Sie sind auf Seite 1von 34

Dancing with the Gods: The Myth of the Chariot in Plato's "Phaedrus"

Author(s): Elizabeth Belfiore


Source: The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 127, No. 2 (Summer, 2006), pp. 185-217
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3804910 .
Accessed: 08/05/2013 21:17
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
.
The Johns Hopkins University Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The
American Journal of Philology.
http://www.jstor.org
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS: THE MYTH OF THE
CHARIOT IN PLATO'S PHAEDRUS
ELIZABETH BELFIORE
Abstract. In Plato's
Phaedrus,
Socrates
compares
the soul to a team of two
horses,
one obedient and one
unruly,
driven
by
a human charioteer. This article
argues
that essential clues to the
psychological
ideas
expressed
in this
myth
are
provided
by
the
imagery
of the dance and that of the
unruly
horse,
which resembles not
only
a
satyr
but also Socrates himself.
Satyrs
are daimonic
beings
with the
ability
to mediate between mortals and
gods. They
can thus
represent qualities
that are
essential to the
psychic equilibrium
of a soul
moving
in what Socrates character-
izes as choral dances led
by
the
gods.
1. INTRODUCTION
Socrates' second speech in the Phaedrus contains a
powerful
image
in which the soul is
compared
to a
"winged
team and charioteer"
(246a7).x
Both horses of the
gods'
souls are
good
and
obedient,
but
mortals have one horse that is
beautiful,
good,
and
white,
and one that
is
ugly, unruly,
and black. The charioteers of the
gods
drive around the
vault of heaven and see divine
sights,
and,
in a
previous
existence,
mortals
followed them as initiates in the rites of the
gods.
After a
time, however,
the charioteers of mortals were unable to control their
horses,
and in the
confusion,
mortal souls lost their
wings
and fell to earth.
According
to
Socrates,
they
can become
winged
once more and return to the rites of
the
gods
if their charioteers succeed in the difficult task of
controlling
their ill-matched teams while the soul is under the influence of erotic
madness
(246a-257b).
The
myth
of the chariot raises
many questions
about such
impor?
tant issues as
immortality
and
recollection,
the nature of the
gods,
eros,
rhetoric and
myth,
and the
persona
of Plato's Socrates. This article does
1
Unless otherwise
noted,
I follow the text of Burnet's
OCTs,
and all translations
are
my
own.
American Journal of
Philology
127
(2006)
185-217 ? 2006
by
The Johns
Hopkins University
Press
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
186 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
not
attempt
to address these
larger
issues but instead focuses on the
psychological
views
expressed
in a
single passage
in Socrates' second
speech?the description
of the
struggle among
the charioteer and horses
(253c7-255al).
This
passage
has been the
subject
of much
controversy,
especially concerning
the role of the black horse.
According
to some
scholars,
this horse
represents
an ineradicable evil in the
soul,
being
the
cause of the
original
fall to earth as well as
impeding progress
as the soul
attempts
to return to the
gods.2
This
interpretation,
I will
argue
below in
section
2,
fails to account for the fact that it is
always
the black horse who
initiates movement
(254a5-6, 254d4-7).
Other scholars attribute some
good qualities
to the black horse but do not
give
a
sufficiently
clear and
detailed
analysis
of the nature of these
qualities
and of the
ways
in which
they
are
represented
as
functioning
within the soul.3 In
attempting
to
provide
such an
account,
Martha Nussbaum
argues
that the black horse
represents
the
independent
motivational and
cognitive
role of emotion
and
appetite:
"The role of emotion and
appetite
as
guides
is motivational:
they
move the whole
person
towards the
good.
But it is also
cognitive:
for
they give
the whole
person information
as to where
goodness
and
beauty
are,
searching
out and
selecting,
themselves,
the beautiful
objects."4 Against
her
interpretation,
however,
it should be noted that information about
beauty
does not come from the horses but from the
charioteer,
who first
sees the beloved
object (253e5)
and who alone is reminded
by
it of the
beauty
he has seen before
(254b5-7).5
Moreover,
the black horse does
not move the soul "towards the
good."
His
desire,
before
being tamed,
is for
physical pleasure (254a5-7, d5-6),
and he has no
conception
of
any good apart
from this. The most
illuminating analysis
of this difficult
passage
is
given by
John
Ferrari,
who
argues
that the charioteer's task
is not to
repress
or eradicate the desires
represented by
the black horse
but to learn from them and to
integrate
the whole soul
by allowing
these
desires to find their
proper place
within it.6
This article builds on Ferrari's
interpretation
to
argue
that two as?
pects
of Socrates' second
speech?the imagery
of the dance and the
satyr-
like characteristics
given
to the black horse?can
help
to elucidate both
2For
example,
Hackforth
1952,107-8;
Lebeck
1972,277-78;
McGibbon
1964,60-61;
Robinson
1970,117,122;
Rowe
1990, 234, 241;
White
1993,104-5,160-61.
3Bluck
1958, 157-58;
Burger 1980, 65-66;
Griswold
1986, 121, 136;
Stoeber
1992,
277;
Thompson 1868,73.
4Nussbaum
1986,
215.
5
Rowe
1990, 236-37,
makes similar
objections
to Nussbaum's views.
6Ferrari, 1987,185-203, esp.
194. On
"integration,"
cf. Griswold
1986,135.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 187
the kind of
"integration"
of the soul toward which the charioteer strives
and the roles of the two horses in this
process.
When Socrates describes
the black horse as
having
a number of
satyr-like
characteristics
(253el-4),
he does not
merely
characterize it as bestial and
ugly
but also
suggests
that this horse shares in the
superhuman,
daimonic
qualities
of
satyrs.This
horse is not
purely
evil but resembles a
satyr
in
being
a mixture of the
bestial and the
divine,
with an
important
role in
helping
the soul return
to the rites of the
gods.
The dance
imagery
in Socrates'
speech supports
this view. When he characterizes the rites of the
gods
as
initiatory
dances
(Geiou xopou, 247a7, xeXex&v,
250b8),
Socrates
suggests
that the task of the
charioteer is to
guide
both horses in the
orderly
movements of a dance
inspired by
the
gods.
In so
doing,
the charioteer
produces
in the soul an
equilibrium
between the
opposing
tendencies of
restraint,
represented
by
the white
horse,
and bold
movement,
represented by
the black horse.
Each of these tendencies is harmful when excessive and
lacking proper
guidance
but
necessary
and useful to the soul when
properly
trained and
balanced
by
the
opposing
extreme. The
myth
of the charioteer
learning
to
guide
the two horses so that
they
move in
orderly
fashion
represents
the
psychic education,
mediated
by
eros,
of the entire
soul,
an education
that
produces
within the soul a
rhythm
and
harmony
derived from the
gods.7
Similar
concepts
of
psychic equilibrium appear throughout
Plato's
dialogues
and are
explained
in
helpful
detail in the account
given
in the
Laws of education
by
means of the dance.
After an
analysis
of the
psychology expressed
in
allegorical
form
in the chariot
myth (section 2),
I discuss the
satyr-like
characteristics of
the black horse
(section 3)
and examine the
imagery
of the dance in the
Phaedrus,
arguing
that it is based on
psychological principles
similar to
those
explained
in more detail in the Laws
(section 4).
2. CHARIOTEER AND HORSES
The charioteer and both of the horses in the souls of mortals are char-
acterized in Socrates'
speech
as
having
a combination of
good
and evil
qualities.
When Socrates introduces the
myth,
he
says
that the soul is
a
compound
of three different
capacities (aupxpuTG) 8uvdji8i, 246a6-7),
represented respectively by
the charioteer and the two horses. Socrates
7
For the
Neoplatonic
view that the horses
represent
movement, irregular
in
itself,
that can be
regulated by
intellect so as to become movement around a
center,
see Robin
1908,163-64.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
188 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
does not
explain
what these three
capacities
are in this
passage,
but he
returns to them at 253c7-255al
(discussed below).
He
goes
on to recount
the fall from heaven of mortal
souls,
without
giving many
details about
how these
capacities
differ from one another. He
does, however,
char-
acterize the entire soul as a mixture of
good
and
evil,
in which all three
capacities
have some share in a
divine,
winged
element,
and all three are
to blame for the loss of this element and for the evil that
subsequently
fills the entire soul. Of all
bodily things,
Socrates
says,
the
wing
is that
which most shares in what is divine: that
is,
what is
beautiful,
wise and
good (246d6-el).
Now the entire soul was once
winged (251b7),
and,
after it has fallen and lost its
wings (248c8),
eros causes feathers to
grow
again
under the form of the whole soul
(251b6-7).
Socrates' statements
imply
that all three
capacities
of the
soul,
including
that
represented by
the black
horse,
originally
shared,
and are
capable
of
coming
to share
again,
in the divine
qualities?beauty,
wisdom and the
good?associ?
ated with the
wing.
All mortal
souls,
Socrates
says,
are also deficient
(jraoai... dxe^eiq, 248b4),
and in all of them the
disparity
of the horses
makes
driving
difficult
(246bl-4).
In even the best
soul,
the charioteer
has
difficulty seeing
the
things
that are because he is disturbed
by
both
of the horses
(248al-5).8
The
fall, however,
is caused not
only by
the
disturbance of the horses but also
by
the bad
driving
of the charioteers
(icaidqc f|vi6%ot)v, 248b2).
The soul fails when these defects in horses and
drivers are combined with some misfortune
(tivi crovTuxioc xp'ncrajievri)
that
weighs
the soul down with
forgetfulness,
fills it with
evil,
and causes
it to lose its
wings (248c5-8).
When Socrates returns to the chariot
myth
at
253c7-255al,
all three
capacities
in the soul continue to be
represented
as
having
both
positive
and
negative
characteristics. The charioteer
is,
at
first,
unable to drive the
horses so that
they pull
the chariot toward the beloved in
orderly
fashion.
Instead of
providing proper guidance,
he sometimes
yields
to the black
horse
(ei^avxe, 254b3)
and at other times
punishes
it
severely (254d7-e5).
