!al!es open and close together. This is required to pre!ent residual steam
from the reheater from entering the turbine under emergency shutdown
conditions.
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Answer the followin# 6"estions7
%%. 6hat is the difference between the stop !al!e and control !al!e7
%*. 6hen is the stop !al!e used as a throttle !al!e7
%-. Refer to $ig. %&'%'A. 1escribe how the turbine stop !al!e is held
open.
%&. ,. 6hat other !al!e operates in the same manner as the stop !al!e7
*. 6hat causes this !al!e to trip7
E+traction steam lines are long and contain a considerable amount of steam
especially if the feedwater heaters and a 1eaerator are included. This
steam could be drawn bac8 into the turbine under certain emergency
conditions. $or e+ample if the turbine were to trip on )!erspeed the main
steam stop !al!e and the reheat stop !al!e would trip closed. 0owe!er
residual steam in the e+traction lines and the feedheaters may be drawn
bac8 into the turbine. This would cause speed to increase #ust when we are
trying to bring speed down. This is an e+ceedingly dangerous condition.
To pre!ent )!erspeed chec8 !al!es are installed in each line as shown in
$ig. %&'%'%<. Each of these !al!es is fitted with an air operated piston to
force positi!e closure of the !al!e. This piston is controlled by the hydraulic
system. "n the e!ent of a turbine trip all e+traction line chec8 !al!es close
as well as the main steam stop !al!e and the reheat stop !al!e. "n addition
each of these chec8 !al!es trips if its respecti!e feedheater reaches a high
water le!el pre!enting water from getting bac8 into the turbine where it
would cause a lot of damage. The e+traction line chec8 !al!es close
positi!ely under two conditions5 a turbine trip and feedheater high le!el.
'i#% 1(-1-1&% E8tra$tion Stea! Lines%
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". SU((,RB5
The control function is commanded by the go!ernor and is carried out by
the control !al!es on the main steam chest and by the intercept !al!es on
the reheat steam to the intermediate pressure turbine.

The protecti!e function is commanded by protecti!e de!ices and is carried
out by the main steam stop !al!es at the inlet of the steam chest the reheat
stop !al!es at the entrance to the intermediate pressure turbine and the
positi!e closing chec8 !al!es.
Answer the followin# 6"estions7
%9. The two circumstances in which the e+traction line chec8 !al!es close are5
%:. The three protecti!e !al!es on the turbine are 5
/9DRAULIC OIL S9STE:
The control !al!es and the stop !al!es are all operated by the hydraulic oil
system. $ig. %&'%'%% shows a simple hydraulic system. , change in the
turbine shaft speed causes a change in the go!ernor speed which in turn
affects the position of the pilot !al!e. This !al!e regulates the amount of oil
under the power piston and mo!es the power piston up or down opening or
closing the control !al!es.
'i#% 1(-1-11% Si!4le /0dra"li$ S0ste!%
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,n impro!ement on this system is shown in fig. %&'%'%* a double relay
method. This method is used on large machines in which !ery large !al!es
must be mo!ed. ,s a response to the go!ernor mo!ement the amplifier
piston mo!es up or down and changes the position of the pilot !al!e. The
pilot !al!e is a double acting !al!e that supplies oil to one side of the ser!o
piston and drains it from the other side. The ser!o piston in turn operates
the turbine control !al!es. ,fter each ad#ustment of the ser!o piston the
floating le!er returns the pilot !al!e to the neutral position.
'i#% 1(-1-1*% Do"le Rela0 S0ste!%
The high pressure oil for the control system is supplied by the main oil pump
on the turbine shaft when the unit is in operation. 1uring startup the
au+iliary oil pump is used. The hydraulic oil pressure is normally about *<<
pounds per square inch. This high'pressure oil is also used to operate the
main and reheat stop !al!es as can be seen $ig. %&'%'%-.
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'i#% 1(-1-1+%
This figure shows the oil supply from the main oil pump to the high'pressure
header and subsequently to the control system and the main reheat stop
!al!es.
To trip the turbine the trip relay must be actuated. ,ctuation results in
closing of the main steam !al!es and the reheat stop !al!es. The trip relay
can be operated by hand or by remote solenoid. "t can also be tripped by
protecti!e de!ices such as )!erspeed. ,ll this gear is located in the
go!ernor pedestal as can be seen in $ig. %&'%'%&. ,lso shown are the
speed changer gear and the load limit.
'i#% 1(-1-1(% -o)ernor 2edestal%
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"t is absolutely essential that all of the control and protection gear be 8ept in
perfect wor8ing order. $unctional tests must be carried out regularly.
Special arrangements are made to allow testing of the protecti!e de!ices to
be carried out while the machine is still in ser!ice. Testing of the protecti!e
gear is one of the most important parts of operator responsibility.
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ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
%;. 6hat happens to the turbine if the output of the main oil pump decreases7
%=. List the three ways the trip relay can be operated.
%A. 6hat is one of the most important operator responsibilities7
ANS;ERS
%. The turbine control !al!e directly controls the power output of the
turbine.
*. Throttling means that the flow is some where between full flow and
?ero flow.
-. ,s the turbine begins to )!erspeed the intercept !al!e starts to
close. This reduces steam flow to the intermediate and low pressure
turbine and therefore reduces speed bac8 to normal.
&. Steam chest pressure forces the !al!es down on the seats.
9. These answer may appear in any order5
%. Centrifugal go!ernor
*. Electro'hydraulic go!ernor
-. )il pressure go!ernor
:. The ad#usting nut sets the go!ernor Setpoint and therefore the
speed at which the turbine normally rotates.
;. )il pressure !aries with the square of the shaft speed.
=. /enerator output frequency changes as load changes. ,t no load
the turbine rotates at -=<< rpm and it rotates at -&<< rpm at full load.
A. These answers may appear in any order5
%. ,cceleration go!ernor
*. Load limiter
-. "nitial pressure regulator
&. Low !acuum deloader
%<. True
%%. The stop !al!e is normally a full open or full closed !al!e. The control
!al!e acts as a throttle !al!e.
%*. )nly during turbine startup and steam chest warming. Control is by a
hand wheel.
%-. 0igh pressure oil pushes the pilot !al!e open and this same oil forces
the stop !al!e piston up. This opens and holds the !al!e open. The
pilot !al!e returns to the position shown and traps high pressure oil in
the stop !al!e chamber.
%&. ,. Reheat stop !al!e C2D ,bout a *4 )!erspeed
%9. These answers may appear in either order5 CaD Turbine trip
*D 0igh feedheater water le!el.
