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Small

Signal BJT
Ampliers
3
Chapter Objectives
Develop h-parameter model of BJT for AC
analysis.
Analyze various CE, CB and CC ampliers
to determine input impedance, output
impedance, voltage gain and current gain.
Compare the performance of CE, CB and
CC ampliers.
Learn method to increase input
impedance such as Darlington circuit and
bootstrapping technique.
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The basic construction, characteristics and DC biasing of the bipolar junction transistors were
discussed in Chapter 1. The purpose of biasing is to establish a Q-point about which variations
in current and voltage can occur in response to an AC input signal. The term small signal refers
to the use of signals that take up a relatively small percentage of an ampliers operational
range. The ampliers designed to handle these small AC signals are called small signal ampli-
ers. The h-parameter equivalent model is commonly used in the small signal AC analysis of
bipolar junction transistors. We will dene this model and analyze the amplier characteristics
in terms of this model.
3.2 SMALL SIGNAL BJT AMPLIFIER
Figure 3.1 shows a voltage divider biased transistor amplifier. The capacitor C
C
1
couples
the sinusoidal AC source to the base of the transistor. The capacitor C
C
2

couples the output
to the load. These coupling capacitors block DC and thus prevents the source resistance
R
S

and the load resistance R
L

from changing the DC bias voltages at the base and collector.
The capacitors act as short circuits to the signal voltage. The emitter resistor R
E
improves
the stability of the system but provides negative feedback which reduces the gain of
the amplifier. This AC degeneration can be avoided by connecting the capacitor C
E
in
parallel with resistor R
E
. For DC operation, capacitor C
E
acts as open circuit and improves
the stability. For AC operation, capacitor C
E
acts as short circuit and bypasses the resistor R
E
.
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3.2Electronic Circuits I
Hence, C
E
is known as the emitter bypass capacitor. The input signal voltage V
i

causes
the base voltage to vary sinusoidally above and below its DC bias level. The resulting
variation in base current produces a larger variation in collector current. As the collector
current increases, the collector voltage decreases. The collector current varies above and
below its Q-point value in phase with the base current. The collector to emitter voltage
varies above and below its Q-point value 180
o
out of phase with the base voltage, as
shown in Fig. 3.2.
I
C
V
CC
I
BQ
I
CQ
V
CEQ
V
CE
Q
0
Fig. 3.2Small Signal Waveforms
V
S
R
S
R
E
C
E
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
L
R
2
Fig. 3.1Common-emier Amplier
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3.3 h-parameter Model of BJT 3.3
3.3 h-PARAMETER MODEL OF BJT
Consider the black box representation of the BJT as shown in Fig. 3.3.
V
1
+

V
2
+

I
2
I
1
BJT
Fig. 3.3Two-port Network
The two-port network equations in terms of h-parameter are given by
V
1


h
11

I
1

+ h
12

V
2
I
2


h
21

I
1

+ h
22

V
2
where h
11
, h
12
, h
21
and h
22

are h-parameters.
h-parameter
(a) Case I: When output port is shorted, i.e. V
2
0.
h
11

V
I
V
1
1
0
2

It is called input impedance and is denoted by h


i
.
h
21

I
I
V
2
1
0
2

It is called forward current gain and is denoted by h


f
.
(b) Case II: When input port is opened, i.e. I
1

0.
h
12

V
V
I
1
2
0
1

It is called reverse voltage gain and is denoted by h


r
.
h
22

I
V
I
2
2
0
1

It is called output admittance and is denoted by h


o
.
Since these four parameters represent input impedance, voltage gain, current gain and out-
put admittance, these parameters are called hybrid parameters.
Let V
1

V
i
, I
1

I
i
, I
2

I
o
and V
2

V
o
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 3 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.4Electronic Circuits I
Hence, these equations can be written as
V
i
h
i

I
i

+ h
r

V
o
I
o
h
f

I
i

+ h
o

V
o
The rst equation represents Kirchhoffs voltage law to the input circuit which can be rep-
resented as shown in Fig. 3.4.
V
i
+

I
i
h
i
h
r
V
o
Fig. 3.4Input Circuit
The second equation represents Kirchhoffs current law to the output circuit which can be
represented as shown in Fig. 3.5.
h
o
V
o
+

I
o
h
f
I
i
1
Fig. 3.5Output Circuit
Combining these two circuits, the h-parameter model is obtained, which is shown in
Fig. 3.6.
h
o
V
o
+

I
o
h
f
I
i
1
V
i
+

I
i
h
i
h
r
V
o
Fig. 3.6h-parameter Model for BJT
The h-parameter model is used for representing transistor in CB, CE and CC congurations.
The h-parameters, however, will change with each conguration. A second subscript is added
to the h-parameter notation. For the CB conguration, the letter b is added. For CE and CC
congurations, the letter e and c are added, respectively.
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3.3 h-parameter Model of BJT 3.5
3.3.1 h-parameter Model for CB Configuration
Figure 3.7 shows the transistor in the CB conguration.
E
B
C
B
I
e
I
c
V
e
+

V
c
+

Fig. 3.7Common-base Conguration


h-parameter equations are written as,
V
e
h
ib

I
e

+ h
rb

V
c
I
c
h
fb

I
e

+ h
ob

V
c
The h-parameter model for the CB conguration is shown in Fig. 3.8.
h
ob

I
c
h
f b
I
e
1
I
e
h
ib
h
rb
V
c
C
B
E
B
V
c
+

V
e
+

Fig. 3.8h-parameter Model for CB Conguration


3.3.2 h-parameter Model for CE Configuration
Figure 3.9 shows transistor in the CE conguration.
I
c
I
b
V
b
V
c
C
E E
B

+
+
Fig. 3.9Common-emier Conguration
h-parameter equations are written as,
V
b
h
ie

I
b

+ h
re

V
c
I
c
h
fe

I
b

+ h
oe

V
c
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3.6Electronic Circuits I
The h-parameter model for the CE conguration is shown in Fig. 3.10.
h
oe

I
c
h
f e
I
b
1
I
b
h
ie
h
re
V
c
C
E
B
E
V
c
+

V
b
+

Fig. 3.10h-parameter Model for CE Conguration


3.3.3 h-parameter Model for CC Configuration
Figure 3.11 shows transistor in the CC conguration.
I
e
I
b
V
b
V
e
E
C
B
C

+
+
Fig. 3.11Common-collector Conguration
h-parameter equations are written as,
V
b
h
ic

I
b

+ h
rc

V
e
I
e
h
fc

I
b

+ h
oc

V
e
The h-parameter model for the CC conguration is shown in Fig. 3.12.
h
oc

I
e
h
f c
I
b
1
I
b
h
ic
h
rc
V
e
B
C
E
C
V
e
+

V
b
+

Fig. 3.12h-parameter Model for CC Conguration


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3.3 h-parameter Model of BJT 3.7
3.3.4 h-parameter Conversion
Generally h-parameter values for the CE conguration are given in transistor data sheet. The
h-parameter values for CB and CC congurations can be calculated from h-parameter values
for the CE conguration. Table 3.1 gives h-parameter conversion formulae from CE to CB and
from CE to CC congurations.
Table 3.1h-parameter Conversion Formulae
Conversion from CE to CB Conversion from CE to CC
(i) h
ib

h
h 1
ie
fe
+
(i) h
ic
h
ie
(ii) h
ob

h
h 1
oe
fe
+
(ii) h
fc
(1 + h
fe
)
(iii) h


h
h 1
fe
fe
+
(iii) h
oc
h
oe
(iv) h
rb

h h
h 1
oe ie
fe
+
h
re
(iv) h
rc
1 h
re
For CC conguration
h
ic

h
ie
h
fc
(1 + h
fe
) h
fe
h
oc
h
oe

h
rc
1 h
re
1
Hence, the h-parameter

model of the CE conguration is used for AC analysis of CC amplier.
3.3.5 Advantages of h-parameter Model
1. The h-parameter model consists of all linear elements. Hence, the analysis of the tran-
sistor circuit becomes easier by using Kirchhoffs voltage and current laws.
2. h-parameters can easily be obtained from input and output characteristics of transistor.
3. h-parameters are normally specied by transistor manufacturer.
4. It is useful at low frequency operations.
3.3.6 Disadvantages of h-parameter Model
1. It is not suitable at high frequency operations.
2. h-parameter vary with device and temperature.
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3.8Electronic Circuits I
3.4 GRAPHICAL DETERMINATION OF h-PARAMETERS
The relationship between V
BE
and I
C
in terms of I
B
and V
CE
for the CE amplier is given by
V
BE
f
1
(I
B
, V
CE
)
I
C
f
2
(I
B
, V
CE
)
The input characteristics give the relationship between the input voltage V
BE
and the input
current I
B
for different values of output voltage V
CE
. The output characteristics give the
relationship between the output voltage V
CE
and the output current I
C
for different values
of input current I
B
. The h-parameters can be determined graphically from input and output
characteristics of the amplier.
Determination of h
ie
: From the denition of h
ie
,
h
ie