Indeed,
the
charioteer,
as Ferrari has
shown,
not
only
uses the violence
of
whip
and
goad (253e4,254a3^)
on the
horses;
he is also characterized
in
equine terms,
as
feeling
the
goad
of desire
(254al)
and
rearing
back
(254b8)
like a horse.9
Moreover,
although
the charioteer has the
ability
to remember the
beauty
seen in a
previous
existence
(254b5-7),
he can-
not,
without the
help
of the
horses,
approach
the
object
that reminds him
of it. The horses were
previously
said to
represent capacities
in the soul
8The
plural
at 248a4-6 is noted
by
Price
1989, 83,
and
1995,
77-79.
9Ferrari
1987,186-90.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 189
that are
opposed
to each other
(246b3),
and the black horse was
simply
characterized as
"opposite" (evocvuoq)
to the white
horse,
who was said
to be "beautiful and
good" (246b2-3).
Socrates now
provides
a more de-
tailed characterization. Before
being
tamed,
the black horse is
licentious,
or
"unpunished" (aKoXaoxoq, 255e5)
and a
companion
of
hybris (253e3),
having
a
tendency
to move forward and
cry
out without order. He
pulls
the chariot toward the beloved
(254a4-6, 254d4-7), leaping (gkiptcov,
254a4)
and
neighing (xpejaexi^cov, 254d4).
Even before
being
tamed,
however,
as Ferrari
points
out,
the black horse uses and is amenable to
reason and is
capable
of
coming
to an
agreement
with the white horse
and charioteer
(6jnoA,oyr|aavT8, 254b3; b^ioXoyiav, 254dl; crove%cbpr|a?v,
254d2).10 Moreover,
his tendencies to
leap
about have
positive aspects,
for it is
always
the black horse who
pulls
the chariot toward the
beloved,
allowing
the soul to
approach beauty.11
The black horse is said to be licen?
tious not because he is
ineradicably
vicious but because he is shameless
and
"unpunished,"
like a child. The
punishment
he receives is severe and
bloody
but a
necessary part
of his education.12
The white horse is also
given
a mixture of
positive
and
negative
qualities.
He is characterized in
apparently positive
terms,
as obedient and
as a lover of honor when
joined
with
sophrosyne
and aidos
(moderation
and
reverence,
253d6-el).
There
are, however,
clear indications that he
also has
significant defects, caused,
in
particular, by
the fact that he is a
lover of honor
(xijifjq epaaxri^, 253d6).
In even the best
souls,
both horses
cause trouble to the driver before the fall.13 The other souls are in even
worse condition.
They trample
on and run into one
another,
wanting
to
be first and
engaging
in
competition
and
struggle (248a6-b2),
all of which
activities would
appear
to be due to excessive love of honor. Love of honor
is also characterized
negatively
when it is attributed to the second-best
10Ferrari
1987,186-89;
see also
Nightingale
1995,142-43.
nNoted
by Ferrari, 1987, 192;
Burger 1980, 65-66;
Stoeber
1992,
277. Rowe
1990,
241, objects
that it is the
wings,
not the
horses,
that
carry
the chariot forward and that
the black horse contributes
nothing
but trouble. This
interpretation
does not take into
account the clear indications in 253e-254e that the black horse initiates movement: see
below,
this section.
12Punishment is
described,
for
example,
at 254e2-5.The charioteer
presumably
uses
a bit "hardened"
by spikes
or wheels: Xen. On
Horsemanship 10.6-11; Vigneron
1968,
vol.
1,
62-76;
Delebecque 1950,173-77.
According
to Plato's
Gorgias, akolasia,
the state of
being
unpunished,
is the
greatest
of evils
(477e)
and
just punishment
is beneficial
(476a-477a,
505b,
507d-e).
On this idea in the
Gorgias
and other
dialogues,
see Mackenzie
1981, esp.
179-206.
13
See
above,
n. 8.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
190 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
lovers,
those who are less
philosophical
and more
honor-loving ((piAmijico
8e
xpf|GcovToti, 256cl)
than are the ideal lovers.14 The white
horse,
who
also resembles these honor-lovers in
many
other
ways,
has hubristic de-
sires but restrains them
by
force
(254a2-3).
Another
potentially negative
characteristic of the white horse is excessive restraint.15 The white horse
holds itself back
(254a2-3), pulls against
the black horse
(254a7),
and
only
moves forward when
compelled by
the black horse
(254a5, 254d5).
The
fact that the white
horse,
as well as the
black,
has defects means that the
driver must work to control both horses and not
only
the black.16
This characterization of all three
capacities
as mixtures of
good
and evil
suggests
that the chariot
myth
is based on a more holistic view
of the soul than is the
Phaedo,
for
example.17
All three
capacities,
and
not
only
a rational
part
of the
soul,
are
given
an essential and
positive
role in
striving
toward the
good
and the
beautiful,
and each
capacity
is
represented
as
having
certain defects.
Although
the three
capacities
have
some
similarity
to the three
parts
of the soul in
Republic 4?reason,
ap-
petite,
and
spirit?they
should not
simply
be
equated
with these
parts,
for all three
capacities
share to some extent in reason and all three have
desires.18 The charioteer
represents
a
guiding principle
in the
soul,
with
desires of its own. The black horse
represents
an
impulse
to move in
bold and
disorderly
fashion toward erotic
objects,
while the white horse
represents
the
impulse
to stand still and to resist these
objects.
Both
horses are able to use and to follow reason and are therefore
capable
of
being
trained
by
the
charioteer,
who must also train himself to
guide
14
In the
Republic also,
honor-lovers are said to be less than
fully
virtuous.
They
are educated
by
force rather than
persuasion
and
philosophy,
take
pleasures
in secret
(548b4-c2),
love
honor,
victory
and
war,
are obedient to rulers
(548d8-549b7),
and are
influenced
by
both reason and desire
(550bl-3).
Rowe, 1986,189,
on 256b7-e2 notes the
connection between the second-best lovers and the honor-lover of the
Republic.
Sheffield
2001,10,
notes that the lovers in the lower
mysteries
section of Plato's
Symposium (208c3)
are also honor-lovers. On the connection between love of honor and
injustice
in Plato's
dialogues,
see Pakaluk
2004,111.
15
As Statesman 310dl0-e3 makes
clear,
there can be too much aidos in the soul.
16The charioteer and white horse are not "one in
purpose
and function"
(Hackforth
1952,107)
nor is the white horse a mere foil to the other two who learns
nothing
from his
experience (Ferrari 1987,192,194).
17
See
esp.
Phd.
64c-68b,
where the
body
and its desires are said to hinder the soul
from
attaining
wisdom and virtue.
18Ferrari
1987,185-203.
It has often been claimed that the charioteer and horses cor-
respond
to the three
parts
of the soul in
Republic 4, reason, appetite,
and
spirit:
Hackforth
1952, 72;
Robin
1994, cxxxix;
Rowe
1986,
on
246bl-3; Thompson, 1868,
45. White
1993,
89-93, argues against
too exact a
correspondence.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 191
them without
imposing
excessive restraint or
yielding
to the
impulse
to
move forward without
any
restraint. In this
myth,
all three
capacities
of
the human soul share in a
divine,
winged
element,
and all three also have
bestial characteristics. The black
horse, then,
is not
innately
evil but can
be a force for
good
if he is
properly
trained. Without the
guidance
of the
charioteer,
the black horse moves in shameless and
disorderly
fashion,
bending
his
head,
stretching
out his
tail,
taking
the bit in his
teeth,
and
dragging
the chariot
shamelessly
forward in
pursuit
of an erotic
object
(254d6-7).
After he is
tamed, however,
the black horse
helps
to move
the chariot in an
orderly way
toward the
beloved,
that
is,
with reverence
and fear
(ai8ouji8vr|v
xe Kai
SeSvoiav, 254e9J.
In Socrates'
narrative,
eros sets the chariot in motion
by activating
all three
capacities
of the soul. Under the influence of
eros,
the black
horse at first moves in
disorderly
fashion toward the
object
of
desire,
unrestrained
by
fear or the law
(254a3-bl),
while the white horse
forcibly
restrains himself from
leaping upon
the
object
of desire
(254al-2).
The
charioteer,
seeing
the
beloved,
remembers true
beauty
and
experiences
fear and reverence
(254b5-8),
and as a result the soul of the lover becomes
mad and enthusiastic
(249d4-e4).
The lover then
attempts
to
rejoin
the
gods by imitating
the
god
he used to follow as a dancer
(252dl)
and
by
training
the beloved to follow the
rhythm
of the same dance
(253b5-7).
In order to succeed in these
endeavors,
the
charioteer,
guided by
the
rhythm
and
harmony
of the
god
he
imitates,
must
temper
the
tendency
of the black horse to make disordered movements with the restraint of
the white horse so that the whole soul follows the beloved with fear and
aidos
(254e8-255al).19
This state of soul is one of
equilibrium,
in which
the
impulse
to move in
disorderly
fashion is
opposed by
an
impulse
toward restraint.
My interpretation
of the
psychology
of the chariot
myth
in the
Phaedrus finds
support
from the fact that similar ideas are
expressed
in other
dialogues
as well.
According
to
Republic
3.410c-412a,
a correct
mixture of music with
gymnastics
in education softens the
spirited part
of our nature and hardens the
philosophical
nature in order to
produce
a
soul that is both moderate and
courageous (410elCMllal).The
Statesman
also stresses the need for correct education of different
dispositions
so as
to counteract
any
tendencies toward harmful extremes. If the
courageous
19
Price
1995,78-79, incorrectly
attributes the fear to the black horse and the shame
to the white horse. Socrates'
point
is that all three
capacities
in the soul learn to
experi?
ence these emotions.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
192 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
soul receives a
good
education,
it is made
gentle;
if
not,
it inclines toward
the bestial nature. Good education makes the
orderly
nature moderate
and
wise,
but lack of education renders it
simple (309dl0-e8).
Accord?
ing
to the
Statesman,
the
right
kinds of
marriages
also
help
to
produce
a
correct mixture in the
dispositions
of children. Over
many generations,
intermarriage among people
who have
dispositions
that are
courageous
without
any
admixture of the moderate nature
produces
madness. On the
other
hand,
the race that is too filled with shame
{aidos)
becomes dull
and is
crippled (310d6-e3).
Similar views about
marriage
are
expressed
in Laws 6. In a well-ordered
state,
people
who are too
eager
and
hasty
should
marry
those who are slower
(773a7-c8).This
mixture of different
dispositions
is
compared
to the krasis of wine with water: "a
city
should
be mixed like a wine
bowl,
in which mad wine boils when
poured
in,
but
when it is
punished by
another sober
god [sc. water]
and
joins
in a
good
combination makes a fine and measured drink"
(773c8-d4).