%:. These answer may appear in any order5
%. (ain steam stop !al!es CbD Reheat stop !al!es
*. E+traction line chec8 !al!es
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%;. The turbine stop !al!e reheat stop !al!e main steam stop and the
e+traction line chec8 !al!es all trip shut. The main oil pump pro!ides
oil to the control system.
%=. These answers may appear in any order 5
%. (anually by the operator
*. Remotely by the operator
-. Protecti!e signals such as )!erspeed.
%A. Testing and ma8ing sure the protecti!e de!ices are always wor8ing.
2ROBLE: SET
%. The purpose of the intercept !al!e is to pre!ent CaD EEEEEEEEEE from
entering the turbine during CbDEEEEEEEEEE. The residual steam is
contained in the CcDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE and the
CdDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
*. The use of one large control !al!e in place of multiple control !al!es
would result in EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE on the single control !al!e.
-. The stop !al!es are placed Cbefore afterD the control !al!es in the
steam circuit.
&. The control !al!es are operated by the EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
9. 6hat is the effect of ad#usting the speeder gear when the turbine is 5
%. )n'loadEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
*. )ff'loadEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
:. 0ow does the load limiter control turbine output7
;. The function of the initial pressure regulator is to maintain the steam
pressure abo!e about CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEof normal by CbD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEon the control !al!es. This is done to
protect the turbine from CcDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE from the boiler in
case of falling CdDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
=. The acceleration go!ernor only comes into operation when the rate of
speed increase CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. "n this case it CbDEEEEEEEE
the action of the main go!ernor and CcDEEEEEEEEEEEEEE the control
!al!es.
A. List four turbine protecti!e controls5
a.
b.
c.
d.
%<. ,d#ustment of the EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEregulates the Setpoint on the
go!ernor.
%%. The setting of the load limit de!ice pre!ents any CaD Cincrease
decreaseD in load from ta8ing place but does allow the load to CbD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEif the go!ernor demands.
%*. The control function is commanded by the CaDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE and
is carried out by the CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE and the
CcDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%-. The protecti!e function is commanded by CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
and is carried out by the CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE the CcD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEand the CdD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
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%&. E+traction chec8 !al!es close positi!ely on5
a.
b.
%9. The e+traction line chec8 !al!e pre!ents 5
a.
b.
%:. The function of the stop !al!e is to CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE under
emergency conditions and shut off all CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE to the
turbine. 6hen the turbine is out of ser!ice the stop !al!e is
CcDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%;. 0ydraulic oil pressure is about CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEE. This is supplied
by the CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE pump which is connected directly
to the turbine shaft. 1uring startup hydraulic oil is supplied by the CcD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEpump.
%=. 6hen is testing of the protecti!e de!ices control !al!es and stop
!al!es carries out7
%A. 6hat is the difference between the stop !al!e and control !al!e7
*<. 6hen is the stop !al!e used as a throttle !al!e7
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START-U2 2RE2ARATION
The turning gear must be put into ser!ice before the turbine is started up. 2efore
the turning gear is put into ser!ice a flow of lubricating oil to the turbine bearings
must be established.
$ig. %&'%'%9 shows a typical turbine oil system. 6hen the turbine is running oil is
supplied by the main oil pump which is dri!en by the turbine shaft. This pump
supplies oil for the hydraulic control system at a pressure of appro+imately *<< psig.
)il for lubrication passes through a reducing !al!e which brings the pressure down
to appro+imately 9< psig and then through the lube oil cooler before it passes into
the lube oil supply header. )il from the bearings returns to the oil tan8. ,ny
humidity that the oil pic8s up as it passes through the bearings is liberated in the
tan8. "t is e+tracted by the !apor e+tractor and !ented to the atmosphere.
"n the system shown there are three motor dri!en oil pumps in the tan8. The
largest is the au+iliary oil pump which in addition tot he lube oil supplies oil to the
high pressure system at *<< psig. This oil is used for the hydraulic control system
during startup when the turbine shaft is stationary or running at low speed. The
au+iliary oil pump also supplies oil for lubrication.
6hen the turbine is shut down and running on the turning gear lubrication must be
supplied. , small turning gear oil pump pro!ides low pressure oil for lubricating
purposes. This sa!es the power for running the large au+iliary oil pump during
o!ernight shutdown.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E %A
'i#% 1(-1-1,% T"rine Oil S0ste!%
The 1C emergency oil pump which ta8es electrical power from the station 1C
battery comes into ser!ice to supply lube oil to the bearings in the e!ent of a
complete plant shutdown with loss of ,C power supply.
6hen the turbine is started up the turning gear oil pump is placed in ser!ice and
the turning gear is started. )nce the turbine is on turning gear a !acuum must be
created in the condenser and the turbine. To create the !acuum the operator must
ta8e the following steps5
Establish a flow of circulating water through the condenser.
Supply li!e gland steam to the shaft seals.
Start up the !acuum pumps or steam e#ector.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E *< TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
, typical gland steam system is shown in $ig. %&'%'%:. 1uring startup the whole
turbine is under !acuum. Li!e steam must be supplied to the gland seals to pre!ent
ingress of air. 6hen the turbine pic8s up load the high pressure gland comes
under pressure and the steam that lea8s out can be used to supply the low
pressure gland. "n this e!ent the li!e steam supply automatic control !al!es closes.
,s load increases further the pressure on the gland steam header rises and the
automatic lea8 off control !al!e opens and dumps steam to the condenser. The
!al!e maintains a pressure of appro+imately 9 psig on the header.
'i#% 1(-1-1.% -land Stea! S0ste!%
Preparation for startup includes placing the following equipment in ser!ice5
Turbine oil system
Turning gear
Circulating water system
/land seal system
Facuum equipment
1uring this operation the turbine steam line sand steam chest can be warmed
through.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E *%
ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
%. .ame the oil pumps discussed in the turbine oil system.
*. 6hy must the turbine be on the turning gear when it is shut downG
-. 6hich pumps pro!ide both turbine control and lubricating oil7
&. List the three steps an operator must ta8e to create a !acuum.
9. 1uring startup preparation the following equipment must be placed in
ser!ice5
;AR:IN- T/ROU-/
6hen supplying steam to the piping steam chest and turbine the operator must
8eep the metal from heating up too fast. "f heat is applied too rapidly to one side of
the thic8 metal wall a temperature differential is set up across the wall. The
differential causes the hot side to try to e+pand faster than the cool side resulting in
bending $ig. %&'%'%;. "f the plate is free to bend there is no problem. 0owe!er
with a turbine cylinder or steam chest this is not the case.