V
I
BE
B
V = constant
CE


Q
1
Slope of input characteristic at the -point
The parameter h
ie
can be obtained as the change in base-emitter voltage, V
BE
2
V
BE
1
, divided
by the change in base current, I
B
2
I
B
1
, for a constant collector-emitter voltage V
CE
at the
quiescent point Q. The reciprocal of the slope of input characteristic at the quiescent point Q
gives the value of h
ie
as shown in Fig. 3.13.
V
CE
1
V
CEQ
V
CE
2
V
BE
I
B
V
BE
I
B
0
Fig. 3.13Determination of h
ie
Determination of h
re
: From the denition of h
re
,
h
re

V
V
BE
CE
I = constant
B

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3.4 Graphical Determination of h-parameters 3.9
The parameter h
re
can be obtained as the change in base-emitter voltage, V
BE
2
V
BE
1
, divided
by the change in collector-emitter voltage, V
CE
2
V
CE
1
, for a constant base current I
B
at the
quiescent point Q. A horizontal line on the input characteristics of Fig. 3.14 represents a
constant base current.
V
CE
1
V
CEQ
V
CE
2
V
BE
I
BQ
V
BE
1
V
BE
2
I
B
0
Fig. 3.14Determination of h
re
Determination of h
fe
: From the denition of h
fe
,
h
fe

I
I
C
B
V = constant
CE

The parameter h
fe
can be obtained as the change in collector current, I
C
2
I
C
1
, divided by
the change in base current, I
B
2
I
B
1
, for a constant collector-emitter voltage V
CE
at the quies-
cent point Q. A vertical line on the output characteristics of Fig. 3.15 represents a constant
collector-emitter voltage.
I
C
2
I
B
2
I
B
1
I
BQ
I
C
1
0
I
C
V
CE
V
CEQ
Fig. 3.15Determination of h
fe
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3.10Electronic Circuits I
Determination of h
oe
: From the denition of h
oe
,

h
oe

I
V
C
CE
I = constant
B

Slope of output characteristic at the Q-point


The parameter h
oe
can be obtained as the change in collector current, I
C
2
I
C
1
, divided by
the change in collector-emitter voltage V
CE
2
V
CE
1
for a constant base current I
B
at the quiescent
point Q. The slope of output characteristic at the quiescent point Q gives the value of h
oe
as
shown in Fig. 3.16.
V
CE
I
C
I
B
2
I
B
1
I
BQ
0
I
C
V
CE
Fig. 3.16 Determination of h
oe
Similarly, common-base h-parameters can be determined graphically from input and output
characteristics of the CB conguration as shown in Figs. 3.173.20.
Determination of h
ib

h
ib


V
I
BE
E
V = constant
CB


Q
1
Slope of input characteristic at the -point
V
CB
2
V
CBQ
V
CB
1
V
BE
I
E
0
I
E
V
BE
Fig. 3.17Determination of h
ib
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3.4 Graphical Determination of h-parameters 3.11
Determination of h
rb
h
rb

V
V
BE
CB
I = constant
E

I
EQ
V
CB
1
V
BE
1
V
BE
2
V
CBQ V
CB
2
V
BE
I
E
0
Fig. 3.18Determination of h
rb
Determination of h
fb
h
fb

I
I
C
E
V = constant
CB

I
C
1
I
C
I
E
1
I
E
2
I
EQ
V
CBQ
V
CB
0
I
C
2
Fig. 3.19Determination of h

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3.12Electronic Circuits I
Determination of h
ob
h
ob


I
V
C
CB
I = constant
E

Slope of output characteristic at the Q-point


V
CB
I
C
I
C
I
E
1
I
E
2
I
EQ
V
CB
0
Fig. 3.20Determination of h
ob
3.5 EXACT ANALYSIS OF TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
Figure 3.21 shows the general h-parameter equivalent circuit with load R
L
connected to the
output.
h
o
R
L

I
o
h
f
I
i
1
R
S
V
S
I
i
h
i
h
r
V
o
Z
i
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

Fig. 3.21General h-parameter Equivalent Circuit


Current gain (A
i
)
It is the ratio of output current I
o
to the input current I
i
.
A
i


I
I
o
i
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3.5 Exact Analysis of Transistor Amplier 3.13
Applying Kirchhoffs current law to the output circuit,
I
o
h
f

I
i

+ h
o
V
o
But V
o
I
o
R
L
I
o
h
f

I
i
h
o

I
o
R
L
(1 + h
o

R
L
) I
o
h
f

I
i
I
o

h I
h R 1
f i
o L
+
A
i

I
I
o
i

h
h R 1
f
o L
+

Voltage gain (A
v
)
It is the ratio of output voltage V
o
to the input voltage V
i
.
A
v


V
V
o
i
Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the input circuit,
V
i
h
i
I
i

h
r

V
o

0
V
i
h
i
I
i

+ h
r

V
o
We know that,
I
I
o
i

h
h R 1
f
o L
+
I
i

I h R
h
(1 )
o o L
f
+
But I
o

V
R
o
L
I
i

V
R
h R
h
(1 )
o
L
o L
f
+
Hence, V
i

hV h R
h R
(1 )
i o o L
f L
+
+ h
r

V
o

h h R h h h R
h R
f r L i i o L
f L

_
,

V
o
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3.14Electronic Circuits I

V
V
o
i

h R
h h h R h h R
f L
i i o L f r L
+
A
v


V
V
o
i

h R
h h h R h h R
f L
i i o L f r L

+

h R
h h h h h R ( )
f L
i i o f r L

+

h R
h h R
f L
i L
+
, where h h
i
h
o

h
f

h
r

Input impedance (Z
i
)
It is the ratio of input voltage V
i
to the input current I
i
.
Z
i

V
I
i
i
Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the input circuit,
V
i
h
i
I
i

h
r
V
o

0
V
i


h
i

I
i

+ h
r

V
o


h
i

I
i


h
r

I
o

R
L


h
i

I
i


h
r
h I
h R 1
f i
o L
+

_
,

R
L


h
h h R
h R 1
i
f r L
o L

_
,

I
i

Z
i


V
I
i
i
h
i


h h R
h R 1
f r L
o L
+
Output impedance (Z
o
)
It is the ratio of output voltage V
o
to the output current I
o
when input voltage V
S

0.
Z
o


V
I
o
o
V = 0
s
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3.5 Exact Analysis of Transistor Amplier 3.15
Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the input circuit,
V
S

h
i

I
i

R
S

I
i

h
r

V
o
0
I
i

V h V
R h
S r o
S i

+
When V
S
0,
I
i

h V
R h
r o
S i
+
Applying Kirchhoffs current law to the output circuit,
I
o
h
f
I
i
+ h
o

V
o


h
f

h V
R h
r o
S i
+
+ h
o

V
o

h
h h
R h
o
f r
S i

_
,

V
o
Z
o

V
I
o
o

h
h h
R h
1
o
f r
S i

+
Voltage gain (A
vs
)
It is the ratio of output voltage V
o
to the input voltage V
S
.
A
vs

V
V
o
S
Considering source resistance R
S
as shown in Fig. 3.22,
R
S
V
S
Z
i
V
i
Fig. 3.22Thevenin's Equivalent for the Input Circuit
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3.16Electronic Circuits I

V
V
i
S

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Now, A
vs


V
V
o
S

V
V
o
i
V
V
i
S

A
v

V
V
i
S
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Hence, voltage gain A
vs
is always less than A
v
.
Current gain (A
is
)
It is the ratio of output current I
o
to the input current I
S
.
A
is


I
I
o
S
Considering source resistance as shown in Fig. 3.23,
V
S
R
S
Z
i
I
i
Fig. 3.23Input Circuit
By source transformation (Fig. 3.24),
Z
i
I
S
R
S
I
i
Fig. 3.24Norton's Equivalent for the Input Circuit
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3.5 Exact Analysis of Transistor Amplier 3.17

I
I
i
s

R
R Z
S
S i
+
A
is


I
I
L
s


I
I
L
i
I
I
i
s
A
i

I
I
i
s
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
Hence, current gain A
is
is always less than A
i
.
Example 3.1: Calculate the values of A
i
, A
v
, Z
i
and Z
o
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.25 if
the CE amplier uses transistor with the specications given in the gure and a resistive load
of 1 k.
h
oe
R
L

I
o
h
f e
I
i
1
V
S
I
i
h
ie
h
re
V
o
Z
i
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

h
fe
= 220
h
ie
= 2.7 k
h
re
= 1.5 10
4
h
oe
= 18

Fig. 3.25Example 3.1
Solution:
R
L
1 k
R
S
0
(i) Current gain A
i

h
h R 1
fe
oe L
+

220
1 18 10 1 10
6 3
+

216.11
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3.18Electronic Circuits I
(ii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h h h h R ( )
fe L
ie ie oe fe re L