As will be
shown in section
4,
the idea of
psychic equilibrium
is
especially prominent
in Plato's Laws.20
The
preceding analysis
makes it easier to understand what
happens
in the different
stages
of the
process by
means of which the soul-chariot
achieves
equilibrium.
A schema at the end of the article
represents
these
stages
in outline form.
1. The
process begins
when the
charioteer, seeing
the
beloved,
warms
the whole
soul,
causing
it to be filled with
tickling
and desire
(253e5-
254al). Although
the stimulus comes first to the
charioteer,
all three
parts
of the soul have the same emotional
response,
characterized
earlier as a
boiling
and
tickling (251c4-5), resulting
from the
growth
of the
feathers,
that affects the entire soul
(251b6-7).
2. The three
parts
of the soul act
differently
in
response
to the same
emotional stimulus. The white horse
"compelled
then and
always by
aidos,
restrains himself from
leaping upon
the beloved"
(254al-3).
The black
horse, however,
is himself carried
away by
force and in
turn
compels (254a5, bl)
the white horse and the charioteer to
ap?
proach
the beloved and to mention the
pleasures
of sex
(254a3-7).
They
at first resist
(254a7-bl). Finally,
however,
the white horse and
charioteer
yield
and
agree
to do what the black horse
orders,
and
they approach
the beloved
(254M-4).
20
Similar ideas about
psychic equilibrium
are
expressed
in Laws 5.731b3-d5 and
in the
passages
cited
by
des Places 1951 on Laws 5.728e:
Rep. 6.503c-d,
Tht
144a-b,
Pol.
306c-308b, Epin.
989b-c.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 193
3. When
they
are forced to draw near to the
beloved,
the charioteer
sees his
beauty
and remembers the true
beauty
he saw in a
previous
existence
(254b4-7).That is,
he has the
experience
that was said ear?
lier
(249d4-e4)
to be the madness and enthusiasm of the
lover, who,
seeing beauty here,
is reminded of
beauty
there. As a result of this
vision,
the charioteer
experiences
reverence and fear
(254b7-8).21
4.
Approach
is followed
by
retreat. The charioteer is now
compelled
to
pull
back
strongly
on the reins so that both horses sit back on their
haunches. The white horse
obeys willingly
and without
resisting;
the
black horse
obeys
but much
against
his will. The two horses then
retreat
(254b8-c4).
5. The two horses react
differently
after the retreat. The white horse
experiences
shame and
terror,
and he waters the whole soul with
sweat
(254c4-5).
This horse
experiences
not
aidos,
the
good
kind of
shame that restrains him from
leaping upon
the
beloved,
but
aischyne,
shame at
having
done
wrong
in
yielding
to the black horse.22 When
the black horse recovers from
pain,
he becomes
angry
and abusive
and
tries,
without
success,
to force the others to
approach
the beloved
again. Finally,
the black horse
grudgingly agrees
with the others to
postpone
a second
approach (254c5-d2).
This
stage
of the conflict
ends in a
temporary
truce.
6. The whole
process
of
approach
and retreat is
repeated
a second time
(254d2-e5)
and
many
times
(noXXaKic,, 254e6)
thereafter. The black
horse
again compels
the others to
approach, pulling shamelessly
to?
ward the
beloved,
and the charioteer
again pulls
back on the reins.
On these
subsequent occasions, however,
the charioteer's
experience
is more
powerful (exi \mXXov, 254el),
and he
pulls
more
strongly
on
the reins of the hubristic horse
(exi jaaMtov, 254e2).
The white horse
is not mentioned.
7. At last the black horse is tamed
(xa7C8ivo>0?i<;).
He ceases from
hybris
and
obeys
the
charioteer,
feeling
extreme fear at the
sight
of the
beloved
(254e6-8).
8. The final result of the whole
process
is that the whole soul of the
lover follows the beloved with aidos and fear
(auji(3a{vei
xox
'
r\bi\ xtjv
xou
epaaxou \|A)%tiv xoig rcaiSiKoiq ai8ou|aevr|v
xe Kai SeSunav
eneoQax,
254e8-255al).
This
process
results not
only
in the
taming
of the black
21
An excellent account of the charioteer's vision of the beautiful
boy
and
subsequent
experiences
is
provided by Nightingale 2004,160-68.
22Noted
by
de Vries
1969,169-70;
Price
1995,78-79.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
194 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
horse but also in a
permanent?or
at least
semi-permanent?agree?
ment of all three
parts
of the soul. The charioteer is in
command,
and the two horses
obey willingly.
The whole soul now
experiences
both the aidos that was at first a characteristic of the white horse
alone and the fear
(8e8u)iocv, 254e9)
that the charioteer
originally
experienced
when he remembered true
beauty
at the
sight
of the
beloved
(?8eiae, 254b7)
and that the black horse
experienced
while
being
tamed
(254e8).
The motion toward the beloved that the black
horse once forced
upon
the others has now been
imparted
to the
whole soul so that it follows the beloved in
orderly
fashion. In this
way,
the
lover,
having
transformed disorder into order in his
soul,
begins
to follow his
god.
3.
HORSES, SATYRS,
AND SOCRATES
In
creating
this
story
of the horses and
charioteer,
Socrates draws on
themes and
images
in erotic
poetry,
drama,
and the visual arts. Because
the addressee is Phaedrus
(257a5-6;
cf.
243e),
a lover of
speeches
who
responds
to them with the enthusiasm of the
Corybantes
or the Bacchantes
(228b6-c2,234dl-6),
Socrates uses the
emotionally charged language
of
poetry
to
appeal
to him
(257a5-6).23
Socrates'
myth
also has emotional
appeal
because it tells a
story
in which the
personification
of the
parts
of the soul and conflict
among
them
provide
dramatic interest. It is an
example
of the kind of rhetoric Socrates later calls
psychagogia,
which
is addressed to a certain kind of soul and uses such
techniques
as the
arousal of
pity
and fear
(271cl0-272b4).24
The
imagery
in the
speech
is
an essential
part
of these rhetorical
appeals
to emotion.
The horse is an erotic
symbol
in Greek
literature,
representing
both
lover and beloved. For
example,
in a
poem
of
Ibycus, paraphrased
in Plato's
Parmenides,
the lover
compares
himself to an
aged
racehorse forced to
compete against
his will.25 Greek
literature,
as
Jacqueline
de
Romilly
has
23
Rowe 1986 on 257a5-6 notes that
poetry
is the
language
of
emotion, citing Rep.
603bff, Aristotle,
Rhet. 1408bl0ff.
Nightingale 1995,159-62,
notes the extensive influence
of
lyric
love
poetry
on Socrates' second
speech.
24
Asmis
1986;
Gill
2001,317-20.
25Ibycus
287
Page, paraphrased
in
Plato,
Parm. 136e-137a. The beloved is
compared
to a horse in
Theognis
1249-52 and
1267-70,
and in Anacreon fr. 360.
Fortenbaugh
1966
calls attention to the
striking parallels
between the Phaedrus and Anacreon fr. 417.
Young
girls
about to be married are often
compared
to horses that need to be tamed: Calame
1997, 238-44;
O'Brien
1993,184-88;
Seaford 1988b.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 195
shown,
also contains
many images
of a combat between charioteer and
horses.26 She calls attention to some
striking
verbal
parallels
between
the
description
of the
runaway
horses that cause their master's death in
Euripides' Hippolytus
and the account of the
taming
of the black horse in
the Phaedrus.21 Socrates'
myth
uses the
language
and
imagery
of
poetry
and alludes to
poetic precedents,
but it describes a
process
in which eros
is not destructive but beneficial.
The
myth
of the chariot contains allusions to
comic,
as well as
tragic,
precedents.
Scholars have not
noticed,
as far as I
know,
that the black
horse resembles a
satyr
or
silenus,
a
hybrid
creature with human form
and horse's
tail, ears,
and sometimes hooves.28 This allusion is
apparent
from Socrates'
description:
"The other
[horse]
is
crooked,
big,
with limbs
put together
at
random,
strong-necked,
short-necked, snub-nosed, black,
with
gray
and bloodshot
eyes, companion
of
hybris
and
boastfulness,
shaggy
around the
ears, deaf,
barely yielding
to the
whip together
with
the
goad" (253el-5). Descriptions
of
satyrs
are rare in
literature,
but
images
abound in the visual arts.29
They
are
typically represented,
for
example
on the Attic
black-figure amphora
in
figure
1,
as
big, misshapen
creatures with snub
noses,
high
foreheads,
shaggy
hair, thick,
short
necks,
large eyes,
and
large,
erect
phalluses.30The
black horse not
only
looks but
also acts like a
satyr, being
characterized
by hybris
and lack of
restraint,
especially
in
sex,
and
failing
to achieve its sexual
goals.31
Just as
satyrs
are
usually represented
in
motion,
so the black horse
leaps
about and
pulls
the chariot forward.32 The chariot
pulled by
the
satyr-like
black
horse also has
parallels
in
vase-paintings,
a number of which
represent
two
satyrs
harnessed to chariots
(fig. 2).33
Of
particular
interest is a
cup
26
de
Romilly 1982,108-12, citing
//.
23, Soph.
EI
680-763,
Aes. Ch.
1021ff; "Isocrates,"
To Demonicus 32.
27
de
Romilly 1982;
verbal
parallels
noted 109.
28
On the
satyr/silenus
see Brommer
1937; Lissarrague
1990 and
1993;
Kuhnert
1909-1915;
Seaford 1988a. Because little distinction is made between
satyr
and silenus at
this
period (Seaford 1988a, 6),
I use the term
"satyr" generically
to refer to horse-human
hybrids.
29
Kuhnert
1909-1915,444-45.
30That
horse-ears,
high foreheads,
and snub noses were sufficient to
designate
a
satyr
is
apparent
from the fact that the Pronomos vase
(ARV21336) represents
these features
on the masks worn
by
actors in a
satyr play.
See
Lissarrague
1990,
228-29.
31Hybris:
Phdr.
253e3, 254c3, 254e2, 6;
failure to achieve sexual
goals:
254b8-c3,
254e2-5. On
satyrs'
lack of restraint and frustration in sexual
matters,
see
Lissarrague 1993,
214;
Seaford
1988a,
38-39.