"n $ig. %&'%'%= the inside of the thic8 casing wall is e+panding faster than the
outside. 0igh stress set up in the outer wall may lead to crac8ing of the metal.
Crac8ing can be a!oided by 8eeping the temperature differential across the wall
below *<<H. 0eating at a slow uniform rate allows the inside and the outside of the
metal to e+pand together and 8eep the temperatures differential down. The rate of
increasing the metal temperature at any point usually should not e+ceed 9<<H per
hour or =H per minute. These !alues !ary slightly in certain plants so the operator
must be aware of the following limitations for his particular plant5
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E ** TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
'i#% 1(-1-11 = 11A% Bendin# D"e to /i#h Te!4erat"re Differential%
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E *-
'i#% 1(-1-13% /eatin# the T"rine C0linder%
'i#% 1(-1-15% T"rine Drains%
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E *& TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
The ma+imum allowable rate of raising turbine metal temperature
The ma+imum temperature differential allowed across any point.
To enable the operator to maintain control thermocouples are embedded in the
turbine metal. These thermocouples indicate their respecti!e temperatures on a
recorder in the control room.
6hen warming through the steam lines and steam chest temperature limitations
must be 8ept in mind. ,s shown in $ig. %&'%'%A the steam line from the boiler is
warmed by passing steam up to the closed stop !al!e and through the drain stop
!al!e. The steam chest is warmed by partially opening the turbine stop !al!e or the
stop !al!e internal bypass. 2efore warming the steam chest the operator must see
that the control !al!es are completely closed and that the steam chest drains are
completely open. The steam chest drains must be left open until the turbine is on
load.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E *9
ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
:. 6hat is the relationship between metal stress and heatup rate7
;. 6hy does a large temperature differential across a metal wall lead to
crac8ing7
=. List the steps required to warm up steam piping and the turbine steam chest.
A. Turbine metal temperature are indicated on a CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEE in the
CbDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E *: TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
ROLLIN- T/E TURBINE
Two methods of controlling the steam flow to the turbine during startup are as
follows5
)pen the stop !al!e wide and control steam flow through the control !al!es.
)pen the control !al!es wide and control steam flow through the stop !al!es.
$rom %&'%'% is a cross'section of a steam chest with multiple control !al!es. "f
steam flow is controlled by the control !al!es during startup only one !al!e would
probably be open since steam flow is !ery low during this period. Steam would be
fed into only one portion of the turbine possibly causing distortion due to une!en
heating. The preferred method of controlling steam flow is to open all control !al!es
and throttle the steam at the turbine stop !al!e. This is 8nown as full'arc admission
and enables the turbine to heat up e!enly during the start'up period. Steam is
admitted through all the first stage no??les hence Ifull'arc.J
6hen the turbine e!entually reaches normal speed the control !al!e is closed by
the go!ernor and the stop !al!e can be opened lea!ing the steam the turning gear
normally disengages automatically and is switched out of ser!ice.
Under steam turbine speed increases rapidly to about &<< rpm and then is allowed
to soa8 for a period of time at this speed. The total amount of time required to bring
the turbine up to full speed depends on whether the turbine is hot or cold.
6hen starting a cold turbine the internals are heated by the passage of steam.
This heating must be applied slowly so that the turbine internals can e+pand e!enly.
Therefore it ta8es se!eral hours to bring a cold unit up to full speed.
"f the turbine has been shut down o!ernight the metal temperature before startup is
probably about =<<H$. this machine is said to be hot and the turbine can be run up
to speed in %9 to -< minutes and can then be loaded at a high rate. "deally the
steam temperature entering the turbine should equal the metal temperature in order
to a!oid thermal shoc8s. The turbine manufacturer recommends a specific rate of
running up to speed and applying load for !arious starting conditions. , typical run'
up cur!e is shown in $ig. %&'%'*<. The speed is brought up in stages and left to
soa8 at !arious inter!als while e+pansion ta8es place.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E *;
'i#% 1(-1-*&% Start-"4 C"r)e%
Answer the followin# 6"estions7
%<. 1uring turbine startup the two methods of controlling the admission of
steam to the turbine are 5
a.
b.
%%. 6hy is full'arc admission for heatup preferred7
%*. 0ow does the turning gear disengage7
%-. a. 6hat is soa8ing7
-. 6hat is the ideal turbine steam inlet temperature7
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E *= TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
1uring the turbine runup particular attention must be paid tot he turbine drains.
1uring runup the turbine is under !acuum. ,n incorrect drain operation may result
in air and water being suc8ed into the turbine casing with consequent damage to
the turbine internals.
,s the turbine runs up to speed it passes through the critical speed when the
!ibration le!el suddenly increases rapidly because the frequency of rotation is
identical to the natural !ibration frequency of the rotor. ,t critical speed the
amplitude of !ibration becomes !ery great and may damage the turbine.
"n a typical turbine generator unit there are se!eral rotors '' high pressure
intermediate pressure low pressure and generator. 6hen the unit is run up to
speed there are se!eral critical speeds to watch for Csee $ig. %&'%'*%D. The hea!y
!ibration occurs o!er a !ery narrow band of speed. Problems are a!erted by
passing through this speed range !ery quic8ly. The actual startup cur!e shown in
$ig. %&'%'*< allows for the critical speeds. 2e sure that you ha!e this information
from the manufacturer.
)ne other !ariable that must be obser!ed during turbine runup is the e+haust hood
temperature. ,t no'load or low'load !ery little steam passes through the turbines.
,t high speed the !elocity of the !ery long low'pressure blades is about ;<< miles
per hour. The friction caused by this blade !elocity passing through the almost
stagnant steam causes o!erheating.
'i#% 1(-1-*1% Criti$al S4eed%
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E *A
The blades themsel!es become hot as does the e+haust hood possibly causing
distortion. ,s soon as load is applied to the turbine'generator the flow of steam
increases enough to ta8e the heat away from the low'pressure end and the
temperature falls to normal Cabout %<<H$D. That is the reason that a minimum load
of between 9 and %< percent is normally specified for each turbine.
1uring the turbine run'up and synchroni?ing period cooling is usually pro!ided by
e+haust hood sprays which in#ect condensate into the e+haust hood steam space
Csee $ig. %&'%'**D. 1uring the run'up period the operator must pay particular
attention to lubrication bearing temperatures !acuum gland seal systems and
turbine drains.