+

220 1 10
2.7 10 (2.7 10 18 10 220 1.5 10 )(1 10 )
3
3 3 6 4 3


+

81.48
The negative sign indicates a phase shift of 180 between input and output voltages.
(iii) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie

h h R
h R 1
fe re L
oe L
+
2.7 10
3

220 1.5 10 1 10
1 18 10 1 10
4 3
6 3

+

2.66 k
(iv) Output impedance Z
o

h
h h
R h
1
oe
fe re
S ie

+

1
18 10
220 1.5 10
0 2.7 10
6
4
3


+

173.07 k
3.6 EXACT ANALYSIS OF COMMON-EMITTER AMPLIFIER
Figure 3.26 shows a common-emitter amplier.
V
S
R
S
R
E
C
E
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
L
R
2
Fig. 3.26Common-emier Amplier
To analyze the AC signal operation of an amplier, an AC equivalent circuit is developed.
The capacitors C
C
1
, C
C
2
and C
E

are replaced by short circuit because the capacitive reactance
is approximately zero at signal frequency. The DC source is replaced by ground. The AC
equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 3.27.
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 18 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.6 Exact Analysis of Common-emier Amplier 3.19
V
S
R
S
V
o
R
L
R
C
R
1
R
2
Fig. 3.27AC Equivalent Circuit
The BJT is replaced by the h-parameter model as shown in Fig. 3.28.
h
oe
R
C
R
L

I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
1
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
h
ie
h
re
V
o
Z
i
Z
i
Z
in
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.28h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1

|| R
2

R
L
R
C

|| R
L
Input impedance
Z
i
h
ie


h h R
h R 1
fe re L
oe L

+
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B

Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
Output impedance
Z
o

h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
oe
fe re
B S ie

+
Z
o
Z
o
||R
C

||R
L
Voltage gain
A
v

h R
h h h h h R ( )
fe L
ie ie oe fe re L

+
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 19 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.20Electronic Circuits I
The negative sign indicates a phase shift of 180 between input and output voltages.
Considering voltage gain with source resistance R
S
,
A
vs

A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Hence, voltage gain A
vs
is always less than A
v
.
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
I
o

V
R
o
L
I
i

V
Z
i
i
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i


V
V
o
i
Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering current gain with source resistance,
A
is

A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+

Hence, current gain A
is
is always less than A
i
.
Example 3.2: Find Z
in
, Z
o
,
A
vs
and A
is
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.29.
V
S
1 k
1 k
C
E
5 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
470 k
Z
in
Z
o
h
fe
= 220
h
ie
= 2.7 k
h
re
= 1.5 10
4
h
oe
= 18

Fig. 3.29Example 3.2
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 20 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.6 Exact Analysis of Common-emier Amplier 3.21
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.30)
V
S
R
S
V
o
R
C
R
B
Fig. 3.30AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.31)
h
oe
R
C

I
o
= I
c
h
f e
I
b
1
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
h
ie
h
re
V
o
Z
i
Z
i
Z
in
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.31h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie


h h R
h R 1
fe re C
oe C
+


2.7 10
3

220 1.5 10 5 10
1 18 10 5 10
4 3
6 3

+



2.54 k
Z
i


Z
i
|| R
B

(2.54 10
3
) || (470 10
3
) 2.53 k
Z
in


Z
i
+ R
S
2.53 10
3
+ 1 10
3
3.53 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o


h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
oe
fe re
B S ie

+
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 21 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.22Electronic Circuits I


1
18 10
220 1.5 10
[(470 10 ) || (1 10 )] 2.7 10
6
4
3 3 3


+

110.12 k
Z
o


Z
o
|| R
C

(110.12 10
3
) || (5 10
3
) 4.78 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h h h h R ( )
fe C
ie ie oe fe re C
+



395.97
A
vs


A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+


395.97
2.53 10
2.53 10 1 10
3
3 3

+


283.79
(iv) Current gain A
i


A
v

Z
R
i
C


(395.97)
2.53 10
5 10
3
3



200.35
A
is


A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+


200.35
1 10
1 10 2.53 10
3
3 3

+


56.75
Example 3.3: Find Z
in
, Z
o
, A
vs
and A
is
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.32.
V
S
1 k
1 k
5 k
C
E
5 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
470 k
Z
in
Z
o
h
fe
= 220
h
ie
= 2.7 k
h
re
= 1.5 10
4
h
oe
= 18

Fig. 3.32Example 3.3
220 5 10
2.7 10 (2.7 10 18 10 220 1.5 10 )(5 10 )
3
3 3 6 4 3

+

M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 22 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.6 Exact Analysis of Common-emier Amplier 3.23
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.33)
V
S
R
S
V
o
R
C
R
B
R
L
Fig. 3.33AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.34)
h
oe
R
C
R
L

I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
1
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
h
ie
h
re
V
o
Z
i
Z
i
Z
in
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.34h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
(5 10
3
) || (5 10
3
) 2.5 k
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie


h h R
h R 1
fe re L
oe L

+
2.7 10
3

220 1.5 10 2.5 10
1 18 10 2.5 10
4 3
6 3

+

2.62 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B

(2.62 10
3
) || (470 10
3
) 2.61 k
Z
in
Z
i

+ R
S

2.61 10
3
+ 1 10
3
3.61 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
oe
fe re
B S ie

+

1
18 10
220 1.5 10
[(470 10 ) || (1 10 )] 2.7 10
6
4
3 3 3


+

110.119 k
Z
o
Z
o
|| R
C

|| R
L
(110.119 10
3
) || (5 10
3
) || (5 10
3
) 2.44 k
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 23 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.24Electronic Circuits I
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h h h h R ( )
fe L
ie ie oe fe re L

+

200.8
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
200.8
2.61 10
2.61 10 1 10
3
3 3

+
145.17
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v
Z
R
i
L
(200.8)
2.61 10
5 10
3
3


104.8
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
104.8
1 10
1 10 2.61 10
3
3 3

+
29.03
Example 3.4: Determine Z
in
, Z
o
, A
vs
and A
is
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.35.
V
S
10 k
10 k
R
E
3 k
C
E
5 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
100 k
Z
in
Z
o
h
fe
= 50
h
ie
= 1.1 k
h
re
= 2.5 10
4
h
oe
= 24

Fig. 3.35Example 3.4
220 2.5 10
2.7 10 (2.7 10 18 10 220 1.5 10 )(2.5 10 )
3
3 3 6 4 3

+

M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 24 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.6 Exact Analysis of Common-emier Amplier 3.25
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.36)
R
S
R
C
R
2
R
1
R
L
V
S
+

Fig. 3.36AC Equivalent Circuit


h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.37)
h
oe
R
C
R
L

I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
1
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
h
ie
h
re
V
o
Z
i
Z
i
Z
in
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.37h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1

|| R
2
(100 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 9.09 k
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
(5 10
3
) || (3 10
3
) 1.875 k
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie


h h R
h R 1
fe re L
oe L

+
1.1 10
3

50 2.5 10 1.875 10
1 24 10 1.875 10
4 3
6 3

+

1.077 k
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 25 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.26Electronic Circuits I
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B

(1.077 10
3
) || (9.09 10
3
) 0.963 k
Z
in
Z
i

+ R
S
0.963 10
3
+ 10 10
3
10.963 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
oe
fe re
B S ie

+

1
24 10
50 2.5 10
[(9.09 10 ) || (10 10 )] 1.1 10
6
4
3 3 3


+

45.73 k
Z
o
Z
o
|| R
C

|| R
L
(45.73 10
3
) || (5 10
3
) || (3 10
3
) 1.8 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h h h h R ( )
fe L
ie ie oe fe re L

+

83.25
A
vs
A
v
Z
Z R
i
i S
+
83.25
0.963 10
0.963 10 10 10
3
3 3

+
7.313
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v
Z
R
i
L
(83.25)
0.963 10
3 10
3
3


26.72
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
26.72
10 10
10 10 0.963 10
3
3 3

+
24.75
50 1.875 10
1.1 10 (1.1 10 24 10 50 2.5 10 )(1.875 10 )
3
3 3 6 4 3

+

M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 26 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.7 Exact Analysis of Common-base Amplier 3.27
3.7 EXACT ANALYSIS OF COMMON-BASE AMPLIFIER
Figure 3.38 shows a common-base amplier.

R
E
R
S
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
3
C
C
2
R
L
R
2
V
S
Fig. 3.38Common-base Amplier
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and replac-
ing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.39. Two resistors R
1
and R
2
are shorted to ground.
R
E
R
S
V
o
R
C
R
L
V
S
Fig. 3.39AC Equivalent Circuit
Figure 3.39 can be redrawn by rotating the BJT as shown in Fig. 3.40.
R
S
V
o
R
C
R
E
R
L
V
S
Fig. 3.40AC Equivalent Circuit
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 27 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.28Electronic Circuits I
The h-parameter equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing the BJT by its h-parameter
model as shown in Fig. 3.41.
h
ob

I
c
h
f b
I
e
I
o
1
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
e
I
i
h
ib
h
rb
V
o
R
E
R
C
R
L
E C
B
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.41h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
L

R
C

|| R
L
Input impedance

Z
i

h
ib


h h R
h R 1
fb rb L
ob L

Z
i

Z
i

|| R
E

Z
in

Z
i

+ R
S
Output impedance

Z
o

h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
ob
fb rb
E S ib

+
Z
o

Z
o
|| R
C

||R
L
Voltage gain
A
v


h R
h h h h h R ( )
fb L
ib ib ob fb rb L

Considering source resistance,


A
vs

A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 28 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.7 Exact Analysis of Common-base Amplier 3.29
A
i


I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i


V
V
o
i

Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering source resistance,
A
is

A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
Example 3.5: Calculate Z
i
,
Z
o
,

A
v
and A
i
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.42.
3 k
1 k
50 k 2.2 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
C
C
3
50 k
Z
i
Z
o
V
S
h
rb
= 2 10
4
h
ib
= 14.41
h
fb
= 0.991
h
ob
= 0.18 10
6

Fig. 3.42Example 3.5


Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.43)
R
E
R
S
V
o
R
C
V
S
Fig. 3.43AC Equivalent Circuit
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 29 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.30Electronic Circuits I
Figure 3.43 can be redrawn by rotating the BJT as shown in Fig. 3.44.
V
o
R
C
R
E
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.44AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.45)
h
ob

I
c
h
f b
I
e
1
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
e
I
i
h
ib
h
rb
V
o
R
E
R
C
E C
B
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.45h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
(i) Input impedance Z
i


h
ib


h h R
h R 1
f b rb C
ob C
+
14.41
( 0.991)(2 10 )(2.2 10 )
1 0.18 10 2.2 10
4 3
6 3

+
14.84
Z
i

Z
i

|| R
E
14.84 || (3 10
3
) 14.76
(ii) Output impedance

Z
o

h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
ob
f b rb
E S ib

+

1
0.18 10
( 0.991)(2 10 )
[(3 10 ) || (1 10 )] 14.41
6
4
3 3


+

2.276 M
Z
o

Z
o
|| R
C
(2.276 10
6
) || (2.2 10
3
) 2.197 k
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 30 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.7 Exact Analysis of Common-base Amplier 3.31
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

+
h R
h h h h h R ( )
fb C
ib ib ob fb rb C

( 0.991) 2.2 10
14.41 [14.41 0.18 10 2 10 ( 0.991)](2.2 10 )
3
6 4 3

+
146.7
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
C
146.7
14.76
2.2 10
3


0.9847
Example 3.6: Calculate Z
i
, Z
o
, A
vs

and A
is

for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.46.
V
o
10 k 47 k 7.5 k
6 V +12 V
100
C
C
1
C
C
2
Z
i
Z
o
h
fb
= 0.99
h
ob
= 2.47 10
7

h
ib
= 12
h
rb
= 3 10
5
V
S
Fig. 3.46Example 3.6
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.47)
V
o
R
C
R
L
R
E
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.47AC Equivalent Circuit
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 31 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.32Electronic Circuits I
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.48)
h
ob

I
c
h
f b
I
e
I
o
1
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
e
I
i
h
ib
h
rb
V
o
R
E
R
C
R
L
E C
B
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.48h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
L

R
C

|| R
L
(10 10
3
) || (47 10
3
) 8.25 k
(i) Input impedance Z
i

h
ib

h h R
h R 1
fb rb L
ob L
12

+

( 0.99)(3 10 )(8.25 10 )
1 2.47 10 8.25 10
5 3
7 3
12.24
Z
i

Z
i


|| R
E
12.24 || (7.5 10
3
) 12.22
(ii) Output impedance

Z
o

h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
ob
fb rb
E S ib

+

1
2.47 10
( 0.99)(3 10 )
[(7.5 10 ) || 100] 12
7
5
3

1.94 M
Z
o

Z
o
|| R
C

|| R
L
(1.94 10
6
) || (10 10
3
) || (47 10
3
) 8.209 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h h h h R ( )
fb L
ib ib ob fb rb L

( 0.99)(8.25 10 )
12 [12 2.47 10 3 10 ( 0.99)](8.25 10 )
3
7 5 3


+

665.64
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 32 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.8 Exact Analysis of Common-collector Amplier 3.33
A
vs

A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
665.64
+
12.22
12.22 100
72.6
(iv) Current gain A
i

A
v

Z
R
i
L
665.64
12.22
47 10
3


0.173
A
is

A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
0.173
100
100 12.22 +
0.154
3.8 EXACT ANALYSIS OF COMMON-COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
Figure 3.49 shows a common-collector amplier.
R
E
R
1
C
C
1
+V
CC
V
o
C
C
2
R
L
R
2
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.49Common-collector Amplier
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 33 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.34Electronic Circuits I
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.50.
R
E
V
o
R
L
R
2
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.50AC Equivalent Circuit
The h-parameter equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing the BJT by its h-parameter
model as shown in Fig. 3.51.
h
oc

I
e
h
f c
I
b
I
o
1
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ic
h
rc
V
o
R
B
R
E
R
L
B E
C
V
S
Fig. 3.51h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1

|| R
2
R
L
R
E

|| R
L
Input impedance
Z
i


h
ic

h h R
h R 1
fc rc L
oc L
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 34 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.8 Exact Analysis of Common-collector Amplier 3.35
Z
i

Z
i

|| R
B
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
Output impedance

Z
o

h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
oc
fc rc
B S ic

Z
o
|| R
E

|| R
L
Voltage gain
A
v


h R
h h h h h R ( )
fc L
ic ic oc fc rc L

Considering source resistance,


A
vs

A
v
Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i


I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i


V
V
o
i

Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering source resistance,
A
is

A
i
R
R Z
S
S i
+
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 35 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.36Electronic Circuits I
Example 3.7: Calculate Z
i
,
Z
o
,

A
v
and A
i
, for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.52.
5 k
10 k
1 k
C
C
1
+V
CC
V
o
C
C
2
20 k 10 k
Z
i
Z
o
h
ic
= 1.2 k
h
rc
= 1
h
fc
= 101
h
oc
= 25 10
6

V
S
Fig. 3.52Example 3.7
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.53)
R
E
V
o
R
L
R
2
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.53AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.54)
h
oc

I
e
h
f c
I
b
I
o
1
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ic
h
rc
V
o
R
B
R
E
R
L
B E
C
V
S
Fig. 3.54h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1
|| R
2
(10 10
3
) || (10 10
3
)

5 k
R
L

R
E

|| R
L
(5 10
3
) || (20 10
3
) 4 k
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 36 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.8 Exact Analysis of Common-collector Amplier 3.37
(i) Input impedance Z
i


h
ic

h h R
h R 1
fc rc L
oc L

1.2 10
3

( 101)(1)(4 10 )
1 25 10 4 10
3
6 3

+

368.47 k
Z
i
Z
i

|| R
B
(368.47 10
3
) || (5 10
3
) 4.93 k
(ii) Output impedance

Z
o

h
h h
R R h
1
( || )
oc
fc rc
B S ic

+

1
25 10
( 101)(1)
[(5 10 ) || (1 10 )] 1.2 10
6
3 3 3

20.12
Z
o

Z
o
|| R
E

|| R
L
20.12 || (5 10
3
) || (20 10
3
) 20.02
(iii) Voltage gain A
v


h R
h h h h h R ( )
fc L
ic ic oc fc rc L


( 101)(4 10 )
1.2 10 [1.2 10 25 10 ( 101)(1)](4 10 )
3
3 3 6 3

+

0.996
A
vs

A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
0.996
4.93 10
4.93 10 1 10
3
3 3

+
0.828
(iv) Current gain A
i

A
v
Z
R
i
L
0.996
4.93 10
20 10
3
3


0.246
A
is

A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
0.246
1 10
1 10 4.93 10
3
3 3

+
0.041
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 37 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.38Electronic Circuits I
3.9 APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
For the CE and CB congurations, the magnitude of h
r
and h
o
is often such that the parameters
Z
i
, Z
o
, A
v
and A
i
are only slightly affected if h
r
and h
o
are not included in the model. Since the
value of h
r
is very small, controlled source h
r
V
o
becomes very small. It is approximated by h
r
V
o
0
and is replaced by a short circuit. Similarly, the value of h
o
is very small, and the impedance
h
1
o
becomes very large and can be ignored in comparison to a parallel load. It is approxi-
mated by
h
1
o
and is replaced by an open circuit. Thus, the h-parameter model is simpli-
ed by short circuiting controlled source h
r
V
o
and open circuiting impedance
h
1
o
. Generally, if
h
oe
R
L
< 0.1, the approximate model can be used. The simplied h-parameter model is shown
in the Fig. 3.55.
R
L
I
o
h
i
V
S
R
S
I
i
h
f
I
i
V
o
+

V
i
+

Fig. 3.55Simplied h-parameter Model


Input impedance Z
i
h
i
Output impedance Z
o

h
1
o

Voltage gain A
v

h R
h
f L
i
Current gain A
i
h
f
3.10 APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF COMMON-EMITTER
AMPLIFIER (FIXED-BIAS CONFIGURATION)
Fig. 3.56 shows a xed-bias common-emitter amplier.
Case I: When R
E
is bypassed
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 38 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.10 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.39
R
E
R
S
R
B
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
L
C
E
V
S
Fig. 3.56Common-emier Amplier with Bypassed R
E
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.57.
V
o
R
C
R
L
R
B
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.57AC Equivalent Circuit
The BJT is replaced by the approximate h-parameter model as shown in Fig. 3.58.
I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ie
R
B
R
C
R
L
B C
E
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.58h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 39 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.40Electronic Circuits I
Input impedance
Z
i
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S

Output impedance
The output impedance Z
o
of the circuit is the impedance looking from the collector side when
input voltage V
S
0. When V
S
0, I
b
0, h
fe
I
b
0. The current source h
fe
I
b
is replaced by an
open circuit.
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
|| R
C
|| R
L
= R
C
|| R
L
Voltage gain
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
V
o
h
fe
I
b
R
L

V
i
I
b
h
ie

A
v

V
V
o
i

h I R
I h
fe b L
b ie


h R
h
fe L
ie

The negative sign indicates a phase shift of 180 between input and output voltages.
Considering voltage gain with source resistance R
S
,
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i


V
V
o
i
Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering current gain with source resistance,
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 40 7/21/12 9:55 AM
Case II: When R
E
is not bypassed
Figure 3.59 shows a CE amplier with unbypassed R
E
.
R
E
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
+V
CC
V
o
C
C
2
R
L
R
2
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.59Common-emier Amplier with Unbypassed R
E
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.60.
R
E
R
C
R
L
V
o
R
2
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.60AC Equivalent Circuit
The BJT is replaced by the approximate h-parameter model as shown in Fig. 3.61.
Input impedance
V
i
I
b
h
ie
+ I
e
R
E

I
b
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) I
b
R
E

[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
] I
b
Z
i

V
I
i
b

3.10 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.41
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 41 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.42Electronic Circuits I

h h R I
I
[ (1 ) ]
ie fe E b
b
+ +
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
Due to unbypassed R
E
, input impedance Z
i
increases by a value (1 + h
fe
) R
E
. When R
E
is
transferred to base side, it gets multiplied by 1 + h
fe
. Hence, input impedance looking from the
base side, i.e. Z
i
is the sum of h
ie
and (1 + h
fe
) R
E
.
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
] || R
B
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
Output impedance
The output impedance Z
o
of the circuit is the impedance looking from the collector side when
input voltage V
S
0. When V
S
0, I
b
0, h
fe
I
b
0. The current source h
fe
I
b
is replaced by an
open circuit.
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
|| R
C
|| R
L
= R
C
|| R
L
Voltage gain
R R R ||
L C L

V
o
h
fe
I
b
R
L

V
i
[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
] I
b
A
v

V
V
o
i

R
C
R
E
R
L
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
Z
in
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.61h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 42 7/21/12 9:55 AM

+ +
h I R
h
h R I
[
(1 ) ]
fe b L
ie
fe E b


h R
h h R (1 )
fe L
ie fe E

+ +
The negative sign indicates a phase shift of 180 between input and output voltages. Due to
unbypassed R
E
, voltage gain decreases.
Considering voltage gain with source resistance R
S
,
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i

V
V
o
i

Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering current gain with source resistance,
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
Example 3.8: Calculate Z
in
, Z
o
, A
vs
and A
is
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.62.
V
S
1 k
R
E
10 k
C
E
4.7 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
470 k
Z
in
Z
o
h
fe
= 110
h
ie
= 1.6 k
Fig. 3.62Example 3.8
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.63)
3.10 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.43
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 43 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.44Electronic Circuits I
V
S
R
S
V
o
R
C
R
B
R
L
Fig. 3.63AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.64)
R
C
R
L
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
Z
in
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.64h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
(4.7 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 3.197 k
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
1.6 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
(1.6 10
3
) || (470 10
3
) 1.595 k
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
1.595 10
3
+ 1 10
3
2.595 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
C
|| R
L
(4.7 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 3.197 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h
fe L
ie

110 3.197 10
1.6 10
3
3
219.8
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
219.8

+
1.595 10
1.595 10 1 10
3
3 3
134.94
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 44 7/21/12 9:55 AM
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
L
(219.8)

1.595 10
10 10
3
3
35.05
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
35.05

+
1 10
1 10 1.595 10
3
3 3
13.53
Example 3.9: Calculate Z
in
, Z
o
, A
vs
and A
is
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.65.
V
S
1 k
4.7 k
1.2 k
10 k
4.7 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
470 k
Z
in
Z
o
h
fe
= 110
h
ie
= 1.6 k
Fig. 3.65Example 3.9
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.66)
R
E
R
C
R
L
V
o
R
B
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.66AC Equivalent Circuit
3.10 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.45
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 45 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.46Electronic Circuits I
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.67)
R
C
R
E
R
L
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.67h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
(4.7 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 3.197 k
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
1.6 10
3
+ (1 + 110) (1.2 10
3
)
134.8 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
(134.8 10
3
) || (470 10
3
) 104.76 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
C
4.7 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h R (1 )

fe L
ie fe E

+ +

110 3.197 10
1.6 10 (1 110)(1.2 10 )
3
3 3

+ +
2.61
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
2.61

+
104.76 10
104.76 10 1 10
3
3 3
2.56
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
L
(2.61)

104.76 10
10 10
3
3

M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 46 7/21/12 9:55 AM
27.34
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
27.34

+
1 10
1 10 104.76 10
3
3 3
0.26
3.11 APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF COMMON-EMITTER
AMPLIFIER (VOLTAGE DIVIDER BIAS CONFIGURATION)
Figure 3.68 shows a common-emitter amplier with voltage divider bias circuit.
Case I: When R
E
is bypassed
R
E
R
S
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
2
R
L
C
E
V
S
Fig. 3.68Common-emier Amplier with Bypassed R
E
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.69.
R
C
R
L
V
o
R
2
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.69AC Equivalent Circuit
3.11 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.47
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 47 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.48Electronic Circuits I
The BJT is replaced by the approximate h-parameter model as shown in Fig. 3.70.
I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ie
R
B
R
C
R
L
B C
E
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.70h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
= R
1
|| R
2
Input impedance
Z
i
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S

Output impedance
The output impedance Z
o
of the circuit is the impedance looking from collector side when
input voltage V
S
0. When V
S
0, I
b
0, h
fe
I
b
0. The current source h
fe
I
b
is replaced by an
open circuit.
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
|| R
C
|| R
L
= R
C
|| R
L
Voltage gain
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
V
o
h
fe
I
b
R
L
V
i
I
b
h
ie

A
v

V
V
o
i

h I R
I h
fe b L
b ie

h R
h
fe L
ie
The negative sign indicates a phase shift of 180 between input and output voltages.
Considering voltage gain with source resistance R
S
,
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 48 7/21/12 9:55 AM
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i

V
V
o
i
Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering current gain with source resistance,
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
Case II: When R
E
is not bypassed
Figure 3.71 shows a CE amplier with unbypassed R
E
.
R
E
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
+V
CC
V
o
C
C
2
R
L
R
2
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.71Common-emier Amplier with Unbypassed R
E
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.72.
3.11 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.49
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 49 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.50Electronic Circuits I
R
C
R
E
R
L
V
o
R
2
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.72AC Equivalent Circuit
The BJT is replaced by the approximate h-parameter model as shown in Fig. 3.73.
R
C
R
E
R
L
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.73h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
= R
1
|| R
2
Input impedance
V
i
I
b
h
ie
+ I
e
R
E

I
b
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) I
b
R
E

[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
] I
b
Z
i

V
I
i
b


+ + h h R I
I
[ (1 ) ]
ie fe E b
b
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
Due to unbypassed R
E
, input impedance Z
i
increases by (1 + h
fe
) R
E
.
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
] || R
B
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 50 7/21/12 9:55 AM
Output impedance
The output impedance Z
o
of the circuit is the impedance looking from the collector side when input
voltage V
S
0. When V
S
0, I
b
0, h
fe
I
b
0. The current source h
fe
I
b
is replaced by an open circuit.
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
|| R
C
|| R
L
= R
C
|| R
L
Voltage gain
R R R ||
L C L

V
o
h
fe
I
b
R
L
V
i
[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
] I
b

A
v

V
V
o
i

+ +
h I R
h
h R I
[
(1 ) ]
fe b L
ie
fe E b

+ +
h R
h h R (1 )
fe L
ie fe E
The negative sign indicates a phase shift of 180 between input and output voltages. Due to
unbypassed R
E
, voltage gain decreases.
Considering voltage gain with source resistance R
S
,
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i

V
V
o
i
Z
R
i
L
A
v
Z
R
i
L

Considering current gain with source resistance,
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
Example 3.10: Calculate Z
in
, Z
o
, A
vs
and A
is
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.74.
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.75)
3.11 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.51
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 51 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.52Electronic Circuits I
R
E
500
120 k 3.3 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
39 k
10 k
C
E
Z
in
Z
o
h
ie
= 2 k
h
fe
= 120
V
S
Fig. 3.74Example 3.10
R
C
R
L
V
o
R
2
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.75AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.76)
R
C
R
L
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
h
ie
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B
E
C
Fig. 3.76h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1
|| R
2
(120 10
3
) || (39 10
3
) 29.43 k
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
(3.3 10
3
) ||(10 10
3
) 2.48 k
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 52 7/21/12 9:55 AM
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
2 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
(2 10
3
) || (29.43 10
3
) 1.87 k
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
1.87 10
3
+ 500 2.37 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
C
|| R
L
(3.3 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 2.48 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h
fe L
ie

120 2.48 10
2 10
3
3
148.8
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
148.8
1.87 10
1.87 10 500
3
3

+
117.4
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
L
( 148.8)

1.87 10
10 10
3
3

27.83
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
27.83
+
500
500 1.87 10
3
5.87
Example 3.11: Calculate Z
i
, Z
o
, A
v
and A
i
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.77.
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.78)
3.11 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.53
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 53 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.54Electronic Circuits I
1.2 k
540 k
5.6 k
C
C
1
+V
CC
V
o
C
C
2
540 k
Z
i
Z
o
h
ie
= 555
h
fe
= 120
V
S
Fig. 3.77Example 3.11
R
E
R
C
V
o
R
2
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.78AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.79)
R
E
R
C
h
fe
I
b
I
o
=

I
c
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.79h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1
|| R
2
(540 10
3
) || (540 10
3
) 270 k
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 54 7/21/12 9:55 AM
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
555 + (1 + 120) (1.2 10
3
)
145.76 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
(145.76 10
3
) || (270 10
3
) 94.66 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
C
5.6 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

+ +
h R
h h R (1 )
fe C
ie fe E

120 5.6 10
555 (1 120)(1.2 10 )
3
3

+ +
4.61
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
C
( 4.61)

94.66 10
5.6 10
3
3

77.93
Example 3.12: Calculate Z
i
, Z
o
, A
v
and A
i
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.80.
0.9 k
0.1 k
33 k 3.3 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
10 k
C
E
Z
i
Z
o
h
ie
= 2 k
h
fe
= 100
V
S
Fig. 3.80Example 3.12
3.11 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.55
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 55 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.56Electronic Circuits I
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.81)
R
E
1
R
C
V
o
R
2
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.81AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.82)
R
C
R
E
1
h
fe
I
b
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B
E
I
o
=

I
c
C
Fig. 3.82h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1
|| R
2
(33 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 7.6 k
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
2 10
3
+ (1 + 100)(0.1 10
3
)
12.1 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
(12.1 10
3
) || (7.67 10
3
) 4.694 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
C
3.3 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

+ +
h R
h h R (1 )
fe C
ie fe E
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 56 7/21/12 9:55 AM

100 3.3 10
2 10 (1 100)(0.1 10 )
3
3 3

+ +
27.272
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
C
( 27.272)

4.694 10
3.3 10
3
3

38.79
3.12 APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF COMMON-EMITTER
AMPLIFIER (COLLECTOR TO BASE BIAS CONFIGURATION)
Figure 3.83 shows a common-emitter amplier with the collector to base bias circuit. The
collector feedback circuit uses a feedback path from collector to base to increase the stability
of the system. The resistor R
B
is connected between input and output.
R
E
R
S
R
B
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
C
E
B
R
L
C
E
V
S
Fig. 3.83Common-emier Amplier
This circuit provides negative feedback which reduces the gain of the amplier. In the CE
amplier, output is 180
o
out of phase with input. If output is fed back to input, the net gain
decreases. This process is known as AC degeneration. If AC signal voltage increases, base
current increases and collector current I
C
increases (Fig. 3.84). Hence, the net base current
through the transistor decreases as I
f
opposes I
b
. Due to this the gain of the amplier decreases.
AC degeneration can be avoided by splitting R
B
into two parts and connecting a capacitor
at the centre of both resistors (Fig. 3.85). For DC operation, there is no effect of the capacitor
3.12 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.57
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 57 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.58Electronic Circuits I
(X
C
). For AC operation, as I
b
increases, I
c
increases. Hence, the component of base current
through R
B
is bypassed by C. Hence, there is no change in I
b
and there is no degeneration of
input signal.
R
S
R
B
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
L
I
f
I
c
I
b
V
S
Fig. 3.84AC Degeneration
R
S
R
C
C
C
1
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
B
2
R
B
1
R
L
C
V
S
Fig. 3.85Method to Avoid AC Degeneration
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.86.
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 58 7/21/12 9:55 AM
R
B
2
R
C
V
o
R
L
R
B
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.86AC Equivalent Circuit
The h-parameter equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing BJT by its h-parameter model
as shown in Fig. 3.87.
I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ie
R
B
1
R
B
2
R
C
R
L
B C
E
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.87h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
Input impedance
Z
i
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
1
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S

Output impedance
The output impedance Z
o
of the circuit is the impedance looking from the collector side when
input voltage V
S
0. When V
S
0, I
b
0, h
fe
I
b
0. The current source h
fe
I
b
is replaced by an
open circuit.
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
|| R
B
2
|| R
C
|| R
L
= R
B
2
|| R
C
|| R
L
3.12 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.59
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 59 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.60Electronic Circuits I
Voltage gain
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
V
o
h
fe
I
b
R
L
V
i
I
b
h
ie

A
v

V
V
o
i

h I R
I h
fe b L
b ie

h R
h
fe L
ie
The negative sign indicates a phase shift of 180 between input and output voltages.
Considering voltage gain with source resistance R
S
,
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i

V
V
o
i
Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering current gain with source resistance,
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
If a capacitor is not connected at the centre of the feedback circuit, Millers theorem is used
for AC analysis. Resistor R
B
is splitted into two equivalent resistors at the input and output
using Millers theorem.
Millers theorem
If an impedance Z is connected between the input and output of a circuit having voltage gain
A
v

V
V
2
1
, it can be replaced with two impedances Z
1
and Z
2
at the input and output terminals,
respectively as shown in Fig. 3.88.
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 60 7/21/12 9:55 AM
Amplifier
A
V
Z
I
1
I
1
I
2
I
2
V
1
+

V
2
+

Amplifier
A
V
V
1
+

V
2
+

Z
1
Z
2
Fig. 3.88Millers Theorem
I
V V
Z
V
V
V
Z
1
1
1 2
1
2
1

_
,

V A
Z
V
Z
A
V
Z
(1 )
(1 )
v
v
1 1 1
1

where Z
Z
A 1
v
1

I
V V
Z
V
V
V
Z
1
2
2 1
2
1
2

_
,

V
A
Z
V
A
A
Z
V
Z
1
1
1
v
v
v
2
2 2
2

_
,

where Z
A
A
Z
1
.
v
v
2

The resistor R
B
, which is connected between input and output, is splitted into resistors R
B
1

and R
B
2
at the input and output using Millers theorem.
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.89.
R
B
2
R
C
V
o
R
L
R
B
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.89AC Equivalent Circuit
3.12 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.61
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 61 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.62Electronic Circuits I
The h-parameter equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing BJT by its h-parameter model
as shown in Fig. 3.90.
I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ie
R
B
1
R
B
2
R
C
R
C
R
L
B C
E
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.90h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
Voltage gain
R
A
A
R R
1

B
v
v
B B
2

R
L
R
B
2
|| R
C
|| R
L
R
B
|| R
C
|| R
L
V
o
h
fe
I
b
R
L
V
i
I
b
h
ie

A
v

V
V
o
i

h I R
I h
fe b L
b ie

h R
h
fe L
ie
The negative sign indicates a phase shift of 180 between input and output voltages.
Considering voltage gain with source resistance R
S
,
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Input impedance
R
B
1

R
A
B
v
1
Z
i
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
1
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S

Output impedance
The output impedance Z
o
of the circuit is the impedance looking from the collector side when
input voltage V
S
0.
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 62 7/21/12 9:55 AM
When V
S
0, I
b
0, h
fe
I
b
0. The current source h
fe
I
b
is replaced by an open circuit.
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
|| R
B
2
|| R
C
|| R
L
= R
B
2
|| R
C
|| R
L
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i

V
V
o
i
Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering current gain with source resistance,
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
Example 3.13: Calculate Z
i
, Z
o
, A
v
and A
i
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.91.
V
S
3 k
C
C
1
V
o
C
C
2
120 k 68 k
Z
i
Z
o
+V
CC
h
fe
= 140
h
ie
= 1.4 k
Fig. 3.91Example 3.13
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.92)
3.12 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.63
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 63 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.64Electronic Circuits I
V
S
V
o
R
B
2
R
B
1
R
C
Fig. 3.92AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.93)
I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
V
i
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ie
R
B
1
R
B
2
R
C
R
C
B C
E
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.93h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R R R || (68 10 ) || (3 10 ) 2.87 k
L B C
3 3
2

(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
1.4 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
1
(1.4 10
3
) || (120 10
3
) 1.38 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
B
2
|| R
C
(68 10
3
) || (3 10
3
) 2.87 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h
fe L
ie

140 2.87 10
1.4 10
3
3
287
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
C
( 287)

1.38 10
3 10
3
3

132.02
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 64 7/21/12 9:55 AM
Example 3.14: Calculate A
v
, Z
i
, Z
o
and A
i
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.94.
V
S
10 k
C
C
1
V
o
C
C
2 200 k
Z
i
Z
o
+V
CC
h
fe
= 50
h
ie
= 1.1 k
Fig. 3.94Example 3.14
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.95)
I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
V
i
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ie
R
B
1
R
B
2
R
C
R
C
B C
E
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.95AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.96)
I
c
h
f e
I
b
I
o
V
i
+

V
o
+

I
b
I
i
h
ie
R
B
1
R
B
2
R
C
R
C
B C
E
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.96h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
A
A
R R
1

B
v
v
B B
2

R
L
R
B
2
|| R
C
(200 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 9.52 k
3.12 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.65
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 65 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.66Electronic Circuits I
(i) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h
fe L
ie

50 9.52 10
1.1 10
3
3


432.73
(ii) Input impedance R
B
1

R
A 1
B
v


200 10
1 ( 432.73)
3


461.12
Z
i
h
ie
1.1 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
1
(1.1 10
3
) || (461.12) 324.92
(iii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
B
2
|| R
C
(200 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 9.52 k
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
C
(432.73)
324.92
10 10
3


14.06
Example 3.15: Calculate A
v
, Z
i
, Z
o
and A
i
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.97.
V
S
10 k
C
C
1
V
o
C
C
2 100 k
Z
i
Z
o
+V
CC
h
fe
= 100
h
ie
= 1 k
50
10 k
Fig. 3.97Example 3.15
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 66 7/21/12 9:55 AM
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.98)
V
S
V
o
R
B
2
R
B
1
R
E
R
C
R
L
Fig. 3.98AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.99)
R
B
2
R
E
R
C
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
L
R
B
1
V
S
I
i
I
b
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
o
+

V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.99h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
A
A
R R
1

B
v
v
B B
2

R
L
R
B
2
|| R
C
|| R
L
(100 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 4.76 k
(i) Voltage gain A
v

+ +
h R
h h R (1 )
fe L
ie fe E

100 4.76 10
1 10 (1 100)(50)
3
3

+ +

78.68
(ii) Input impedance R
B
1

R
A 1
B
v


100 10
1 ( 78.68)
3


1.26 k
3.12 Approximate Analysis of Common-emier Amplier3.67
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 67 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.68Electronic Circuits I
Z
i
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E

1 10
3
+ (1 + 100) (50)
6.05 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
1
(6.05 10
3
) || (1.26 10
3
) 1.04 k
(iii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
B
2
|| R
C
|| R
L
(100 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) || (10 10
3
) 4.76 k
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
L
(78.68)
1.04 10
10 10
3
3


8.18
3.13 APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF COMMON-BASE AMPLIFIER
Figure 3.100 shows a common-base amplier.
R
E
R
S
V
S
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
3
C
C
2
R
L
R
2
Fig. 3.100Common-base Amplier
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.101. Two resistors R
1
and R
2
are shorted
to ground.
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 68 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.13 Approximate Analysis of Common-base Amplier 3.69
R
E
V
S
V
o
R
C
R
L
Fig. 3.101AC Equivalent Circuit
Figure 3.102 can be redrawn by rotating BJT as shown in Fig. 3.101.
R
S
R
C
R
E
R
L
V
S
V
o
Fig. 3.102AC Equivalent Circuit
The h-parameter equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing the BJT by its h-parameter
model (Fig. 3.103).
I
c
h
f b
I
e
I
o
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
e
I
i
h
ib
R
E
R
C
R
C
R
L
E C
B
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.103h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
Input impedance
Z
i
h
ib
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
E

Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
Output impedance
The output impedance Z
o
of the circuit is the impedance looking from the collector side when input
voltage V
S
0. When V
S
0, I
b
0, h
fb
I
e
0. The current source h
fb
I
e
is replaced by an open circuit.
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 69 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.70Electronic Circuits I
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
|| R
C
|| R
L
= R
C
|| R
L
Voltage gain
R
L
R
C
|| R
L
V
o
h
fb
I
e
R
L

V
i
I
e
h
ib

A
v

V
V
o
i

h I R
I h
fb e L
e ib

h R
h
fb L
ib
Considering source resistance,
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i

V
V
o
i
Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Considering source resistance,
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
Example 3.16: Calculate Z
i
, Z
o
, A
v
and A
i
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.104.
Solution:
1 k
33 k 3.3 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
C
C
3
10 k
Z
i
Z
o
h
fe
= 99
h
ie
= 2 k
V
S
Fig. 3.104Example 3.16
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 70 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.13 Approximate Analysis of Common-base Amplier 3.71
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.105)
R
E
V
o
R
C
V
S
Fig. 3.105AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.106)
h
f b
I
e
I
o
= I
c
V
i
+

V
o
+

I
e
I
i
h
ib
R
E
R
C
E C
B
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.106h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
h
ib

h
h 1
ie
fe
+

2 10
1 99
3

+
0.02 k
h
fb

+
h
h 1
fe
fe

99
1 99 +
0.99
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ib
0.02 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
E
(0.02 10
3
) || (1 10
3
) 19.6
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
C
3.3 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h
fb C
ib

( 0.99)(3.3 10 )
0.02 10
3
3

163.35
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 71 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.72Electronic Circuits I
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
C
163.35
19.6
3.3 10
3

0.97
Example 3.17: Calculate Z
in
, Z
o
, A
vs
and A
is
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.107.
2.7 k
100 k 3.9 k
1 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
C
C
3
33 k
10 k
Z
i
Z
o
h
fe
= 99
h
ie
= 2 k
V
S
Fig. 3.107Example 3.17
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.108)
R
E
R
S
V
o
R
C
R
L
V
S
Fig. 3.108AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.109)
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 72 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.13 Approximate Analysis of Common-base Amplier 3.73
I
c
h
f b
I
e
I
o
V
i
R
S
+

V
o
+

I
e
I
i
h
ib
R
E
R
C
R
C
R
L
E C
B
Z
i
Z
in
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
V
S
Fig. 3.109h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
h
ib

h
h 1
ie
fe
+

2 10
99 1
3

+
0.02 k
h
fb

h
h 1
fe
fe

99
1 99 +
0.99
R R R || (3.9 10 ) || (10 10 ) 2.81 k
L C L
3 3

(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ib
0.02 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
E
(0.02 10
3
) || (2.7 10
3
) 19.85
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
19.85 + 1 10
3
1.02 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

Z
o
R
C
|| R
L
(10 10
3
) || (3.9 10
3
) 2.81 k
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h
fb L
ib


( 0.99) 2.81 10
0.02 10
3
3


139.1
A
vs
A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 73 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.74Electronic Circuits I
139.1
19.85
19.85 1 10
3
+
2.71
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
L
139.1
19.85
10 10
3

0.28
A
is
A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
0.28
1 10
1 10 19.85
3
3

+
0.27
3.14 APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF COMMON-COLLECTOR
AMPLIFIER
Figure 3.110 shows a common-collector amplier.
R
E R
L
R
S
R
1
C
C
1
+V
CC
V
o
C
C
2
R
2
V
S
Fig. 3.110Common-collector Amplier
The AC equivalent circuit is obtained by replacing all capacitors by short circuits and
replacing DC source by ground as shown in Fig. 3.111.
h
ic
h
ie
h
fc
(1 + h
fe
) h
fe
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 74 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.14 Approximate Analysis of Common-collector Amplier 3.75
R
E
R
L
R
S
V
o
R
1
R
2
V
S
Fig. 3.111AC equivalent Circuit
Hence, the h-parameter model of the CE conguration is used for the AC analysis of the CC
amplier (Fig. 3.112).
R
E R
L
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
Z
in Z
o
Z
o
V
o
V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.112h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1

|| R
2

R
L
R
E

|| R
L
Input impedance
V
i
I
b
h
ie
+ I
e
R
L

I
b
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) I
b
R
L

[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
L
]I
b
Z
i

V
I
i
b
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
L
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
L
] || R
B
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 75 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.76Electronic Circuits I
Output impedance
The base circuit can be converted into Thevenins equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.113).
V
Th
V
R
R R
B
S B
+
V
S
R
Th
(R
B
R
S
) + h
ie

I
o
I
b
I
e
Z
o
V
o
V
+

B E
(R
B
||R
S
) + h
ie
Fig. 3.113Thevenin's Equivalent Circuit
The output impedance Z
o
of the circuit is the impedance looking from the emitter side when
input voltage V 0.
Z
o

V
I

o
o V 0
Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,
V I
b
[(R
B
|| R
S
)+ h
ie
] V
o
0
When V 0,
V
o
I
b
[(R
B
|| R
S
) + h
ie
]
I
o
I
e
(1 + h
fe
) I
b
V
I
o
o