32
Black horse: Phdr.
254a3-6,254d6-7; satyrs
in motion:
Lissarrague 1993,
212.
33
Satyr
chariots:
Lissarrague 1987, 115; Carpenter 1997, 25-28,
with
illustration,
plate
6B.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
196 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
Figure
1.
Satyrs making
wine. Attic
black-figure amphora,
ABV
151,
22.
Amasis Painter. Martin von
Wagner
Museum der Universitat
Wurzburg.
Photograph:
K. Oehrlein.
discussed
by
Thomas
Carpenter
that
represents,
on the
inside,
Zeus
mounting
a chariot
(fig. 3A),
while a chariot
pulled by satyrs
is
depicted
on the outside
(fig. 3B). According
to
Carpenter,
the
satyr
chariot is a
parody
of the
god's
chariot.34
Similarly,
in the
Phaedrus,
the chariot with
the
satyr-like
horse can be seen as a comic
counterpart
of the
winged
chariots of the
gods (246e-247e).
Satyrs
are not
merely
comic
hybrids
of human and
animal, however;
they
also,
like the daimones in Plato's
Symposium,
have a status inter?
mediate between mortals and
gods.35
The idea that
satyrs
are
superior
to
34Carpenter
1997,
25-26.
35Seaford
1988a,
32 and
197,
on Eur.
Cyc.
495-502. In Plato's
Symposium
the
daimonion is a
being
between
god
and mortal
{%av
xo 5ouuoviov
jiera^o
eoxi Oeoi) xe Kai
Ovtitoo): 202dl3-el).
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 197
Figure
2.
Satyr
chariot.
Red-figure
Athenian
stamnos,
c. 460 B.C.E. Blenheim
Painter. Museum of Fine
Arts,
Boston.
Henry
Lillie Pierce
Fund,
00.342.
Photograph
?
2006,
Museum of Fine
Arts,
Boston.
humans is illustrated
by
the
story
of Midas's
capture
of a
satyr
in order to
acquire
his more than human wisdom.36 Yet
satyrs
are not
fully equal
to
the
gods. They accompany Dionysus
as subordinates rather than
equals37
and are
frequently separated
from him. In the
only
extant
satyr play,
Euripides' Cyclops,
the chorus of
satyrs,
after
being captured
and
sepa?
rated from their
god
and made to serve a harsh
master,
are liberated and
reunited with
Dionysus.
This theme of
captivity,
servitude,
and
temporary
separation
from
Dionysus,
followed
by
liberation,
is characteristic of
satyr
plays.38
In another
story illustrating
the
ambiguous
status of
satyrs,
the
36
Seaford
1988a, 7, citing
Herod.
8.138,
Arist. fr. 44 Rose. On this
story
and
satyric
imagery
in Plato's
Symposium,
see Usher 2002.
37
Lissarrague 1993,214.
38
Seaford
1988a, 33-36;
Ussher
1977,
291-94.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
198 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
Figures
3A,
3B. Chariots with
gods
and
satyrs. Red-figure cup
attributed to
Onesimos.
Athens,
from Marathon
St.,
inv. 0.70
(A5349),
in the collection of
the Third
Ephorate
of Prehistoric and Classical
Antiquities
of Athens. Photo
after
Carpenter, pl.
4A and 4B.
satyr Marsyas,
to whom Socrates is
compared
in Plato's
Symposium,
chal-
lenges Apollo
to a
pipe
contest,
as no mortal would
dare,
and is
punished
in a
way
no
god
could
be,
by being flayed.39
Like the daimones in the
Symposium, satyrs
mediate between humans and
gods.40
One
important
39The
story
is alluded to in
Solon,
fr. 33.7
West;
Herodotus
7.26; Plato, Euthydemus
285c9-d2,
and
Symp. 215b-c,
221e3-4. On Socrates and the
flaying
of
Marsyas,
see North
1994,89-98.
40In
Symp.
202e-203a the daimonion is said to make
possible many
kinds of interac?
tions between
gods
and
mortals, including prophecy
and initiation
(xetaxou;: 202e8).
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 199
way
in which
they
do so
is,
as Richard Seaford has
shown,
through
their
role in initiation.41 Seaford cites Laws
815c,
where Plato discusses "Bac-
chic dances and the
like,
which
(the
dancers
allege)
are an imitation of
drunken
persons they
call
Nymphs
and Pans and Sileni and
Satyrs,
and
which are
performed during purifications
and initiations
[leXexaq xivocq
dc7coTeX,ouvTcov]."42 Although
other
literary
evidence is
relatively
late,
support
for an
early
association of
satyrs
with initiation is
provided by
representations
on
black-figure
vases of
satyrs
in ritual contexts.43
The association of the
satyr
with initiation rites makes the
image
of the
satyr-like
black horse
especially appropriate
in the
myth
of the
Phaedrus. This
passage,
in which the soul-chariots of mortals
attempt
to return to the choruses of the
gods
in which
they
danced as initiates
(250b6-cl)
before
falling
to
earth,
recounts a
story
similar to the motif
in
satyr plays
of
separation
from
Dionysus
followed
by
reunion. The
chariot
myth, moreover,
makes extensive use of
mystery terminology.44
The combination of
mystery
and
satyric imagery
in this
passage supports
the view that the black
horse,
who resembles a
satyr physically
and acts
like a lustful
satyr,
also has the daimonic characteristics of a
satyr.
This
horse is
ugly
and
bestial,
like a
satyr,
but he also has the
divine,
winged
element shared
by
all three
capacities
of the soul.
Moreover,
it is his
impulse
to move toward erotic
objects
that forces
(dvayKa^ei,
254a5;
cf.
bl)
the charioteer to
approach
near
enough
to the beloved to be
reminded of divine
beauty
seated on the throne
together
with modera-
tion
(254b3-7).
Like a
satyr, then,
the black horse mediates between the
human and the divine.
Not
only
is the black horse
satyr-like,
he also resembles Socrates.45
As noted
above,
satyrs
are
big, misshapen
creatures with snub
noses,
high
foreheads,
shaggy
hair, thick,
short
necks,
large eyes,
and
large,
erect
phal-
luses.
Except
for this last
feature,
they
look like visual
representations
of
Socrates. Paul
Zanker,
comparing
a bust of Socrates
(fig. 4)
and an
image
of a
satyr
on a coin
(fig. 5),
writes that
portraits
of Socrates "all follow the
41Seaford 1976 and
1988a,
8-9.
42Laws
815c2-5,
cited
by
Seaford
1988a,
8. Trans.: Saunders
1970, adapted.
The text
presents major difficulties,
but the
general
sense is clear.
43Hedreen
1992,168-70.
44
Initiation
terminology
occurs at Phaedrus
250b6-c4, quoted
below,
section
4,
and
throughout
Socrates' second
speech:
see
Riedweg 1987,
30-69.
45
Scholars sometimes note that the black horse looks like Socrates
(e.g.,
Arieti
1991,192;
Dorter
1971, 284;
Burger 1980, 65),
but no
one,
to
my knowledge,
has
analyzed
the broader
implications
of this resemblance for an
interpretation
of the chariot
myth.
On
Socrates as
satyr
in the
Symposium,
see
Clay 2000,
69-76.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
200 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
Figure
4. Bust
of Socrates.
380 B.C.E.
Museo Archeo-
logico
Nazio-
nale di
Napoli,
inv. 6129. After
Richter
1984,
pl.
160.
basic
analogy
with Silenus
iconography, especially
in the
flat,
strangely
constricted
face,
the
very
broad, short,
and
deep-set nose,
the
high-set
ears and bald
head,
and the
long
hair
descending
from the
temples
over
the ears and the
nape
of the neck."46 In these
images,
Socrates
appears
big-bellied
and
ungainly,
with a
short,
thick
neck,
a snub
nose,
and
long
46Zanker
1995,
34. Richter
1965, 109-19,
provides
a
comprehensive survey
of the
visual
representations
of Socrates.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 201
Figure
5. Silenus. Greek silver
coin, obverse, Katane,
c. 410
B.C.E.,
inv.
3,52.
Muenzkabinett,
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.
Photograph:
Reinhard Saczewski.
Photo
courtesy
of Bildarchiv Preussicher Kulturbesitz / Art
Resource,
N.Y.
hair
falling
about his ears
(fig. 6). Similarly,
the black horse is
big (noXvq)
and
ungainly (aKo^ioq, eiKfj oufiTtecpopripivoq),
with a
strong
and short
neck
(Kpax?pau%r|v, (3pa%i)xpd%r|A,0(;);
he has a snub nose
(aijao7ip6oco7i0(;)
and is
shaggy
about the ears
(mpi
cbxa
Xaoxoq, 253el-4). Literary descrip?
tions of Socrates also
give
him
satyr-like
characteristics,
many
of which
correspond
to the features of the black horse in the Phaedrus. Socrates
looks like a
satyr (Plato, Symp. 215a6-b6, 216d4;
Xen.
Symp. 4.19,
5.7).
He has a
big belly (Xen. Symp. 2.19)
and is so
ungainly
that
everyone
laughs
at him when he
says
that he will dance
(Xen. Symp. 2.17).
He
is thick-necked
(Cicero,
De
fato 10)
and has a snub nose
(Plato,
Tht.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
202 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
Figure
6. Socrates.
Marble statuette
from Alexandria.
British
Museum,
inv. 1925.
Photograph
? The Trustees of
the British Museum.
Photo after
Schefold,
p.84.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 203
143e8-9,209cl;
Meno
80a5-6;
Xen.
Symp.
5.6;
scholiast on
Aristophanes
Clouds
223).47 According
to Alcibiades in Plato's
Symposium,
Socrates,
in addition to
looking
like a
satyr,
resembles the
satyr Marsyas
in
being
hubristic
(215b7,221e3-4). Hybris
is also characteristic of the black horse
(uPpecoq
. . .
8Taipo<;, 253e3; i)(3pioTou
uuiou, 254e2).
Why
would Plato
give
the black horse features characteristic not
only
of
satyrs
but also of Socrates? In
Symposium
215a-b,
Alcibiades
contrasts the
philosopher's satyr-like
exterior with the divine
things
within his soul. The contrast between Socrates'
ugly, satyr-like body
and
his beautiful soul was a
topic
not
only
in Plato's
Symposium
but in other
Socratic
dialogues
as well. In Phaedo's
dialogue Zopyrus,
the
physiog-
nomist
Zopyrus
reads Socrates' character from his
physical appearance,
stating
that Socrates'
short,
thick neck shows him to be
stupid,
and adds
that he is a womanizer
(Cicero,
De
fato 10).