'i#% 1(-1-**% E8ha"st /ood S4ra0s%
Answer the followin# 6"estions7
%&. a. 1efine critical speed.
b. 0ow does the operator control the effects of the critical speed7
%9. 6hy do the low pressure turbine blades heat up during run'up7
%:. E+haust hood sprays in#ect EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEinto the e+haust hood in
order to bring e+haust hood temperature down to normal !alues.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E -< TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
TURBINE E>2ANSION
6hen turbine load increases more steam passes through and adds heat. This heat
causes e+pansion of both the mo!ing parts and the stationary parts of the turbine.
"ncreasing the steam temperature causes the same thing. (any of the problems
in!ol!ed in turbine operations are due to rapid fluctuations of temperature or load.
The operator should ma8e sure that the rate of increase of temperature is less than
9<<H per hour and that the temperature differential does not e+ceed *<<H$ at any
point.
"f temperature or load is increased too rapidly une!en heating may occur. This
could lead to shaft eccentricity Csee $ig. %&'%'*-D. The shaft becomes distorted and
bends. The centrifugal force of rotation e+aggerates the eccentricity e!en further.
Eccentricity is dangerous because because it decreases the radial clearance
between the rotating and stationary components which could result in mechanical
damage.
0igh eccentricity usually shows up in !ibration at the bearings. "n fact almost any
faulty or incorrect running of the turbine usually produces !ibration at the turbine
bearings and this may be transmitted to the foundations. The most common
causes of !ibrations are as follows5
Rapid fluctuations in temperatures
Rapid fluctuations in load
"ngress of water
'i#% 1(-1-*+% Shaft E$$entri$it0%
The first two causes of !ibration may be due to une!en heating and can cause
distortion which may produce eccentricity or temporary misalignment of the
bearings. "ngress of water into the turbine may result in mechanical shoc8 as water
hits the spinning blades.
Une!en heat distribution may also occur due to rapid cooling resulting in distortion.
)ther factors that cause !ibration but are out of the operatorKs control include the
following 5
Permanent misalignment of the bearings due to setting in the bearing foundation.
(echanical defects inside the turbine.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E -%
ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
%;. 6hen the turbine shaft runs out of true it is said to be eccentric.
Eccentricity is caused by une!en CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEE within the turbine.
0igh eccentricity can cause damage due to the reduced radial clearance
between CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEand CcDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE parts.
%=. 6here is eccentricity generally first noticed7
%A. Fibration can caused by 5
*<. "ngress of water into the turbine can cause5
6hen the turbine e+pands the change in diameter is quite small. "n comparison
the increase in length can be quite large Lperhaps as much as two inches. The
effects of e+pansion are greater in the high pressure turbine because the steam
temperature is higher Caround %<<<H$D than the temperature in the low'pressure
cylinder Cabout %<<H$D. allowance must be made for e+pansion in the design and
operation of the turbine. $ig. %&'%'*& shows a simplified s8etch of a single'cylinder
turbine. The cylinder is fi+ed at the low'pressure end as shown . 6hen load is
increased e+pansion ta8es place a+ially towards the high'pressure end. Sliding
rails or sliding feet allow the cylinder to mo!e in this direction. The effect of raising
steam temperature or raising load is the same L e+pansion ta8es place. ,s the
casing e+pands the go!ernor pedestal and the thrust bearing housing mo!e. The
turbine rotor is pulled " the same direction as much as two inches. ,t the same time
the turbine rotor e+pands in the opposite direction. "f the rate of the e+pansion of
the casing and rotor is identical there is little change in the positions of the rotating
and stationary parts relati!e to each other. This condition does not normally occur in
practice.
'i#% 1(-1-*(% T"rine E84ansion%
The turbine rotor is usually much lighter than the casing and therefore e+pands
faster gi!ing rise to a differential e+pansion between the two. This results in a
decrease in the clearance between the rotating and stationary parts. "f differential
e+pansion is e+cessi!e physical contact will occur with consequent damage.
"nstrumentation measures the e+pansion and the operator must 8eep e+pansion
below the limits specified.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E -* TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
6hen loading the turbine the rate of loading must be 8ept down so that the turbine
casing e+pansion can accompany the rotor e+pansion or at least 8eep the
differential e+pansion within the prescribed limits. This is especially important on a
cold machine.
)n some machines flange heating is pro!ided as shown in $ig. %&'%'*9. Steam is
fed into a channel between the high pressure turbine flanges. This results in
heating and e+pansion of the turbine casing.
6hen the turbine is unloaded cooling and consequent contraction ta8e place. "n
this case differential e+pansion is negati!e because the turbine rotor contracts
much faster than the turbine casing.
'i#% 1(-1-*,% 'lan#e /eatin#%
"f the turbine is ta8en out of ser!ice for more than a few hours the turbine casing
will probably remain in the e+panded position. This is an ad!antage for starting up
the turbine@ the casing would already be e+panded ahead of the rotor so the turbine
could be run up to speed and loaded !ery rapidly. This is one reason why it is bad
practice to apply cool steam to a hot turbine L the turbine casing would contract
and would ha!e to be heated up again.
2efore the turbine is started the operator should note the turbine pedestal
e+pansion relati!e to the foundation. Comparison of the differential e+pansion and
the pedestal e+pansion before starting can gi!e !ery useful information as to the
relati!e position of the rotor and casing. 6hen used in con#unction with the
information from the turbine metal temperature recorder this can indicate which type
of starting method should be employed.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E --
ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
*%. 6hat is the relationship between e+pansion of the turbine rotor and
e+pansion of the turbine casing7
**. 6hat operator action pre!ents damage to the turbine from too much
differential e+pansion and contraction7
*-. Pedestal e+pansion with relation to turbine foundation is an indication of the
amount of heat in the CaDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. This information
when combined with information on differential e+pansion and turbine metal
temperature is useful during CbDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
ANS;ERS
%. These answers may appear in any order5
%. (ain oil pump
*. ,u+iliary oil pump
-. Turning gear oil pump
&. 1C emergency oil pump
*. The turning gear slowly rotates the turbine rotor and 8eeps it from bowing.
2owing causes damage to the turbine internals.
-. (ain oil pump and the au+iliary oil pump.
&. These answers may appear in any order5
%. /et circulating cooling water through the main condenser.
*. /et li!e gland steam to the shaft seals
-. Start !acuum pumps or air e#ectors
9. These answers may appear in any order5
%. Lube oil system
*. Turning gear
-. Circulating water system
&. /land seal system
9. Facuum equipment
:. ,s the heatup rate increases beyond normal plant limits the metal stress
becomes !ery great and crac8ing can result.
;. The hot side is e+panding faster than the cold side.
=. The piping is warmed by opening the stop !al!e drain with the stop !al!e
closed. 6hen the piping is warmed the stop !al!e drain is closed. The
steam chest drains are chec8ed open and the control !al!es chec8ed shut.