R R h
h
( || )
(1 )
B S ie
fe
+
+
Z
o

R R h
h
( || )
(1 )
B S ie
fe
+
+

When base resistance [(R
B
|| R
S
) + h
ie
] is transferred to the emitter side, it gets divided by
(1 + h
fe
). Hence, output impedance looking from the emitter side, i.e. Z
o
is
R R h
h
( || )
1
B S ie
fe
+
+

1
]
1
1
.
Z
o
Z
o
|| R
L

R R h
h
( || )
1
B S ie
fe
+
+

1
]
1
1
|| R
L

M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 76 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.14 Approximate Analysis of Common-collector Amplier 3.77
When R
S
is not present, i.e. R
S
0,
Z
o

h
h 1
ie
fe
+

_
,
|| R
L

Generally output impedance of the common-collector conguration is very low. Hence, it is
used as buffer for impedance matching.
Voltage gain
V
o
I
e
R
L

(1 + h
fe
) I
b
R
L
V
i
[h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
L
] I
b
A
v

V
V
o
i

h I R
h
R h I
(1 )
[
(1 )]
fe b L
ie
L fe b
+
+ +

h R
h h R
(1 )
(1 )
fe L
ie fe L
+
+ +
If (1 + h
fe
) R
L
>> h
ie
A
v
1
Thus, V
o
V
i
and output at the emitter follows the input at the base. Hence, the common-
collector amplier is called as emitter follower.
Current gain
For transistor, the voltage gain is the most important gain. Hence, the current gain can be
determined directly from the voltage gain, the dened load and the input impedance.
A
i

I
I
o
i

V
R
V
Z
o
L
i
i


V
V
o
i

Z
R
i
L
A
v

Z
R
i
L
Example 3.18: Determine Z
i
, Z
o
, A
v
and A
i
for the emier follower circuit shown in Fig. 3.114.
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.115)
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 77 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.78Electronic Circuits I
3.3 k
220 k
C
C
1
V
o
V
i
+V
CC
C
C
2
Z
o
Z
i
h
fe
= 98
h
ie
= 1.275 k
Fig. 3.114Example 3.18
R
B
R
E
V
o
V
i
Fig. 3.115AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.116)
R
E
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
B
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i Z
o
V
i
+

V
o
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.116h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
1.275 10
3
+ (1 + 98) (3.3 10
3
)
327.98 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
(327.98 10
3
) || (220 10
3
) 131.67 k
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 78 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.14 Approximate Analysis of Common-collector Amplier 3.79
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

h
h 1
ie
fe
+

_
,

|| R
E

1.275 10
1 98
3

_
,

|| (3.3 10
3
)
12.83
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h R
(1 )
(1 )
fe E
ie fe E
+
+ +

(1 98)(3.3 10 )
1.275 10 (1 98)(3.3 10 )
3
3 3
+
+ +
0.996
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
E
0.996
131.67 10
3.3 10
3
3


39.74
Example 3.19: Find Z
in
, Z
o
, A
v
and A
i
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.117.
20 k
91 k
10 k
100 k
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
Z
o
Z
in
h
fe
= 50
h
ie
= 1.1 k
V
S
Fig. 3.117Example 3.19
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.118)
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 79 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.80Electronic Circuits I
R
2
R
E
V
o
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.118AC Equivalent Circuit
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.119)
R
E
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i
Z
in Z
o
V
i
+

B C
E
V
o
+

Fig. 3.119h-parameter Equivalent Circuit


R
B
R
1
|| R
2
(91 10
3
) || (100 10
3
) 47.64 k
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
1.1 10
3
+ (1 + 50) (20 10
3
)
1021.1 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
(1021.1 10
3
) || (47.64 10
3
) 45.52 k
Z
in
Z
i
+ R
S
45.52 10
3
+ 10 10
3
55.52 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

R R h
h
( || )
1
B S ie
fe
+
+

1
]
1
1
|| R
E

{(47.64 10 ) || (10 10 )} 1.1 10
1 50
3 3 3
+
+

1
]
1
|| (20 10
3
)
181.954
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 80 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.14 Approximate Analysis of Common-collector Amplier 3.81
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h R
(1 )
(1 )
fe E
ie fe E
+
+ +

(1 50)(20 10 )
1.1 10 (1 50)(20 10 )
3
3 3
+
+ +
0.998
(iv) Current gain A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
E
0.998
45.52 10
20 10
3
3


2.27
Example 3.20: Find Z
i
, Z
o
and A
v
for the circuit shown in Fig. 3.120.
5 k
2 k
1 k
50 k
C
C
1
+V
CC
V
o
C
C
2
25 k
Z
i Z
o
h
fe
= 100
h
ie
= 2 k
V
S
Fig. 3.120Example 3.20
Solution:
AC equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.121)
R
2
R
E
V
o
R
L
R
1
R
S
V
S
Fig. 3.121AC Equivalent Circuit
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 81 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.82Electronic Circuits I
h-parameter equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.122)
R
E R
L
I
c
h
fe
I
b
I
o
R
S
R
B
V
S
I
i
I
b
I
e
h
ie
Z
i
Z
i Z
o
V
o
V
i
+

B C
E
Fig. 3.122h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
R
B
R
1
|| R
2
(50 10
3
) || (25 10
3
) 16.67 k
R
L
R
E
|| R
L
(5 10
3
) || (2 10
3
) 1.43 k
(i) Input impedance Z
i
h
ie
+ (1 + h
fe
) R
L

2 10
3
+ (1 + 100) (1.43 10
3
)
146.28 k
Z
i
Z
i
|| R
B
(146.28 10
3
) || (16.67 10
3
) 14.96 k
(ii) Output impedance Z
o

R R h
h
( || )
1
B S ie
fe
+
+

1
]
1
1
|| R
E


{(16.67 10 ) || (1 10 )} 2 10
1 100
3 3 3
+
+

1
]
1
|| (5 10
3
)
28.97
(iii) Voltage gain A
v

h R
h h R
(1 )
(1 )
fe L
ie fe L
+
+ +

(1 100)(1.43 10 )
2 10 (1 100)(1.43 10 )
3
3 3
+
+ +
0.9863
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 82 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.15 Comparison of CE, CB and CC Ampliers 3.83
3.15 COMPARISON OF CE, CB AND CC AMPLIFIERS
Parameter CE CB CC
(1) Voltage gain (A
v
) Very high Very high Less than 1
(2) Current gain (A
i
) Very high Less than 1 High
(3) Input impedance (Z
i
) Medium Low High
(4) Output impedance (Z
o
) High High Very low
(5) Phase of output signal Out of phase with input In phase with input In phase with input
(6) Application Voltage amplier Non-inverting amplier Buer between
high impedance
source and low
impedance load
SUMMARY OF BJT AMPLIFIERS
Conguration Circuit Equation
CE amplier
with
bypassed R
E
V
S
R
S
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
L
R
E
C
E
R
2
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
Z
i


h
ie
Z
i


Z
i
R
1
R
2
Z
in

Z
i
+

R
S
Z
o



Z
o
Z
o
R
C

R
L
A
v


h R R
h
( || )
fe C L
ie
A
vs

A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
L

A
is

A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
(Continued)
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 83 7/21/12 9:55 AM
3.84Electronic Circuits I
Conguration Circuit Equation
CE amplier
with
unbypassed
R
E
V
S
R
S
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
L
R
E
R
2
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
Z
i
h
ie

+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
Z
i

Z
i
R
1
R
2

Z
in

Z
i
+

R
S
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
R
C

R
L
A
v


h R R
h h R
( || )
(1 )
fe C L
ie fe E
+ +
A
vs

A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
A
i

A
v

Z
R
i
L
A
is

A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
CB amplier
V
S
R
1
R
C
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
3
C
C
2
R
L
R
E
R
S
R
2
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
o
Z
i
h
ib

Z
i
Z
i
R
E
Z
in

Z
i
+

R
S
Z
o

Z
o
Z
o
R
C
R
L

A
v


h R R
h
( || )
fb C L
ib
A
vs

A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
A
i
A
v

Z
R
i
L
A
is

A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
SUMMARY OF BJT AMPLIFIERS (Continued)
(Continued)
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 84 7/21/12 9:55 AM
Conguration Circuit Equation
CC amplier
V
S
R
S
R
1
C
C
1
V
o
+V
CC
C
C
2
R
L
R
E
R
2
Z
i
Z
i
Z
o
Z
i
h
ie

+ (1 + h
fe
) R
E
Z
i

Z
i
R
1
R
2

Z
in

Z
i
+

R
S
Z
o
R
E

R R h
h
[( || ) ]
1
S B ie
fe
+
+
Z
o
= Z
o
R
L
A
v


h R R
h h R R
(1 )( || )
(1 )( || )
fe E L
ie fe E L
+
+ +
A
vs

A
v

Z
Z R
i
i S
+
A
i

A
v

Z
R
i
L
A
is

A
i

R
R Z
S
S i
+
M03_XXXXXXXX_XX_C03.indd 85 7/21/12 9:55 AM