Socrates
says
that
Zopyrus
is
right:
these are his natural
weaknesses,
but he has overcome them
by
the
study
of
philosophy.48
In the
Symposium,
however,
Socrates'
satyr-
like
aspects
do not
merely represent
the
ugly
and bestial
qualities
that
hide inner virtues of the soul.
They
also serve to characterize Socrates
as
daimonic,
a mixture of divine and
earthly qualities.
In this
dialogue,
Socrates resembles
Eros,
a daimon who is neither
god
nor mortal but
in between both and who therefore mediates between
gods
and mortals
(202dl3-203a8).49
Eros is neither beautiful nor
ugly,
neither wise nor
foolish,
but a
philosopher
who desires wisdom because he knows that
he does not have it
(203d4-204c6).
In the Phaedrus
also,
as Diskin
Clay
has
shown,
Socrates is
repre?
sented as a daimonic and erotic
figure,
who,
like Eros in the
Symposium,
has both a
higher
and a lower nature.50 That Socrates is associated with
Eros is
apparent
from his
prayer
at the end of his second
speech (ob qnta
"Epcaq, 257a3).
After
arguing,
in his first
speech,
that the non-lover is
supe?
rior to the
lover,
Socrates was
prompted
to recant
by
his inner daimonion
(242b8-c3)
and
by
his fear of
offending
Eros
(243d4).
Socrates now
prays
47The
literary descriptions
of Socrates are collected
by Bury 1932,
on
Symp. 215b,
and Richter
1965,109.
48yiXoooyiaq ceaicnaiv:
Alex.
Aphrod.
De
fato
6. The texts relevant to
Zopyrus
are
collected in Rossetti
1980, 183-200,
and discussed in
Blondell, 2002, 73-74,
and Kahn
1996,11.
49
Socrates as Eros: Bacon
1959,424; Bury 1932, xlii, lx-lxii; Clay
1972,58,
and
1975,
248^-9 with n.
18, citing
Maximus of
Tyre, Philosophoumena
18. 84b
(Hobein),
and
Ficino,
Commentaire sur le
Banquet
de
Platon,
ed. Marcel
(Paris 1956),
242;
Osborne
1994,93-101;
Robin
1951,
ciii-cviii.
50
Clay 1979, esp.
346-51.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
204 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
that the
god
will not take
away
the erotic skill he has
given
him,
beseeching
Eros to
accept
his
palinode
and to
forgive
him for what he said in his
first
speech (257a3-8). Clay argues
that Socrates is also associated with
Pan,
whose
presence
is felt
throughout
the
dialogue.
Pan,
like Eros in the
Symposium,
is a daimonic and erotic
figure,
a
divinity
who is
satyr-like
in
having
both human and animal characteristics.51 He is mentioned at
263d5-6,
in connection with the
nymphs,
and he was
thought
to
produce
a
panic
fear at the noon hour
(e.g.,
Theocritus, Idyll 1.15-18),
the
very
time at which Socrates' daimonion and his fear of Eros
prevent
him from
leaving
before
giving
his
palinode.
Moreover,
Socrates' address to Pan at
the end of the
dialogue (co y\Xz ndv,
279b8)
echoes his earlier
prayer
to
Eros. Just as he
prayed
to Eros to make him still more honored
by
the
beautiful
(257a9),
so
Socrates,
who is not
physically
beautiful,
prays
to
Pan,
the
god
he
resembles,
for inner
beauty.52
Socrates, then,
is associated
with all three
figures?Eros, Pan,
and the
satyr-like
black horse?because
the
philosopher
shares their daimonic
qualities.
The
image
of the chariot
indicates, moreover,
that these same daimonic
qualities
are
present
to
some extent in
every
human soul and are
necessary
to the
psychic
har?
mony
that allows us to return to the
region
of the
gods.
Socrates has a serious
purpose,
then,
in
characterizing
the black
horse as
satyr-like.
The
complex ambiguity
of the
satyr,
a creature that
shares in
bestiality, humanity,
and
divinity,
makes it an
appropriate image
of one
part
of the soul. The
satyr-like aspects
of the human
soul,
if
they
are not tamed and
trained,
can
drag
us down to
bestiality, wrecking
the
chariot of the
soul,
just
as the horses
destroy Hippolytus
in
Euripides'
tragedy.
When
yoked
to the
sophrosyne
and aidos of the white
horse,
however,
and
given proper guidance,
these same elements in the soul
can
help
us to
rejoin
the chorus of the
gods.
This essential role of the
black horse is clearer within the context of the
imagery
of the dance in
Socrates'
myth
in the Phaedrus.
4. DANCING WITH THE GODS
Choral
imagery
and
terminology figure prominently
in the
myth
of the
chariot. With the
exception
of
Hestia,
who
stays
home,
Zeus and each of
the
Olympian gods
lead the soul-chariots of the other
gods
and daimones
51
Clay 1979,347, quotes Cratylus 408dl,
where Pan is called
5i(p\)r|<;, having
a smooth
upper body
and
rough, goat-like
lower limbs.
52The resemblance of Socrates to Pan is noted
by
Friedlander
1969,240.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 205
in one of eleven
companies (246e4-247a4).53
Each of the
gods
is a leader
in the "divine chorus"
(Geiou xopou, 247a7), moving through
the heavens
in an
orderly
choral
arrangement (koctoc xa^iv, 247a3).54
Before it fell to
earth,
the soul-chariot of
every
human was a dancer
(xopeuxric;, 252dl)
in
the chorus
(xopco, 250b6)
led
by
one of the
gods.
The mortal lover
attempts
to
rejoin
this chorus in which he used to
dance, imitating
his own
god
and
educating
his beloved to follow the
rhythm (puB^i^ovxeq)
of the same
god (253b5-6).
Socrates' statement that Hestia remains home
(247al-2)
while the other
gods
move around her in a circle
(247d4-5)
reflects the
common idea that the stars are
gods moving
in a circular cosmic dance
around a center.55
Indeed,
many
of the words used
by
Socrates in this
passage
have astral connotations.56
More
specifically,
the dances
performed by
the soul-chariots are
similar in
many respects
to the
dithyramb.57
Socrates'
playful
remarks
in his first
speech,
that he is
speaking
in
dithyrambic language (238d3,
241e2), prepare
the reader for the serious use made of this
poetic genre
in Socrates' second
speech.
From the archaic
period
to the mid fifth-
century B.C.E.,
dithyrambs
were circular
dances,
led
by
an exarchos and
danced and
sung by
a chorus of
fifty
men or
boys
to
orgiastic, Phrygian
flute music.58
They
had a
Dionysiac
character,
as
evidenced,
for
example,
by
the invocation of
Dionysus
as
Dithyrambos
in
Euripides'
Bacchae 526.
There is also some evidence that the
dithyramb
was
performed
in
satyr
53247al: kcctoc ?v8?Ka
uipn. Eleven,
not
twelve, gods
lead the
companies,
while Hestia
stays
home:
Robin, 1994, "Notice," c;
Guthrie
1975,
403.
54xd^i<;
can be used of the
arrangement
of a chorus
(e.g.,
Aes. PV
128,
cited LSJ
1.4).
See Calame
1997,38-39.
In late
sources,
"leader"
(fiyeixcbv, 246e4; fiyouvTai, 247a3)
can
mean "choral leader": LSJ s.v.
fiyejicbv, Il.b; Calame,
44.
55
Hestia: Hackforth
1952,
73-74.
xopetxo
means to dance a round dance: LSJ s.v.
Xopet)G).
On the chorus as a circle around a center and the circular form of the
lyric
chorus
and the
dithyramb,
see Calame
1997,34-36.
The movement of the stars is called
xopeioc
in
Plato's Tim.
40c3, Epin. 982e3-6,
and the stars are said to be
gods
in
Rep.
508a4. The cosmic
dance is referred to in
many passages
in Greek
literature, including Soph.
Ant.
1146-48;
Eur.
lon
1078-81,
El.
468; Lucian,
The Dance 7. In Plato's Statesman
269d5-e5,
circular motion
is said to be the most divine.
England 1921,
on Laws
716al,
notes that the scholiast
says
that the circle is a kind of
immortality. Helpful
discussions of the cosmic dance include
Boyance 1952;
Koster
1951;
Lawler 1960.
56Astral
terminology
includes "revolution"
(ji?pi65(p: 247d5), "arrangement" (xafyv.
247a3), "pathways" (5i?^o8oi: 247a4),
"revolves"
(?7iiaxp?(p?Tai: 247a5);
"revolution"
(rcEpi-
cpopd: 247d4-5,
248a4).
Cf. Laws 809c5-d2.
57Phdr.
238d3,
241e2. For the
suggestion
that these dances are
dithyrambs,
I am
indebted to an
anonymous
reader for AJP.
58Pickard-Cambridge 1962,
31-32.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
206 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
costume on some occasions.59
Moreover,
it is
possible
that the
poet
who
won a
dithyrambic victory
was escorted home in a chariot.60 There
may
also be a
dithyrambic parallel
to the twelve
gods
who lead
companies
in
Phaedrus 247a2-3. In what
may
well be a reference to the altar of the
twelve
gods
in the Athenian
agora,
a
fragment
of a
dithyramb by
Pindar
invites the
gods
to attend the
chorus, addressing
them as the
gods
who
come to the Athenian
agora.61
Choral
imagery
is not mere
poetic
ornamentation in this
passage
but has
important implications
for the
religious
and
psychological
views
expressed
in the
myth.
The dance in ancient Greece was an
important
part
of
religious
initiation rites. In Plato's
Euthydemus
277d6-9,
initiation
into the
Corybantic
rites is said to involve
choreia,
and in the Laws the
rites of the
Corybantes
involve
dancing (790d-791a).
In
fact,
according
to
Lucian,
all ancient initiations included
dancing.62
In the chariot
myth,
initiation and the dance are
closely
linked. In their
previous
existence,
the human followers of the choruses of the
gods experienced
initiation
(hzXovvxo
xcov
xe^excov,
cbpyid^ojaev, udoujllevoi)
and saw a "blessed
sight"
(iiaKapmv 6\|/iv, 87io7tx?uovxe<;
ev
auyri KocGapa, 250b6-c4).