Then the stop !al!e bypass !al!e is crac8ed open to admit steam to the
steam chest.
A. ,. Recorder
*. Control room
%<. These answers may appear in either order5
%. Meep stop !al!e wide open and regulate control !al!es
*. Meep control !al!es wide open and regulate the stop !al!e
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E -& TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
%%. This method allows e!en turbine heating
%*. The turning gear disengages automatically as the turbine speed increases
under steam.
%-.
%. ,llowing the metal temperature to e!en out in all of the elements of the
turbine. This gi!es e!en e+pansion of the elements.
*. The ideal temperature is equal to the metal temperature.
%&. Critical speed is the point where the speed of rotation equals the natural
!ibration frequency of the rotor.
The operator mo!es the speed of the turbine through these points !ery
quic8ly.
%9. There is !ery little steam mo!ement in the turbine at this point. The blades
are rotating rapidly and the friction of the blades mo!ing through the steam
causes a heat increase. "t is the lac8 of steam flow past the blades that
causes them to o!erheat.
%:. Condensate
%;. 0eat distribution
Stationary
Rotating
%=. 2earing !ibration. 2earings donKt last long when there is !ibration.
%A. These answers may appear in any order5
%. Rapid fluctuation in steam temperature
*. Rapid fluctuation in load
-. "ngress of water
&. (echanical defects
9. Permanent misalignment
*<. These answer may appear in either order5
%. Physical damage
*. Rapid cooling and une!en heating of turbine internals
*%. The rotor being lighter e+pands much more rapidly than the casing. The
rotor also contracts much more rapidly than the casing.
**. (aintaining the heatup rate less than 9<<H$ per hour and temperature
differentials less than *<<H$ at any point.
*-. ,. Turbine casing
-. Startup
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E -9
2ROBLE: SET
%. 1uring startup preparation the following equipment must be placed in
ser!ice5
*. 1uring start CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE must be supplied to the gland seal
system to pre!ent CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. This is because the whole
of the turbine is CcD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
-. The gland steam e+hauster creates a CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE in the
e+tremity of the glands. This pre!ents CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE from lea8ing
out to the surrounding atmosphere. "nstead the steam is reco!ered in the
CcD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE while air is !ented to atmosphere.
&. "n the lube oil system the CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE remo!es humidity
from the oil and !ents it to atmosphere. The CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE remo!es
heat that has been pic8ed up by the oil as it passes through the turbine
bearings.
9. "n case of an emergency shutdown of the turbine and a complete loss of ,C
au+iliary power how are the turbine bearings protected from damage due to
lac8 of lubrication7
:. 6hen warming a steam chest or turbine care must be ta8en to limit the CaD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE to 9<<H$ per hour. The CbDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE at
any point should not e+ceed *<<H$.
;. 1uring startup steam admission to the turbine is controlled by 5
=. $ull'arc admission means that steam can enter the turbine around the CaD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE and so allow CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE e+pansion
to ta8e place.
A. 6hile bringing the turbine up to speed the operator must obser!e the
following points5
%<. 6hy must we ta8e se!eral hours to bring a cold machine up to speed7
%%. ,. 1efine critical speed.
*. 0ow does the operator control the effects of the critical speed7
%*. The CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE normally pro!ides complete instructions for
running the turbine up to speed under CbD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEcircumstances.
%-. E+cessi!e differential e+pansion is caused by CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
heating of the turbine. This can be due to rapid increase in CbD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE or rapid increase in CcD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%&. E+cessi!e temperature differential across a thic8 place will create a
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEbetween the two surfaces.
%9. "f differential e+pansion e+ceeds the limits specified the CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEE
and CbDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE parts may come into contact with each other.
%:. 0igh eccentricity is dangerous because it reduces the radial clearance
between the rotating and stationary parts. 0igh eccentricity is a result of
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%;. The three most common causes of !ibration are5
%=. Correct manipulation of turbine drains is !ery important during CaD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEbecause incorrect operation of turbine drains may
allow CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. This may cause CcD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE to
the blading.
%A. 6hy must the turbine be on the turning gear when it is shut down7
*<. 6hat is the relationship between metal stress and heatup rate7
*%. 6hy does a large temperature differential across a metal wall lead to
crac8ing7
**. 0ow does the turning gear disengage7
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E -: TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
*-. 6hy do the low pressure turbine blades heat up during run'up7
*&. 6hat is the relationship between e+pansion of the turbine rotor and
e+pansion of the turbine casing7
*9. 6hat operator action pre!ents damage to the turbine from too much
differential e+pansion and contraction7
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E -;
2ROTECTIVE DEVICES
"n an emergency the turbine stop !al!es close and shutoff steam to the turbine.
The stop !al!e is operated by the hydraulic oil system and the closing action is
triggered by the operation of a trip relay. There may be se!eral trip relays in the oil
system all operated by protecti!e de!ices. The most common protecti!e de!ices on
the turbine are turbine o!er'speed low !acuum oil pressure failure thrust bearing
failure and solenoid trip. These are described in the following paragraphs.
OVERS2EED TRI2
The turbine normally runs at high speed. "f the speed rises much abo!e normal the
centrifugal force acting on the rotating parts increases considerably@ it could reach
the point where mechanical stresses due to centrifugal force are greater than the
material can with stand and the machine could burst. Turbine o!er'speed can
destroy a turbine within a matter of minutes.
The go!ernor normally controls the turbine speed but if it fails a protecti!e de!ice
trips the turbine when it reaches %<4 o!er'speed. ,n e+ample of an o!er'speed trip
is shown in $ig. %&'%'*:. This de!ice wor8s on centrifugal force. ,s can be seen
the o!er'speed bolt rotates with the shaft and tries to mo!e outwards but is
restrained by the tension of the spring. 0owe!er when the speed reaches the trip
point C%<4 abo!e normalD the bolt o!ercomes the spring tension mo!es outwards
and stri8es the trip le!er. The tension of the spring can be ad#usted to set the bolt
trip at e+actly the desired speed.
Release of the trip le!er mo!es the trip relay into the trip position where it drains off
oil from the stop !al!e to ?ero pressure. This causes the stop !al!e to close. ,
similar system uses a ring in place of the bolt but the operation is the same. Nuite
often two o!er'speed bolts or rings are fitted for reliability.
The o!er'speed trip is the most important protecti!e de!ice on the turbine. 6hen a
new machine is put into ser!ice this is the first item to be tested and calibrated.
,d#ustment of the o!er'speed trip is critical and it is chec8ed at regular inter!als.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E -= TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
'i#% 1(-1-*.% O)er-s4eed Tri4%
LO; VACUU: TRI2
Loss of !acuum may occur because of an air lea8 into the condenser or into the
low'pressure end of the turbine. , logical cause would be if the !acuum pumps or
the e#ector were ta8en out of ser!ice. "n this case howe!er the fall in !acuum
would be quite slow. "n contrast if a circulating water pump were ta8en out of
ser!ice then the !acuum would fall quite rapidly. "f all of the circulating water were
shut off from the condenser the !acuum would fall immediately.
6hen !acuum falls bac8 pressure rises in the e+haust end of the turbine and the
density of the steam increases. The friction between the rotating blades and the
steam increases and o!erheating of low pressure blades and e+haust hood occurs.
, pressure switch trips the turbine if the !acuum falls below *< inches. , low
!acuum alarm sounds when !acuum falls to *9 inches allowing the operator
enough time to ta8e appropriate action. , high temperature alarm fitted to the
e+haust hood operates if the temperature rises about %=<H$.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E -A
To protect the e+haust hood against internal pressure there are fitted large relief
diaphragms that lift or burst if pressure inside the e+haust hood rises abo!e
atmospheric pressure. The relief diaphragms are 8ept closed only by the pull of the
!acuum inside the condenser and the e+haust hood.
The possibility of the bursting of the relief diaphragms is quite rare and probably
would only occur if steam were being put into the turbine with no circulating water
going through the condenser and if the !acuum trip were out of operation. "f
pressure rises in the e+haust casing it could rupture the e+haust case. The relief
diaphragm operates simply as a relief !al!e quite independent of the turbine control
and trip mechanisms.
Answer the followin# 6"estions7
%. The most common protecti!e trip de!ices fitted to the turbine are 5
*. 6hat is the relationship between the rate of !acuum decrease and
%. !acuum pumps ta8en out of ser!ice7
*. , decrease in circulating water7
-. , complete loss of circulating water7
-. The e+haust hood relief diaphragm will lift when the pressure rises to abo!e
atmospheric pressure. Such a pressure rise could occur under the following
conditions5
&. Refer to $ig. %&'%'*:. 1escribe the operation of the o!er'speed trip.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E &< TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
LOSS O' OIL 2RESSURE TRI2
Loss of hydraulic or bearing oil pressure would be fatal to the turbine. "f pressure is
lost we lose control o!er the turbine and ha!e no way of regulating the control
!al!es. "f bearing oil pressure is lost turbine bearings o!erheat and become
damaged. Loss of oil pressure is detected by a pressure relay which is set to trip
the turbine when dangerous conditions occur.
T/RUST BEARIN- 'AILURE TRI2
Loss of hydraulic or bearing oil pressure would be fatal to the turbine. "f high
pressure is lost we lose control o!er the turbine and ha!e no way of regulating the
control !al!es. "f bearing oil pressure is lost turbine bearings o!erheat and become
damaged. Loss of oil pressure is detected by a pressure relay which is set to trip
the turbine when dangerous conditions occur.
T/RUST BEARIN- 'AILURE TRI2
The thrust bearing locates the turbine rotor and pre!ents it from mo!ing a+ially. "f
the thrust bearing fails the rotor mo!es and the rotating blades will probably come
into contact with the stationary blades and cause internal damage to the turbine.
The thrust bearing failure de!ice detects any e+cessi!e mo!ement of the thrust
collar and initiates a turbine trip. $ig. %&'%'*; shows such a de!ice.
, #et of oil is squirted onto the thrust collar from either side and the no??le is !ery
close to the collar. "f the collar suddenly mo!es away from one of the #ets the
resistance to the oil is less and pressure falls.
'i#% 1(-1-*1% Thr"st Bearin# 'ail"re De)i$e%
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E &%
This loss of pressure is detected by a pressure relay in the line which initiates the
turbine trip.
SOLENOID TRI2
The solenoid operates the trip relay in the same way as the protecti!e de!ices. The
solenoid itself is acti!ated from a number of sources such as remote pushbuttons
from the control room generator protection de!ices and boiler protection de!ices.
, simplified circuit is shown in $ig. %&'%'*=.
Testing of protecti!e de!ices is absolutely essential. Protecti!e de!ices must be
chec8ed for correct operation on a regular basis. (any turbines are run
continuously for se!eral months and the protecti!e de!ices are tested by simulated
tests '' the tripping circuit is bloc8ed momentarily while the protecti!e de!ice is
made to function and sound an alarm.
The turbine stop !al!e should be operated regularly to ensure that the spindle is
free to mo!e. ,ll of the protecti!e de!ices are completely useless if the stop !al!e
cannot close.
'i#% 1(-1-*3% Solenoid Tri4%
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E &* TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
9. Loss of turbine oil pressure will cause5
:. 6hat happens to the turbine if the thrust bearing fails7
;. The solenoid trip is commonly initiated by 5
=. ,ll of the protecti!e de!ices are completely useless if the stop !al!e cannot
close. 6hy is this statement true7
INSTRU:ENTATION
"nstrumentation gi!es continuous indication of 5
Steam condition
Facuum
Lube oil temperatures
Turbine mechanical condition
Steam conditions must be 8ept up to the optimum !alue. "f pressure is too low the
turbine is unable to produce full load. "f temperature is too low efficiency is down.
"f temperature is too high o!erheating of the turbine metal may occur.
(aintenance of the optimum !acuum is important. "f !acuum falls efficiency is
reduced and the turbine is unable to maintain full load. Loss of !acuum may be due
to a reduction in the circulating water flow through the condenser or to an increase
in its temperature. "t may also be due to an air lea8age into the low pressure end of
the turbine which in turn may be caused by a faulty gland seal system.
Lube oil temperatures must be chec8ed continuously. The temperature of oil
lea!ing a bearing is a good indication of the temperature of the bearing metal. The
bearing should maintain a constant steady temperature. "f a sudden increase in
temperature ta8es place some fault has de!eloped in the particular bearing. "f the
bearing temperature rises about %9<H$ the operator should loo8 for the cause of the
problem. "f it rises as high as %;<H$ and continues to rise the machine must be
shut down and the bearing opened up for inspection. There is usually an alarm that
warns the operator before dangerous conditions arise.
The mechanical condition of the turbine is indicated by a set of instruments 8nown
as the super!isory gear. The super!isory gear usually indicates the following5
1ifferential e+pansion
Pedestal e+pansion
Shaft eccentricity
2earing !ibration
(etal temperatures
Speed and control !al!e position
Spindle position
There are described in the following paragraphs.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E &-
DI''ERENTIAL E>2ANSION
The method of measuring differential e+pansion is shown in $ig. %&'%'*A. , collar is
fitted to the shaft with a pair of magnetic coils on either side. The magnetic coils are
attached to the turbine casing. ,ny difference in e+pansion between the rotor and
the casing changes the distance between the coils which in turn changes the
magnetic flu+ passing through the coils and gi!es rise to an electrical signal that is
indicated on a recorder in the control room. Usually when the shaft has e+panded
more than the casing it is said that a positi!e differential e+pansion has ta8en
place. 6hen the shaft has contracted more than the casing it is said that negati!e
differential e+pansion has ta8en place.
'i#% 1(-1-*5% Differential E84ansion%
2EDESTAL E>2ANSION
The system of a multi'cylinder machine is more complicated but the principle is the
same as shown in $ig. %&'%'-<. The low pressure end of the intermediate pressure
cylinder is fi+ed rigidly to the foundation and e+pansion ta8es place towards the
high pressure end. The high pressure and intermediate pressure casings are
connected together. The e+pansion is cumulati!e at the go!ernor pedestal which is
allowed to mo!e freely on sliding feet. The total casing e+pansion then appears at
the go!ernor pedestal. The rotors are also coupled together so e+pansion of the
shaft is also cumulati!e.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E && TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
'i#% 1(-1-+&% :"lti-$0linder Differential E84ansion%
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E &9
1ifferential e+pansion is measured for both the high pressure cylinder and the
intermediate pressure cylinder as shown. Pedestal e+pansion with relation to the
foundation is measured by placing a de!ice at the foot of the go!ernor pedestal to
measure the total linear mo!ement with respect to the foundation. The signal is
con!erted into an electrical signal that is recorded in the control room. This
measurement is !ery useful in determining the amount of heat in the turbine casing
prior to starting up the turbine. This information coupled with differential e+pansion
and turbine metal temperatures can indicate the type of turbine startup that must be
employed.
ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
A. "nstruments are installed on the turbine to monitor the following information5
%<. Turbine mechanical condition is indicated by the super!isory gear which
shoes the following5
%%. (aintenance of correct steam condition is important. Low steam pressure
will result in CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. Low steam temperature will
CbDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. 0igh steam temperature can cause CcD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEof metal.
%*. Low !acuum can be caused by CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
CbDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE and CcD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%-. List three indications an operator should use when determining the type of
turbine startup.
%&. 1efine5
%. Positi!e differential e+pansion
*. .egati!e differential e+pansion
ECCENTRICIT9
(easurement of shaft eccentricity is shown in $ig. %&'%'-%. "f the shaft runs
eccentric Cnot trueD the collar is deflected. This mo!ement is detected by the
magnetic coils on either side of the shaft. The resultant electrical signal is then
transmitted to the control room where it is registered on a recorder. Eccentricity
should normally be less than % mil and if it rises to 9 mils there is cause for alarm.
Particular attention should be paid to eccentricity during the turbine run'up and
during load changes. Rapid changes in load or steam temperature can gi!e rise to
eccentricity.
BEARIN- VIBRATION
, !ibration detector on the top of each bearing measures shaft mo!ement and
transmits the signal to the control room where it is registered on a recorder. .ormal
!ibration le!els are usually less than % mil but they may rise * O or e!en - mils
when changing load. Fibration le!els must be closely obser!ed during such times.
"f the !ibration rises to 9 mils there is cause for alarm and load should be reduced.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E &: TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
'i#% 1(-1-+1% E$$entri$it0 :eas"re!ent%
:ETAL TE:2ERATURES
,s was discussed in pre!ious chapters it is essential for the operator to ha!e
information regarding turbine metal temperatures. Thermocouples are imbedded in
the turbine metal at !arious points and the information is transmitted and recorded
in the control room. Temperature is usually measured inside and outside the steam
chest at the first stage after the control !al!e and at the high pressure flange.
These temperature indications are most important during startup but they must also
be obser!ed when changing load.
S2EED AND CONTROL VALVE 2OSITION
The speed of the machine and the position of the control !al!e are indicated on a
combined recorder with one pointer. 1uring run'up the speed of the machine is
recorded. )nce the unit goes on load the recorder changes gear and the pointer
indicates the percentage opening of the control !al!es. This information is useful in
determining the condition of the turbine. $or e+ample if the turbine becomes dirty
due to deposits on the blades the control !al!es would need to be opened farther
for any particular load.
S2INDLE 2OSITION
The spindle position indicator is a mechanical de!ice that measures the relati!e
position between the rotor and the fi+ed casing ad#acent to the thrust bearing. "t is a
chec8 on the thrust wear. "f the thrust pads wear slowly o!er a period of time the
spindle position indicates such a change.
ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
%9. 6hat is the relationship between silica buildup on the turbine blades and
control !al!e position7
%:. 2earing !ibration is a good indication of rotor eccentricity. 6hen should the
operator pay particular attention to the bearing !ibration7
%;. 6hat de!ice is used to measure thrust bearing wear7
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E &;
CO:2UTER A22LICATIONS
The most common use of the computer in the power plant is as a data logger. The
computer instead of the operator ta8es the readings and records them. $ig. %&'%'
-* shows the data logger with all the information being fed into it. The information
is compared with standard that ha!e pre!iously been programmed into the
computer and when certain limits are reached the computer sends a signal to the
,nnunciator and sounds an alarm.
,t regular inter!als the data logger prints out on a standard log sheet all the
information that would normally be ta8en by an operator. ,t any time the operator
can press a button an the machine will print out selected information for a period of
time thereby showing trends.
The computer has a the ability to digest and spill out a great deal of information !ery
quic8ly. 0owe!er the computer cannot reason and ma8e decisions. "t only carries
out maneu!ers that it has been instructed to do. This is one of the problems of
trying to use the computer to control the unit and gi!e complete automatic control.
(uch in!estigation is being carried out in this direction and partial automation is
already a fact in some power plants.
'i#% 1(-1-+*% Data-Lo##er%
,s shown in $ig. %&'%-- the computer recei!es information compares it with
standard procedures and then sends out signals for action. 0owe!er it is almost
impossible to program the computer to handle e!ery possible circumstance that may
arise so the operator must still 8eep on top of the #ob be aware of all that is going
on and maintain control of the plant.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E &= TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
'i#% 1(-1-++% Co!4"ter Control '"n$tions%
ANS;ER T/E 'OLLO;IN- <UESTIONS7
%=. 1escribe computer data logging.