Divine
mania,
in the form of
eros,
allows humans on this earth to
participate,
as much
as mortals
can,
in the rites celebrated
by
the choruses of the
gods.
When
the human soul sees
beauty
in this world and remembers the
beauty
it
saw in a
previous
existence
(249c-e),
it is once
again
initiated into these
rites
(xeXetx], 253c363),
enthusiastic
(249d2,
el; 253a3),
mad
(249d2,249d8;
cf.
251d8,253c5),
and
possessed (255b6) by
a
particular god,
from
whom,
like the
Bacchantes,
it draws its
inspiration (253a6).
These
passages clearly
indicate that the
philosopher
is and remains mad: mania leads to recol-
lection
(249d5-6),
an essential
activity
of the
philosopher.
However,
this
madness,
unlike the
ordinary
kind,
is
inspiration
that involves rational
59Pickard-Cambridge 1962, 4-7, 20,
33-35.
60Pickard-Cambridge 1962,36-37, citing (p. 15)
Simonides' reference to
N(k<x<; ayXabv
apji'
in fr. 145
Bergk,
79 Diehl. Cf.
apua:
Phdr. 246e5.
61Pickard-Cambridge 1962, 38,
citing
Pindar fr. 63
Bowra,
75 Snell. Cf. Race
1997,
311,
n. 1.
62
The
Dance,
15:
x?taxf|v
o\)8?uiav
dpxcaav
?axiv
?\)p?iv
avev
6p%r|G?CG<;, quoted
with
other evidence for the connection between dance and initiation
by Riedweg
1987,
58. See
also Calame 1997.
63
Most editors follow corr. Par. 1808 in
reading xe^extj.
On the textual
question,
see
de Vries
1969,
164.
x?A,?-oxr| (BT)
is
defended,
with some
hesitation, by
Rowe
1986,
187.
x?^?xr|
finds
support
in the
mystery terminology
used in the rest of the
passage: Riedweg
1987,
44.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 207
control.64 This enthusiasm allows the lover himself to imitate the
god
and to educate his
beloved,
persuading
him to follow the
rhythm
of the
lover's own
god (253b5-6).
The dances in the chariot
myth,
then,
are
characterized so as to evoke initiation rites. To drive one's chariot skill-
fully
is
represented
as an
attempt
to return to the choruses of the
gods,
remembering,
in a renewed initiation
here,
the initiation one received in
a former existence.
Not
only
does the dance
imagery
in the Phaedrus have
important
religious connotations,
it also has
significant implications
for an under?
standing
of the
psychology
of the chariot
myth.
I
argued
in section 2
that the charioteer strives to
produce
an
equilibrium
in the soul between
opposing
tendencies. This
principle
of
psychic
balance,
evident in other
passages throughout
the
dialogues,
is
explained
in detail in the account
of the dance
given
in Plato's Laws. The use of the Laws to elucidate the
psychology
of the dance in the Phaedrus is also
justified
because the later
dialogue
reflects the Greek
idea,
generally accepted
from archaic times
on,
that the dance
plays
an essential role in education and acculturation.
Claude Calame cites the Laws in
arguing
that chorus members were
given
a "true
education,
with the aim of
making
the chorus
participants
not
only
good
dancers and
singers,
but also
accomplished
men and women." The
Laws also reflects the
view,
held
by
the Greek tradition
generally,
that the
chorus of the
gods
is the model for human choruses. The ideas
expressed
in the Laws about the role of the dance in
education,
Calame
notes,
are
especially
valuable because
they
are based on Cretan and Lacedaimonian
realities.65 There are
good reasons, then,
for
believing
that the choruses
in the Phaedrus are intended to have an educational role similar to that
found in actual Greek
society
and reflected in the Laws.
According
to the
Laws,
the dance
provides training
for the soul
as well as the
body. Choreia,
which includes both
singing
and
dancing
(2.664e8-665a3),
involves the
imposition
of ordered
movements,
de-
rived from the
gods, upon
disordered movement in
body
and soul. This
principle
is evident in Plato's account of three
very
different kinds of
choreia:
Corybantic dances,
the musical education of
children,
and the
64
Rowe
1990,238,
comments:
"[I]f
madness means loss of rational
control,
then the
philosophical
life is conditional on
being
cured of madness.
(On
the other
hand, inspiration,
being possessed
from
outside,
is itself a form of madness.... The
philosopher
will then in
some sense still be
mad....)"
65
Calame
1997,222-23;
quotation:
222. On choral
training
as a form of
acculturation,
see also Ford
2002,197-98.
Armstrong 2004,178-79,
discusses the close connection between
cosmology
and the Muses in the Laws.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
208 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
reeducation of older adults at
symposia.66
Plato's account of all three
kinds of choreia
depends
on
psychological principles
similar to those in
the chariot
myth.
The
orderly
movements of the dance
require,
and
help
to
produce,
a
psychic equilibrium
between excessive
movement,
like that
of the black
horse,
and excessive
restraint,
like that of the white horse.
They
also
require
a sense of
order, derived,
like the charioteer's recol-
lection of
beauty,
from the
gods.
Those
officiating
in the rites of the
Corybantes
are said to
perform
actions like "the cures of the mad
Bacchantes,
that make use of this mo?
tion,
together
with dance and music"
(7.790e2-4).67
In the
Corybantic
rites, internal,
mad movement
(jiocviicnv Kwrjaw, 791a3)
is calmed
by
the
application
of ordered movement:
When someone
applies
a
shaking
from outside to these kinds of
emotions,
the motion
applied
from outside masters the internal fearful and mad mo?
tion. When it has mastered
it,
it makes a
peaceful
calm
appear
in the hard
pounding
of the heart of each
person
... The motion then makes
people
dance and
play
the
pipe
with the
gods
to whom each sacrifices with
good
omens,
giving
them sane
dispositions
instead of mad.
(790e8-791bl)
In these
rites,
an evil
disposition
of the soul
(e^iv (pauXnv xfj<; \|/u%fj(;, 790e9)
that
produces
disordered internal movement is cured
by
the ordered
movement of the dance.68 Plato
appears
to have taken the
Corybantic
rites
seriously
and to have had a
positive opinion
of them. He refers to
the rites in a number of other
passages throughout
the
dialogues,
includ?
ing
the
Phaedrus,
where Socrates
says
that Phaedrus saw in him a fellow
participant
in the rites
(auyKopuPavxicbvxa, 228b7).
In the
Symposium,
after
comparing
Socrates to the
flute-playing satyr Marsyas (215cl-3),
Alcibiades
says
that
people
are affected like the
participants
in the
Corybantic
rites when
they
listen to Socrates
(215el-3).69
In none of the
dialogues
is there a
suggestion
that the rites were themselves the cause
of the disease that
they
were
thought
to cure.70
661 restrict
my
discussion to this function of the
symposia
without
analyzing
their
equally important
role as tests of
dispositions (1.649d4-650b4).
67
My
translation follows the
reading
of Linforth
1946,131-32.
68
Verdenius, 1962,137,
compares
this
process, by
means of which internal movements
are dominated and calmed
by
external
motion,
to that in which streams of
beauty
from the
beloved
penetrate
the
eyes
of the lover in Phaedrus 251b and 255c-d.
69
Linforth
1946, 121-44,
discusses these
passages
and
Euthydemus 277d-e;
Crito
54d;
lon 533e-534b and 536c.
70Linforth
1946,144.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 209
Choreia not
only
cures diseased
souls,
it is also essential to the
emotional and ethical education of normal children. In the
Laws,
the
Athenian defines first education
(paideia)
as the
production
of that
part
of
arete,
correct
training concerning pleasures
and
pains,
of which children
are
capable
before
they
are able to reason
(2.653a5-c4).
Choreia is the
whole of education
(672e5-6,
cf.
654a9-bl)
because it leads children to
take
pleasure
in what is
good
and to hate what is not
good (654c-d).71
According
to the
psychology
of the
Laws,
choreia has the
power
to im-
pose upon
disordered movements
rhythm
and
harmony
derived from
the
gods:
Every young thing...
is unable to
keep
calm in
body
or in
voice,
but
always
seeks to move and
cry out,
some
springing
and
leaping,
as
though dancing
with
pleasure
and
playing together,
others
crying
out with
every
kind of
sound. The other animals do not have
perception
of order
(xd^eoov)
or dis-
order
(axa^tcov)
in
movement,
the name of which is
rhythm
and
harmony.
But the
gods
whom we said were
given
to us as fellow-dancers are the ones
who have
given
us
perception
with
pleasure
of
rhythm
and
harmony. By
means of
this,
they
move us and lead us in dances
(xopnyeTv).
(653d7-654a3)72
The mad
dispositions
and
fiery
natures
(jiaivexai,
672c4, ejujiavfj... efyv,
666a7,
dwnvpoq, 664e4)
of children lead them to desire to move about
and
cry
out.
Children,
that
is,
have shameless
tendencies,
like those of
the black horse.73 Just as the black horse of the Phaedrus
leaps (oKipxcov,
254a4), neighs (xpe^iexi^cov, 254d4),
and
shamelessly pulls
the chariot
forward
(254d7),
so the children in the Laws
leap
about
(aMuSjuevoc
Kai
GKipxcovTa, 653el-2)
and make disordered movements and cries
^Geyyoixo
8' ocel
axdncxcex;
Kai
nr\b(b,
664e6).
In the
Laws,
these tendencies of
young
children to move and
cry
out are far from
being
an ineradicable evil.
71
Good discussions are
given
in
Moutsopoulos
1959, 97-156;
Morrow
1960,
302-18.
Socrates has a similar
concept
of musical education in
Republic
3: "The best education is
given by music,
for
rhythm
and
harmony
sink most
deeply
into the interior of the soul and
most
strongly
attach themselves to
it,
bringing grace
and
making
it
graceful also,
if someone
is
brought up correctly" (401d4-el).
72
Cf. 672cl-6 and 673c9-d5. At
664e3-665a6,
the
gods
are also said to be fellow-
dancers
(Beoix;.
. .
oa)y%op?DTdc;)
and choral leaders
(xopnyo^q).
73The Athenian does not
explicitly say
that children are
shameless,
but this is the
clear
implication
of his statement that the
lawgiver
should
guard against
the mad
disposi-
tion of the
young
and not
pour
fire into fire
by allowing
them to drink the wine
(666a3-7)
that increases shamelessness
(649al-b6).
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
210 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
They
are a
necessary
condition for
education,
for
they
make it
possible
for children to learn to use their
god-given perception
of order and dis-
order so as to move in
rhythm
and
sing
in
harmony.
The third kind of choreia?that
practiced by
older adults in a renewal
of the education
they
received as children?also involves the
imposition
of order
upon
disorder.74
According
to the
Laws, people
become moder?
ate
by combating (Sicc|ioc%6|i?vov)
the
pleasures
and desires that incite
them to shamelessness
(1.647c7-d7).
Wine arouses shameless desires and
for that
very
reason
helps people
to
practice combating
shamelessness
(649a-650b)
when
they
drink in
carefully
controlled
symposia.
That is
why
the
symposium
is a
safeguard
for education
(2.652b3-653a3). Young
people
under
eighteen
should not drink wine at
all,
because
they
have
naturally fiery dispositions (666a3-7).
Older
people, having
lost this natural
fire,
have become
dry, despondent,
and stiff
(666b5-cl);
as a result their
education in
pleasure
and
pain
is weakened and
corrupted (653c7-9).The
older and more moderate
they
are,
the more ashamed
they
become to
participate
in the choreia
(665d9-e3)
in which the whole
city
must
join
(665c2-7).
To
remedy
this,
Dionysus provides
initiations and
play
for
older
people (tt\v
xcov
Tcpeapuxepcov xe^exiyv ajaa
Kai
7cai8(av, 666b4-5)
that make them less ashamed to
sing (f|xxov aioxov6p,?vo<;, 666c4).
His
gift
of wine is a medicine
(pharmakon)
that
temporarily gives
older
people
the mad and
fiery disposition
of the
young
and thus makes them more
easily
molded
(666b7-c2) by
a wise and sober
symposiarch (1.640d4-7).
That
is,
wine
gives
older
people
a
temporary
and artificial disorder in the
soul
upon
which,
under the
guidance
of the sober
symposiarch, they
can
impose
order. It thus makes it
possible
for them to
repeat
the
process by
means of which
they
learned choreia as children.
Wine, then,
is a medicine
to
produce
shame
(aidos)
in the soul
(2.672d7-8) by, paradoxically,
first
creating
shamelessness.75 It thus
helps
to
produce
in the soul tendencies
to make shameless
movements,
like those made
by
the black
horse,
that
counteract the
naturally
excessive tendencies toward
restraint,
like those
of the white
horse,
that characterize older
people.
Just as the charioteer
controls both horses so that
they
move toward the beloved with aidos
(Phaedrus 254e8-255al),
so the
symposiarch guides
the drinkers as
they
combat the renewed shamelessness in their souls.
74
My
account here is similar to that of Belfiore
1986, although
I would now character?
ize the desires and emotions aroused
by
wine as shameless rather than anti-rational.
75
Aidos is the fear of
wrongdoing
that
opposes
shamelessness
(1.647a4-bl),
and wine
provides practice
in
resisting
shameless
impulses by
first
arousing
them
(649al-d2).
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 211
The ordered movements of the
dance, then,
correspond
to and
help
to
produce
order in the
soul,
and musical education and musical cures
impose order?rhythm
and
harmony?upon
disorder in
body
and soul.
Those
needing
the rites of the
Corybantes
have an "evil
disposition
of
the
soul,"
causing
disordered movements of the heart that are cured
by
the
imposition
of the ordered movements of music and dance. Children
and
young people
have a mad and
fiery disposition
that inclines them
to shamelessness and that leads them to move and
cry
out in disordered
fashion. Education in the dance
imposes
order,
derived from the
gods,
upon
the disordered movements of the
young
and leads the soul to take
pleasure
in what is
good.
The education in
pleasure
and
pain
of older
people,
on the other
hand,
is weakened
by
excessive shame that
prevents
them from
dancing.
These
people
need wine in order to
acquire, temporar-
ily,
the
fiery
and mad
disposition
of the
young
and so renew their musical
education.
According
to the
Laws, then,
the dance
requires,
and
helps
to
produce
in the
soul,
a
proper
balance between an
impulse
toward exces?
sive
movement,
like that
represented by
the black
horse,
and an
impulse
toward excessive
restraint,
like that of the white horse. To learn to dance
is to
impose
order
upon
disorder,
creating
a
psychic equilibrium
like that
represented
in the
myth
of the chariot.
5. CONCLUSION
In the
myth
of the
chariot,
I have
argued,
Socrates
represents
the chari?
oteer and horses as
engaged
in
relearning
to
dance,
to the extent that
mortal souls are able to do
so,
in a chorus led
by
the
gods,
and he char-
acterizes the black horse as
satyr-like.
In so
doing,
he uses the
poetic
language
and
imagery
that is most
persuasive
to Phaedrus
(257a5-6).
The
imagery
of the dance and the
satyr,
however,
is not
merely poetic
ornamentation but is essential to the
meaning
of the
passage.
In Greek
society,
as reflected in Plato's
Laws,
the dance was
thought
to have the
important
educational and
religious
function of
helping
to
produce
in the
soul a harmonious
equilibrium
derived from the
gods.
An
impulse
toward
movement,
represented
in the
myth by
the black
horse,
is essential to this
psychic
balance. Socrates' characterization of the black horse as
satyr-like
also serves to
emphasize
its
potential
to contribute to the overall
good
of
the soul.
Satyrs
are not
merely
bestial;
like Eros in the
Symposium
and
like Socrates
himself,
they
are daimonic
beings
who mediate between
mortals and
gods.
An
understanding
of these ancient associations of
satyrs
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
212 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
and the dance can
help
the modern reader
appreciate
Socrates' serious
purpose
in
creating
the
myth
of the chariot.76
The University of
Minnesota,
Twin Cities
e-mail: esb@umn.edu
APPENDIX
Schema: Phaedrus 253e5-255al
(Bold
indicates
controlling impulse; [ ]
indicates
my inference)
White Horse Black Horse Charioteer
(1) Sight of
beloved: 253e5-254al
[feels desire] [feels desire]
sees beloved
and warms whole
soul. is filled
with desire.
(a)
holds
back,
compelled by shame;
restrains self from
leaping
on beloved.
(b) resists,
then
yields
to black horse.
(2) Approach:
254al-b4
is carried
away by
force.
compels
others to
approach
beloved
for sex.
yields
to black horse.
(3) Memory of
true
beauty:
254b4-8
sees beloved and
remembers true
beauty.
experiences
fear and
awe.
761 am indebted to Paul
Dotson, Eugene
Garver,
Sandra
Peterson,
Richard
Seaford,
and the
anonymous
referees of AJP for
helpful
criticisms on earlier drafts of this
article,
to Barbara Gold for editorial
assistance,
and to Carol Hamblen for assistance in
obtaining
permissions
to
publish images.
For useful comments and discussions on oral
versions,
I would
like to thank audiences at the Seventh Arizona
Colloquium
in Ancient
Philosophy (Tucson,
2002),
the Tenth Annual Minnesota Conference on Ancient
Philosophy (Minneapolis, 2002),
and the annual
meeting
of the American
Philological
Association
(New
Orleans,
2003).
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 213
obeys
charioteer
willingly.
(4)
Retreat: 254b8-c4
obeys
charioteer
un
willingly.
[feels pain: 254c5]
pulls
horses back.
[torments
black horse:
254e3-5]
(5)
Reaction and truce: 254c4-d2
feels
aischyne
and terror.
gets
relief from
pain.
drenches whole soul abuses others in
anger.
with sweat. tries to force others but fails.
agrees
to wait.
grudgingly agrees
to wait.
agrees
to wait.
(6) Repetition of
2-5:254d2-e6
(7) Taming of
black horse: 254e6-8
[obeys charioteer]
ceases
hybris
and tames black horse.
obeys
charioteer.
feels fear at
sight
of beloved.
(8) Agreement:
254e8-255al
whole soul follows beloved with aidos and fear.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arieti,
James A. 1991.
Interpreting
Plato: The
Dialogues
as Drama.
Savage,
Md.:
Rowman and Littlefield.
Armstrong,
J. M. 2004. "After the Ascent: Plato on
Becoming
like God."
Oxford
Studies in Ancient
Philosophy
26:171-83.
Asmis,
Elizabeth. 1986.
"Psychagogia
in Plato's Phaedrus." Illinois Classical
Studies 11:153-72.
Bacon,
Helen H. 1959. "Socrates Crowned." The
Virginia Quarterly
Review
35:415-30.
Belfiore,
Elizabeth. 1986. "Wine and Catharsis of the Emotions in Plato's Laws."
CQ
36:421-37.
Blondell,
Ruby.
2002. The
Play of
Character in Plato's
Dialogues. Cambridge:
Cambridge University
Press.
Bluck,
R. S. 1958. "The Phaedrus and Reincarnation." AJP 79:156-64.
Boyance,
Pierre. 1952. "La
religion
astrale de Platon a Ciceron." REG 65:312-
50.
Brommer,
Frank. 1937.
Satyroi. Wiirzburg:
Konrad Triltsch
Verlag.
Burger,
Ronna. 1980. Plato's Phaedrus: A
Defense of
a
Philosophical
Art
of
Writ?
ing. Tuscaloosa,
Ala.:
University
of Alabama Press.
Burnet, John,
ed. 1900-1907. Platonis
opera.
5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Bury,
R.
G,
ed. 1932. The
Symposium of
Plato.
Cambridge:
W. Heffer & Sons.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
214 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
Calame,
Claude. 1997. Choruses
of Young
Women in Ancient Greece. Trans.
D. Collins and J. Orion.
Lanham,
Md.: Rowman and Littlefield. Rev. ver-
sion of Les choeurs de
jeunes filles
en Grece
archdique.
Rome: Edizioni
dell' Ateneo e
Bizzarri,
1977.
Carpenter,
Thomas H. 1997.
Dionysian Imagery
in
Fifth-Century
Athens. Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press.
Clay,
Diskin. 1972. "Socrates' Mulishness and Heroism." Phronesis 17:53-60.
-. 1975. "The
Tragic
and Comic Poet of the
Symposium."
Arion n.s.
2:238-61.