%A. )ther than physical characteristics what is the difference between an
operator and the computer7
*<. 6hat is the operatorKs responsibility when the plant is on computer control7
ANS;ERS
%. These answers may appear in any order5
%. )!erspeed
*. Low !acuum
-. )il pressure failure
&. Thrust bearing failure
9. Solenoid
*. a. Facuum decrease is slow and gradual.
-. Facuum decrease is rapid.
&. Facuum decrease is immediate.
-. These answers may appear " any order5
%. Steam being admitted to the turbine
*. .o circulating water flow to the condenser
-. Facuum trip out of operation
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E &A
&. ,s the shaft rotation increase the )!erspeed bolt mo!es outward because
of centrifugal force. 6hen the bolt mo!es out it stri8es the trip trigger and
causes the pilot !al!e plug to drop. The pilot !al!e plug dropping bleeds the
oil pressure on the stop !al!e piston off and the stop !al!e slams closed.
9. These answers may appear in either order5
%. Loss of control of the turbine
*. 1amage to the bearings
:. Rotating parts of the turbine come into contact with stationary parts and
internal damage results.
;. These answer may appear in any order5
%. Remote control pushbutton
*. /enerator protecti!e de!ices
-. 2oiler protecti!e de!ices
=. "f the stop !al!e wonKt close on a trip signal from a protecti!e de!ice the
turbine will ne!er shutdown when a dangerous condition e+ists. "f the
turbine wonKt shut down on a trip signal the protecti!e de!ices are useless.
A. These answers may appear in any order5
%. Steam conditions
*. Facuum
-. Lube oil temperature
&. (echanical conditions
%<. These answers may appear in any order5
%. 1ifferential e+pansion
*. Pedestal e+pansion
-. Shaft eccentricity
&. 2earing !ibration
9. (etal temperatures
:. Speed and control !al!e position
;. Spindle position
%%. a. Reductions in turbine load
-. Reduce turbine efficiency
&. )!erheating
%*. a. Reduction in circulating water flow through the condenser.
b. "ncrease in circulating water temperature
c. ,ir lea8age into the low pressure end of the turbine
%-. a. Pedestal e+pansion
b. 1ifferential e+pansion
c. Turbine metal temperatures
%&. a. The shaft CrotorD has e+panded more than the casing.
b. The shaft CrotorD has contracted more than the casing.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E 9< TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L
%9. ,s silica builds up on the blades the control !al!e must be opened further to
get the same amount of power out of the turbine. (ore steam is required
than if the blades were clean.
%:. 1uring run'up and during load changes.
%;. The spindle position indicator measures the wear of the thrust bearing.
%=. Plant signals Cpressure temperature flowD are sent to the computer where
the information is stored. Two things then happen L C%D the data is
automatically printed out so the operator can made decisions and C*D the
incoming information is compared with standard computer information. The
computer then will automatically send alarm signals if limits are reached.
%A. ,n operator can thin8 and ma8e decisions a computer cannot do either.
The computer can ta8e information faster and can remember longer. The
computer is only an operatorKs aid.
*<. The operator must maintain control of the plant by obser!ing and by 8eeping
up with what is going on.
2ROBLE: SET
%. The turbine stop !al!es close under operation of the EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
*. The most common turbine protecti!e trips are CaDEEEEEECbDEEEEEECcDEEEE
CdDEEEEEEE.
-. The most common cause of turbine )!erspeed is CaD EEEEEEEEE. 6hen this
happens the speed is normally brought under control by the CbD EEEEEEE. "t
is assisted by the CcDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
&. "f the go!ernor fails to control the turbine speed the CaDEEEEEEEEEE will trip
the machine when speed reaches. CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE o!er normal.
9. "f the )!erspeed trip failed to function and the machine continued to
increase in speed it would e!entually CaDEEEEEEEEEE due to e+cessi!e
CbDEEEEEEEE.
:. Loss of !acuum pumps or e#ector causes the !acuum to fall CaD slowly
rapidlyD. Loss of circulating water causes the !acuum to fall CbD Cslowly
rapidlyD.
;. Continuous operation under low !acuum conditions can gi!e rise to CaD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE of the low pressure casing and e+haust hood. This is
due to CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEbetween the low pressure blading and steam.
"t occurs when the !acuum falls below appro+imately *< inches.
=. "f the pressure in the e+haust hood rises abo!e atmospheric the relief
diaphragms lift. These operate as a CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE and are
independent of the CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEand CcD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
A. The thrust bearing failure trip detects any e+cessi!e mo!ement of the CaD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. This would indicate failure of the CbD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. "f this happens damage will occur to the turbine
internals due to CcD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%<. The solenoid trip is actuated by CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE CbD EEEEEEEEEEE
CcDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%%. 6hen the turbine remains on load for many months the protecti!e de!ices
are chec8ed by EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE that is tests on load.
%*. ,t frequent inter!als the stop !al!es should be operated by full or partial
closure to see that the EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%-. (aintenance of optimum steam conditions is necessary because low steam
pressure causes CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE low steam temperature causes CbD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE and high steam temperature may CcD EEEEEEEE.
SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS (EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %&
TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L LESS). % P,/E 9%
%&. The mechanical condition of the turbine is chec8ed by the CaDEEEEEEE. This
includes CbDEEEEEEEEE CcDEEEEEEEEEEE CdDEEEEEEEEE CeDEEEEEEEEE
CfDEEEEEEEEEECgDEEEEEEEEEEEEand ChDEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%9. (easurement of differential e+pansion indicates the difference in e+pansion
between the CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEE and the CbD EEEEEEEEEE. This differential
occurs because the CcD EEEEEEEEEEEEE normally e+pands faster than the CdD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE as it is lighter.
%:. Shaft eccentricity should normally be less than CaD EEEEEEEEEEEE. "t is
considered high if it is o!er CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%;. 0igh eccentricity and !ibration can be caused by CaD EEEEEEEEEEEE and
CbDEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%=. Shaft !ibration is normally measured at CaD EEEEEEEEEEEEE. "t should
normally be less than CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE.
%A. The data'logger recei!es measurement signals of CaD EEEEEEEEE and prints
these out on a log sheet at CbD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE. "t can also print out CcD
EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEof any particular point when selected by the operator.
*<. 6hen the computer is used for automatic control it CaD EEEEEEEE input
signals to measure operating conditions and it CbD EEEEEEEE signals to CcD
EEEEEEEEEEE equipment such as control !al!es and speed controllers.
(EC0,."C,L (,".TE.,.CE ()1ULE %& SPEC"$"C C)URSE $)R E./".EERS
LESS). % P,/E 9* TUR2".E LU2E 3 C).TR)L )"L

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