-. 1979. "Socrates'
Prayer
to Pan." In Arktouros: Hellenic Studies Presented
to Bernard M. W. Knox on the Occasion
of
His 65th
Birthday,
ed. G. W.
Bowerstock,
W.
Burkert,
M. C. J.
Putnam,
345-53. Berlin: de
Gruyter.
-. 2000. Platonic
Questions: Dialogues
with the Silent
Philosopher. University
Park,
Pa.:
Pennsylvania
State
University
Press.
Delebecque, Edouard,
ed. 1950.
Xenophon.
De Vart
equestre.
Paris: Les Belles
Lettres.
de
Romilly, Jacqueline.
1982. "Les conflits de l'ame dans le Phedre de Platon."
Wiener Studien n.s. 16:100-113.
des
Places,
Edouard. 1951. Platon. Oeuvres
completes.
XI: Les Lois. Paris: Les
Belles Lettres.
de
Vries,
G. J. 1969. A
Commentary
on the Phaedrus
of
Plato. Amsterdam: Hak-
kert.
Dorter,
Kenneth. 1971.
"Imagery
and
Philosophy
in Plato's Phaedrus." lournal
ofthe History of Philosophy
9:279-88.
England,
E. B. 1921. The Laws
of
Plato. 2 vols. Manchester:
University
of Man-
chester Press.
Ferrari,
G. R. E 1987.
Listening
to the Cicadas: A
Study of
Plato's Phaedrus.
Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Ford,
A. 2002. The
Origins of
Criticism:
Literary
Culture and Poetic
Theory
in
Classical Greece. Princeton: Princeton
University
Press.
Fortenbaugh,
William W 1966. "Plato Phaedrus 235c3." CP 61:108-9.
Friedlander,
Paul. 1969. Plato. Vol. 3: The
Dialogues.
Second and Third Periods.
Trans. H.
Meyerhoff.
Princeton: Princeton
University
Press.
Gill,
Christopher.
2001.
"Speaking Up
for Plato's Interlocutors. A Discussion
of J.
Beversluis, Cross-examining
Socrates."
Oxford
Studies in Ancient
Philosophy
20:297-321.
Griswold,
Charles L. Jr. 1986.
Self-Knowledge
in Plato's Phaedrus. New
Haven,
Conn.: Yale
University
Press.
Guthrie,
W. K. C. 1975. A
History of
Greek
Philosophy.
Vol. 4.
Cambridge:
Cam?
bridge University
Press.
Hackforth, Reginald.
1952. Plato's Phaedrus. Translated with Introduction and
Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Hedreen,
Guy
Michael. 1992. Silens in Attic
Black-Figure Vase-Painting: Myth
and
Performance.
Ann Arbor:
University
of
Michigan
Press.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 215
Kahn,
Charles H. 1996. Plato and the Socratic
Dialogue:
The
Philosophical
Use
of
a
Literary
Form.
Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Koster,
W. J. W. 1951. Le
mythe
de
Platon,
de Zarathoustra et des Chaldeens.
Leiden: Brill.
Kuhnert,
E. 1909-1915.
"Satyros
und Silenos." In
Ausfuhrliches
Lexikon der
griechischen
und romischen
Mythologie,
ed. W. H.
Roscher,
vol.
4,444-531.
Leipzig:
Teubner.
Rpt.
1992. Hildesheim:
Georg
Olms
Verlag.
Lawler,
Lillian B. 1960. "Cosmic Dance and
Dithyramb."
In Studies in Honor
of
Ullman,
ed. L. B.
Lawler,
D. M.
Robathan,
and W. C.
Korfmacher,
12-16.
St.
Louis,
Mo.: The Classical
Bulletin,
St. Louis
University.
Lebeck,
Anne. 1972. "The Central
Myth
of Plato's Phaedrus." GRBS 13:267-90.
Lexicon
iconographicum mythologiae
classicae
(LIMC).
1997. Ed. A. C. Acker-
mann and J.-R. Gisler. Zurich: Artemis
Verlag.
Linforth,
Ivan M. 1946. "The
Corybantic
Rites in Plato."
University of California
Publications in Classical
Philology
13:121-62.
Berkeley
and Los
Angeles:
University
of California Press.
Lissarrague, Frangois.
1987.
"Dionysos
s'en va-t-en
guerre."
In
Images
et societe
en Grece
ancienne,
ed. Claude
Berard,
Christiane
Bron,
and Alessandra
Pomari,
111-20. Lausanne: Universite de Lausanne.
-. 1990.
"Why Satyrs
Are Good to
Represent."
In
Nothing
to Do with
Dionysos?
Athenian Drama in Its Social
Context,
ed. J. J. Winkler and F. I.
Zeitlin,
228-36. Princeton: Princeton
University
Press.
-. 1993. "On the Wildness of
Satyrs."
In Masks
of Dionysos,
ed. T. H. Car-
penter
and C. A.
Faraone,
207-20. Ithaca: Cornell
University
Press.
Mackenzie,
Mary
M. 1981. Plato on Punishment.
Berkeley
and Los
Angeles:
University
of California Press.
McGibbon,
D. D. 1964. "The Fall of the Soul in Plato's Phaedrus."
CQ
14:56-
63.
Morrow,
Glen R. 1960. Plato's Cretan
City:
A Historical
Interpretation ofthe
Laws.
Princeton: Princeton
University
Press.
Moutsopoulos, Evanghelos.
1959. La
musique
dans Toeuvre de Platon. Paris:
Presses Universitaires de France.
Nightingale,
A. W. 1995. Genres in
Dialogue:
Plato and the Construct
of
Philoso?
phy. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
-. 2004.
Spectacles of
Truth in Classical Greek
Philosophy:
Theoria in Its
Cultural Context.
Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
North,
Helen E 1994.
"'Opening
Socrates': The Eikon of Alcibiades." ICS
19:89-98.
Nussbaum,
Martha C. 1986. The
Fragility of
Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek
Tragedy
and
Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
O'Brien,
Joan V. 1993. The
Transformation of
Hera.
Lanham,
Md.: Rowman and
Littlefield.
Osborne,
Catherine. 1994. Eros Unveiled: Plato and the God
of
Love. Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
216 ELIZABETH BELFIORE
Pakaluk,
Michael. 2004. "Socratic
Magnanimity
in the PhaedoT Ancient Philoso?
phy
24:101-17.
Pickard-Cambridge,
Arthur. 1962.
Dithyramb, Tragedy
and
Comedy,
2d
ed.,
revised
by
T. B. L. Webster. Oxford: Oxford
University
Press.
Price,
A. W. 1989. Love and
Friendship
in Plato and Aristotle. Oxford: Oxford
University
Press.
-. 1995. Mental
Conflict.
London:
Routledge.
Race,
William
H.,
ed. and trans. 1997. Pindar: Nemean
Odes,
Isthmian
Odes,
Fragments. Cambridge,
Mass.: Harvard
University
Press.
Richter,
Gisela M. A. 1965. The Portraits
of
the Greeks. 3 vols. Phaidon Press:
London.
-. 1984. The Portraits
ofthe
Greeks.
Abridged
and revised
by
R. R. R. Smith.
Ithaca: Cornell
University
Press.
Riedweg, Christoph.
1987.
Mysterienterminologie
bei
Platon,
Philon und Klemens
von Alexandrien. Berlin: de
Gruyter.
Robin,
Leon. 1908. La theorie
platonicienne
de Vamour. Paris: Felix Alcan.
-. 1951.
Platon,
Oeuvres
completes.
IV.2: Le
Banquet.
Paris: Les Belles
Lettres.
-. 1994. "Notice." In Claudio Moreschini and Paul
Vicaire, 1994,
Platon.
Phedre,
vii-ccv. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
Robinson,T.
M. 1970. Plato's
Psychology.
Toronto:
University
of Toronto Press.
Rossetti,
Livio. 1980. "Ricerche sui
'Dialoghi
Socratici' de Fedone e di Euclide."
Hermes 108:183-200.
Rowe,
Christopher
J. 1986. Plato:
Phaedrus,
with Translation and
Commentary.
Warminster,
Wiltshire: Aris and
Phillips.
-. 1990.
"Philosophy,
Love,
and Madness." In The Person and the Human
Mind,
ed.
Christopher
Gill,
227-46. Oxford: Oxford
University
Press.
Saunders,
Trevor
J.,
trans. 1970. Plato: The Laws. London:
Penguin.
Schefold,
Karl. 1943. Die Bildnisse der antiken
Dichter, Redner,
und Denker.
Basel: Schwabe.
Seaford,
R. A. S. 1976. "On the
Origins
of
Satyric
Drama." Maia 28:209-21.
-,
ed. 1988a.
Euripides: Cyclops.
Oxford: Oxford
University
Press.
-. 1988b. "The Eleventh Ode of
Bacchylides."
JHS 108:118-36.
Sheffield,
F. C. C. 2001.
"Psychic Pregnancy
and Platonic
Epistemology." Oxford
Studies in Ancient
Philosophy
20:1-33.
Stoeber,
Michael. 1992. "Phaedrus of the Phaedrus: The
Impassioned
Soul."
Philosophy
and Rhetoric 25:271-80.
Thompson,
W. H. 1868. The Phaedrus
of
Plato. London: Whittaker.
Rpt.
New
York:
Arno,
1973.
Usher,
M. D. 2002.
"Satyr Play
in Plato's
Symposium."
AIP 123:205-28.
Ussher,
R. G. 1977. "The Other
Aeschylus:
A
Study
of the
Fragments
of
Aeschylean
Satyr Plays."
Phoenix 31:287-99.
Verdenius,
W J. 1962. "Der
Begriff
der Mania in Platons Phaidros." Archiv
fiir
Geschichte der
Philosophie
44:132-50.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
DANCING WITH THE GODS 217
Vigneron,
Paul. 1968. Le cheval dans
I'antiquite greco-romaine,
2 vols.
Nancy:
Faculte des lettres et des sciences humaines de l'Universite.
White,
David A. 1993. Rhetoric and
Reality
in Plato's Phaedrus.
Albany:
State
University
of New York Press.
Zanker,
Paul. 1995. The Mask
of
Socrates: The
Image ofthe
Intellectual in
Antiq?
uity.
Trans. A.
Shapiro. Berkeley
and Los
Angeles: University
of California
Press.
This content downloaded from 200.26.133.57 on Wed, 8 May 2013 21:17:41 PM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions