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THE ULTIMATE PHRASAL VERB BOOK

Contents ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
TO THE TEACHER .................................................................................................................................................................. 9
TO THE STUDENT ................................................................................................................................................................. 10
1. FOCUS ON: separable and nonseparable phrasal erbs ................................................................................................. 1!
come from ....................................................................................................................................................................... 12
figure out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 13
give back ......................................................................................................................................................................... 13
look for ........................................................................................................................................................................... 13
put on .............................................................................................................................................................................. 13
run into ............................................................................................................................................................................ 14
show up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 14
take off ............................................................................................................................................................................ 15
!. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and do" does" and d#d ............................................................................................................. 19
come off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
doze off ........................................................................................................................................................................... 21
fall for ............................................................................................................................................................................. 21
give in ............................................................................................................................................................................. 21
hear about ....................................................................................................................................................................... 21
pull through .................................................................................................................................................................... 21
stay off ............................................................................................................................................................................ 23
throw up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
$. FOCUS ON: three%&ord phrasal erbs .............................................................................................................................. !'
feel up to ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2
get over with ................................................................................................................................................................... 2
go along with .................................................................................................................................................................. 2
go in for .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2!
look forward to ............................................................................................................................................................... 2!
put up with ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2!
screw out of .................................................................................................................................................................... 2!
talk down to .................................................................................................................................................................... 2!
(. FOCUS ON: present and past )ont#n*o*s phrasal erbs ................................................................................................. $0
cheat on ........................................................................................................................................................................... 30
go after ............................................................................................................................................................................ 30
look up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 31
pay for ............................................................................................................................................................................. 31
plan for ............................................................................................................................................................................ 32
point to ............................................................................................................................................................................ 32
put to ............................................................................................................................................................................... 32
wrap up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 33
+. FOCUS ON: pron*n)#at#on o, t&o%&ord phrasal erbs ................................................................................................... $'
break down ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3
burn down ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3"
call in .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3"
find out ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3"
hand back ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3"
look at ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3#
setup ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3#
'. FOCUS ON: pron*n)#at#on o, three%&ord phrasal erbs ................................................................................................ ((
boil down to .................................................................................................................................................................... 44
come down with ............................................................................................................................................................. 44
come up with .................................................................................................................................................................. 45
get around to ................................................................................................................................................................... 45
get out of ......................................................................................................................................................................... 45
go back on ....................................................................................................................................................................... 45
go through with ............................................................................................................................................................... 4
monkey around with ....................................................................................................................................................... 4
7. FOCUS ON: separable phrasal erbs &#th lon- ob.e)ts ................................................................................................... (9
cut up .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4#
hold up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 50
let out .............................................................................................................................................................................. 50
point out .......................................................................................................................................................................... 51
run over ........................................................................................................................................................................... 51
see about ......................................................................................................................................................................... 52
take apart ......................................................................................................................................................................... 52
take in ............................................................................................................................................................................. 52
/. FOCUS ON: present per,e)t phrasal erbs ....................................................................................................................... +/
burn out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5"
fall over ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5#
fight back ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5#
hear of ............................................................................................................................................................................. 0
pick out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 0
tear down ........................................................................................................................................................................ 0
work in ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1
9. FOCUS ON: t&o%&ord phrasal erbs that re0*#re an add#t#onal part#)le &hen *sed &#th an ob.e)t" 1 ..................... '+
break out .........................................................................................................................................................................
catch up ...........................................................................................................................................................................
chicken out ...................................................................................................................................................................... !
get along ......................................................................................................................................................................... !
give up ............................................................................................................................................................................ !
hang up ........................................................................................................................................................................... !
hook up ........................................................................................................................................................................... "
work up ........................................................................................................................................................................... "
10. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *sed as no*ns" 1 ................................................................................................................... 7$
fall off ............................................................................................................................................................................. !3
kick back ......................................................................................................................................................................... !4
lay off .............................................................................................................................................................................. !4
screw up .......................................................................................................................................................................... !5
11. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *sed #n )o1po*nd no*ns ..................................................................................................... /0
backup ............................................................................................................................................................................. "1
cut off .............................................................................................................................................................................. "2
drop off ........................................................................................................................................................................... "3
follow up ......................................................................................................................................................................... "4
take out ........................................................................................................................................................................... "4
try out .............................................................................................................................................................................. "5
wake up ........................................................................................................................................................................... "
work out .......................................................................................................................................................................... "
1!. FOCUS ON: past per,e)t phrasal erbs ........................................................................................................................... 9$
back off ........................................................................................................................................................................... #3
come across .................................................................................................................................................................... #4
come up .......................................................................................................................................................................... #4
fall through .................................................................................................................................................................... #5
put out ............................................................................................................................................................................. #5
1$. FOCUS ON: pass#e phrasal erbs" 1 ............................................................................................................................... 99
call off ............................................................................................................................................................................. ##
dose off ........................................................................................................................................................................... ##
hand in .......................................................................................................................................................................... 100
let off ............................................................................................................................................................................ 101
light up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 101
track down .................................................................................................................................................................... 102
1(. FOCUS ON: part#)#ple ad.e)t#es ,or1ed ,ro1 phrasal erbs" 1 ................................................................................ 10'
butt in ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10!
dress up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10!
dry up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10!
fill out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 10"
put away ........................................................................................................................................................................ 10"
stick up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 10"
use up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10#
1+. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and &#ll or be -o#n- to ....................................................................................................... 11'
blow away ..................................................................................................................................................................... 11!
come through ................................................................................................................................................................ 11!
dry out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 11"
fi$ up ............................................................................................................................................................................. 11"
go with .......................................................................................................................................................................... 11#
head back ...................................................................................................................................................................... 120
tell on ............................................................................................................................................................................ 121
1'. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th -er*nd ob.e)ts" 1 ....................................................................................................... 1!+
believe in ...................................................................................................................................................................... 125
carry on ......................................................................................................................................................................... 12
count on ........................................................................................................................................................................ 12
get through .................................................................................................................................................................... 12!
go for ............................................................................................................................................................................ 12"
hold off ......................................................................................................................................................................... 12"
put past .......................................................................................................................................................................... 12"
think about .................................................................................................................................................................... 12#
17. FOCUS ON: aderbs and phrasal erbs ........................................................................................................................ 1$(
come over ..................................................................................................................................................................... 135
get back at ..................................................................................................................................................................... 135
go about ........................................................................................................................................................................ 13
grow out of ................................................................................................................................................................... 13
rip up ............................................................................................................................................................................. 13
wear down ..................................................................................................................................................................... 13!
1/. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and )an" )o*ld" &#ll" and &o*ld ........................................................................................ 1(!
breakthrough ................................................................................................................................................................. 143
figure on ........................................................................................................................................................................ 143
get off ............................................................................................................................................................................ 144
go beyond ..................................................................................................................................................................... 145
lift upon ........................................................................................................................................................................ 145
line up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 145
stand around .................................................................................................................................................................. 14
tell apart ........................................................................................................................................................................ 14
19. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and the aderb r#-ht .......................................................................................................... 1+0
aim at ............................................................................................................................................................................ 150
bring back ..................................................................................................................................................................... 151
bring over ...................................................................................................................................................................... 151
cool off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 151
go back .......................................................................................................................................................................... 152
hand over ...................................................................................................................................................................... 152
pull over ........................................................................................................................................................................ 152
warm up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 153
!0. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs ,ollo&ed b2 the %#n- ,or1 .................................................................................................. 1+/
end up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15"
go around ...................................................................................................................................................................... 15#
%o off ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10
hang around .................................................................................................................................................................. 11
lie around ...................................................................................................................................................................... 12
start out ......................................................................................................................................................................... 12
stay up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 12
!1. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and sho*ld and o*-ht to .................................................................................................... 1'7
look around ................................................................................................................................................................... 1"
look over ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1"
pick on .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1"
settle down .................................................................................................................................................................... 1#
step on ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1#
take out on .................................................................................................................................................................... 1#
think ahead .................................................................................................................................................................... 1!0
zip up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1!0
!!. FOCUS ON: the part#)le *p and the aderbs r#-ht and all .......................................................................................... 17(
burn up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1!5
clear up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1!5
count up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1!
eat up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1!
heat up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1!
pay up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1!
plug up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1!!
wipe up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1!!
!$. FOCUS ON: t&o%&ord phrasal erbs that re0*#re an add#t#onal part#)le &hen *sed &#th an ob.e)t" ! ................. 1/1
crack down .................................................................................................................................................................... 1"1
cut down ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1"1
drop out ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1"3
get away ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1"3
hold out ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1"4
make up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1"4
stay out .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1"
watch out ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1"
!(. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *sed as no*ns" ! ................................................................................................................. 190
come down .................................................................................................................................................................... 1#0
&et up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1#1
print out .................................................................... 1#1
show off ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1#2
slow down ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1#2
stop over ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1#3
trade in .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1#3
!+. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and hae to" hae -ot to" and 1*st ................................................................................... 19/
do with ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1##
have on .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1##
hurry up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 200
knock over .................................................................................................................................................................... 200
lighten up ...................................................................................................................................................................... 200
plan ahead ..................................................................................................................................................................... 200
settle for ........................................................................................................................................................................ 201
think up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 201
!'. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and the aderb ba)3 .......................................................................................................... !0(
get together ................................................................................................................................................................... 204
go over .......................................................................................................................................................................... 205
go up ............................................................................................................................................................................. 20
let in on ......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
open up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 20!
put together ................................................................................................................................................................... 20!
shut off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 20!
start up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 20"
!7. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le o,, and the aderb r#-ht ....................................................................... !1!
bite off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 213
break off ........................................................................................................................................................................ 213
dry off ........................................................................................................................................................................... 213
knock off ....................................................................................................................................................................... 214
tear off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 214
wash off ........................................................................................................................................................................ 214
wear off ......................................................................................................................................................................... 215
wipe off ......................................................................................................................................................................... 215
!/. FOCUS ON: pass#e phrasal erbs" ! ............................................................................................................................. !!0
beef up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 220
break up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 220
call back ........................................................................................................................................................................ 221
call up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 221
carry out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 221
give away ...................................................................................................................................................................... 222
mess up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 222
stand up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 223
!9. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and 1#-ht" 1a2" and )an ................................................................................................... !!7
ask for ........................................................................................................................................................................... 22!
come apart ..................................................................................................................................................................... 22"
drop in ........................................................................................................................................................................... 22"
flip out .......................................................................................................................................................................... 22"
look out ......................................................................................................................................................................... 22"
luck out ......................................................................................................................................................................... 22"
make out ....................................................................................................................................................................... 22#
run across ...................................................................................................................................................................... 22#
$0. FOCUS ON: part#)#ple ad.e)t#es ,or1ed ,ro1 phrasal erbs" ! ................................................................................ !$$
lock in ........................................................................................................................................................................... 234
&ock out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 234
punch in ........................................................................................................................................................................ 235
put out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 235
sort out .......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
space out ....................................................................................................................................................................... 23!
wash up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 23!
$1. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and -er*nd s*b.e)ts ........................................................................................................... !($
care for .......................................................................................................................................................................... 243
cut out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 244
do away with ................................................................................................................................................................. 244
do without ..................................................................................................................................................................... 245
look into ........................................................................................................................................................................ 245
plan on .......................................................................................................................................................................... 245
put off ........................................................................................................................................................................... 245
rule out .......................................................................................................................................................................... 24
$!. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le o*t .......................................................................................................... !(9
clean out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 250
clear out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 251
come out ....................................................................................................................................................................... 251
empty out ...................................................................................................................................................................... 253
fall out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 253
go out ............................................................................................................................................................................ 253
leave out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 254
stick out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 254
$$. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and 1#dsenten)e aderbs .................................................................................................. !'0
blow up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 21
catch on ......................................................................................................................................................................... 21
come about .................................................................................................................................................................... 22
fall behind ..................................................................................................................................................................... 22
goof around ................................................................................................................................................................... 22
help out ......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
know about ................................................................................................................................................................... 23
pull off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
$(. FOCUS ON: pron*n)#at#on o, t&o%and three%&ord phrasal erbs" ! ......................................................................... !'7
do over .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2!
float around ................................................................................................................................................................... 2#
lead up to ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2#
put up to ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2#
stand for ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2#
stick around .................................................................................................................................................................. 2!0
stick to .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2!0
take back ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2!1
$+. FOCUS ON: -er*nd phrasal erbs ................................................................................................................................. !7+
fool around .................................................................................................................................................................... 2!
go by ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2!
hold against ................................................................................................................................................................... 2!!
leave behind .................................................................................................................................................................. 2!!
live with ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2!!
make of ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2!"
narrow down ................................................................................................................................................................. 2!"
trick into ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2!"
$'. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le do&n ....................................................................................................... !/!
back down ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2"2
calm down .................................................................................................................................................................... 2"3
fall down ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2"3
go down ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2"3
lay down ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2"4
put down ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2"4
run down ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2"5
sit down ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2"
$7. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *sed as no*ns" $ ................................................................................................................. !91
brush off ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2#1
come on ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2#2
cover up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2#3
hang out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2#3
leave over left over ....................................................................................................................................................... 2#3
&et down ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2#4
talk to ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2#5
$/. FOCUS ON: the erb 3eep and aderbs and aderb#als sho&#n- de-rees o, ar#ab#l#t2 .......................................... $00
keep at ........................................................................................................................................................................... 301
keep away ..................................................................................................................................................................... 301
keep down ..................................................................................................................................................................... 301
keep from ...................................................................................................................................................................... 302
keep off ......................................................................................................................................................................... 302
keep on .......................................................................................................................................................................... 302
keep to .......................................................................................................................................................................... 303
keep up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 303
$9. FOCUS ON: pass#e phrasal erbs" $ ............................................................................................................................. $07
chop up ......................................................................................................................................................................... 30"
cross off ........................................................................................................................................................................ 30"
fill up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 30"
pick up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 30#
sell out .......................................................................................................................................................................... 310
straighten out ................................................................................................................................................................ 311
take over ....................................................................................................................................................................... 311
wipe out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 312
(0. FOCUS ON: -er*nd phrasal erbs s. phrasal erbs ,ollo&ed b2 the %#n- ,or1 ....................................................... $1/
-ing form ............................................................................................................................................................................. 318
gerund ................................................................................................................................................................................ 318
blow off ........................................................................................................................................................................ 31"
burst out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 31#
come back ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31#
get off on ....................................................................................................................................................................... 320
go away ......................................................................................................................................................................... 320
run around ..................................................................................................................................................................... 320
stick with ...................................................................................................................................................................... 321
(1. FOCUS ON: t&o%&ord phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le #n that re0*#re #nto &hen *sed &#th an ob.e)t .................. $!+
break in ......................................................................................................................................................................... 32
'heck out ...................................................................................................................................................................... 32!
go in .............................................................................................................................................................................. 32"
let in .............................................................................................................................................................................. 32"
plug in ........................................................................................................................................................................... 32"
sneak in ......................................................................................................................................................................... 32#
sneak out ....................................................................................................................................................................... 32#
(!. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th -et" 1 ........................................................................................................................... $$$
get back ......................................................................................................................................................................... 333
get behind ..................................................................................................................................................................... 334
get down ....................................................................................................................................................................... 335
get in ............................................................................................................................................................................. 335
get out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 33!
get over ......................................................................................................................................................................... 33"
get up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 33#
($. FOCUS ON: 1odals and present per,e)t phrasal erbs ............................................................................................... $($
blow out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 344
give out ......................................................................................................................................................................... 345
gross out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 345
run up ............................................................................................................................................................................ 345
shut up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 34
stop off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 34
try on ............................................................................................................................................................................. 34
((. FOCUS ON: part#)#ple ad.e)t#es and pass#e phrasal erbs &#th the erb -et ........................................................ $+!
beat up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 353
mi$ up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 354
piss off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 355
rip off ............................................................................................................................................................................ 355
(+. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs &#th the erb t*rn .............................................................................................................. $'0
turn down ...................................................................................................................................................................... 30
turn in ............................................................................................................................................................................ 30
turn into ........................................................................................................................................................................ 31
turn off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31
turn on ........................................................................................................................................................................... 32
turn out .......................................................................................................................................................................... 33
turn over ........................................................................................................................................................................ 34
turn up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 35
('. FOCUS ON: pron*n)#at#on o, phrasal erbs &#th the part#)le #nto ............................................................................ $70
build in .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3!0
bump into ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3!0
con into ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3!1
con out of ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3!1
freak out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3!1
make for ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3!1
talk into ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3!1
talk out of ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3!2
(7. FOCUS ON: part#)les *sed &#tho*t erbs ..................................................................................................................... $7'
brush up ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3!
come in ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3!!
cut back ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3!!
move in ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3!"
move out ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3!"
pull out .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3!#
put in ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3!#
run out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3"0
(/. FOCUS ON: 1odals and present per,e)t pass#e phrasal erbs ................................................................................. $/(
close down .................................................................................................................................................................... 3"5
knock out ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3"5
look down on ................................................................................................................................................................ 3"
look up to ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3"
put back ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3"
switch off ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3"!
throw out ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3"!
(9. FOCUS ON: )o1b#nat#ons o, -et" r#-ht" ba)3" and to .................................................................................................. $9!
dog up ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3#5
get ahead ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3#5
get back to ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3#5
get on ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3#5
get to ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3#
hang on ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3#!
start off .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3#!
throw away ................................................................................................................................................................... 3#!
+0. FOCUS ON: 4eep at #t5 ................................................................................................................................................... (0!
ask out ........................................................................................................................................................................... 402
come down to ............................................................................................................................................................... 402
deal with ....................................................................................................................................................................... 402
hold on .......................................................................................................................................................................... 403
pay back ........................................................................................................................................................................ 403
take up on ..................................................................................................................................................................... 403
turn around .................................................................................................................................................................... 403
wear out ........................................................................................................................................................................ 404
Ans&ers ................................................................................................................................................................................... (10
6nde7 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ($!
Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
To the Teacher / iv
To the St!ent / v
1. Separable and Nonseparable Phrasal
Verbs / 1
2. Phrasal Verbs and do, does, and did / 8
3. Three-Word Phrasal Verbs / 14
4. Present and Past Continuous Phrasal
Verbs / 18
. Pronun!iation o" T#o-Word Phrasal
Verbs / 24
$. Pronun!iation o" Three-Word Phrasal
Verbs / 32
%. Separable Phrasal Verbs #ith &on'
(b)e!ts / 3%
8. Present Per"e!t Phrasal Verbs / 4$
*. T#o-Word Phrasal Verbs That +e,uire an
-dditional Parti!le When .sed #ith an
(b)e!t, 1 / 3
1/. Phrasal Verbs .sed as Nouns, 1 / $1
11. Phrasal Verbs .sed in Co0pound Nouns /
%/
12. Past Per"e!t Phrasal Verbs / 83
13. Passi1e Phrasal Verbs, 1 / *1
14. Parti!iple -d)e!ti1es 2or0ed "ro0 Phrasal
Verbs, 1 / *8
1. Phrasal Verbs and #ill or be 'oin' to /1/%
1$. Phrasal Verbs #ith 3erund (b)e!ts, 1 / 11$
1%. -d1erbs and Phrasal Verbs / 12
18. Phrasal Verbs and !an, !ould, #ill,
and #ould / 133
1*. Phrasal Verbs and the -d1erb ri'ht
4 141
2/. Phrasal Verbs 2ollo#ed b5 the -in'
2or0 / 14*
21. Phrasal Verbs and should and ou'ht to 18
22. The Parti!le up and the -d1erbs ri'ht and all
4 1$
23. T#o-Word Phrasal Verbs That +e,uire an
-dditional Parti!le When .sed #ith an
(b)e!t, 2 / 1%2
24. Phrasal Verbs .sed as Nouns, 2 / 18/
2. Phrasal Verbs and ha1e to, ha1e 'ot to, and
0ust / 188
iii
2$. Phrasal Verbs and the -d1erb bade / 1*4
2%. Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le o"" and the
-d1erb ri'ht 4 2/2
"#$ Passive Phrasa% Ver&s' " / "()
2*. Phrasal Verbs and 0i'ht, 0a5, and !an /21%
*)$ Partici+%e A!,ectives For-e!
.ro- Phrasa% Ver&s' " / ""*
31. Phrasal Verbs and 3erund Sub)e!ts / 233
32. Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le our / 23*
33. Phrasal Verbs and
6idsenten!e -d1erbs / 2/ 34.
Pronun!iation o" T#o- and Three-
Word Phrasal Verbs, 2 / 2%
3. 3erund Phrasal Verbs / 2$4
3$. Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le do#n / 2%1
3%. Phrasal Verbs .sed as Nouns, 3 / 28/
38. The Verb 7eep and -d1erbs and -d1erbials
Sho#in' 8e'rees o" Variabilit5 / 28*
3*. Passi1e Phrasal Verbs, 3 / 2*$
4/. 3erund Phrasal Verbs 1s. Phrasal
Verbs 2ollo#ed b5 the -in/ 2or0 / 3/%
41. T#o-Word Phrasal Verbs #ith the Parti!le in
That +e,uire into When .sed #ith an (b)e!t /
314
42. Phrasal Verbs #ith /et, 1 / 322
43. 6odals and Present Per"e!t
Phrasal Verbs / 331
44. Parti!iple -d)e!ti1es and Passi1e Phrasal
Verbs #ith the Verb /et 4 34/
4. Phrasal Verbs #ith the Verb ru0 / 348
4$. Pronun!iation o" Phrasal Verbs
#ith the Parti!le into / 38
4%. Parti!les .sed Without Verbs / 3$4
48. 6odals and Present Per"e!t
Passi1e Phrasal Verbs / 3%2
4*. Co0binations o" /et, ri/ht, &ac0, and t1 /
38/
/. 9eep at 4t: / 3*/
-ns#ers to ;<er!ises / 3*8
4nde< / 41/
TO THE TEACHER
The inspiration "or The .lti0ate Phrasal Verb =oo7 !a0e about #hen a student as7ed
0e "or a te<tboo7 to help her learn the 0eanin's o" !o00on phrasal 1erbs. 4 had
nothin' to o""er. The onl5 te<tboo7 "o!usin' on !o00on 1erbs that 4 !ould 'i1e her
!ontains not one phrasal 1erb > it tea!hes arise but not 'et up, a#a7e but not #a7e
up, see7 but not loo7 "or.
Phrasal 1erbs are 1erbs, not idio0ati! !uriosities. There is no lo'i! to !lassi"5in'
ta7e o1er #ith ta7e the bull b5 the horns. Phrasal 1erbs are an essential part o"
spo7en and #ritten ;n'lish at all le1els, and no student #ho hopes to 0aster the
lan'ua'e !an a""ord to o1erloo7 the0.
-lthou'h this te<tboo7 is intended pri0aril5 "or hi'h-inter0ediate to ad1an!ed
students, a0bitious students at lo#er le1els #ill bene"it "ro0 it as #ell. (nl5 so0e
2(C.S se!tions 0a5 pro1e to be a little be5ond the0? other#ise, there is nothin' to
pre1ent an5 student "ro0 stud5in' the de"initions and e<a0ples and atte0ptin' the
e<er!ises.
- 1o!abular5 te<tboo7 should pro1ide 0e!hani!s as #ell as 0eanin'. Students
#ant to 7no# 0ore than #hat a #ord 0eans > the5 #ant to 7no# ho# to use it
!orre!tl5.
The i0portan!e o" 0e!hani!s is the reason "or the e0phasis on the prepositions
re,uired #hen so0e phrasal 1erbs are used transiti1el5 and "or the in!lusion o"
re1ie#s o" points o" 'ra00ar not spe!i"i! to phrasal 1erbs. Prepositions are the 'lue
that holds ;n'lish to'ether, but 0an5 students "alter #hen usin' ne#l5 learned 1erbs
be!ause the5 do not 7no# that a preposition is also re,uired, or i" the5 do, #hi!h one.
This aspe!t o" ;n'lish is not 'i1en the attention it deser1es be!ause it is di""i!ult to
tea!h > there are no rules that 'o1ern #hen a preposition, or #hi!h preposition, is
re,uired, and no tea!her li7es to sa5 @Aou )ust ha1e to re0e0ber.@
The hope o" the latter "eature, the dis!ussion o" points o" 'ra00ar not spe!i"i! to phrasal
1erbs, is that !o0binin' pra!ti!e #ith phrasal 1erbs and pra!ti!e #ith a 1ariet5 o"
'ra00ati!al stru!tures #ill in!rease not onl5 the studentBs !on"iden!e in the
7no#led'e o" phrasal 1erbs but also his or her #illin'ness and abilit5 to use the0 in a
#ider ran'e o" situations.
There is ine1itabl5 a de'ree o" o1ersi0pli"i!ation. That phrasal 1erb parti!les are
so0eti0es prepositions and so0eti0es ad1erbs is 0entioned onl5 on!e. No purpose
is ser1ed b5 di""erentiatin' bet#een the0, and the o1erlap bet#een the t#o is
!on"usin' to the student. Phrasal 1erbs are not identi"ied as transiti1e or intransiti1e
be!ause this is di!tated b5 lo'i!. &ess !o00on 0eanin's o" so0e phrasal 1erbs ha1e
not been in!luded. -d1erb pla!e0ent is presented and illustrated in si0pli"ied "or0
#ithout dis!ussion o" the di""erent t5pes o" ad1erbs > doin' so #ould ha1e 'one
be5ond the s!ope o" this te<tboo7.
i1
TC; .&T46-T; PC+-S-& V;+= =((9 St!ent
-nd no di""erentiation is 0ade bet#een re!o'niDed ad)e!ti1es deri1ed "ro0 past parti!iples and
past parti!iples #ith ad)e!ti1al 0eanin'. The ad)e!ti1al use o" past parti!iples Eboth phrasal and
nonphrasalF is an e<tre0el5 i0portant aspe!t o" spo7en ;n'lish > so0ethin' e1er5 student o"
;n'lish should be "a0iliar #ith > 5et the di1idin' line bet#een true ad)e!ti1es deri1ed "ro0
past parti!iples and passi1e senten!es e0plo5in' past parti!iples #ith ad)e!ti1al 0eanin's is
ill-de"ined and proble0ati!. Nati1e spea7ers o" ;n'lish re'ularl5 use past parti!iples in
super"i!iall5 passi1e senten!es #ith purel5 ad)e!ti1al 0eanin'. Whether the past parti!iples are
1erbs or a!tuall5 ad)e!ti1es is o" no !on!ern to the nati1e spea7er and is entirel5 irrele1ant to
the student o" ;n'lish. +ather than distra!t the student #ith an unne!essar5 ele0ent o"
!on"usion, both are re"erred to as parti!iple ad)e!ti1es throu'hout this te<tboo7.
The e<er!ises in this te<tboo7 are intended to rein"or!e 0eanin' and 0e!hani!s. - !loDe
e<er!ise al#a5s !o0es "irst, "ollo#ed b5 e<er!ises "o!usin' on senten!e stru!ture and the
2(C.S dis!ussion. &ast are e<er!ises that as7 the student to ans#er ,uestions or #rite
ori'inal senten!es.
There is a 'ood deal o" re1ie# built into this te<tboo7. ;1er5 se!tion !ontains t#o or 0ore
e<er!ises re,uirin' the student to re"er ba!7 to a pre1ious se!tion in order to re1ie# a phrasal
1erb, parti!iple ad)e!ti1e, or noun. When a phrasal 1erb has t#o or 0ore 0eanin's, it is
intentional that no help is pro1ided to the student in deter0inin' #hi!h 0eanin' applies?
students ha1e to re1ie# the0 all and "i'ure it out "or the0sel1es.
4 ha1e tried in this te<tboo7 to i0itate the "or0 and !ontent o" e1er5da5 ;n'lish. 4"
o!!asionall5 the re'ister and sub)e!t 0atter o" so0e e<a0ples and e<er!ises see0 not ,uite
ri'ht "or "or0al dis!ourse, that is deliberate. Students need to learn "or0al ;n'lish, o" !ourse,
but sin!e 0ost people spea7 in"or0all5 0ost o" the ti0e, students need to 'ain "a0iliarit5 #ith
the s5nta<, usa'e, and !ontent o" the in"or0al ;n'lish the5 read and hear e1er5 da5 at #or7, at
s!hool, at ho0e, and on tele1ision.
TO THE STU2ENT
Phrasal 1erbs are !o0binations o" ordinar5 1erbs li7e put, ta7e, !o0e, and 'o and parti!les li7e
in, out, on, and o"". The5 are a 1er5 i0portant part o" e1er5da5 ;n'lish. ;1er5 student o"
;n'lish needs a basi! understandin' o" the 0ost !o00on phrasal 1erbs and also o" !o00on
nouns and ad)e!ti1es 0ade "ro0 phrasal 1erbs.
6ost phrasal 1erbs are nor in"or0al, slan', or i0proper "or edu!ated spee!h or "or0al #ritin'.
;<a!tl5 the opposite is true > 0ost phrasal 1erbs are a!!eptable at all le1els o" spo7en or
#ritten ;n'lish. 4n "a!t, "or 0an5 o" the phrasal 1erbs in this te<tboo7, there is no alternati1e to
the phrasal 1erb > there is no other #a5 to sa5 it.
1
Co#e1er, a "e# phrasal 1erbs in this te<tboo7 are identi"ied as in"or0al, and it is
better not to use the0 in serious, "or0al spee!h or #ritin'. =ut these in"or0al phrasal
1erbs are i0portant be!ause the5 are 1er5 !o00on in e1er5da5 in"or0al spee!h and
#ritin'.
So0e phrasal 1erbs are 1er5 eas5 to understand. 2or e<a0ple, it is not di""i!ult to
understand sit do#n or !o0e in be!ause their 0eanin's are ob1ious. =ut 0an5 phrasal
1erbs are 1er5 idio0ati!. 4dio0ati! 0eans that there is no #a5 to 7no# #hat the 1erb and
parti!le 0ean to'ether b5 7no#in' #hat the 1erb and parti!le 0ean separatel5. 2or
e<a0ple, e1er5 be'innin'-le1el student learns #hat the #ords !all, run, o"", and out
0ean, but that does not help the student to 7no# that !all o"" 0eans !an!el or that run out
0eans use all o" so0ethin'.
;a!h se!tion o" this te<tboo7 starts #ith a 2(C.S, an e<planation o" so0ethin'
i0portant about phrasal 1erbs. Then ei'ht phrasal 1erbs and an e<planation o" ea!h
i0portant 0eanin' o" ea!h one are presented alon' #ith one or 0ore e<a0ple senten!es
"or ea!h 0eanin'. 2ollo#in' that are se1eral e<er!ises to help 5ou understand and
re0e0ber #hat the phrasal 1erbs 0ean and ho# to use the0 in a senten!e. -nd li7e real
!on1ersation, ,uestions as7ed #ith 4 or #e are ans#ered #ith 5ou, and ,uestions as7ed
#ith 5ou are ans#ered #ith / or #e.
-nd be!ause there is a lot to learn in this te<tboo7, there is a lot o" re1ie# to help 5ou learn
it. ;1er5 phrasal 1erb is re1ie#ed at least t#i!e later in the boo7. The 0ore idio0ati!
phrasal 1erbs are re1ie#ed 0ore o"ten, and the 0ore i0portant 0eanin's o" phrasal
1erbs #ith se1eral 0eanin's are re1ie#ed 0ore o"ten.
Ter-s' A&&reviations' an! S3-&o%s Use! in this Te4t&oo0
verb Verb refers to the verb part of a phrasal verb. In other words, the
phrasal verb minus the particle. In the phrasal verb pull over, pull
is the verb and over is the particle.
particle The adverbs and prepositions in phrasal verbs are both called
particles in this book. Many particles are adverbs and preposi-
tions, and it can be very difficult and confusing to figure out if a
particle in a particular phrasal verb is one or the other.
Fortunately, this is almost never important to the student, so it is
a lot easier to simply call them both particles.
+$v$ phrasal 1erb n. a noun 0ade "ro0 a
phrasal 1erb
part.adj. participle adective ! a past participle of a phrasal verb used as an
adective put on it. When #ords or senten!es ha1e a line throu'h the0, it 0eans
that the5 are in!orre!t.
$$$ Three dots bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le 0ean that the ob)e!t o" the
phrasal 1erb !an be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le.
1i
($ 2(C.S (NG se+ara&%e an! nonse+ara&%e +hrasa%
ver&s
Phrasal 1erbs are either separable or nonseparable. .n"ortunatel5, there is no rule that #ill help
5ou to loo7 at a phrasal 1erb and al#a5s 7no# #hether it is separable or nonseparable.
Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
Separable phrasal 1erbs !an be separated b5 their ob)e!t. When the ob)e!t is a noun, it is
usuall5 entirel5 optional #hether the ob)e!t is pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le or
pla!ed a"ter the parti!le. =oth senten!es belo# are !orre!tG
I took my shoes off.
I took off my shoes.
Co#e1er, #hen a pronoun is used instead o" a noun, the pronoun 0ust be pla!ed
bet#een the 1erb and the parti!leG
4 too0 the0 o..$
4 too0 o.. the0$
=ut in one t5pe o" senten!e, separable phrasal 1erbs 0ust be separated > #hen the
phrasal 1erb has t#o ob)e!tsG
"he put a blanket
on.
"he put on a blanket.
"he put a blanket on the bed.
"he put on a blanket the bed.
Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
#onseparable phrasal verbs cannot be separated by their obect$
%e ran into a tree.
%e ran a tree into.
Throu'hout this boo7, phrasal 1erbs that !an be separated ha1e three dots E...F bet#een
the 1erb and the parti!le.
Infinitive&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come from
come from & comes from coming from came from come
from
($ co-e .ro- p.1. When 5ou co-e .ro- a pla!e, 5ou #ere born there or li1ed there
pre1iousl5. When 5ou co-e .ro- a "a0il5 or a so!ial situation, 5our past e<perien!e helps
to e<plain 5our present attitudes and beha1ior.
Mike comes from 'laska, so he(s used to cold weather.
)ane had a difficult childhood. "he came from a broken home.
*
"$ co-e .ro- p.1. When so0ethin' co-es .ro- a sour!e, that is #here it
ori'inated.
The word +admiral+ comes from an 'rabic word.
The mechanic heard a strange sound coming from the engine.
(nfinitive
present tense )ing form past tense past participle
figure out
,#-*re o*t 8 ,#-*res o*t ,#-*r#n- o*t ,#-*red o*t ,#-*red o*t
1. figure ... out p.v. ,the obect can be a noun or a noun clause- .hen you figure out
so0ethin', su!h as the ans#er to a ,uestion, the solution to a proble0, or #h5 a person is
a !ertain #a5 or a!ts a !ertain #a5, 5ou thin7 about and su!!eed in understandin' it.
)oe(s so hostile all the time. I can(t figure him out.
I looked everywhere for my keys, but I couldn(t figure out where I put
them.
give back
give back & gives
back
giving back gave back given
back
($ /ive $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou return so0ethin' to so0eone, 5ou /ive it &ac0$
Can 4 use 5our penH 4Bll /ive it &ac0 a"ter the test.
Ti005, /ive that to5 &ac0 to 5our sister ri'ht no#:
look for
look for & looks for looking for looked for looked for
($ %oo0 .or p.1. When 5ou %oo0 .or thin's or people, 5ou tr5 to "ind the0.
/ looked for you at the party, but I didn(t see you.
/0cuse me, can you help me1 I(m looking for 232 Main "t.
put on
put on & puts on putting on put on put on
($ +t$$$ on p.1. When 5ou pla!e so0ethin' on or appl5 so0ethin' to 5our bod5, 5ou +t it
on$
I +t on 05 ne# dress be"ore 'oin' to the part5.
;ri! "or'ot to +t suntan lotion on' and no# heBs as red as a lobster.
"$ +t$$$ on p.1. When 5ou pla!e so0ethin' on or appl5 so0ethin' to another sur"a!e, 5ou
+t it on$
I +t the boo7 on the table.
Ierr5 +t too 0u!h "ertiliDer on his %a5n, and no# he has to !ut it t#i!e a #ee7.
*$ +t$$$ on p.1. When 5ou atta!h or a""i< so0ethin' to another thin', 5ou +t it on$
The .ilson4s put a new roof on their house last year.
I told the tailor to put red buttons on the dress he(s making for me.
6$ +t$$$ on p.1. When 5ou +t on #ei'ht, 5ou 'ain #ei'ht.
TC; .&T46-T; PC+-S-& V;+= =((9
5id you see Mike1 %e(s put on so much weight that I didn(t recogni6e him.
I need to go on a diet. I(ve been putting on a lot of weight lately.
7$ +t $$$on p.1. When 5ou or'aniDe or per"or0 so0ethin' "or other peopleBs entertain0ent,
su!h as a pla5 or a !on!ert, 5ou +t it on$
The club put on a show to raise money for the party.
That opera hasn(t been put on in more than 733 years.
8$ +t$$ $on p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou +t people on, 5ou 7id or tease the0.
8ou won the lottery1 8ou(re putting me on!
5on(t put me on ! tell me the truth.
+t9on n. So0ethin' done #ith the intention o" "oolin' or !eceivin/ people is a +t9on$
%e didn(t really win the lottery. It was all a big put-on to impress his girlfriend.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
run
into
run into & runs into running into ran into run into
($ rn into p.1. When 5ou are dri1in' and hit another 1ehi!le or so0ethin' near the road, su!h
as a tree or a telephone pole, 5ou rn into it.
'li was driving too fast, and he ran into a telephone pole.
I was run into by a drunk driver.
"$ rn into p.1. When 5ou 0eet people ne4+ecte!%3 or nintentiona%%3, 5ou rn into the0.
B-+ into is the sa0e as rn into$
.e ran into 9aren and her new boyfriend at the supermarket yesterday.
I owe Frank :233, so I hope I don(t run into him.
*$ rn into p.1. When 5ou une<pe!tedl5 enconter di""i!ulties or proble0s, 5ou rn into the0.
; thought it would be easy to fi0 my car, but I(ve been running into problems.
)anice ran into one problem after another at work today.
6$ rn into p.1. When the total o" so0ethin' 'ro#s to a lar'e a0ount or nu0ber, it rns into
that a0ount or nu0ber.
If you fi0ed everything on that old car that needs fi0ing, it would run into thousands of dollars.
The number of starving people in the country ran into millions.
show up
show up < shows up showing up showed up shown up
($ sho5 + p.1. When 5ou appear so0e#here, 5ou sho5 +$ Trn + is si0ilar to sho5 +.
; was supposed to meet my sister for lunch, but she hasn(t shown up
yet.
=ver a hundred people showed up for the news conference.
"$ sho5 + p.1. When so0ethin' appears or be!o0es 1isible, it sho5s +$
It(s hard to photograph polar bears because they don(t
show up well against the snow. The spots won(t show up
until the last stages of the disease.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
take off
take off & takes off taking off took off taken off
3
($ ta0e $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou re0o1e so0ethin' "ro0 5our bod5, 5ou ta0e it o..$
; was so tired when I got home that I took my clothes off and went straight to bed.
Take off your shoes. 8ou(re getting mud on the carpet.
"$ ta0e $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou re0o1e so0ethin' "ro0 a sur"a!e, 5ou ta0e it o..$
I took the book off the table. 8ou need to take the old wa0 off
the floor before you wa0 it again.
*$ ta0e $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou re0o1e so0ethin' "ro0 so0ethin' it is atta!hed or a""i<ed to,
5ou ta0e it o..$
'lfonso always takes the skin off chicken before he cooks it.
'fter )ane took the flat tire off her bicycle, she put on the new
one.
6$ ta0e $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou ta0e ti0e o.. "ro0 #or7 or stud5, 5ou do so0ethin' di""erent,
in stead o" #or7in' or stud5in'.
I can(t work tomorrow. I have to take the day off for some tests at the hospital.
=ur company always lets us take the week between >hristmas and #ew 8ear(s
5ay off.
7$ ta0e o.. p.1. When an airplane lea1es the 'round and "lies up into the air, it ta0es
o..$
=ur plane took off an hour late because of the snow.
?ut on your seat belt@ we(re taking off now.
takeoff n. Takeoff is when an airplane leaves the ground and flies up into the air.
The takeoff was delayed because of the snow.
6. take off p.v. .hen a business or other organi6ed activity becomes very successful, it
takes off.
The new restaurant(s business is taking off because it got a good review in the
newspaper.
If this business takes off we could make a lot of money.
:$ ta0e o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou lea1e suddenl5 or ,ui!7l5, 5ou ta0e o..$
4
'fter he found out the FAI was looking for him, he took off in a hurry.
This party(s boring ! let(s take off.
#$ ta0e $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou redu!e the pri!e o" so0ethin' that is "or sale b5 a !ertain
a0ount, 5ou ta0e that a0ount o.. the pri!e.
The sign in the store window said, +/very Monday take *3 percent off all marked
prices.+
The car dealer took :7,333 off the list price.
;L;+C4S; 1 a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
E4a-+%e< Ser'eant Iones is 1er5 stri!t #ith his !hildren. Ce C(6;S
2+(6 a 0ilitar5 "a0il5.
1. -"ter the poli!e arri1ed, #e MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM,ui!7l5.
2. Sales o" air !onditioners reall5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM #hen the te0perature 'ot o1er 1// de'rees
last su00er.
3. 6e'an MMMMMMMM a lot o" #ei'ht MMMMMMMM #hen she #as pre'nant.
4. 4B0 'oin' to install a ne# pro'ra0 toni'ht, and 4 hope 4 donBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMM an5 proble0s.
. The in1isible in7 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMonl5 under ultra1iolet li'ht.
$. 4 #as e<pe!tin' 1// people at the part5, but onl5 around / MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
%. Iane #as lu!75? she MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a 'ood "a0il5.
8. =e sure 5ou MMMMMMMM a !oat o" +ri-er MMMMMMMMbe"ore 5ou paint the .en!er.
*. 65 !ousin is so #eird that e1en his 0other !anBt MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMMMMM.
1/. 4 donBt "eel #ell? 4 thin7 4Bll MMMMMMMM to0orro# MMMMMMMMM and sta5 ho0e.
11. We #ere s!ared to death #hen #e heard 1oi!es MMMMMMMMthe atti!.
12. 65 son al#a5s "or'ets to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM his !oat be"ore he 'oes outside.
13. 4 #as surprised #hen our plane MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM on ti0e.
14. We MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM our do' all ni'ht, but #e !ouldnBt "ind hi0.
1. Paul "inall5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 05 C8s a"ter 4 as7ed hi0 "or the0 about a 0illion ti0es.
1$. 4B0 not 'oin' to the part5 be!ause 4 donBt #ant to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMIani!e.

1%. The real estate a'ent said that our as7in' pri!e #as too hi'h and that #e should MMMMMMMMMM at least
N1/,/// MMMMMMMMMM it i" #e #ant to sell our house.
18. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM those 0udd5 shoes be"ore 5ou !o0e inside.
1*. Sendin' 05 son to Stan"ord and 05 dau'hter to Aale is 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e
serious 0one5.
2/. MMMMMMMMM the orna0ents MMMMMMMM the Christ0as tree isnBt as 0u!h "un as puttin' the0 on.
21. Aou !anBt be serious > 5ouBre MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMMMMMMMM:
22. 8onBt "or'et to MMMMMMMM a sta0p MMMMMMMMMM that letter be"ore 5ou 0ail it.
23. - spe!ial per"or0an!e o" The Nut!ra!7er #as MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM at the !hildrenBs hospital.
24. The 0aid MMMMMMMM the dirt5 sheets MMMMMMMM the bed.
2. =e !are"ul: Aou al0ost MMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMM that tru!7 ba!7 there.
;L;+C4S; 1 b ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$
Be sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
E4a-+%e< 4 !anBt "i'ure out. Ethe ans#er, itF
4 !anBt "i'ure out the ans#er. 4 !anBt "i'ure the ans#er out. 4 !anBt "i'ure it out.
*. I finally figured out. Bthe instructions, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. 3i1e ba!7 #hen 5ou are "inished, E05 tools, the0F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$
2. "he put on. Bher slippers, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. 4 too7 o"". E05 shoes, the0F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
D. The hurricane took off. Bthe roof, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
;L;+C4S; 1! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
E4a-+%e< 4 !anBt understand #here 05 #allet is. What !anBt 4 doH
Aou !anBt "i'ure out #here 5our #allet is.
1. - lot o" 'uests didnBt !o0e to the #eddin'. What didnBt a lot o" 'uests doH
2. +aul thou'ht about the 0ath proble0, and he 7no#s the ans#er no#. What did +aul doH
3. The )et is lea1in' the 'round and "l5in' into the air. What is the )et doin'H
4. 4n Ouestion 3, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat the airplane didH
. (0ar spea7s -rabi! be!ause he #as born in ;'5pt. Wh5 does (0ar spea7 -rabi!H
$. We le"t =obBs house ,ui!7l5. What did #e doH
%. 4 0et .n!le Iohn at the baseball 'a0e toda5. What did 4 do toda5H
8. The sour!e o" the s0o7e #as a #indo# on the tenth "loor. What did the s0o7e doH
*. Aou al0ost hit a tree #hile 5ou #ere dri1in' 5our !ar. What did 5ou al0ost doH
%
1/. 6r. Ta5lor atta!hed his na0e to his 0ailbo<. What did 6r. Ta5lor doH
11. 4 ha1e to re0o1e the "lat tire "ro0 05 !ar. What do 4 ha1e to doH
12. We didnBt ha1e an5 proble0s !oo7in' the tur7e5. What did #e doH
13. 4B0 re0o1in' the dirt5 dishes "ro0 the table. What a0 4 doin'H
14. Sales o" the !o0pan5Bs ne# produ!t #ere 1er5 su!!ess"ul. What did sales o" the !o0pan5Bs
ne# produ!t doH
1. &inda is tr5in' to "ind her 'ol" ball. What is &inda doin'H
1$. SusieBs blue e5es arenBt 1isible in this photo. What donBt SusieBs e5es do in this photoH
1%. Ii0 al#a5s "or'ets to pla!e salt and pepper on the table. What does Ii0 al#a5s doH
18. =ill didnBt 'o to #or7 last 2rida5. What didnBt =ill doH
1*. Sall5 returned 2ran7Bs !a0era. What did Sall5 doH
"$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! do, does, an!
did
&i7e ordinar5 1erbs, phrasal 1erbs "or0 ne'ati1es and ,uestions #ith do, does, and
did.
Present tense >estions
4n the present tense, ,uestions are "or0ed #ith do Ee<!ept #hen the sub)e!t is he, she,
it, or the na0e o" one person or thin'FG
.hy do. I always fall for losers1
5o you sometimes do!e off in class1
5o we ever give in to pressure1
%ow do these bottle tops come off"
When the sub)e!t is he, she, it, or the na0e o" one person or thin', does is used.
+e0e0ber that the -s "or0 o" the 1erb is not used in ,uestionsG
5oes this welding torch throw sparks up into the air1
Present tense ne/atives
4n the present tense, ne'ati1es are "or0ed #ith do not or donBt Ee<!ept #hen the
sub)e!t is he, she, it, or the na0e o" one person or thin'FG
8
; used to do!e off while driving, but I don(t anymore.
I think he has the flu because you don(t usually throw up when
you
have a cold.
.e don(t usually fall for cra6y stories like that.
If his dogs do not stay off our lawn, I(m going to call the dogcatcher.
When the sub)e!t is he, she, it, or the na0e o" one person or thin', does not or doesnBt
is used. +e0e0ber that the -s "or0 o" the 1erb is not used in ne'ati1esG
If Mark doesn(t pull through five children will be without a father.
Past tense >estions
4n the past tense, ,uestions are "or0ed #ith did. +e0e0ber to use the
in"initi1e "or0 o" the 1erbG
I(m so embarrassed. .hy did I fall for his lies1
5id the patient pull through"
%ow many times did he throw up"
5id we give in to their demands1
5id they hear about the e0plorer who was eaten by piranhas1
Past tense ne/atives
4n the past tense, ne'ati1es are "or0ed #ith did not or didnBt. +e0e0ber to use the
in"initi1e "or0 o" the 1erbG
; was really sick, but I didn(t. throw up.
8ou didn(t fall for that nonsense, I hope.
%e pulled and pulled, but the bowling ball did not come off.
.e didn(t hear about the half-price sale until it was too late.
I(m sorry. .e tried everything, but she didn(t pull through.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come
off
come off < comes off coming off came off come off
($ co-e o.. p.1. When so0ethin' co-es o..' it be!o0es deta!hed "ro0 #hat it #as
atta!hed or "astened to.
Ae careful with this old book. The cover(s coming off.
That paint won(t come off your hands unless you use turpentine.
"$ co-e o.. p.1. When an e1ent co-es o..' it is su!!ess"ul.
The party came off well. /veryone had a lot of fun.
The attack didn(t come off the way the general planned it.
*$ co-e o.. p.1. When 5ou sa5 ?Co-e o.. it@ to people, 5ou are sa5in' that 5ou
thin7 so0ethin' the5 ha1e said is untrue or "oolish.
It(s 7$33 '.M., you come home smelling like beer, and you say you were working
late at the office1 =h come off itE
*
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
do!e off
do!e off & do!es off do!ing off do!ed off do!ed off
($ !o@e o.. p.1. When 5ou "all into a li'ht sleep, 5ou !o@e o..$
I went to a movie last night, but it was so boring I do!ed off.
If I have a drink at lunch, I(m sure to do!e off at my desk.
fall for
fall for & falls for falling for fell for fallen
for
($ .a%% .or p.1. When so0eone su!!ess"ull5 tric0s or !eceives 5ou, 5ou .a%% .or the tri!7
or !ece+tion or 5ou .a%% .or it.
I feel like an idiot. The salesman promised me it was a real diamond, not glass, and I
fell for it.
8our girlfriend told you that guy she was dancing with at the party was her
brother1 %ow could you fall for a story like that1
"$ .a%% .or p.1. When 5ou suddenl5 "eel a stron' attra!tion to so0eone or so0ethin', 5ou
.a%% .or that person or thin'.
)im met "am(s sister last week, and now he calls her every day. I guess he really fell for
her in a big way.
.hen I saw this house, I fell for it immediately, and I made an offer the same
day.
give in
give in & gives in giving #n gave in given in
($ /ive in EtoF p.1. When so0eone pressures or "or!es 5ou to do so0ethin' or allo#
so0ethin' e1en thou'h 5ou do not #ant to, 5ou /ive in$
My son drove me cra6y asking me to buy him a new bicycle, and I finally gave
in.
The strike lasted for eight months, but the company never gave in to the
workers( demands.
hear about
hear about & hears about hearing about heard about heard
about
($ hear a&ot p.1. When 5ou hear and learn in"or0ation about so0eone or so0ethin',
5ou hear a&ot it.
%ave you heard about the new Thai restaurant downtown1
I heard about the earthFuake on >##.
pull through
pull through & pulls through pulling through pulled through pulled
($ +%% thro/h p.1. When 5ou recover "ro0 a serious illness or in,r3, 5ou +%%
thro/h$
The doctor didn(t think his chances were very good, but he pulled
through.
/rik is very sick, but he(s young and strong, so I(m sure he(ll pull
through.
1$
4n"initi1e
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
sta%
off
sta% off & sta%s off sta%ing off sta%ed off sta%ed off
($ sta3 o.. p.1. When 5ou sta3 o.. so0ethin', 5ou donBt #al7 or sit on it.
8ou kids can play in the living room, but sta% off the ?ersian
rug.
.hat can I do to get my cat to sta% off the kitchen counter1
throw up
throw up & throwing up threw up thrown
($ thro5 + p.1. When people thro5 +, the5 vo-it.
'le0 was so sick that he threw up all over my shoes.
I feel like I(m going to throw up.
($ thro5$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' !auses s0all parti!les o" dirt, dust, or a li,uid to rise into
the air, it thro5s the0 +$
Ae careful with that chain saw ! It(ll throw sawdust up in your
eyes.
5on(t stand too close to the fire@ it(s throwing up sparks.
;L;+C4S; 2a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ceather !alls To0 e1er5 da5. 4 ha1e a "eelin' sheBsMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMhi0.
2. 4 #ent to the shoe repair 'u5 be!ause the heel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 shoe.
3. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ten 0inutes a"ter the 0o1ie started, and 4 0issed the #hole thin'.
4. The bride dran7 too 0u!h !ha0pa'ne, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM all o1er the best 0an.
. 4 needed a !ar to 'o to the part5, so 4 told 05 "ather 4 needed his !ar to 'o to the librar5 to
stud5, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
$. .n!le 2redBs reall5 si!7. 4" he MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM, itBll be a 0ira!le.
%. 4 )ust sha0pooed the !arpet in the li1in' roo0, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
8. The !oup MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ithout an5 bloodshed.
*. 4 donBt !are i" 5ou be' 0e all ni'ht > 4B0 not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM:
1/. 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 5our brotherBs a!!ident last ni'ht. 4s he all ri'htH
11
11. 8onBt 'et !lose to the "ire. 4tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ashes and spar7s.
12. 8o 5ou reall5 e<pe!t 0e to belie1e a !raD5 stor5 li7e thatH MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it:
;L;+C4S; 2b ; Chan/e the sentences to >estions sin/ !o' !oes' or !i!$
E4a-+%e< 2ran!is!o usuall5 doDes o"" a"ter dinner.
8oes 2ran!is!o usuall5 doDe o"" a"ter dinnerH
1. The si!7 bo5 thre# up.
2. +osa "alls "or e1er5 bo5 she 0eets.
3. The tops !o0e o"" easil5.
4. The do' sta5s o"" the bed.
. ;ri7 heard about the ne# )ob.
;L;+C4S; 2! ; Chan/e the sentences to ne/atives sin/ !o not or !onAt' !oes not
or !oesnAt' or !i! not or !i!nAt$
E4a-+%e< 2ran!is!o doDes o"" a"ter dinner.
2ran!is!o doesnBt doDe o"" a"ter dinner.
1. 4 al#a5s 'i1e in to her de0ands.
2. 6r. and 6rs. Ta5lor "ell "or the sales0anBs pro0ises.
3. These 0a!hines thro# up spar7s.
4. The patient pulled throu'h.
. The plot !o0e o"" as planned.
;L;+C4S; 2d ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 65 0other told 0e not to #al7 on the 7it!hen "loor. What did 05 0other tell 0eH
2. When 8an sa# that ne# 0otor!5!le, he de!ided he had to bu5 it no 0atter ho# 0u!h it !ost.
Co# did 8an "eel about the 0otor!5!leH
12
3. The students are so tired that the5 are startin' to sleep in !lass. What are the students doin'H
4. Ni!ole learns about e1er5thin' that happens in to#n. What does Ni!ole doH
. The 0eetin' didnBt happen the #a5 4 planned it. What didnBt the 0eetin' doH
$. Aou had an a!!ident a"ter one o" the #heels separated "ro0 5our !ar. Wh5 did 5ou ha1e an
a!!identH
%. Aou !an as7 a thousand ti0es i" 5ou #ant to, but 4B0 not a'reein' to 5our de0ands. What a0 4
not doin' to 5our de0andsH
8. 65 !ousin 0ade a lot o" pro0ises to 0e, and 4 belie1ed the0. Co# did 4 rea!t to her pro0isesH
*. 8r. Wood said TedBs disease is 1er5 serious, and she doesnBt thin7 thereBs 0u!h hope that heBll
re!o1er. What doesnBt 8r. Wood thin7H
1/. Ti005 is 1er5 si!7, and he #as 1o0itin' all ni'ht. What #as Ti005 doin' all ni'htH
;L;+C4S; 2e, +e1ie# ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
Section ($ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 Section ($
!o0e "ro0 'i1e ba!7 put on sho# up
"i'ure out loo7 "or run into ta7e o""
1. &oo7 #hat ti0e it is: We ha1e to be at #or7 in "i"teen 0inutes. WeBd better MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM ri'ht no#.
2. 4 #aited "or Ioe "or three hours, but he ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
3. The 0aid MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the dirt5 sheets and #ashed the0.
4. 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a )ob !loser to ho0e.
. Potatoes ori'inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM South -0eri!a.
$. ThatBs 0ine: MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM ri'ht no# or 4B0 tellin' 6o0:
%. The5 #ere 7illed #hen the5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a tru!7.
8. The 0e!hani! !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hat the proble0 is #ith 05 !ar.
13
3. 2(C.S (NG three95or! +hrasa% ver&s
Phrasal 1erbs are not al#a5s !o0posed o" t#o #ords. Three-#ord phrasal 1erbs are
!o0posed o" a 1erb and t#o parti!lesG the "irst parti!le is nor0all5 an ad1erb, and the
se!ond a preposition. &i7e t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs, three-#ord phrasal 1erbs are
either separable or nonseparableG
I know it(s been a long day, but do you feel up to playing tennis after dinner1
)ake always went in for fishing when he was a kid. It was nice to meet you, and I look
forward to seeing you again.
I(m sorry I can(t say yes about the motorcycle, but I have to go along with your mother(s
decision.
I(ve put up with these love handles long enough ! ne0t week I(m getting liposuction.
Mr. Aaker tried to screw his e0-wife out of her share of the lottery pri6e.
8ou talk down to me like I(m some kind of idiot. 9aren(s nervous about the ob interview.
"he ust wants to get it over with so she can stop worrying about it.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
feel up to
feel up to < feels up
to
feeling up to felt up to feel up to
($ .ee% + to p.1. When 5ou .ee% + to doin' so0ethin', 5ou ha1e the con.i!ence or
ener'5 to do it.
I(m sorry to cancel, but I ust don(t feel up to going dancing tonight.
The top of the mountain is only *,333 feet away ! do you feel up to it1
get over with
get over with & gets over
with
getting over with got over with gotten over
with
($ /et$$$ over 5ith p.1. Jal#a5s separatedK When 5ou #ant to /et so0ethin' over 5ith' it
is be!ause it is so0ethin' unpleasant that 5ou #ant to "inish so that 5ou !an stop
#orr5in' about it or !rea!in/ it.
Get(s fi0 both cavities today, doctor@ I ust want to get it over with.
I think it(s better to get the e0am over with first period than to be nervous about it
all day long.
go along with
/o a%on/ 5ith B /oes a%on/ 5ith /oin/ a%on/ 5ith 5ent a%on/ 5ith /one a%on/
5ith
($ /o a%on/ 5ith p.1. When 5ou a'ree #ith people or a'ree #ith #hat the5 are sa5in',
5ou /o a%on/ 5ith the0.
I understand your concern, Ginda, but I have to go along with Maria on this
matter.
.hat(s my opinion1 I go along with =mar.
*H
"$ /o a%on/ 5ith p.1. When 5ou o&e3 a rule or "ollo# a de!ision, 5ou /o a%on/ 5ith it.
Mrs. Taylor wasn(t happy about the committee(s decision, but she went along with it
anyway.
I don(t care what the boss says ! I(m not going along with any changes that will mean
longer hours for less money.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
go in for
go in for & goes in for going in for went in for gone in for
($ /o in .or p.1. When 5ou /o in .or a !ertain a!ti1it5, 5ou li7e it and do it re'ularl5.
Aryan really goes in for any kind of outdoor activity.
.hen I was a kid I went in for football, but I don(t watch it much anymore.
look forward to
look forward to & looks
forward to
looking forward
to
looked forward
to
looked
forward to
($ %oo0 .or5ar! to p.1. When 5ou %oo0 .or5ar! to so0ethin' or %oo0 .or5ar! to
doin' so0ethin', 5ou are e<!ited about so0ethin' in the "uture be!ause 5ou en)o5 it or
be!ause it #ill bene"it 5ou in so0e #a5.
It(s been four years since my brother went overseas. I(m looking forward to seeing him
again.
I look forward to an opportunity to meet with you in person.
put up with
put up with & puts up with putting up with put up with put up
($ +t + 5ith p.1. When 5ou +t + 5ith so0ethin' 5ou do not li7e or are not happ5
about, 5ou a!!ept it and do not tr5 to !han'e it.
%er neighbors have loud parties every night, but she doesn(t complain. "he ust puts up
with it.
My husband said, +I(ve put up with your brother long
enoughE+
screw out of
screw out of & screws out of screwing out of screwed out of screwed
out of
($ scre5$$$ ot o. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 'et 0one5 or so0ethin' 1aluable "ro0 people
in a dishonest #a5, 5ou scre5 the0 ot o. it.
That con man screwed me out of my life savings.
Their slea6y son-in-law screwed them out of thousands of dollars.
talk down to
talk down to & talks down to talking down to talked down to talked
down to
($ ta%0 !o5n to p.1. When 5ou ta%0 !o5n to people, 5ou use a tone o" 1oi!e or an attitude
that sho#s 5ou thin7 the5 are less intelli'ent, less edu!ated, or "ro0 a lo#er le1el o"
so!iet5 than 5ou.
1
; was furious about the way he talked down to meE
Aob hates )ane because of the way she talks down to him.
;L;+C4S; 3a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Than7s "or in1itin' 0e, but 4 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !ard 'a0es.
2. 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 husbandBs s0o7in' an5 lon'er.
4 told hi0 to !hoose bet#een !i'arettes and 0e.
3. 4B0 sorr5, but 4 thin7 5our plan is a bi' 0ista7e, and 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMit.
4. ;1en thou'h 6r. Watson is the ri!hest 0an in to#n, he ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM people.
. 4tBs been onl5 t#o #ee7s sin!e the tra'ed5. 4B0 sure the5 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM 'oin' to the part5.
$. 4" that !roo7 thin7s heBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
// bu!7s, heBs !raD5:
%. The #hole "a0il5Bs 'oin' to be here "or Than7s'i1in', and 6o0 is reall5 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit.
8. 4 1olunteered to 'i1e 05 spee!h "irst )ust so 4 !ould MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
*. ;1en i" 5ou donBt li7e the rules, 5ou ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
the0.
;L;+C4S; 3b ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ierr5Bs brother-in-la# tal7s to hi0 li7e heBs an idiot. Co# does Ierr5Bs brother-in-la# tal7
to Ierr5H
2. Ni!ole !anBt #or7 to0orro#, and sheBs ner1ous about tellin' her boss. What should Ni!ole doH
3. The5 paid N,/// too 0u!h "or their house be!ause the sales0an lied to the0. What did the
sales0an do to the0H
1$
4. Sall5Bs 'oin' to "l5 in an airplane "or the "irst ti0e, and sheBs 1er5 e<!ited about it. Co# does
Sall5 "eel about "l5in' in an airplaneH
. The #inters in 6inneapolis are terrible, but 5ou !anBt 0o1e or !han'e the #eather. What
do 5ou ha1e to doH
$. ;ri7 )ust 'ot out o" the hospital, and he doesnBt "eel stron' enou'h to 'o ba!7 to #or7.
Wh5 !anBt ;ri7 'o ba!7 to #or7H
%. 4 thou'ht the ne# poli!5 #as an e<!ellent idea, and 4 a'reed #ith it 1// per!ent. Co# did 4 "eel
about the ne# poli!5H
;L;+C4S; 3!, +e1ie# ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
Section "$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 Section "$
!o0e o"" "all "or hear about sta5 o""
doDe o"" 'i1e in pull throu'h thro# up
1. 6i'uel told 0e he didnBt steal 05 TV, but 4 didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM his lies.
2. Ii0 is reall5 si!7, and he sta5ed ho0e "ro0 s!hool toda5. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
t#i!e last ni'ht.
3. -"ter a "e# #ee7s, the 'old on this !heap )e#elr5 starts to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. Ce 7ept na''in' and na''in', and 4 "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. 4" that !at doesnBt learn to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the table, it #ill ha1e to 'o.
$. -"ter =ett5Bs te0perature 'ot up to 1/ de'rees, #e started to thin7 she 0i'ht not
%. The 0eetin' #as so borin' that 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. 4 MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a !ountr5 #here people use bi' stones "or 0one5.
1%
6$ FOCUS ON< +resent an! +ast continos
+hrasa% ver&s
&i7e one-#ord 1erbs, phrasal 1erbs !an nor0all5 be used in the continuous tense
Ealso !alled the progressive tenseF usin' the -ing "or0 o" the 1erb Ealso !alled the
present parti!ipleF and a "or0 o" be:
The principal told me you(d been cheating on the test.
I(ve been going after my master(s for nearly five years.
.hich dictionary is he looking up the words in1
%ow will she be pa%ing for her tuition bill1
The compass needle couldn(t be pointing to the south.
.e would be planning for a bigger crowd if the weather weren(t so bad.
They should be wrapping the meeting up in a few minutes.
Thanks for all your help. I(m sorry for putting you to so much trouble.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
cheat
on cheat on < cheats on cheating on cheated on cheated on
($ cheat on p.1. When 5ou cheat on 5our se<ual partner, 5ou ha1e se< or a ro0anti!
relationship #ith another person.
"arah filed for divorce after she caught Ieorge cheating on her.
>an you believe it1 "he was cheating on me with my best friendE
"$ cheat on p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' dishonest so that 5ou !an do better on a test,
5ou cheat on the test.
The teacher caught 'li cheating on the e0am.
If I didn(t cheat on the tests, I(d never pass any of my classes.
go after
go after & goes going after went after gone
($ /o a.ter p.1. When 5ou !hase and tr5 to ph5si!all5 stop or to atta!7 people, 5ou /o
a.ter the0.
' policeman saw him stealing the car and went after him.
>aptain Morgan was ordered to go after the enemy soldiers.
"$ /o a.ter p.1. When la# en"or!e0ent o""i!ials tr5 to prose!ute people throu'h a le'al
pro!edure, the5 /o a.ter the0.
Federal prosecutors are now going after the top drug dealers.
The senator introduced a bill designed to go after deadbeat dads.
*$ /o a.ter p.1. When a business tries to in!rease its pro"its b5 tr5in' to in!rease its
0ar7et share or its nu0ber o" !usto0ers, it /oes a.ter the0.
18
The tobacco company denied going after the teenage market.
The >/= said he wanted to go after new customers in >hina.
6$ /o a.ter p.1. When 5ou /o a.ter so0ethin', 5ou tr5 to obtain it e1en thou'h it 0a5 be
di""i!ult to do.
"ofia went after a degree in accounting.
Todd trained for a year before going after the record in the *33-yard dash.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
look
up look up < looks up looking up looked up looked up
($ %oo0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 'et in"or0ation "ro0 a re"eren!e boo7, su!h as a #ord "ro0
a di!tionar5 or a telephone nu0ber "ro0 a telephone boo7, 5ou %oo0 the #ord or
nu0ber +$
The teacher told the students to look the new words up in a dictionary.
I looked up his number, but it(s not in the phone book.
"$ %oo0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou lo!ate and 1isit people 5ou ha1e not seen "or a lon' ti0e, 5ou
%oo0 the0 +$
; was in 5allas on business, and I looked up 5an )ones, my old college roommate.
If you(re ever in 9empton, look me up.
*$ %oo0 + p.1. When a situation is %oo0in/ + or startin' to %oo0 +' it is i0pro1in'.
Ausiness was pretty bad for a while, but things are starting to look
up. I(m much happier than I was last year. Things are looking up.
pa%
for pa% for & pa%s for pa%ing for paid for paid for
($ +a3$$$ .or p.1. When 5ou 'i1e so0eone 0one5 in e<!han'e "or so0ethin', 5ou +a3 .or
it or +a3 so0eone .or it.
>an # pa% for this stuff with a credit card1
'lfonso paid the waiter for his dinner.
paid for part.ad. 'fter you have paid for something, it is paid for.
My car is old, but at least it(s paid for.
"$ +a3 .or p.1. When 5ou are punished "or so0ethin', 5ou +a3 .or #hat 5ou ha1e
done.
I caught the guy who(s spreading these false rumors about me, and he paid for
ruining my reputation. 8oung people think that drugs are harmless, but they(ll pa%
for their foolishness someday.
1*
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
plan for
plan for < plans for planning for planned for planned for
($ +%an .or p.1. When 5ou 0a7e preparations "or so0ethin' in the "uture, 5ou +%an
.or it.
The festival was a disaster because they didn(t plan for such a huge crowd.
It(s never to early too start planning for retirement.
point
to point to & points to pointing to pointed to pointed to
($ +oint to p.1. When 5ou indi!ate people or thin's #ith 5our hand or a "in'er, 5ou +oint to
the0. When an arro# or a si'n indi!ates so0ethin', it +oints to it.
The waitress couldn(t hear me, so I pointed to my empty glass and she understood.
The prosecutor asked, +>an you point to the man you saw carrying the gun1+
"$ +oint to p.1. When a situation or o!!urren!e !auses 5ou to !onsider so0ethin' else, it
+oints to that thin'.
These terrible test scores point to a need for some maor changes in our educational system.
The fact that all the people with food poisoning ate tuna salad sandwiches pointed to
contaminated mayonnaise as the source of the illness.
put to
put to & puts to putting to put to put to
($ +t$$$ to p.1. When 5ou !on"ront people #ith a di""i!ult or thou'ht-pro1o7in' ,uestion,
a!!usation, or proposition, 5ou +t it to the0.
%e didn(t want to tell me the truth, but I really put it to him, and he finally told me the
whole story.
.hen ?rof. 9line put his theory to me like that, I reali6ed what he was talking about.
"$ +t$$$ to p.1. When 5ou put people to trouble or put the0 to an e<pense, 5ou !ause the0
to do e<tra #or7 or to spend 0one5.
Thanks for helping me with my flat tire. I(m sorry to put you to so much trouble.
I know my father would pay my dental bill if I asked him, but I hate to put him to
such an e0pense.
*$ +t $$$to p.1. When 5ou +t part o" 5our bod5 or so0ethin' in 5our hand to so0ethin',
5ou tou!h or press it to so0ethin'.
The neighbors were arguing again, so we put our ears to the wall to try to hear what they were
saying.
.hen he put a gun to my head, I reali6ed he wasn(t oking.
2/
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
wrap
up
wrap up & wraps up wrapping up wrapped up wrapped up
($ 5ra+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou en!lose an ob)e!t in so0e 7ind o" paper, usuall5 'i"t #rappin'
paper or pa!7a'in' paper, 5ou 5ra+ it +$
; have to wrap this gift up before I go to the party.
The movers wrapped up the china with newspapers.
5ra++e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou en!lose an ob)e!t in so0e 7ind o" paper, usuall5 'i"t
#rappin' paper or pa!7a'in' paper, it is 5ra++e! +$
"$ 5ra+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou !on!lude an e1ent that has been happenin' "or so0e ti0e,
5ou #rap it up. =in! + is si0ilar to 5ra+ +$
.e wrapped up the meeting around H$33 and went home.
The salesman blabbered for two hours before I finally told him to wrap it up.
;L;+C4S; 4a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. It(s *7$23. Get(s&&&&&&&&this meeting&&&&&&&&and goto lunch.
7. There was no way he could deny his guilt after the prosecutor &&&&&&&& it &&&&&&& him.
2. The high crime rate &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& a need for more police officers.
H. 8ou(ll &&&&&&& &&&&&&&& what you did to me if it(s the last thing I ever doE
D. The principal gave a 6ero to each of the students who &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& the test.
J. I &&&&&&& my ear &&&&&&&& the wall to try to hear what "ally was saying about me.
%. Mike is &&&&&&&& the words &&&&&&&& in the dictionary.
K. The police officers &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& the robbers, but they didn(t catch them.
L. Ginda told #ed that she would divorce him if he ever &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& her again.
*3. 8es, it was Fuite a surprise ! we didn(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& twins.
**. .e saw an arrow&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&the door at the end of the hallway.
*7. 'fter she won the silver medal, she &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& the gold.
*2. Most insurance companies won(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& plastic surgery.
*H. I returned to my hometown for the first time in forty years and &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& my first girlfriend.
21
*D. The guy in the seafood store &&&&&&&&& the fish &&&&&&&&& in old newspapers.
*J. The FAI is &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& maor drug smugglers.
*M. These last si0 months have been difficult for "ally, but now things are starting to
18. The !o0pan5 started in Cali"ornia, but no# itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !usto0ers all o1er the
!ountr5.
1*. Aou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM a lot o" trouble to help 5ou 0o1e 5our piano, and 5ou didnBt e1en
sa5 than7 5ou.
;L;+C4S; 4b ; =rite sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to +t the
o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. I was looking up in the dictionary, Ba word, itC &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&&
7. I was in Aoston looking up. Bsome old army buddies, themC &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&
2. 5ad(s upstairs wrapping up. BMom(s birthday present, itC &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&
H. The committee is wrapping up. Btheir discussion, itC &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&
&&&&&&&&
22
;L;+C4S; 4! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e
a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ce sho#ed 0e #here the bathroo0 #as #ith his "in'er. What did he doH
2. WeBre preparin' "or 3// #eddin' 'uests. What are #e doin'H
3. The situation is 'ettin' better. What is the situation doin'H
H. The little boy ran away, and his father chased him and tried to catch him. .hat did the
father do1
. So"ia is 'oin' to tr5 to brea7 the re!ord in the hi'h )u0p. What is So"ia 'oin' to tr5 to doH
$. To0 did a lot o" #or7 to 'et his 'uest bedroo0 read5 "or 0e #hen 4 1isited hi0. What did 4 do
to To0H
%. 4B0 'i1in' 0one5 to the !ashier "or the boo7 4 #ant to bu5. What a0 4 doin'H
8. 4n Ouestion %, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the boo7 a"ter 4 'i1e the 0one5 to the !ashierH
*. The people in the 0eetin' are !on!ludin' the 0eetin'. What are the5 doin'H
1/. When +osa #as in Ne# (rleans, she loo7ed "or and 1isited a !hildhood "riend. What did
+osa do to her friend1
11. Ii0 as7ed 5ou a reall5 di""i!ult ,uestion. What did Ii0 do to 5ouH
12. 6e'an is tr5in' to "ind ;ri7Bs telephone nu0ber in a telephone boo7. What is 6e'an doin'H
13. To0 is 0arried, but he slept #ith another #o0an. What did To0 do to his #i"eH
;L;+C4S; 4d, +e1ie# ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!o0e "ro0, 2 "i'ure out, 1 hear about, 2 pull throu'h, 2
"all "or, 2 'i1e in, 1 loo7 "or, 1 sho# up, 1
*. I &&&&&& &&&&&&&& your mother on our first date, and we got married three months later.
7. >armen(s family &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&& Michoacan around twenty years ago.
2. ?aul was supposed to meet us at K$33, but he never &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&.
72
4. These instru!tions donBt 0a7e an5 sense at all. 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
. -"ter -unt 6ar5Bs stro7e, her !han!es didnBt loo7 'ood, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM
1. 65 dau'hter be''ed 0e to let her 'et her ears pier!ed, and 4 "inall5 MMMMMMMM
%. 65 "ather #as listenin' to the radio, and he said he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a ne#
!ar that runs on #ater.
2. 4 spent t#o hours MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM the re0ote !ontrol be"ore 4 "ound it.

7$ FOCUS ON< +ronnciation o. t5o95or!


+hrasa% ver&s
Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
Intransitive nonseparable phrasal 1erbs E1erbs that do not allo# an ob)e!tF
are usuall5 a!!ented on the parti!leG
The barn got hit by lightning, and it burned &'().
#ed drank so much that he passed '*T on the
bathroom floor.
Transitive nonseparable phrasal 1erbs E1erbs that re,uire an ob)e!tF are
usuall5 a!!ented on the 1erbG
%ank(s been +,-.T#)/ on his wife for years.
I told the teacher my dog ate my homework, but she didn(t
0.11 for it.
Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
"eparable phrasal verbs Bwhich are always transitiveC are usually accented
on the particle$
The Aritish soldiers tried to burn &'() the
.hite %ouse.
The teacher passed them '*T.
-s the e<a0ples abo1e sho#, a sin'le phrasal 1erb !an belon' to 0ore than one
!ate'or5 dependin' on its 0eanin'.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
break down
break down " breaks down breaking down broke down broken down
($ &rea0!o5n p.1. When so0ethin' 0e!hani!al &rea0s !o5n' it !oes not "un!tion.
24
; was late for work because my car broke down.
This photocopier is a piece of unk ! it breaks down every
day.
&ro0en9!o5n part.ad). When so0ethin' is old, in bad !ondition, or not "un!tionin'
properl5, it is &ro0en9!o5n$
My car is a broken-down piece of unk.
&rea0!o5n n$ A &rea0!o5n is a situation in #hi!h so0ethin' 0e!hani!al has
&ro0en !o5n$
'fter that last breakdown I decided it was time for a new car.
"$ &rea0!o5n p.1. When an arran'e0ent, a'ree0ent, ne'otiation, plan, or 0arria'e
&rea0s !o5n' one or 0ore persons in1ol1ed is not !ooperatin' or parti!ipatin'
be!ause o" a disa'ree0ent or proble0.
'fter he started drinking heavily, their marriage started to break down.
The peace negotiations broke down because neither side was willing to
compromise.
&rea0!o5n n. - situation in #hi!h an arran'e0ent, a'ree0ent, ne'otiation, plan, or
0arria'e has &ro0en !o5n is a &rea0!o5n$
#either side would give an inch, and there was a breakdown in the
negotiations.
*$ &rea0!o5n p.1. When 5ou &rea0 !o5n' 3o lose sel"-!ontrol and be!o0e
e0otionall5 or 0entall5 !on"used.
.hen the udge sentenced )ones to life in prison, he broke down and begged
for mercy.
Tom breaks down whenever he thinks of the tragedy.
&rea0!o5n n. - situation in #hi!h so0eone has &ro0en !o5n and is 1er5 upset or
!on"used is a &rea0!o5n$
Marvin had a complete mental breakdown and started to see invisible people.
6$ &rea0 !o5n p.1. When so0ethin' de!o0poses or redu!es to its s0allest parts or is
redu!ed b5 so0eone to its s0allest parts, it &rea0s !o5n$
'fter the poison breaks down it(s Fuite harmless.
'nticoagulant drugs are used to break down blood clots.
7$ &rea0$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou redu!e a pro!ess, situation, proble0, plan, or idea to
its basi! parts to 0a7e it easier to understand, 5ou &rea0 it !o5n$
The professor(s plan seemed really complicated, but after he broke it down for us,
we understood it a little better.
If you break the manufacturing process down into steps, it(s easier to train new
workers.
8$ &rea0 $$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou use "or!e to 'o throu'h a door that is lo!7ed, 5ou
&rea0 it !o5n$
2
The police broke the door down and arrested the bank robbers.
' door had to be broken down to rescue the people trapped by the
fire.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
burn
burn down < burns burning down burned down burned down
($ &rn $$$ !o5n p.1. When a buildin' or other stru!ture &rns !o5n or so0eone &rns it
!o5n' it is !o0pletel5 destro5ed b5 "ire.
Though most of >hicago burned down in *KM*, a few buildings survived.
The owner was arrested for deliberately burning his factory down.
call in
call in & calls in calling in called in called in
($ ca%% in p.1. When 5ou !all 5our pla!e o" e0plo50ent to sa5 5ou !annot #or7 that da5
be!ause 5ou are si!7, 5ou ca%% in or ca%% in si!7.
The manager was angry when her secretary called in three days in a row.
+alling in sick too often is a good way to get fired.
"$ ca%%$$$ in p.1. When 5ou re,uest the help o" people or o" an or'aniDation #ith 0ore
e<perien!e, po#er, or 7no#led'e to help #ith a proble0 or di""i!ult pro)e!t, 5ou ca%% the0
in$
.hen the local police couldn(t handle the riot, the #ational Iuard was called
in.
The local police chief considered calling the FAI in to help solve the crime.
find
find out & finds out finding out found out found out
($ .in! $$$ ot p.1. Jnot usuall5 separated > the ob)e!t !an be a noun, a noun !lause, or a
!o0plete senten!eK When 5ou .in! ot in"or0ation or a "a!t, 5ou learn or be!o0e a#are
o" that in"or0ation or "a!t.
If you don(t know when the movie starts, look in the newspaper to find out.
I met a nice man at the party, but I never found out his name.
I met a nice man at the party, but I never found out what his name was.
I was surprised when I found out that he can speak fourteen languages.
I was surprised when I found out he can speak fourteen languages.
I tried to get the information, but I couldn(t find it out.
hand
back
hand back & hands handing back handed back handed back
($ han!$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou return thin's to people b5 holdin' the0 in 5our hand
and e<tendin' 5our ar0, 5ou han! the0 &ac0 or han! the0 &ac0 to the0.
The teacher will hand the tests back in third period.
The guard handed my I5 card back to me.
2$
6n,#n#t#e
present tense %#n- ,or1 past tense past part#)#ple
look at
loo3 at 8 loo3s at loo3#n- at loo3ed at loo3ed at
($ %oo0 at p.1. When 5ou "o!us 5our e5es on people or thin's, 5ou %oo0 at the0.
/ looked at her and told her I loved her.
1ook at me when I talk to youE
"$ %oo0 at p.1. When 5ou e<a0ine so0ethin' or a situation and de!ide #hat to do about it,
5ou %oo0 at it$
The mechanic looked at my car but couldn(t find anything wrong with it.
8our finger might be broken@ you should have 5r. "mith look at it.
*$ %oo0 at p.1. When 5ou thin7 a !ertain #a5 or ha1e an opinion about so0ethin', that is
the #a5 5ou %oo0 at it.
The way I look at it, >ongress is to blame for this mess, not the
?resident.
.hat should be done about this situation depends on how you look at it.
6$ %oo0 at p.1. Jin"or0al > al#a5s !ontinuousK When 5ou sa5 that people are %oo0in/ at
an a0ount o" 0one5 or a len'th o" ti0e, 5ou 0ean that this is ho# 0u!h the5 thin7
so0ethin' #ill !ost or ho# lon' so0ethin' #ill ta7e.
That was a serious inury. 8ou(re looking at months and months of physical
therapy.
?utting a new roof on this house isn(t going to be cheap. 8ou(re looking at at
least :*D,333.
pile
pile up & piles up piling up piled up piled up
($ +i%e$$$ + p.1. When thin's in!rease in nu0ber and start to "or0 a pile, the5 +i%e +$
When people add thin's to a pile, the5 +i%e the0 +$
The snow piled up so high that I couldn(t open my door. In the fall
we pile the dead leaves up in the driveway and burn them.
piled up part.ad. .hen things are in a pile, they are piled up.
' lot of dirty laundry is piled up in the basement.
"$ +i%e + p.1. When #or7 or so0ethin' else that 0ust be done in!reases "aster than 5ou
!an do it, it +i%es +$
I(m really worried about money. My bills are piling up faster than I can pay them.
My work really piled up white I was on vacation.
setup
set up * sets up setting up set up set up
($ set$$$ + p.1. When 5ou arran'e the parts o" so0ethin' so that the5 are in their proper
position and !an "un!tion, 5ou set it +$
2%
The kids got a swing set for >hristmas, and 5ad had to set it up in the snow.
.hen you(re camping, be sure to set your tent up before it gets dark.
set + part.ad). -"ter the parts o" so0ethin' are in their proper position and "un!tion properl5,
the5 are set +$
The party is starting in one hour. 're the tables set up"
set+ n. - !olle!tion or arran'e0ent o" parts or e,uip0ent ne!essar5 "or a !ertain pro!edure
or tas7 is a set+$
The nurse prepared setups for the hospital emergency room.
"$ set$$$ + p.1. When 5ou plan and or'aniDe an a!ti1it5 or pro)e!t, 5ou set it +$
# set up a H$33 meeting with )ones and his lawyer.
2etting up a meeting of all fifty governors took a lot of
planning.
set + part.ad). When an a!ti1it5 or pro)e!t is planned, arran'ed, or or'aniDed, it is
set +$
The arrangements for the wedding were very complicated, but
everything is set up now.
set+ n. Co# an a!ti1it5 or pro)e!t is planned or arran'ed is the set+$
WhatBs the set+ "or the 2ourth o" Iul5 pi!ni!H
*$ set$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou !o00it a !ri0e but 0a7e it appear that another,
inno!ent person is 'uilt5 o" the !ri0e, 5ou set the inno!ent person +$
)oe robbed the bank and tried to set me up by leaving some of the stolen money in my
apartment and then telling the police about it. The detective didn(t believe me when I told him I
was set up.
set+ n. Jin"or0alK -n atte0pt b5 so0eone to 0a7e it appear that an inno!ent person
is 'uilt5 o" a !ri0e is a set+$
; told the detective it was a setup and that I could prove I had been at the
racetrack when the bank was robbed.
;L;+C4S; a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. When he heard that his brother had been 7illed, he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and !ried.
2. WeBre e<pe!tin' !o0pan5. Can 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM the !ard table in the dinin' roo0H
3. Can 5ou help #ash the dishes, pleaseH The5Bre reall5 be'innin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. 4 'a1e the !ashier 05 !redit !ard, and then she MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to 0e.
D. I don(t know the answer, but I(ll try to &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&.
J. .e were very busy at work today. Two people &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& sick.
M. Naul &&&&&&& &&&&&&&& his watch and told me he had to leave.
K. My car is a real piece of unk. It &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& at least once a week.
L. I(m a little confused about your theory. .ould you mind &&&&&&&& it &&&&&&&& for me1
*3. I(ll tell the udge that I(m innocent and that #ed 9elly&&&&&&&&me&&&&&&&&.
**. %ey, any way you &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& it, one thing(s for sure ! we have to get more crooks off the
streets and into the ails.
*7. This is the FAI ! open the door or we(ll &&&&&&&& it &&&&&&&&E
*2. Maybe I can fi0 your computer. I(ll&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&it after dinner.
*H. The family doctor has never seen a case of malaria before, so he is &&&&&&&& &&&&&&& a specialist.
(*D. "ome chemical compounds start to &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& after only a few hours.
*J. The arsonist tried to &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& several houses in the neighborhood.
*M. The secretary is &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& a meeting.
*K. The civil war started again after the peace talks &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&.
*L. )im buys a newspaper every day, but he never puts it in the garbage when he is finished.
#ewspapers are slowly &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& in his basement.
73. The mechanic said, +To fi0 a car after an accident that bad, I(d say you(re &&&&&&&& &&&&&&& at least
:H,333.+
;L;+C4S; b ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. this section o. ho5 t5o9
5or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rononce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in E4ercise 7a a%o!
an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$
ECERCISE 7c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$
Be sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. The firefighters broke down. Bthe door, itC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
7. They burned down, Bthe old barn, itC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
2. %e called in. B5r. "hapiro,herC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
H. =ur teacher handed back. Bthe papers, themC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
D. I set up. Bthe ironing board, itC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
ECERCISE 7! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an!
nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Iane arran'ed a bab5 sho#er. What did she doH
2. 4n Ouestion 1, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the bab5 sho#er a"ter Iane arran'ed itH
3. 4 'et 0a'aDines in the 0ail "aster than 4 !an read the0. What are 05 0a'aDines doin'H
4. 4n Ouestion 3, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 05 0a'aDinesH
. Todd returned the pen to 6ar7. What did Todd doH
$. .n!le 2redBs !ar had a 0e!hani!al proble0, and it stopped runnin'. What did it doH
%. 4n Ouestion $, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe .n!le 2redBs !arH
8. 4n Ouestion $, #hat did .n!le 2red ha1eH
*. The soldiers destro5ed the buildin' #ith "ire. What did the soldiers doH
1/. The soldiers destro5ed the buildin' #ith "ire. What did the buildin' doH
11. When the dete!ti1e told Ia7e he !ould 'et the death penalt5, he be!a0e 1er5 ner1ous and upset.
What did Ia7e doH
12. 4n Ouestion 11, #hat did Ia7e ha1eH
13. The boss #as an'r5 be!ause 5ou didnBt !all to sa5 that 5ou #ere si!7 and !ouldnBt #or7. Wh5 #as
the boss an'r5H
14. Iud5 too7 her ne# !o0puter out o" the bo<, !onne!ted alt the !ables, and 'ot it read5 to use. What
did she do to her !o0puterH
1. 4n Ouestion 14, a"ter Iud5 too7 her ne# !o0puter out o" the bo<, !onne!ted all the !ables, and 'ot it
read5 to use, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe itH
1$. The door #as lo!7ed, but Can7 "or!ed it open and 'ot inside. What did Can7 doH
1%. 4 learned that -llBs e<!use #as a bi' lie. What did 4 doH
ECERCISE 7e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are In the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!o0e o"", 2
"eel up to, 3
'et o1er #ith, 3
'o alon' #ith, 3
'o in "or, 3
loo7 "or#ard to, 3
put up #ith, 3
sta5 o"",2
tal7 do#n to, 3
thro# up, 2
1. Cer husband is a real )er7. Co# does she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0H
2. 4 #asnBt sure i" Charles MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'oin' s!uba di1in' a'ain so soon a"ter the
shar7 atta!7.
3. 4B0 tellin' 5ou "or the last ti0e: MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 'rass:
4. Can 5ou help 0e #ith this )arH The top #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. 4B1e ne1er been to 4tal5, and 4B0 reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'oin' there.

31
$. 4B0 sorr5 4 !anBt a'ree #ith 5ou 8ad, but 4 ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM 6o0.
%. When 4 had "ood poisonin' 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all ni'ht lon'.
8. Aou !an be sure Paul #ill ta7e his 1a!ation out #est. Ce reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMM outdoor stu"" li7e
!a0pin' and 0ountain !li0bin'.
*. Can 5ou belie1e the ner1e o" that 'u5 in the 0eetin' 5esterda5H Ce MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e as i" 4 #as the stupidest 'u5 on ;arth:
1/. 4B0 tired o" ar'uin' about the di1or!e settle0ent. 4 )ust #ant to MMMMMMMM it.
8$ 2(C.S (NG +ronnciation o. three95or!
+hrasa% ver&s
The pronunciation of three-word phrasal verbs is generally Fuite simple$ the second, or
middle, particle is accented regardless of whether the phrasal verb is separable or
inseparable$
; think I(ve come *3 with an answer to your
problem.
The detective didn(t get any information '*T of him.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
boil down to
boil down to & boils down to boiling down to boiled down to boiled down
to
($ &oi% !o5n to p.1. When 5ou sa5 that so0ethin' &oi%s !o5n to so0ethin' else, 5ou
are sa5in' that it is the basi! !ause o" a 0ore !o0pli!ated situation or proble0.
Most of the crime in this city boils down to drugs.
My decision to stay at this awful ob boils down to one thing ! money.
come down
with
come down with & comes down coming down with came down with come down
($ co-e !o5n 5ith p.1. When 5ou are startin' to 'et si!7, 5ou are co-in/ !o5n 5ith
so0ethin' or co-in/ !o5n 5ith an illness.
; don(t feel well. Maybe I(m coming down with something.
My grandmother said, +If you don(t wear an undershirt, you(ll come down with
pneumonia.+
27
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come up with
come up with < comes up with coming up with came up with come up with
($ co-e + 5ith p.1. When 5ou thin7 o" an idea, plan, or solution, 5ou co-e + 5ith
it.
It took me all night, but I came up with the answer.
Gydia wants to come up with a great idea for the
party.
get around to
get around to & gets around
to
getting around to got around to gotten/got
around to
($ /et aron! to p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' a"ter #aitin' "or so0e ti0e be!ause 5ou are
laD5, ine..icient, or do not #ant to do it, 5ou /et aron! to it.
I didn(t get around to doing my ta0es until 'pril *H.
5on(t worry about the broken window. I(ll get around to it one of these
days.
get out of
get out of & gets out of getting out of got out of gotten/got out
of
($ /et ot o. p.1. When 5ou /et ot o. so0ethin' or /et ot o. doin' so0ethin' 5ou 0ust
do but do not #ant to do, 5ou "ind a #a5 to a1oid it.
"am got out of gym class by pretending to be sick.
The boss wants me to work a double shift, but I(ll get out of it.
# got out of going to church with my parents by pretending to be sick.
"$ /et$$$ ot o. p.1. 4" an a!ti1it5 'i1es 5ou pleasure, satis"a!tion, or so0e other bene"it,
5ou /et pleasure, satis"a!tion, or so0e other bene"it ot o. it.
I sat through that boring class for three months and didn(t learn a thing. I didn(t get
anything out of it.
The udge didn(t get any pleasure out of imposing such a harsh penalty.
*$ /et$$$ ot o. p.1. When 5ou use "or!e, pressure, or de!eit to 'et so0ethin', su!h as
in"or0ation or 0one5, "ro0 people, 5ou /et it ot o. the0.
They tortured him for days, but they couldn(t get any information out of
him.
It took me a while, but I got the whole story out of her.
go back on
go back on & goes back on going back on went back on gone back on
($ /o &ac0 on p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a pro0ise, but 5ou do not do #hat 5ou pro0ised to do,
5ou /o &ac0 on 5our pro0ise.
I promised to take my son to a baseball game, and I(m not going back on my word.
The ?resident went back on his pledge not to raise ta0es.
33
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go through with
go through with & goes through
with
going through
with
went through
with
gone through
with
($ /o thro/h 5ith p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e de!ided to
do e1en thou'h it 0a5 be dan'erous or unpleasant or others 0a5 ob)e!t, 5ou /o
thro/h 5ith it$
The spokeswoman said the company would go through with its plan to move the company to
Me0ico.
5espite his family(s opposition, /rik went through with his decision to Fuit his ob and start his own
business.
monke% around with
monke% around with & monke%s monke%ing monke%ed monke%ed
($ -on0e3 aron! 5ith p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou ad)ust or tr5 to repair 0e!hani!al de1i!es
e1en thou'h 5ou do not ha1e per0ission or do not ha1e the s7ill to do it properl5, 5ou
-on0e3 aron! 5ith the0.
I monke%ed around with my camera, and I think maybe I fi0ed it.
Frank was monke%ing around with my printer, and now it doesn(t work.
ECERCISE 8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. I(m not surprised that 'li stayed home from work today. 8esterday he thought he might be
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a !old.
2. &ast 5ear, the !o0pan5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM its plan to 0o1e "ro0 do#nto#n to the
suburbs.
3. 4B1e thou'ht and thou'ht, but 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an5 reason #h5 5our idea #onBt
#or7.
4. 2i<in' the lea7 in the roo" is 'oin' to be a bi' )ob, but 4 ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM it be"ore the ne<t rain.
. Ceather didnBt #ant to tell 0e #h5 she #as 0ad, but 4 "inall5 MMMMMMMM the reason
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
$. 4 donBt MMMMMMMM 0u!h satis"a!tion MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tea!hin' students #ho donBt #ant to be in
the !lass.
34
%. The e<planation "or our "ailure to sol1e this proble0 isnBt !o0pli!ated. 4t reall5 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a la!7 o" "undin'.
8. 4 thin7 5ou should ta7e 5our VC+ to a repair shop. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM it, 5ouBll )ust 0a7e it #orse.
*. 4B0 supposed to report "or )ur5 dut5 on 6onda5, but 4 donBt #ant to. 4B1e 'ot to thin7 o" a #a5 to
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
1/. Aou lied to 0e: Aou pro0ised 0e 5ou #ould ,uit s0o7in', and no# 5ouB1e MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5our #ord.
ECERCISE 8& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. To0 #as 1er5 ner1ous about 'ettin' 0arried, but he did it. What did To0 doH
2. We #ere in Paris "or "i1e da5s, but #e ne1er "ound ti0e to 'o to the ;i""el To#er. What
didnBt #e doH
3. 65 "ather said 4 had to !ut the 'rass, but 4 told hi0 4 #ould do it to0orro#. What did 4 doH
4. Iani!e reall5 li7es tea!hin' be!ause it 'i1es her a lot o" satis"a!tion. Wh5 does Iani!e li7e
tea!hin'H
. 6s. Cu00in's thou'ht o" a #a5 to 0anu"a!ture her !o0pan5Bs produ!ts 0ore !heapl5. What
did 6s. Cu00in's doH
$. There are 0an5 reasons #h5 one house sells "or a hi'her pri!e than other houses, but the 0ain
reason is the houseBs lo!ation. Wh5 does one house sell "or 0ore than anotherH
%. Aou "eel a little si!7 no#, and 5ou thin7 5ouBll ha1e a !old to0orro#. WhatBs happenin' to 5ou
toda5H
8. 4 donBt reall5 7no# #hat to do, but 4Bll tr5 to "i< the air !onditioner an5#a5. What #ill 4 do to the air
!onditionerH
*. 65 #i"e didnBt tal7 to 0e all da5, but she said nothin' #as #ron'. 4 as7ed her a'ain and a'ain #hat the
proble0 #as and she "inall5 told 0e. What did 4 doH
1/. +a,uel pro0ised -le< she #ould 'o to the dan!e #ith hi0, but she #ent #ith Carlos instead. What
did +a,uel doH
3
ECERCISE 8c' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
burn do#n,
!heat on,4
"ind out,
'o a"ter, 4
hand ba!7,
loo7 at,
loo7 up, 4
pile up,
plan "or, 4
point to, 4
put to, 4
#rap up, 4
1. WeB1e been at this 0eetin' all a"ternoon. 8onBt 5ou thin7 #e should MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and 'o
ho0eH
2. 4" #e send out % in1itations to the #eddin', and e1er5one #e in1ited brin's his or her spouse, #e
should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 1/ 'uests.
3. &5dia MMMMMMMM her best "riend "ro0 !olle'e MMMMMMMM #hen she #as in &as Ve'as.
4. The students #ho MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the test b5 #ritin' the ans#ers on their hands #ere
e<pelled "ro0 s!hool.
. This !a0era isnBt #or7in' ri'ht. 4B0 'oin' to ta7e it to Ii0 at the photo shop and as7 hi0 to
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit.
$. =ill #onBt be happ5 i" he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that 5ou s!rat!hed his !ar.
%. 65 sonBs thin7in' about MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his 0asterBs de'ree.
8. ;1iden!e 'athered a"ter the air plane !rash MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM en'ine "ailure as the !ause.
*. 4 reall5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM her, and she ad0itted that 4 #as ri'ht.
1/. WeBd better do the laundr5 soon? itBs startin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. The poli!e o""i!er MMMMMMMM 05 dri1erBs li!ense MMMMMMMM to 0e alon' #ith a ti!7et.
12. The dete!ti1e thin7s the o#ner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his restaurant "or the insuran!e 0one5.
ECERCISE 8! ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. Section 7 o. ho5 t5o9
5or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rononce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in E4ercise 8c a%o!
an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$
3$
:$ FOCUS ON< se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s 5ith %on/
o&,ects
We ha1e seen that the ob)e!t o" separable 1erbs !an be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the
parti!le or a"ter the parti!leG
!learG 4 %oo0e! + the #ord.
!learG 4 %oo0e! the #ord +$
When the ob)e!t is short > one #ord or )ust a "e# #ords in len'th > the 0eanin' is
!lear either #a5. Co#e1er, #hen the ob)e!t is se1eral #ords lon', it !an be a#7#ard and
!on"usin' to pla!e the ob)e!t bet#een the parti!lesG
clear$ I looked up the words that our teacher said were really important and would probably be on
the fiunal e0am. confusing$ ; looked the words that our teacher said were really important and would
probably be on the final e0am up.
4t boils do#n to the "ollo#in'.
Short ob)e!ts !an be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le or a"ter the parti!leG
"he put on her dress.
"he put her dress
on.
pronouns, su!h as hi0, her, and it 0ust be pla!ed bet#een the 1erb and the parti!leG
"he put it on.
and lon' ob)e!ts should be pla!ed a"ter the parti!le to a1oid !on"usionG
"he put on the new dress with the red, yellow, and blue flowers that she
bought last week for H3 percent off.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
cut up
cut up & cuts up cutting up cut up cut up
($ ct$$$ + p.1. When 5ou use a 7ni"e or pair o" s!issors to !ut so0ethin' so that there
are 0an5 s0all pie!es, 5ou ct it +$
The boy(s mother is cutting a piece of meat up for him.
I was so angry at her that I cut her picture up and flushed it down the toilet.
ct + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been ct +' it is ct +$
This steak is for 'unt 9athy, but give the cut-up one to Oncle Fred ! he doesn(t have any
teeth.
2M
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
hold up
hold up P holds up holdin' up held up held up
($ ho%!$$$ + p.1. When a #all, !olu0n, or other stru!ture supports the #ei'ht o"
so0ethin' abo1e it, su!h as a !eilin', it ho%!s it +$
The workers were killed when they removed a column holding the roof up.
The house was held up by acks the foundation was repaired.
"$ ho%!$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +revent so0ethin' "ro0 happenin' or !ause it to happen
late, 5ou ho%! it +$ When thin's or people dela5 5ou, the5 ho%! 5ou +$
The band hasn(t arrived yet, and they(re holding up the whole wedding.
I(m sorry I(m late. I was held up by traffic.
ho%!+ n. So0ethin' that pre1ents so0ethin' else "ro0 happenin' or !auses it to happen
late is a ho%!+$
.hy haven(t you finished this work yet1 .hat(s the holdup"
*$ ho%!$$$ + p.1. When 5ou use a 'un or other #eapon to rob a person, ban7, or
store, 5ou ho%! it +$ Stic0 + is the sa0e as ho%! +$
The ewelry store owner was held up by three men wearing ski
masks.
"ome idiot tried to hold the bank up with a s4uirt gun.
ho%!+ n. When so0eone uses a 'un or other #eapon to rob a person, ban7, or
store, it is a ho%!+$ - stic0+ is the sa0e as a ho%!+$
The robber fired his gun in the air and yelled, +This is a
holdup.+
There was a holdup at First #ational Aank this morning.
6$ ho%! + p.1. When an ob)e!t re0ains in 'ood !ondition a"ter hea15 use, it ho%!s
+$
These cheap shoes won(t hold up more than si0
weeks.
"ome Noman aFueducts have held up for 7,333 years.
7$ ho%! + p.1. When a plan, idea, or a'ree0ent is still belie1ed in or respe!ted a"ter a
period o" ti0e, it has he%! +$
/instein(s theories have held up despite occasional challenges.
The ceasefire is holding up longer than anyone e0pected.
let out
let out & lets out letting out let out let out
($ %et $$$ot p.1. When 5ou allo# ani0als or people to lea1e a pla!e b5 'i1in'
per0ission or openin' a door, 5ou %et the0 ot$
The guard lets the prisoners out of their cells every day at
*$33.
I opened the door and let the dog out.
38
"$ %et$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou 0a7e an ite0 o" !lothin' bi''er b5 !han'in' the sea-s, 5ou
%et it ot$
'fter I gained twenty pounds, I had to have all my pants let out.
The tailor let her old dress out so that she could wear it again.
*$ %et$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou revea% se!ret or sensiti1e in"or0ation, 5ou %et it ot$
This information is secret. 5on(t let it out.
I was furious when my secretary let out that I had interviewed for a new position.
6$ %et ot p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a sound that sho#s 5our e0otion or "eelin's, 5ou %et ot
that sound.
%eather knew )im was lying again, and let out a sigh.
The lion let out a loud roar before he attacked the
hunter.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
point out
point out < points out pointing out pointed out pointed out
($ +oint$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou brin' thin's or people to so0eoneBs attention or indi!ate the
lo!ation o" thin's or people #ith 5our hand or inde< "in'er, 5ou +oint the0 ot$
-s #e #al7ed throu'h the 0useu0, the tour 'uide +ointe! se1eral "a0ous paintin's ot$
3eneral Iohnston sho#ed the satellite photo to the reporter and +ointe! ot the ene05 tan7s.
"$ +oint $$$ot p.1. When 5ou are #ritin' or spea7in' and 5ou stress or e0phasiDe so0e
i0portant in"or0ation 5ou thin7 the reader or listener needs to 7no#, 5ou +oint ot the
in"or0ation.
I pointed several flaws out in ?rof. >hildress(s theory.
%e said that he thought my plan was basically good but that he wanted to point
out several possible problems.
run
run over & runs over running over ran over run over
($ rn over EtoF p.1. When 5ou run "ro0 #here 5ou are to #here so0eone else is, 5ou
rn over or rn over to that person.
I saw a man hitting a child, and I ran over and stopped him.
.hen I saw Melanie, I ran over to her and gave her a big hug.
"$ rn$$$ over p.1. When 5ou dri1e o1er people or thin's #ith a !ar, tru!7, or other 1ehi!le
!ausin' da0a'e, in)ur5, or death, 5ou rn the0 over$
)ohn was run over by a bus and killed.
I ran over a glass bottle and got a flat
tire.
3*
*$ rn over p.1. When li,uid in a !ontainer "ills the !ontainer and 'oes o1er the top, it rns
over$
9eep on eye on the bathtub so that it doesn(t run over.
There(s too much water in this pot. It(s going to run over the side.
6$ rn over p.1. When 5ou 'o be5ond a li0it, 5ou rn over or rn over the li0it.
I hope the **$33 meeting doesn(t run over5 I(m meeting a client for lunch at *7$33.
The speaker was given fifteen minutes for her speech, but she ran over.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
see
see about < sees about seeing about saw about seen about
($ see $$$ a&ot p.1. When 5ou tal7 to so0eone to 'et per0ission "or so0ethin' or to
arran'e so0ethin', 5ou see a&ot it or see so0eone a&ot it.
Is Guis going to see about changing his flight from the fifth to the si0th1
The carpet in my office is filth%. I need to see the maintenance guy about
getting it shampooed.
"$ see a&ot p.1. When 5ou are upset about a !han'e or a ne# poli!5, and 5ou #ant to sa5
that 5ou #ill ta7e so0e a!tion or tal7 to so0eone in authorit5 to pre1ent or re1erse the
!han'e or ne# poli!5, 5ou sa5 @4Bll see a&ot that@ or @WeBll see a&ot that.@
#ow they(re saying I can(t even smoke in my own office. I(ll see about
thatE
Those crooks in >ity %all want to double my real estate ta0es. .e(ll ust
see about that.
take apart
take apart & takes apart taking apart took apart taken apart
($ ta0e $$$ a+art p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 separate the parts o" so0ethin', 5ou ta0e it
a+art$ Ta0e a+art is the opposite o" +t to/ether$
I had to take my bike apart when I moved.
The mechanic took the engine apart.
take in
take in < takes in taking in took in taken in
($ ta0e $$$ in p.1. When 5ou brin' a !ar or other household applian!e to a 0e!hani! or
repair person, 5ou ta0e it in$
"ally took her car in to have the oil
changed.
The V>N is broken again. I need to take it
in.
"$ ta0e $$$ in p.1. When 5ou ta0e in a pla5, 0o1ie, 0useu0, or other attra!tion, 5ou 'o
to it or see it.
.e stopped in >harleston and took in the sights.
'fter dinner we took in a movie.
4/
*$ ta0e$$$ in p.1. When 5ou allo# people to li1e #ith 5ou, 5ou ta7e the0 in.
)udy(s brother had nowhere to go, so she took him in.
The =rtegas offered to take their neighbors in after the
fire.
6. take... in p.v. ,usually passive- .hen you are taken in by someone, that person
successfully tricks or deceives you.
"talin was taken in by %itler(s assurances.
They were completely taken in by )ake(s elaborate
hoa7.
7$ ta0e $$$ in p.1. When 5ou 0a7e an ite0 o" !lothin' s0aller b5 !han'in' the sea0s, 5ou
ta0e it in$ Q.R. STUVWXUSUYUZ[U Let ot $
"he likes some of her maternit% clothes so much that she(s going to take them in after the
baby is born.
If I lose any more weight, I(ll have to have all my pants taken in.
ECERCISE :a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. .hen the bullet hit him, he &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& a slight gasp and fell dead.
7. My friends were supposed to be here an hour ago. .hat is &&&&&&&& them MMMMMMMMH
2. .ill you please drive more carefullyE 8ou almost &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& that lady back there.
H. 'nn &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& that she was going to go to Gas Vegas with her boss, and the whole office was
talking about it.
D. Take two pounds of beef, &&&&&&&& it &&&&&&&&, and put it in a frying pan.
J. The e0pedition leader spoke to us and &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& the importance of taking plenty of water
with us in the desert.
M. =pen the gate and &&&&&&&& the horses &&&&&&&&.
K. I(m embarrassed to admit I was &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& by his lies.
L. 'fter Todd(s parents were killed, his 'unt )udy and Oncle %enry &&&&&&&& him
*3. The soldier was &&&&&&&&& his rifle &&&&&&&&& and cleaning it.
**. In /cuador I rode on a steam locomotive that(s still &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&after K3 years.
41
12. -"ter #e sa# the ;0pire State =uildin', #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a =road#a5 pla5.
13. These alu0inu0 polesMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe tent.
14. Ni!ole is at the !o0puter store MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM'ettin' 0ore 0e0or5 installed in her
!o0puter.
1. 4 had 05 old uni"or0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so that 4 !ould #ear it to the reunion.
1$. - robber MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a li,uor store #ith a shot'un last ni'ht.
1%. When 4 'ot into the tub, the #ater MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the side and onto the "loor,
18. The health depart0ent inspe!tor #al7ed around the restaurant and MMMMMMMM se1eral rats
MMMMMMMM to the o#ner.
1*. Ii0Bs phone #as rin'in', so 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to his des7 and ans#ered it.
2/. The suit #as too bi', but the storeBs tailor said he !ould MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
21. 4 heard a #eird noise !o0in' "ro0 05 !arBs trans0ission. 4 thin7 4Bd better MMMMMMMM 05 !ar
MMMMMMMM.
22. 4tBs an unusual arran'e0ent, but it has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or se1eral 5ears.
23. The !on"eren!e is s!heduled to end Tuesda5 at G//, but thereBs a 'ood !han!e that it #ill
24. 4 #as )ust noti"ied that 4B0 'oin' to be trans"erred to 6on'olia. WeBll MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM that: 4B0 'oin' to tal7 to the boss.
2. The robber #as shot #hile tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an o""-dut5 poli!e o""i!er.
ECERCISE :& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$
1. The !oo7 !ut up. Ethe 0eat, itF
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
7. The snowstorm held up. Bair travelers, themC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
42
3. 8onBt let out. Ethe do', itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
4. The real estate a'ent pointed out. Ethe s#i00in' pool, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
D. The truck ran over. Bthe man, himC F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
$. 4B0 'oin' to ta7e apart, Ethe bro7en door7nob, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
%. The tailor too7 in. Ethe pants, the0F F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
ECERCISE :c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 donBt li7e this hotel roo0. 4B0 'oin' to as7 the des7 !ler7 about !han'in' to a di""erent roo0. What
a0 4 'oin' to doH
2. No one belie1es in the s!ientistBs theories an50ore. What ha1enBt the s!ientistBs theories doneH
3. Iani!e is 'oin' to 0a7e her pants s0aller. What is she 'oin' to doH
4. 6r. (rte'a #as tri!7ed b5 the sales0an. What happened to 6r. (rte'aH
43
. - !ar dro1e o1er 5ou. What happened to 5ouH
$. The )e#eler sho#ed 0e se1eral "la#s in the dia0ond. What did the )e#eler doH
%. The 'a0e started late be!ause it #as rainin'. What did the rain doH
8. Susie is usin' s!issors to 0a7e se1eral s0all pie!es o" paper "ro0 a lar'er pie!e o" pap
What is Susie doin'H
*. The posts are supportin' the por!h. What are the posts doin'H
1/. The #o0an told the ban7 teller to 'i1e her all the 0one5 in the !ash re'ister or she #ould
shoot hi0. What did the #o0an doH
11. 4n Ouestion 1/, #hat happened at the ban7H
12. 4 put 05 bro7en TV in 05 !ar, dro1e to the repair shop, and !arried the TV in. What did to 05
TVH
13. =ill separated all the parts o" his t5pe#riter. What did =ill doH
14. There #as too 0u!h #ater in the bathtub, and it spilled onto the "loor. What did the #ater
doH
1. -"ter 05 parents died, 05 'randparents let 0e li1e #ith the0. What did 05 'randparents
doH
1$. 6r. Aoun' told so0e people about the se!ret in"or0ation. What did 6r. Aoun' do #ith the
se!ret in"or0ationH
1%. 4 sa# an e0pt5 lu''a'e !art at the airport, and 4 #ent to it ,ui!7l5 and 'rabbed it. What did 4
doH
18. When the thie" started to open the #o0anBs door, a s!rea0 !a0e "ro0 her 0outh. What did
the #o0an doH
1*. 4B1e been usin' this la#n 0o#er "or t#ent5-"i1e 5ears, and it still #or7s "ine. What has the
la#n 0o#er doneH
2/. The !o#bo5 opened the 'ate so that the !attle !ould lea1e the !orral. What did the !o#bo5
doH
21. 8r. S0ith #ent to a 0useu0 #hile he #as in +o0e. What did 8r. S0ith doH
22. The 0eetin' #as supposed to end at 2G//, but it hasnBt ended 5et. What is the 0eetin'
doin'H
23. 4B0 0a7in' 05 pants bi''er. What a0 4 doin'H
44
ECERCISE :!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
boil do#n to, $ "i'ure out, 1 'o throu'h #ith, $
!o0e do#n #ith, $ 'et around to, $ loo7 "or#ard to, 3
!o0e o"", 2 'et out o", $ 0on7e5 around #ith, $
!o0e up #ith, $ 'o a"ter, 4 put on, 1
doDe o"", 2 'o ba!7 on, $
*,* thought about what I was going to say to her, but when the time came, I was so nervous I
couldn(t&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&it.
7. The ?resident(s news conference didn(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& well because it revealed his poor
understanding of the situation.
2.* &&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& watching 'unt 9athy(s vacation videotape by saying I had to study for a
test.
H. I don(t usually &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& doing my >hristmas shopping
until 5ecember 7H. D. I(ve been &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& this broken refrigerator all day, but I still
don(t know what(s wrong with it. J. Me0ico >ity(s problems &&&&&&& &&&&&&& &&&&&& one thing ! too
many people.
M. %ave you seen my pen1 I can(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& what happened to it.
K. If you &&&&&&& a coat of paint &&&&&&&& that old house, it wouldn(t look so bad.
L. =ne police officer helped the mugging victim while her partner &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&the mugger.
*3. My son promised that he would stop cutting school, and so far he hasn(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&& &&&&&&&&
that promise.
**. The company &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& a way to decrease labor costs without lowering wages.
*7. I have never been to Thailand, and I(m really &&&&&& &&&&&& &&&&&& going there.
*2. "he was so tired she &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& as soon as she sat down.
*H. The show was canceled after the star &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&& laryngitis.
HD
#$ FOCUS ON< +resent +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s
The present perfect is used to talk about the past and the present at the same time$
The5 ha1e torn !o5n the buildin'. EThe buildin' is not there no# be!ause
the5 tore it do#n in the past.F
or to say that something is completed$
"he has picked out some library books.
The present perfect is formed with have, or when the subect is he, she, it, or the
name of one person or thing, has, and the past participle of the verb$
present$ The tree falls over.
past$ The tree fell over.
present perfect$ The tree has fallen over.
+e0e0ber that ha1e !an be !o0bined #ith pronouns as B1eG
The5B1e ne1er hear! o" hi0. and has #ith
nouns and pronouns asBsG
The tree(s fallen over.
%e(s never heard of her.
Ae careful not to confuse the(s contraction of has and the(s contraction of is$
"he(s picked out some library books. B"he has...C
"he(s picking out some library books. B"he is...C
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
burn
out
burn out < burns out burning out burned out burned out
($ &rn ot p.1. When a "ire, !andle, or other "la0e stops burnin' be!ause it has no 0ore
"uel, it &rns ot$
.e need more wood@ the fire has burned out.
5on(t worry@ the sun won(t burn out for another four billion years.
&rne!9ot part.ad). -"ter a "ire, !andle, or other "la0e stops burnin' be!ause it has no 0ore
"uel, it is &rne!9ot$
The burned-out rocket landed in the ocean.
burned-out part.ad. .hen people are e0tremely tired, either physically or psycho-
logically, because of stress or hard work, they are burned-out.
Teaching those awful students for so many years has left him burned-out.
Taking care of four small children day after day would leave any mother burned-
out.
HJ
"$ &rn ot p.1. When a li'ht bulb stops produ!in' li'ht be!ause it has rea!hed the end
o" its use"ul li"e, it &rns ot$
These new bulbs are guaranteed not to burn out for ten years. I
can(t see what I(m doing because this bulb has burned out.
&rne!9ot part.ad). - li'ht bulb that no lon'er produ!es li'ht be!ause it has rea!hed
the end o" its use"ul li"e is &rne!9ot$
; climbed the ladder and unscrewed the burned-out bulb.
*$ &rn $$$ot p.1. When people are "or!ed to lea1e their ho0e or so0e other shelter
or hidin' pla!e be!ause o" "ire or "ire da0a'e, the5 are &rne! ot$
The only way to get the enemy soldiers out of the tunnels was to burn them out.
"even families were burned out of their homes by the huge fire.
&rne!9ot part.ad). So0ethin' that has been da0a'ed or destro5ed b5 "ire is
&rne!9ot$
'fter the war, nothing was left but burned-out cars and buildings.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
fall over
fall over < falls over falling over fell over fallen over
($ .a%% over p.1. When people or thin's .ai% o1er, the5 "all to the 'round "ro0 an upri'ht
position.
That tree has been dead for fifty years, but it still hasn(t fallen over.
I almost fell over when I heard the terrible news.
"$ .a%% over p.1. When 5ou .a%% over 5oursel" or Eusuall5F .a%% all over 5oursel", 5ou tr5 so
hard to ser1e so0eone or to 0a7e so0eone li7e 5ou that 5ou appear "oolish.
The supervisor fell all over himself trying to satisfy the
customer.
Mike was falling all over himself trying to impress %eather.
fight back
fight back & fights back fighting back fought back fought back
($ .i/ht &ac0 p.1. When 5ou "i'ht ba!7, 5ou "i'ht, either ph5si!all5 or #ith #ords, so0eone
or so0ethin' that atta!7ed 5ou "irst.
The soldiers fought back bravely, but the situation was hopeless.
'fter being accused of corruption, the senator said she would fight back and
prove her innocence.
"$ .i/ht &ac0 p.1. When 5ou .i/ht &ac0 an e0otional response, su!h as tears or "ear, 5ou
tr5 1er5 hard to o1er!o0e the e0otion.
The mother fought back tears when she saw the little white coffins.
I had to fight back the urge to punch him in the nose.
4%
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hear of
hear of & hears of hearing of heard of heard of
($ hear o. p.1. When 5ou learn about so0ethin' "or the "irst ti0e, 5ou hear o. it.
5o I know Fred "mith1 #o, I(ve never heard of him.
I told my real estate agent, +If you hear of a good deal on a three-bedroom
house, please call me right away.+
"$ hear o. p.1. When 5ou learn in"or0ation about so0ethin' that 0a7es 5ou an'r5 and
5ou sa5 5ou #ill not hear o. it, 5ou 0ean that 5ou #ill not tolerate or allo# it.
=ur daughter wants to fly to Me0ico with her boyfriend1
I won(t hear of itE I told him that his scheme was outrageous and that I wouldn(t
hear of such a thing.
pick
out
pick out & picks out picking out picked out picked out
($ +ic0$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou !hoose so0ethin' "ro0 a 'roup be!ause 5ou pre"er it to the
others in the 'roup, 5ou +ic0 it ot$
%ave you picked out a dress to wear to the party yet1
Mike(s dog had puppies, and he asked me to pick one out.
"$ +ic0$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou are able to "ind and re!o'niDe so0ethin' in a 'roup, 5ou
+ic0 it ot$
/ven though the class photo was fifty years old, # picked my father out easily. The
police detective asked me if I could pick the mugger out from a group of photos.
ring up
ring up & rings up ringing up rang up rung up
($ rin/ $$$ + p.1. When 5ou #ant to bu5 so0ethin' in a store, a !ashier uses a !ash
re'ister to rin/ + #hat 5ou #ant to bu5 in order to deter0ine ho# 0u!h 0one5 5ou
0ust pa5.
.ell, I guess I(ll take this one. >an you ring it up please1
I couldn(t believe it when the clerk finished ringing it all up ! :LHJE
"$ rin/ $$$ + p.1. E0ainl5 =ritishF When 5ou !all people on the telephone, 5ou rin/ the0
+$
%e rang up #ancy and asked her to go to the dance.
If you need a ride, ring me up when you arrive at the airport.
tear down
tear down & tears down tearing down tore down torn down
($ tear$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou tear !o5n a buildin', 5ou deliberatel5 and !o0pletel5
destro5 it.
48
They tore so many old buildings down in my hometown that I barely recogni6e it.
' lot of smaller homes in the suburbs are being torn down and replaced with
larger ones.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
work
work in & works in working in worked in worked in
($ 5or0$$$ in p.1. When 5ou 0a7e roo0, #ith so0e di""i!ult5, "or so0ethin' in a
s!hedule or plan, 5ou 5or0 it in$
.e(re going to be in >hicago for only a couple of days, but I(ll try to work in a >ubs game. I told
him my schedule was pretty tight, but that I(d try to work the meeting in.
ECERCISE #a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. The Geaning Tower of ?isa still hasn(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&.
7. /very year I have to replace the >hristmas tree lights that have &&&&&&&& &&&&&
2. The enemy was so strong that there was no way we could have &&&&&&&&
H.* don(t have time to talk about it now. I(ll &&&&&&&& you &&&&&&&& after dinner.
D. "arah always tries to &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& a little sightseeing on her business trips.
J. My brother is pretty easy to &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& in a crowd ! he(s almost seven feet tall.
M. If you haven(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& a video yet, you(d better hurry ! the store(s closing in five
minutes.
K. The firefighters decided to let the fire in the lumberyard &&&&&&&& itself&&&&&&&&.
L. That cashier has been yakking with his friends for ten minutes and still hasn(t &&&&&&&& our
stuff &&&&&&&&.
*3. ' screen door on a submarine1 That(s the most ridiculous thing I(ve ever &&&&&&&&
**. .hen I told the waiter I was the owner of the restaurant, he &&&&&&&& all &&&&&&&& himself
trying please me.
4*
12. The ta!o stand 0o1ed a!ross the street a"ter it #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the "ire.
13. When 4 "ound out that one o" 05 e0plo5ees !heated a !usto0er, 4 said 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM su!h a thin' in 05 store.
14. 4 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 "ear as 4 #aited "or 05 turn to )u0p "ro0 the plane,
1. The5Bll ha1e to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 0ost o" the buildin's that #ere da0a'ed b5
the earth,ua7e.
ECERCISE #& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. The sheri"" burned out. Ethe es!aped !on1i!ts, the0F F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
2. =ill has pi!7ed out. Ea ne# !ar, oneF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
2. The clerk hasn(t rung up yet. Bthese >5s, themC F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
4. The ne# o#ners ha1e torn do#n. Ethe 'ara'e, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
. The 0a5or tried to #or7 in. Ea tour o" the "a!tor5, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
/
ECERCISE #c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e
a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +resent +er.ect$
1. 4 as7ed 05 "ather i" 4 !ould s0o7e in the house, and he be!a0e an'r5 and said he #ouldnBt
allo# it. What did 05 "ather sa5 about s0o7in' in the houseH
2. The "orest "ire has stopped be!ause there arenBt an5 0ore trees le"t to burn. What has the
"ire doneH
3. The !ashier has totaled ho# 0u!h #e 0ust pa5 "or our 'ro!eries. What has the !ashier doneH
4. The5 ha1e !hosen a hotel "or their #eddin' re!eption. What ha1e the5 doneH
. Sall5Bs 0other !ouldnBt stop her tears. What !ouldnBt Sall5Bs 0other doH
$. (ne o" 05 !arBs headli'hts isnBt #or7in' an50ore. What did the headli'ht doH
%. 4n Ouestion $, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the headli'htH
8. The sta!7 o" boo7s #as too hi'h, and no# the boo7s are on the "loor. What did the boo7s doH
*. The !o""ee shop had to 0o1e to a di""erent lo!ation be!ause o" a "ire. What happened to the
!o""ee shopH
1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !o""ee shopBs pre1ious lo!ationH
11. -"ter the5 atta!7ed us, #e didnBt atta!7 the0. What didnBt #e doH
12. 4B1e 0ade roo0 in 05 bus5 da5 "or a 'a0e o" tennis. What ha1e 4 doneH
13. She hasnBt !alled 0e on the telephone. What hasnBt she doneH
14. The5B1e !o0pletel5 destro5ed the old "a!tor5. What ha1e the5 doneH
1. The ser'eant tried e<tre0el5 hard to sho# the !aptain ho# #ell he #as trainin' the soldiers.
What did the ser'eant doH
1$. 4 as7ed Ii0 i" an5one had e1er told hi0 about the ne# sea"ood restaurant in the 0all.
What did 4 as7 Ii0H
1
ECERCISE #!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!ut up, % 'o in "or, 3 point out, % see about, %
"all "or, 2 hold up, % pull throu'h, 2 sho# up, 1
'et o1er #ith, 3 let out, % put up #ith, 3 ta7e apart, %
'i1e in, 2 loo7 up, 4 run o1er, % ta7e in, %
1. 65 bi!5!le #as reall5 dirt5, so 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and !leaned it.
2. it #as a 1er5 serious in)ur5, and no one e<pe!ted +aul to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
3. 4B1e been #aitin' "or the TV repair 'u5 all da5, but he still hasnBt MMMMMMMM
4. 4 "eel )ust a#"ul. 4 #as dri1in' to #or7, and 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a do'.
. The dete!ti1es #erenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the !roo7Bs e<planation.
$. The dete!ti1es didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !roo7Bs e<planation.
%. 6rs. Ta5lorBs husband doesnBt ha1e an5 teeth, so she has to MMMMMMMM all his "oodMMMMMMMM.
8. The "rei'ht train MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tra""i! "or t#ent5 0inutes, so #e #ere late "or #or7.
*. 4n his report 5esterda5, the head o" 0ar7etin' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM se1eral #a5s to in!rease the
!o0pan5Bs sales.
1/. 4. MMMMMMM the #ord 4nternet MMMMMMMM in an old di!tionar5, but 4 !ouldnBt "ind it.
11. SusieBs 0other told her, @4B0 not 'oin' to MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM o" this house until 5ou "inish
5our ho0e#or7.@
12. The !o0pan5 "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to de0ands that it hire 0ore #o0en and 0inorities.
13. 4B0 ha1in' root !anal sur'er5 ne<t #ee7. 4Bll be 'lad to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
14. 8a1id !alled the tra1el a'en!5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'ettin' his ti!7et !han'ed.
2
*D. 9aren loves to ski. In fact, she&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& most winter sports.
*J. Aetty told the doctor she couldn(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& the pain any longer, and she asked him
for morphine.
D$ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s that re>ire
an a!!itiona% +artic%e 5hen se! 5ith an o&,ect' (
With so0e t#o-#ord 1erbs 5ou 0ust use a se!ond parti!le #hen the 1erb has an ob)e!tG
The criminal broke out.
The criminal broke out prison.
The criminal broke out of prison.
Tom and )erry don(t get along.
Tom and )erry don(t get along each other.
Tom and )erry don(t get along with each other.
So0eti0es, as #ith &rea0 ot and &rea0 ot o", there is no !han'e in 0eanin'.
So0eti0es, as #ith han/ + and han/ + on, there is a s0all !han'e in 0eanin'. -nd
so0eti0es, as #ith hoo0 + and hoo0 + to, the se!ond parti!le is ne!essar5 not #hen
there is one ob)e!t but onl5 #hen there are t#oG
I hooked up my new >5 player.
I hooked up my new >5 player my stereo.
I hooked up my new >5 player to my stereo.
There is no 'ood #a5 to al#a5s 7no# #hi!h se!ond parti!le 0ust be used or i" and ho# it
#ill !han'e the 0eanin' o" the 1erb. The best thin' to do is to si0pl5 0e0oriDe ea!h
!ase.
Throu'hout this boo7, t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs that re,uire an additional parti!le #hen
used #ith an ob)e!t are sho#n #ith the se!ond parti!le in parenthesesG
&rea0 ot Eo"F.
8o not !on"use t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs that re,uire an additional parti!le #hen used
#ith an ob)e!t #ith three-#ord phrasal 1erbs. Three-#ord phrasal 1erbs al#a5s ha1e
three #ords > there is no t#o-#ord 1ersion, or i" there is a phrasal 1erb #ith the sa0e
1erb and "irst parti!le, it has a di""erent 0eanin' and is !lassi"ied as a di""erent 1erb. 2or
e<a0ple, &rea0 ot and &rea0 ot Eo"F are in!luded in one de"inition be!ause the5 ha1e
the sa0e 0eanin', but +t + and +t + 5ith ha1e di""erent 0eanin's and are
!lassi"ied separatel5.
3
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
break out
breakout & breaks
out
breaking out broke out broken out
($ &rea0 ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou es!ape "ro0 a pla!e #here 5ou are a prisoner, 5ou &rea0
ot or &rea0 ot o" that pla!e.
Aubba broke out of prison last month.
The police have been looking for him ever since he broke out.
&rea0ot n. -n es!ape "ro0 prison is a &rea0ot$
There hasn(t been a successful breakout from the state prison in more
than twenty-five years.
($ &rea0ot p.1. When "i'htin' be'ins suddenl5, it &rea0s ot$
Nioting broke out after the general canceled the election.
Millions wilt be killed if nuclear war breaks out.
catch up
catch up & catches catching up caught up caught up
($ catch + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou 0o1e "aster and rea!h the sa0e le1el or pla!e as people
#ho had been 0o1in' "aster or doin' better than 5ou #ere, 5ou catch + or catch + #ith
the0.
.e left an hour before Guis, but he drove fast and Fuickly caught up.
'fter missing several weeks of class, NaFuel is so far behind that she(ll never catch up.
?epsi has caught up with >oca->ola in some markets.
The mugger was running so fast that the angry mob couldn(t catch up with him.
ca/ht + part.ad). -"ter 5ou ha1e 0o1ed "aster and rea!hed the sa0e le1el or pla!e as
people #ho had been 0o1in' "aster or doin' better than 5ou are, 5ou are ca/ht +$
.hen I was sick, I missed a lot of schoolwork, but I worked hard and now
I(m caught up.
($ catch + EonF p.1. When 5ou stud5 or learn so0ethin' 5ou are interested in but ha1e not
had ti0e "or, 5ou catch + on it.
I wonder what the latest gossip is. Get(s call Michael so we can catch up. 'fter I
returned from vacation, I read the newspaper to catch up on the local news.
ca/ht + part.ad). -"ter 5ou ha1e studied or learned so0ethin' 5ou are interested in but
ha1e not had ti0e "or, 5ou are ca/ht +$
#ow that I(ve read the newspapers I missed while I was on vacation, I(m caught up.
4
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
chicken out
chicken out & chickens out chickening out chickened out chickened out
($ chic0en ot Eo"F p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou do not do so0ethin' be!ause 5ou are a"raid,
5ou chic0en ot or chic0en ot o" it.
; was going to ask %eather to go to the dance with me, but I chickened
out. Miguel(s mad at himself because he chickened out of asking his
boss for a raise yesterday.
get along
get along & gets along getting along got along gotten/got
($ /et a%on/ E#ithF p.1. When 5ou /et a%on/ #ith people, 5ou ha1e pea!e"ul, har0onious
relations #ith the0. Eet on is si0ilar to /et a%on/$
)im and his cousin aren(t good friends, but they get
along.
I haven(t gotten along with my neighbors for years.
"$ /et a%on/ p.1. When 5ou are able to do so0e sort o" #or7 #ithout an5 serious
proble0s, 5ou /et a%on/$
%ow are you getting along in your new ob1
=h, I(m getting along okay, thank you.
give up
give up & gives up giving up gave up given up
($ /ive + EonF p.1. When 5ou stop tr5in' to do so0ethin' be!ause 5ou thin7 5ou #ill
ne1er su!!eed, 5ou /ive + or /ive + on it.
Forget itE This is impossible ! I give up!
I(ve tried for years to have a nice looking lawn, but I(ve ust given up on it.
8. give... up p.v. .hen you are running from or fighting with the police or enemy
soldiers and you surrender, you give up or give yourself up.
.hen the bank robbers reali6ed they were surrounded by police, they gave up.
The suspect got tired of hiding from the police, and he gave himself up.
9. give ...up p.v. .hen you stop doing something you do regularly, such as a sport or
a ob, you give it up.
My father didn(t give sky diving up until he was eighty-two.
I had to give up my second ob because I was so e0hausted all the time.
hang up
hang up & hangs
up
hanging up hung up hung up
($ han/ + EonF p.1. When 5ou stop tal7in' on the telephone and put do#n the re!ei1er, 5ou han/
+ the telephone. When 5ou are an'r5 and han/ + the telephone #ithout sa5in' 'ood-b5e to
so0eone, 5ou han/ + on the person 5ou are tal7in' to.

'fter I finished talking to her, I said good-bye and hung up.


.hen he called me a moron, I got so mad I hung up on
him.
"$ han/ $$$ + p.1. When 5ou han' so0ethin' in a hi'h pla!e so that it !annot tou!h the
'round, 5ou han/ it +$
.hen I get home, the first thing I do is hang my coat up.
Timmy never hangs anything up5 he ust leaves it on the floor.
hn/ + part.ad). -"ter 5ou ha1e hun' so0ethin' in a hi'h pla!e so that it !annot tou!h
the 'round, it is hn/ +$
Timmy, why are your clothes on the floor and not hung up"
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hook up
hook up & hooks up hooking up hooked up hooked up
($ hoo0$$$ + FtoG p.1. When 5ou !onne!t one ele!troni! de1i!e to another, 5ou hoo0 it +
or hoo0 it + to so0ethin'.
; bought a new printer, but I haven(t hooked it up yet.
I hooked my sound system up to my TV, and now the TV is in stereo.
hoo0e! + part.ad). -"ter one ele!troni! de1i!e has been !onne!ted to another, it is
hoo0e! +$
There(s a V>N on my TV, but don(t try to use it because it(s not hooked up.
hookup n. . hookup is an electrical connection.
The cable TV hookup usually costs :73, but it(s free this month.
($ hoo0 + E#ithF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 0eet people so0e#here, usuall5 a"ter 5ou
ha1e done so0e thin's separatel5, 5ou hoo0 + or hoo0 + #ith the0.
8ou do your shopping, I(ll go to the post office, and we(ll hook up around 7$23,
okay1
I(ll hook up with you at *7$33 at the corner of "tate and Madison, and we(ll have
lunch.
work
work up & works up working up worked up worked up
($ 5or0 + EtoF p.1. When 5ou 'raduall5 i0pro1e at so0ethin' di""i!ult that 5ou do
re'ularl5, 5ou 5or0 + to that i0pro1e0ent.
8ou can(t lift 733 pounds on your first day of weight training. 8ou have to work up to
it.
.hen I started running, I couldn(t go more than a mile, but now I(ve worked up to five
miles.
"$ 5or0 + p.1. When 5ou 'raduall5 de1elop the ener'5, !on"iden!e, !oura'e, and so on,
to do so0ethin' di""i!ult or so0ethin' 5ou do not #ant to do, 5ou 5or0 + the
$
ener'5, !on"iden!e, !oura'e, and so on. When 5ou 'raduall5 de1elop a "eelin', 5ou 5or0 +
the "eelin'.
It took me a long time to work up the nerve to ask my boss for a
raise.
If I work up some energy, I(ll wash the car.
I really worked up a sweat in the gym today.
Naking leaves all day sure works up an appetite.
5or0e! + part.ad). Jin"or0alK When 5ou are an<ious, #orried, or upset about
so0ethin', 5ou are 5or0e! + or 5or0e! + about it.
Mark has been acting nervous all day. .hat(s he all worked up about1
Nela0, we(re only a few minutes late. It(s nothing to get worked up
about.
ECERCISE Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 65 elbo# has 'otten so bad that 4 thin7 4 0i'ht ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tennis.
2. -"ter se1eral 5ears o" tension bet#een the t#o !ountries, #ar MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 1*%2.
3. 6aria, ho# are 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM at 5our ne# )obH
4.1 a0 so laD5 toda5. 4 )ust !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ener'5 to "inish 05 s!hool pro)e!t.
. The 0urderer #as tired o" runnin' "ro0 the poli!e, and he MMMMMMMM hi0sel"MMMMMMMM.
$. The other runners #ere so "ar ahead that 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. Susie,MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM5our !lothes ri'ht no#:
8. 2or a lon' ti0e 4 !ould t5pe onl5 around t#ent5-"i1e #ords per 0inute, but 4B1e slo#l5 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM to si<t5.
*. 4B0 reall5 behind in 05 #or7. 4" 4 donBt ta7e #or7 ho0e #ith 0e, 4Bll ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1/. &5dia is a ni!e, eas5'oin' person. Aou #onBt ha1e an5 trouble MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
11. 4 tried and tried to learn to spea7 Iapanese, but 4 "inall5MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
12. Cello 6ar7H 4B0 reall5 an'r5, and 4B1e 'ot so0e thin's to tell 5ou, and donBt 5ou dare
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMon 0e:
%
13. 8an is so sh5. Ce #as supposed to 'i1e a spee!h toda5 at s!hool, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
14. (7a5, hereBs the planG Aou 'o to the boo7store, 4Bll 'et 05 laundr5, and #eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
around 11G//.
1. 4 #onder #hatBs been happenin' #hile #e #ere on 1a!ation. 4 thin7 4Bll read the ne#spaper so 4 !an
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1$. This is a 0a<i0u0 se!urit5 prison. No one has e1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1%. =ob tried to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 ne# dish#asher, but he didnBt do it ri'ht, and he "looded the
7it!hen.
ECERCISE D& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. 4 !alled 05 'irl"riend to apolo'iDe "or "or'ettin' her birthda5, but she hun' up MMMMMMM 0e.
2. When 4 started li"tin' #ei'hts, 4 !ould li"t onl5 thirt5 7ilo'ra0s, but little b5 little 4 #or7ed up
MMMMMMMM"i"t5.
3. CeBs 1er5 si!7, but the do!tors ha1enBt 'i1en up MMMMMMMM hi0 5et.
4. So"ia #as 'oin' to blea!h her hair, but she !hi!7ened outMMMMMMMM it.
. 8onBt in1ite Car0en to +osaBs birthda5 part5. The5 donBt 'et alon' MMMMMMMM ea!h other.
$. The ban7 robber #as !arr5in' 2,/// ,uarters, so it #as eas5 "or the poli!e !at!h up MMMMMMMM
hi0.
%. No prisoner has e1er bro7en out MMMMMMMM this prison.
8. 4 need a di""erent !able to hoo7 05 0onitor up MMMMMMMM 05 !o0puter.
*. AouB1e been 'one a lon' ti0e, and 5ou ha1e to !at!h up MMMMMMMM a lot o" thin's.
ECERCISE Dc ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. Toni'ht 4B0 'oin' to tr5 to hoo7 up. E05 "a< 0a!hine, itF
8
7. 'fter my accident, I had to give up. Bscuba diving, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. 8ou can hang up in the closet, Byour coat, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE D! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an!
nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. When 4 #ent on 1a!ation three #ee7s a'o, 05 sister and her husband #ere tal7in' about
'ettin' a di1or!e. No# that 4B0 ba!7 "ro0 1a!ation, 4 #ant to 7no# #hat happened #hile 4
#as 'one. What do 4 #ant to doH
7. Gydia has to stop driving because her eyesight is so bad. .hat does Gydia have to do1
3. Susie #as #al7in' #ith us, but she stopped to loo7 in a store #indo#, and #e !ontinued
#al7in'. What does Susie need to do no#H
H. I spilled wine on your white carpet, and you became angry and upset. %ow would you
describe yourself1
D. >onnecting a printer to a computer is easy. .hat is easy1
J. In Puestion D, how would you describe the printer after it is connected to a computer1
M. "everal prisoners are going to try to escape from the state prison tonight. .hat are the
prisoners going to try to do tonight1
K. In Puestion M, if the prisoners are successful, what would their escape be called1
L. Ginda and #icole don(t like each other, and they argue sometimes. .hat don(t Ginda and #icole
do1
DL
1/. We ar'ued #ith our dau'hter "or 0onths, but #e stopped tr5in' to 'et her to stop s0o7in'. What
did #e doH
11. 2i'hts start in that bar all the ti0e. What happens in that bar all the ti0eH
12. Paul slo#l5 de1eloped the !oura'e to as7 his boss "or a raise. What did Paul doH
13. 4n Ouestion 12, #hat didnBt Paul doH
14. The poli!e told the robber to surrender. What did the poli!e tell the robberH
1. 9aren is tr5in' to 'raduall5 be able to li"t 1// pounds. What is 9aren doin'H
1$. =ett5 #as so an'r5 #ith her bo5"riend that she put the telephone re!ei1er do#n #ithout
sa5in' 'ood-b5e. What did =ett5 do to her bo5"riendH
ECERCISE De' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
burn out, 8 "ind out, pi!7 out, 8 rin' up, 8
!heat on,4 hand ba!7, pile up, run into, 1
"all o1er, 8 hear o", 8 point to, 4 tear do#n, 8
"i'ht ba!7, 8 loo7 at, put to, 4 #or7 in, 8
1. Who is heH 4B1e ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0 be"ore, and 4 donBt 7no# an5thin' about hi0.
2. 65 0ail MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hile 4 #as on 1a!ation.
3. Than7s "or all 5our help. 4B0 sorr5 to MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM so 0u!h trouble.
4. That dead tree is rotten. 4B0 surprised it hasnBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM5et.
. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM se1eral !ars last #ee7end, but 4 !anBt de!ide #hi!h one to bu5,
$. Can 5ou help 0e MMMMMMMM a tie MMMMMMMM to #ear #ith this shirtH
%. What a surprise: 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 "i"th 'rade tea!her at the 0all toda5.
8. Charles MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a beauti"ul 6er!edes-=enD a!ross the street and said it #as his.
*. (7a5, !lass, 5ouB1e 'ot until the bell rin's. When 5ouBre "inished #ith 5our tests,MMMMMMM the0
MMMMMMMM to 0e.
$/
1/. ;1er5one in to#n 7no#s that Ia7e has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his #i"e "or 5ears.
11. 4B0 not sure i" there #ill be ti0e to 0eet #ith 5ou toda5, but 4Bll tr5 to MMMMMMMM it
12. The in1asion #as so sudden that there #as no #a5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. The !ashierMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMour stu"" and said, @That !o0es to N142.$.@
14. =obBs not in a 'ood 0ood toda5. Ce )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that he needs sur'er5.
1. 4t #as "un to 1isit 05 ho0eto#n, but 4 #as sad to see that 05 old house #as bein'
1$. 4 need to bu5 a ne# 1//-#att bulb? this one MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5esterda5.
1/. 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s se! as nons' (
6an5 t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs !an be used as nouns. -ll the 1erbs in this se!tion ha1e a
noun "or0. Noti!e that the t#o-#ord noun is so0eti0es #ritten #ith a h5phenG
1erbG /o ahea!
nounG /o9ahea!
and so0eti0es as one #ordG
1erb< %a3 o..
noun< %a3o..
.n"ortunatel5, there is no rule that #ill help 5ou to al#a5s 7no# #hi!h "or0 to use. -lso, not
e1er5one a'rees #hi!h nouns should be h5phenated and #hi!h should be #ritten as one
#ord, so 5ou #ill o!!asionall5 see a noun #ritten both #a5s.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
fall off
fall off < falls off falling off fell off fallen off
($ .a%% o.. p.1. When people or thin's drop to a lo#er le1el "ro0 a hi'her pla!e, the5 .a%%
o"" the pla!e #here the5 #ere.
The dish fell off the table and broke.
Ae careful you don(t fall off your
bicycle.
$1
,andouts of food and clothing were given to the homeless people.
/ven though my father was poor, he was too proud to ask for a handout.
han!ot n. Printed 0aterial 'i1en to students or other people to pro1ide the0 #ith
i0portant in"or0ation.
The teacher prepared a handout for his students.
There are several handouts on a table by the library entrance.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
kick
back
kick back & kicks back kicking back kicked back kicked back
($ 0ic0 &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou 0ic0 &ac0 0one5 or 0ic0 &ac0 0one5 to
businesspeople or 'o1ern0ent o""i!ials, 5ou ille'all5 and se!retl5 'i1e the0 a
per!enta'e o" the 0one5 that the5 spend #ith 5our !o0pan5 as a re#ard "or 'i1in'
5ou the business.
The prosecutor said that D percent of every contract was kicked back to the head of the
purchasing department.
"he offered to kick back *3 percent if I(d switch to her company.
0ic0&ac0 n. 6one5 5ou ille'all5 and se!retl5 'i1e to businesspeople or 'o1ern0ent
o""i!ials as a re#ard "or 'i1in' 5ou business is a 0ic0&ac0$
The FAI agent heard the governor asking for a kickback. The
reporter discovered that the loan was really a kickback.
"$ 0ic0 &ac0 p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 0ic0 &ac0' 5ou rela<.
It(s been a tough week. Tonight I(m going to buy a case of beer and kick back.
Get(s kick back and watch the football game tonight.
la% off
la% off & la%s off la%ing off laid off laid off
($ %a3$$$ o.. p.1. When a !o0pan5 no lon'er needs #or7ers be!ause it does not ha1e enou'h
business, it te0poraril5 or per0anentl5 %a3s o"" the #or7ers.
Ford laid off 73,333 workers during the last recession. My wife
had to go back to work after I was laid off from my ob.
%a3o.. n. Iobs !ut b5 a !o0pan5 be!ause it does not ha1e enou'h business are
%a3o..s$
The company said there wouldn(t be any la%offs despite the decline in profits.
"$ %a3 o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou %a3 o.. people, 5ou stop !riti!iDin', teasin', or pressurin'
the0.
8ou(ve been bugging me all day. If you don(t la% off you(re going to be sorry.
1a% off #ancy ! she(s having a bad day.
$4
*$ %a3 o.. p.1. When 5ou %a3 o.. so0ethin', su!h as a "ood or an a!ti1it5, 5ou stop
!onsu0in' the "ood, or doin' the a!ti1it5.
Gisten to the way you(re coughing. 8ou(ve got to la% off cigarettes.
'fter #ed had a heart attack, he laid off cheese and butter sandwiches.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
screw
up
screw up & screws up screwing up screwed up screwed up
($ scre5$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou da0a'e so0ethin' or do so0ethin' #ron' or
badl5, 5ou scre5 + or 5ou scre5 + #hat 5ou are doin'.
; tried to fi0 my computer, but I couldn(t do it, and I ust screwed it up
instead.
Mark sent his wife a letter that he wrote to his girlfriend. %e sure screwed
up.
scre5e! + part.ad). When people or thin's are scre5e! up, the5 are da0a'ed or
!on"used.
My back is so screwed up I can(t even walk.
Ieorge was a nice guy, but a little screwed up in the
head.
scre5+ n. - proble0 or !on"used situation !aused b5 so0eoneBs 0ista7e is a
scre5+$
Two babies were switched because of a screwup in the maternity ward. There
was a screwup in the finance department, and the bill was paid twice.
"$ scre5$$$ + p.1.Jin"or0alK When people 0a7e a 0ista7e that !auses a proble0 "or 5ou,
the5 scre5 5ou +$
The travel agent forgot to reconfirm my flight, and it really screwed me
up.
8ou really screwed me up when you lost my car keys.
ECERCISE ()a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The tea!her as7ed 0e to MMMMMMMM the e<a0s MMMMMMMM.
2. Wh5 donBt 5ou let a 0e!hani! "i< the !arH 4" 5ou tr5 to do it 5oursel", 5ouBll )ust MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMM.
3. Nobod5 li7es the ne# priest in our !hur!h, and attendan!e has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. 65 "eet #ere 7illin' 0e a !ouple o" #ee7s a'o, so 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM )o''in' "or a #hile, and no#
the5Bre "ine.
. 4t reall5 MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM #hen 5ou told 05 boss #hat 4 said about hi0.
$
$. The (rte'a\s #onBt ta7e a 1a!ation this 5ear be!ause 6r. (rte'a has been MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM and the5 need to sa1e 0one5.
%. When 6other #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, there #asnBt an5 TV. People #ent to the 0o1ies or
read instead.
8. The head o" pur!hasin' at 05 !o0pan5 #ent to )ail be!ause he 0ade all the suppliers
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N2,/// o" e1er5 !ontra!t.
*. 65 husband told 0e 05 plan to enter 0edi!al s!hool #as !raD5, but 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
#ith it an5#a5.
1/. The se!retar5 in the hu0an resour!es depart0ent said/CereBs an appli!ation. Ta7e it and
MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.@
11. 4" 5ou #ant to borro# 05 !ar toni'ht, MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4B0 not 'oin' an5#here.
12. The other 0ountain !li0bers are ner1ous about Ii0 be!ause the5 thin7 heBs 'oin' to
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a !li"".
13. AouB1e been !riti!iDin' 0e "or the last three hours: Will 5ou MMMMMM MMMMMMMM:
14. The 0ana'er as7ed his assistant to MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM about the proble0s in the
#arehouse.
1. 4tBs 2rida5 ni'ht. &etBs bu5 so0e beer and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1$. 4 !anBt #or7 to0orro#. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or 0eH
1%. AouBre a!tin' li7e a bi' bab5. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM:
ECERCISE ()& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith nons .ro- this section$
1. -t the part5, the !hildren ate in the li1in' roo0, and the MMMMMMMMMMM ate in the dinin'
roo0.
2. The boss said, @(ne 0ore MMMMMMMMMMM and 5ouBre "ired.@
3. The reporter dis!o1ered that the 0a5or #as ta7in' MMMMMMMMMMM "ro0 the !onstru!tion
!o0pan5.
4. ;1er5 5ear at this ti0e the 7in' 'i1es MMMMMMMMMMM to the poor.
. Ned #ill be 05 MMMMMMMMMMM #hile 4B0 on 05 hone50oon.
$$
$. The tea!her prepared a MMMMMMMMMMM to 'i1e to the students.
%. The C;( said he re'retted the MMMMMMMMMMM but that there #as no other #a5 "or the !o0pan5
to a1oid ban7rupt!5.
8. The tea0 lost e1er5 'a0e o" the season and su""ered a $/ per!ent MMMMMMMMMMMM in
attendan!e.
*. The president !alled 3eneral Cha0bers and 'a1e hi0 the MMMMMMMMMMM "or the atta!7.
ECERCISE ()c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1, Aou ha1enBt "illed in. Eall the spa!es, the0F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM
2. 4s the tea!her handin' outH Ethe tests, the0F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM
3. The !o0pan5 is 'oin' to la5 o"". E05 brother, hi0F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM
H. I(m sorry I screwed up. Byour plan, itC MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE ()! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. 4 #asnBt sure i" 05 plan #ould #or7, and 4 thou'ht about it "or a lon' ti0e be"ore 4 "inall5
de!ided to tr5 it. What did 4 do #ith 05 planH
2. The se!retar5 'a1e 0e an appli!ation and told 0e to put the !orre!t in"or0ation in the spa!es,
What did the se!retar5 tell 0e to doH
3. 4n Ouestion 2, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the appli!ation a"ter 4 put the !orre!t in"or0ation in the
spa!esH
4. The 0e!hani! is tr5in' to "i< 05 !arBs trans0ission, but sheBs 0a7in' a lot o" 0ista7es. What is the
0e!hani! doin' to 05 !arBs trans0issionH
. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the trans0ission a"ter the 0e!hani! "inishes "i<in' itH
$. Aou 'i1e N3,/// to the 0a5or e1er5 0onth so that he #ill 'i1e 5our !o0pan5 !it5 business. What
do 5ou do e1er5 0onthH
%. 4n Ouestion $, #hat is the N3,/// that 5ou 'i1e to the 0a5or e1er5 0onthH
8. =usiness is bad at Nan!5Bs !o0pan5, and the5 told her that the5 donBt need her an50ore.
What happened to Nan!5H
*. The hotel !ler7 "or'ot to !all 0e in the 0ornin' to #a7e 0e up, and 4 #as late "or a 1er5
i0portant 0eetin'. What did the hotel !ler7 do to 0eH
1/. 4 #as born in Ca#aii, and 4 li1ed there until 4 #as ei'hteen. What did 4 do in Ca#aiiH
11. Sall5Bs parents told her she !anBt #at!h a TV sho# be!ause itBs "or adults. What did Sall5Bs
parents tell her about the TV sho#H
12. Ne# ho0e !onstru!tion #ill de!rease i" there is a re!ession. What #ill ne# ho0e !onstru!tion do i"
there is a re!essionH
13. 4n Ouestion 12, i" there is a de!rease in ne# ho0e !onstru!tion, #hat #ould it be !alledH
14. Ti005 #as teasin' Susie all da5 until his 0other told hi0 to stop. What did Ti005Bs 0other tell
hi0 to doH
$8
1. -ll is doin' (0arBs )ob #hile (0ar is on 1a!ation. What is -li doin'H
1$. =lan7ets and bo<es o" "ood #ill be 'i1en to the people #hose ho0es #ere destro5ed b5 the
tornado. What #ill be done #ith the blan7ets and bo<es o" "oodH
1%. Sarah had to ans#er the phone #hile she #as #at!hin' a 0o1ie. -"ter she returned to the TV
roo0, SarahBs "riend Sall5 told Sarah e1er5thin' she had 0issed. What did Sall5 do "or SarahH
ECERCISE ()e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these nons .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er
/iven a.ter each one$
brea7do#n,
brea7out, *
holdup, % hoo7up,
*
put-on, 1 setup, ta7eo"", 1
1. The pilot said that the MMMMMMMMMMM #ould be on ti0e.
2. There #as a MMMMMMMMMMM on the hi'h#a5, and tra""i! #as barel5 0o1in' at all.
3. - !able MMMMMMMMMMM is usuall5 N3*.*, but this 0onth itBs "ree.
4. The 'uards suspe!ted the prisoners #ere plannin' a MMMMMMMMMMM.
. Waiter, #eB1e been #aitin' "or our dinner "or an hour. WhatBs the MMMMMMMMMMMH
$. 4 told 05 la#5er that it #as a MMMMMMMMMMM and that 4 #as inno!ent.
%. When the dete!ti1es !a0e and arrested Can7, #e didnBt thin7 it #as real >)ust a bi'
ECERCISE ().' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!at!h up, *
!hi!7en out, *
'et alon', *
'i1e up, *
hoo7 up, *
pi!7 out, 8
tal7 do#n to, 3
#or7 up, *
1. 8onBt tr5 to run ten 0iles at "irst? 5ou ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to it.
2. -"ter sear!hin' "or three da5s #ithout an5 lu!7, the res!ue tea0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on "indin'
an5 sur1i1ors.
3. The poli!e sho#ed 0e so0e pi!tures to see i" 4 !ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 'u5 #ho
0u''ed 0e.
4. Aou 'o to the ban7, 4Bll 'o to the post o""i!e, and #eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith ea!h other at
the !orner in "ort5-"i1e 0inutes.
. 4 #asnBt happ5 about ha1in' Nan!5 "or a partner on the pro)e!t. 4 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
#ith her.
$. Iust be!ause 5ou #ent to !olle'e and 4 didnBt, doesnBt 0a7e it o7a5 "or 5ou to MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM0e.
%. The tea!her said, @Aour dau'hter has 0issed a lot o" s!hool, and sheBll need to #or7 hard to
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the rest o" the !lass.@
8. 6aria 'ot s!ared andMMMMMMMMMMo" )u0pin' o"" the hi'h di1in' board.
(($ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s se! in
co-+on! nons
-s #e sa# in Se!tion 1/, 0an5 t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs !an be used as nouns. 6an5. o" these
nouns "or0ed "ro0 t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs !an be !o0bined #ith ordinar5 nouns to "or0
!o0pound nounsG
noun< &ac0+ !o0pound nounG ba!7up dis7
noun< .o%%o59+ !o0pound nounG "ollo#-up !all
&i7e ordinar5 !o0pound nouns, the "irst noun has a "un!tion si0ilar to that o" an
ad)e!ti1eG
Fuestion$ .hat kind of clothes1
answer$ 5irty clothes.
adective
,uestionG What 7ind o" !lothesH
ans#erG Wor7out !lothes.
noun
The ad)e!ti1e dirt5 and the noun #or7out ser1e the sa0e "un!tionG 0odi"5in' the noun
!lothes. -l#a5s a!!ent the "irst #ord in a !o0pound nounG
nounG BACK+ !o0pound nounG BACK+!is0
nounG FOLLO=9+ !o0pound nounG FOLLO=9+ !all
%/
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
backu
p
back up & backs up backing up backed up backed up
($ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou #al7 ba!7#ard, 5ou ba!7up. When 5ou dri1e a 1ehi!le in
re1erse, 5ou &ac0 + or &ac0 the 1ehi!le +$
The fire was so hot that we had to back up.
I put the car in reverse and backed it up.
"$ &ac0 + p.1. When 5ou are e<plainin' so0ethin', and 5ou repeat so0ethin' that 5ou
alread5 said, 5ou &ac0 +$
8ou(re going too fast. >an you back up a little and e0plain your plan
again1
"orry, I forgot part of the story. Get me back up a little.
*$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a !lai0 or state0ent and then sho# people e1iden!e
or 'i1e the0 in"or0ation pro1in' that the !lai0 or state0ent is true or !orre!t, 5ou &ac0 it
+$
#o one believed )im(s accusations because he couldn(t back them up with any
evidence.
The IN" asked me for some receipts to back up my deductions.
6$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou support people in a !on"li!t or a !on"rontation, 5ou &ac0
the0 +$ When 5ou support people b5 doin' so0e #or7 or a di""i!ult assi'n0ent,
5ou ba!7 the0 +$
Ginda said she would back me up if I complained about our supervisor.
The general backed up his threats with H33,333 soldiers.
)erry is the bar(s main bartender, and Tanya backs him up when it gets busy.
&ac0+ n. So0eone or so0ethin' that supports or is read5 to pro1ide support in a !on"li!t
or a !on"rontation b5 doin' so0e #or7 or a di""i!ult assi'n0ent is a &ac0+$
.hen the rioters grew more violent, the police called for
backup.
The firefighter entered the burning building without a backup.
7$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou dupli!ate i0portant in"or0ation, su!h as a !o0puter pro'ra0
or data, so that 5ou #ill still ha1e it i" the ori'inal in"or0ation is lost or da0a'ed, 5ou &ac0
it +$
If you(re going to install that new software, be sure you back up your entire hard disk
first.
I back my work up every day before I go home.
&ac0+ n. - dupli!ate o" i0portant in"or0ation, su!h as a !o0puter pro'ra0 or data, is a
&ac0+$
; keep a backup of my important computer files on floppy disks.
The maor gave a backup copy of the battle plan to his
secretary.
%1
&ac0e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou dupli!ate i0portant in"or0ation/su!h as a !o0puter
pro'ra0 or data, the ori'inal is &ac0e! +$
; accidentally erased your book from your computer. I hope your work
was backed up.
8$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When a pie!e o" e,uip0ent or 0a!hiner5 is 1er5 i0portant and another
is 7ept a1ailable in !ase the one that is nor0all5 used "ails, the se!ond pie!e o"
e,uip0ent or 0a!hiner5 &ac0s + the "irst.
The hospital bought a generator to back up the unreliable city power
supply. .e kept the old computer to back the new one up.
&ac0+ n. When a pie!e o" e,uip0ent or 0a!hiner5 is 1er5 i0portant and another is 7ept
a1ailable in !ase the one that is nor0all5 used "ails, the se!ond pie!e o" e,uip0ent or
0a!hiner5 is a &ac0+$
The skydiver checked his main parachute and his backup before the
flight. The school had to dose when the main power and the backup
both failed.
:$ &ac0$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' &ac0s +' it is bein' pre1ented "ro0 0o1in',
pro'ressin', or "lo#in' nor0all5.
'n accident backed up traffic for three miles. The assembly line is going to back
up if /rik doesn(t get the parts he needs soon.
&ac0+ n$ A &ac0+ is a situation in #hi!h so0ethin' is bein' pre1ented "ro0
0o1in', pro'ressin', or "lo#in' nor0all5.
; sat in that backup for three hours without moving an inch. The huge
number of >hristmas cards and packages caused a backup at the post
office.
&ac0e! + part.ad). When so0ethin' is bein' pre1ented "ro0 0o1in', pro'ressin', or
"lo#in' nor0all5, it is &ac0e! +$
Get(s take the train downtown. Traffic is always backed up at this
time of the morn in a.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
cut off
cut off < cuts off cutting off cut off cut off
($ ct$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 re0o1e part o" so0ethin' #ith a 7ni"e, sa#, or pair
o" s!issors, 5ou ct it o..$
%e cut off a piece of cheese so that I could taste
it. =ne of the kings of /ngland had his head cut
off.
"$ ct$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou stop the suppl5 or "lo# o" so0ethin', su!h as #ater,
ele!tri!it5, or 0one5, 5ou ct it o.. or 5ou ct o.. the people re!ei1in' it.
; won(t be surprised if my electricity is cut off! I haven(t paid the bill in three
months.
The bartender told the drunk guy that she was cutting him off.
M7
cto.. n. The ti0e #hen so0ethin', su!h as #ater, ele!tri!it5, or 0one5, is ct o.. is the
cto..' cto.. point, or cto.. date.
; got a notice saying that if I don(t pay my water bill soon, the cutoff date will be March *3.
#inety is the cutoff! students with lower scores on the e0am won(t be accepted into the
advanced program.
*$ ct$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou abruptl5 and rudel5 dri1e a 1ehi!le in "ront o" other peopleBs
1ehi!les, !ausin' the0 to suddenl5 slo# do#n or stop, 5ou ct the0 o..$
; had to slam on the brakes when some erk cut me off on the way to work. The lady
in the red car tried to cut me off but I wouldn(t let her get in front of me.
6$ ct$$$ o.. p.1. When so0eone is ct o.. #hile spea7in' on the telephone, the !onne!tion
is a!!identall5 bro7en.
; was in the middle of an important call when I was cut off. Ietting cut
off happens all the time when you(re on the phone to >hina.
7$ ct $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou !reate a ph5si!al or ps5!holo'i!al barrier bet#een 5oursel"
and other people, 5ou ct 5oursel" o.. "ro0 the0. When 5ou are separated "ro0 other
people be!ause o" a barrier or a 'reat distan!e, 5ou are ct o.. "ro0 the0.
'fter 5an oined a cult, he completely cut himself off from his family and
friends. ' flash flood cut us off from the rest of the e0pedition.
cto.. part.ad). When 5ou are separated "ro0 other people be!ause o" a barrier or a 'reat
distan!e, 5ou are cto..$
The bridge was destroyed by the earthFuake, and now we(re cut off.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
drop
drop off < drops off dropping off dropped off dropped off
($ !ro+$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou ta7e thin's or people to another pla!e and lea1e the0 there,
5ou !ro+ the0 o..$
>an you drop me off at the train station on your way to work1
Guis dropped off his laundry at the cleaners.
!ro+9o.. n. So0ethin' that has been !ro++e! o.. is a !ro+9o..$ The pla!e #here
so0ethin' or so0eone is !ro++e! o.. is a !ro+9o.. point, !ro+ o.. #indo#, and soon.
Guis left his laundry at the drop-off window. The north side of
the train station parking lot is for drop-offs.
"$ !ro+ o.. p.1. When a businessBs sales, the o!!urren!e o" so0e e1ent, or the interest
so0e people ha1e in so0ethin' de!lines, it !ro+s o..$
'ttendance at baseball games has been dropping off in the last few years. 'fter >5s were
introduced, sales of records dropped off sharply.
M2
!ro+9o.. n. - de!line in a businessBs sales, in the o!!urren!e o" an e1ent, or in the interest
so0e people ha1e in so0ethin', is a !ro+9o..$
There has been a drop-off in traffic deaths thanks to strict drunk driving laws. The
drop-off in car sales was e0plained by the recession.
*$ !ro+ o.. p.1. When the le1el o" the 'round de!lines steepl5, it !ro+s o..$
Ae careful hiking this trail, it drops off steeply on the other side of the mountain.
The island has no beach at all. The land drops off straight into the sea.
!ro+9o.. n. - steep de!line in the le1el o" the 'round is a !ro+9o..$
The bus driver didn(t see the drop-off and the bus plunged into the gorge.
It was hard to see the drop-off because of the dense ungle.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
follow
up
follow up < follows up following up followed up followed up
($ .o%%o5 + EonF p.1. When 5ou .o%%o5 + on so0ethin', 5ou return to so0ethin' that #as
i0portant to 5ou pre1iousl5 be!ause 5ou no# ha1e 0ore in"or0ation or 0ore ti0e or
be!ause 5ou #ant to 0a7e sure so0e e""ort 5ou 0ade pre1iousl5 is !orre!t or e""e!ti1e.
; saw a beautiful house with a +for sale+ sign and I followed up on it when I got
home. The doctor told me I(d need to follow up the treatment with physical therapy.
.o%%o59+ n$ A .o%%o59+' .o%%o59+ !all, .o%%o59+ 1isit, and so on, is a return to
so0ethin' that #as i0portant to 5ou pre1iousl5 be!ause 5ou no# ha1e 0ore in"or0ation or
0ore ti0e or be!ause 5ou #ant to 0a7e sure so0e e""ort 5ou 0ade pre1iousl5 is !orre!t or
e""e!ti1e.
The customer service manager made a follow-up call to make sure I was happy with the
repair ob. The doctor asked me to see him two months after the operation for a follow-up.
take
out
take out & takes out taking out took out taken out
($ ta0e $$$ ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou ta0e so0ethin' ot or ta0e it ot o" a !ontainer, stora'e
pla!e, or buildin', 5ou re0o1e it. Pt in/into is the opposite o" ta0e ot$
; want to take some books out of the library tonight.
)ake took out a gun and shouted, +This is a holdupE+
#ancy took :D33 out of the bank.
ta0eot n$ Ta0eot is "ood that is ta7en "ro0 a restaurant to be eaten at another lo!ation.
Carr3ot and carr39ot "ood are the sa0e as ta0eot and ta0e9ot "ood.
; don(t feel like cooking tonight. Get(s get takeout. That
take-out chicken is good, but it sure is greasy.
%4
"$ ta0e $$$ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou re0o1e so0ethin' be!ause 5ou do not #ant it or
be!ause it is da0a'ed, 5ou ta0e it ot or ta0e it ot o" so0ethin'. Pt in/into is the
opposite o" ta0e ot$
The teacher said my story would be a lot better ifE took this part out of the third
paragraph.
The school will be closed while the asbestos insulation is being taken out and replaced.
*$ ta0e$$$ ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou ta0e 0one5 ot or ta0e 0one5 out o" a ban7 or a ban7
a!!ount, 5ou #ithdra# the 0one5. Pt in is the opposite o. ta0e ot$
; had to take money out of my savings account to pay for my medical
bills.
#icole(s at the bank taking : *,333 out.
6$ ta0e$$ $ot p.1. When 5ou ta0e people out/5ou 'o #ith the0 to do so0ethin' en)o5able
> dinner in a restaurant, a 0o1ie, and so on > and pa5 "or it 5oursel".
.hat do you think about taking Mom out for Mother(s 5ay1
)im took his girlfriend out last Friday.
7$ ta0e$$ $ot p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou ta0e people out, 5ou 7ill the0.
The snipers will try to take out the kidnapper when he opens the door.
The hit man took Vito out with a shotgun blast to the head.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
tr% out
try out < tries out trying out tried out tried out
($ tr3$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou tr3 so0ethin' ot' 5ou tr5 it to see i" 5ou #ant to bu5 it or to
see i" 5ou #ant to start usin' it re'ularl5.
I(m not going to spend :7,333 on a bicycle unless I tr% it out
first. 8ou can tr% it out for thirty days without any obligation.
tr3ot n. When 5ou 'i1e so0ethin' a tr3ot'3o test it to see i" 5ou #ant to bu5 it or start
usin' it re'ularl5.
; gave Aetty(s new diet a tr%out but I actually gained weight.
The airline gave the new plane a thorough tr%out before making a decision.
"$ tr3$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou tr3 people ot' 5ou 'i1e the0 a !han!e to sho# that the5 !an
per"or0 a )ob #ell be"ore hirin' the0 or be"ore 'i1in' the0 0ore di""i!ult #or7 to do.
The manager agreed to tr% him out for a week.
I told the supervisor that if she tried me out she(d see that I could do the ob.
tr3ot n. When 5ou 'i1e people a tr3ot' 3o 'i1e the0 a !han!e to sho# that the5 !an
per"or0 a )ob #ell be"ore 'i1in' the0 0ore di""i!ult #or7 to do.
Tr%outs for the football team will be ne0t "aturday and
"unday.
If you give Mike a tr%out I(m sure you won(t be disappointed.
*$ tr3 ot E"orF p.1. When 5ou tr3 ot or tr3 ot "or so0ethin', 5ou tr5 to sho# that 5ou
!an per"or0 a )ob #ell in order to 'et hired.
' lot of guys will tr% out but only a handful will make the team.
5aniela(s mother told her, :Tr%ing out for the cheerleading sFuad isn(t as
important as doing your homework.+
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
wake
up
wake up < wakes up waking up woke up woken up
($ 5a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou stop sleepin', 5ou 5a0e +$ When 5ou !ause other people to
stop sleepin', 5ou 5a0e the0 +$
'% is so sleepy in class that the teacher must wake him up every five minutes.
I woke up at 7$33 'M and couldn(t get back to sleep.
5a0e9+ part.ad). When 5ou are sta5in' at a hotel and 5ou as7 the des7 !ler7 to !all 5ou at
a !ertain ti0e to 5a0e 5ou up, 5ou as7 "or a 5a0e9+ !all.
; asked the desk clerk to give me a wake-up call at M$23.
"$ 5a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou learn so0ethin' that !auses 5ou to understand the truth about
so0ethin' or so0eone, it 5a0es 5ou + or 5a0es 5ou + to the truth about so0ethin' or
so0eone,
; used to smoke, but when my best friend died of lung cancer, it really woke me
up. %ey, wake up! #icole is lying to you. >an(t you see that1
work
work out & works out working out worked out worked out
($ 5or0 ot p.1. When a situation 5or0s ot a !ertain #a5, it happens that #a5. When a
situation does not 5or0 ot' it is not satis"a!tor5.
The switch to the new system worked out a lot better than anyone e0pected.
"he said that living with her in-laws wasn(t working out very well.
"$ 5or0 ot p.1. When a situation 5or0s out, the end result is su!!ess"ul.
8es, I thought your idea was terrible, but I must admit it worked out.
The marriage didn(t work out and they were divorced after si0 months.
*$ 5or0 ot p.1. When a !al!ulation or 0easure0ent 5or0s ot to be a !ertain a0ount, this
a0ount is the result o" the !al!ulation or 0easure0ent.
The cost of the boo6e we need for the reception works out to more than : *,D33.
The monthly payment on a J percent loan works out to :JH7.
6$ 5or0$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou 5or0 ot a !al!ulation, 0easure0ent, or other proble0, 5ou do
the #or7 ne!essar5 to deter0ine the result o" the !al!ulation or 0easure0ent or thin7 about
ho# to sol1e the proble0.
%$
Maria worked out bow much paint we will need for the living room ! twenty-five gallons.
I(ve forgotten how to work out math problems without a calculator.
8ou need to go to the airport, I need to go to work, and we have only one car. %ow are we
going to work this out"
7$ 5or0 ot p.1. When 5ou 5or0 ot a solution or plan, 5ou de!ide #hat to do a"ter !are"ul
!onsideration, either alone or in dis!ussion #ith other people.
The opposing lawyers worked out a compromise.
I think I(ve worked out a way to buy a new car without borrowing money.
8$ 5or0 ot p.1. When 5ou e<er!ise in order to i0pro1e 5our health or ph5si!al
appearan!e, 5ou 5or0 ot$
Aob works out in the gym for two hours every night. I(m a
fat slob.
I need to start working out again.
5or0ot n. - series o" e<er!ises done in order to i0pro1e 5our health or ph5si!al
appearan!e is a 5or0ot$ =or0ot !lothes are !lothes 5ou #ear #hile e<er!isin'.
I(m really sore from that workout last night. The trainer designed a
workout for each player on the team.
5or0ot n. When 5ou sa5 that 5ou 'a1e a 0e!hani!al de1i!e or s5ste0 a 5or0ot' 5ou
0ean that 5ou !aused it to per"or0 so0e len'th5 or di""i!ult #or7,
5riving to 'laska sure gave this old truck a workout.
The snack bar got a real workout when three buses full of hungry tourists stopped
at the same time.
ECERCISE (( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1.1 al0ost had an a!!ident on the #a5 to #or7 #hen another dri1er MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM. 2. With so
0an5 deli1er5 tru!7 dri1ers out si!7 #ith the "lu, deli1eries are startin' to MMMMMMMM. 3. Aou should
al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5our i0portant !o0puter "iles. 4. The art restorers are tr5in' to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM a #a5 to !lean the paintin' #ithout da0a'in' it. .1 hit a tree #hile 4 #as MMMMMMMM 05 !ar
MMMMMMMM. $. The but!her has onl5 nine "in'ers. Ce MMMMMMMM the other one MMMMMMMM.
%%
%. Pro"essor Childress has so0e interestin' theories, but !an he MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM #ith an5
e1iden!eH
8. -"ter e1er5 sale, a 'ood salesperson MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith a !at: to 0a7e sure the !usto0er is
satis"ied.
*. 4B0 'oin' to lea1e earl5 to0orro# so that 4 !an MMMMMMMM so0e "il0 MMMMMMMM at the photo lab. 1/.
No one belie1ed 4 #as tellin' the truth until Charles MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM.
11. 4 usuall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM around %G//, but this 0ornin' 4 o1erslept.
12. &5dia had planned to spend the su00er in 4tal5, but it didnBt MMMMMM MMMMMM.
13. The sharpshooter #as ordered to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ene05 leader.
14. The desi'ners put in 0anual !ontrols to MMMMMMMMMMMMthe auto0ati! s5ste0.
1. 8a1id and 6aria MMMMMMM MMMMMMM ho# 0u!h their #eddin' is 'oin' to !ost.
1$. The !ost o" their #eddin' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to N22 per person.
1%. =e !are"ul > the north side o" the 0ountain MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sharpl5.
18. CelloH CelloH The phone is dead? 4 'uess #e #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1*. Ne<t #ee7end #eBre MMMMMMMM 6o0 and 8ad MMMMMMMM "or their "i"tieth #eddin' anni1ersar5.
2/. The pro"essorBs le!ture #as reall5 !on"usin', so 4 as7ed hi0 to please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM and
e<plain it a'ain.
21. The ban7 robbers tried to es!ape throu'h the ba!7 door, but the poli!e #ent to the ba!7 o" the
ban7 and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMM.
22. PeopleBs "as!ination #ith the ,uintuplets MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ,ui!7l5 a"ter the se<tuplets #ere born.
23. =ob bou'ht so0e ne# s7is, and this #ee7end heBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
24. 4 #asnBt 1er5 responsible #hen 4 #as 5oun'er, but ha1in' !hildren reall5 MMMMMMMM 0eMMMMMMMM.
2. Ned used to e<er!ise e1er5 da5, but he hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 0onths.
%8
2$. The baseball 0ana'er de!ided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ne# pit!her to see #hat he !ould do.
2%. 4 li7e 0ost o" this arti!le 5ou #rote about 0e, but thereBs one thin' 4Bd li7e 5ou to MMMMMMMM.
28. Sa0 had a tot o" bi' ideas #hen he #as 5oun', but his li"e sure hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the #a5 he
e<pe!ted.
2*. The ele!tri!it5 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter a tree "ell durin' the stor0 and !ut so0e po#er lines.
3/. 4 MMMMMMMM 05 48 !ard MMMMMMMM o" 05 po!7et and sho#ed it to the 'uard.
31. &5dia has ne1er MMMMMMMM a penn5 MMMMMMMM o" her sa1in's a!!ount.
ECERCISE (( & ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. 8id 5ou ba!7 upH E5our #or7, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
2. The5Bre !uttin' o"". Ethe po#er, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
3. 4 dropped o"" at the airport. E2ran7/hi0F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
4. 6o0 as7ed 0e to ta7e out. Ethe 'arba'e, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
%*
. -le< tried out. Ehis ne# bi!5!le, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
$. 6i7e has #o7en up. E-li, hi0F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
ECERCISE (( c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ nons an! co-+on!
nons .ro- this section$ There -a3 &e -ore than one 5a3 to ans5er a >estion$
1. The photo'rapher al#a5s 7eeps t#o !a0eras #ith hi0. (ne is his 0ain !a0era. CeBll use the se!ond i"
thereBs a proble0 #ith the "irst. What is the se!ond !a0eraH
2. The phone !o0pan5 sa5s 05 telephone ser1i!e #ill stop on Iul5 1 i" 4 donBt pa5 05 bill be"ore that date.
What is Iul5 4H
3. 8r. S0ith is a ne# do!tor. 4" heBs not sure ho# to treat a patient, heBll !all 8r. Wood "or help. What is 8r.
Wood to 8r. S0ithH
4. Aou used the ne# e<er!ise e,uip0ent to see i" 5ou #anted to bu5 it. What did 5ou do to the e<er!ise
e,uip0entH
. The poli!e arrested 6rs. Ta5lorBs husband be!ause he #as beatin' her. - so!ial #or7er 1isited 6rs.
Ta5lor a "e# da5s later to tal7 to her. What did the so!ial #or7er doH
$. The !lothes 4 #ore 5esterda5 #hite 4 #as e<er!isin' 'ot 1er5 dirt5. What 'ot dirt5H
%. We 'ot "ood "ro0 a Chinese restaurant and ate it at ho0e. What 7ind o" "ood did #e eatH
8. =e!ause o" !onstru!tion, tra""i! on the interstate stopped and there #as a lon' line o" !ars. What #as on
the interstateH
L. The number of arrests for burglary is a lot lower this year than last year. .hat has happened to the
number of arrests for burglary1
1/. Sall5 lost so0ethin' 1er5 i0portant on her !o0puter be!ause she didnBt 0a7e another !op5 in !ase
there #as a proble0 #ith the ori'inal. Wh5 did Sall5 ha1e a proble0H
8/
11. -t the ed'e o" the !ontinental shel", the sea "loor "alls se1eral thousand "eet. What is at the
ed'e o" the !ontinental shel"H
12. 4 0ade %,/// !opies on this photo!opier. What did 4 do to the photo!opierH
ECERCISE ((! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The ele!tri! !o0pan5 stopped 05 ele!tri!it5 be!ause 4 didnBt pa5 05 bill. What did the5 do to
the ele!tri!it5H
2. 4 bou'ht so0e "ried !hi!7en, and 4 too7 it to 05 house. What 7ind o" "ood did 4 bu5H
3. ;<er!isin' is 'ood "or 5our health. What is 'ood "or 5our healthH
4. The lon'-distan!e !o0pan5 o""ered to let 0e use their ser1i!e "ree "or thirt5 da5s, and 4B0
'oin' to tr5 it. What a0 4 'oin' to do to the lon'-distan!e !o0pan5Bs ser1i!eH
. 4n Ouestion 4, #hat is the lon'-distan!e !o0pan5 lettin' 0e doH
$. 8urin' the "lood, a lot o" people !ouldnBt lea1e their houses be!ause o" the #ater. What did the
#ater do to the0H
%. 4n Ouestion $, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe these peopleH
8. AouBre 0a7in' an e<tra !op5 o" 5our #or7 )ust in !ase. What are 5ou doin'H
*. 4n Ouestion 8, #hat #ould 5ou !all the e<tra !op5 o" 5our #or7 that 5ouBre 0a7in'H
1/. The ne#spaper reporter is 'ettin' 0ore in"or0ation about so0ethin' interestin' that
so0eone told her on the phone. What is the reporter doin'H
C. 65 e<er!ise routine is 1er5 di""i!ult. What is di""i!ultH
12. The prose!utor pro1ed his a!!usation #ith so0e photo'raphs. What did the prose!utor do #ith
the photo'raphsH
13. Iane #ants to sho# the bas7etball !oa!h that she #ould be a 'ood 0e0ber o" the bas7etball
tea0. What does Iane #ant to doH
14. 4 ha1e a se!ond alar0 !lo!7 in !ase the "irst doesnBt #a7e 0e up. What does 05 se!ond alar0 !lo!7
do to 05 "irstH
81
1. 4n Ouestion 14, #hat #ould 5ou !all 05 se!ond alar0 !lo!7H
1$. Ni!ole ta7es her "riend to the train station e1er5 0ornin'. What does Ni!ole do to her "riendH
1%. 4 ha1e an appoint0ent #ith 05 do!tor ne<t 0onth so that he !an see i" 05 sur'er5 #as su!!ess"ul.
What #ould 5ou !all 05 appoint0ent ne<t 0onthH
18. 6ariaBs plan isnBt happenin' the #a5 she e<pe!ted. What isnBt 6ariaBs plan doin'H
1*. =ill #ent #ith Iud5 to dinner and a 0o1ie and he paid "or e1er5thin'. What did =ill doH
2/. T#o hundred 'uests at N4 ea!h !al!ulates to N*,///. What does 2// 'uests at N4 ea!h doH
21. 4 ha1e ne1er stopped sleepin' at 3G3/ in the 0ornin' be"ore. What ha1e 4 ne1er done be"oreH
ECERCISE (( e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!o0e "ro0, 1 'i1e ba!7, 1 hand out, 1/ loo7 "or, 1
"all o"", 1/ 'o ahead, 1/ hear about, 2 s!re# out o", 3
"eel up to, 3 'o alon' #ith, 3 7i!7 ba!7, 1/ s!re# up, 1/
"ill in, 1/ 'ro# up, 1/ la5 o"", 1/ sta5 o"", 2
1. 4" the !o0pan5 doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2/ per!ent o" its e0plo5ees, itBs 'oin' to 'o out o"
business.
2. =lan7ets and bo<es o" "ood #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the "lood 1i!ti0s.
3. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 3er0an5 be!ause 05 "ather #as in the -r05 there.
4. 9ath5 didnBt !lose her !ar #indo# last ni'ht, and it rained. She reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. Aou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? 4Bll !at!h up #ith 5ou later.
$. The per!enta'e o" people #ho s0o7e MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a"ter s0o7in' #as lin7ed #ith lun'
!an!er and heart disease.
%. What !an 4 do to 'et 05 bla!7 !at to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 #hite !ou!hH
8. 4B1e been MMMMMMM MMMMMMM an apart0ent that allo#s do's, but 4 !anBt "ind one.
*. CeBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMNe# Aor7 and #ill be here in t#o hours.
82
*3. I was so stuffed from that huge dinner my mother cooked that I didn(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
playing tennis afterward.
**. Their lawyer tried to &&&&&&&& them &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& : *73,333.
*7. I don(t feel like going anywhere tonight. Get(s ust &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& and take it easy.
*2. I(m sorry I can(t agree with you, )oe, but I have to &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& &&&&&&& Ginda on this decision.
*H. %ere(s my flashlight. Make sure you &&&&&&&& it &&&&&&&& when you(re finished using it.
*D. I didn(t get *33 on the test because I forgot to &&&&&& &&&&&& one of the blanks.
*J. This restaurant is wonderful. I(m surprised I haven(t&&&&&&&&&&&& it before.
12. 2(C.S (NG +ast +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s
The past perfect is used to say that one thing in the past happened before another
thing in the past$
Mike said the wedding had fallen through.
past earlier in the past
.hen I got to work, Mr. Toy for had already signed
in.
past earlier in the past
The past perfect is formed with had and the past participle of the verb$
present$ ,e wakes up.
past$ %e woke up.
past perfect$ %e had woken up.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
back off
back off < backs off backing off backed off backed off
($ &ac0 o.. p.1. When 5ou 0o1e a#a5 "ro0 dan'er or a person 5ou are ar'uin' or "i'htin' #ith in
order to a1oid in)ur5 or a 0ore serious "i'ht or ar'u0ent, 5ou &ac0 o..$ When 5ou tell people to
&ac0 o..' 5ou are #arnin' the0 that 5ou are be!o0in' an'r5 and that a "i'ht or ar'u0ent is
li7el5.
83
I(m warning youE 8ou(d better back off.
Tom backed off when he saw that )ake had a gun.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
come across
come across & comes across coming across came across come across
($ co-e across p.1. When people !ross "ro0 one side o" a spa!e or distan!e to
#here 5ou are, the5 co-e across$
's soon as #icole saw me, she came across the room and gave me a big hug.
Ay *L*3, millions of immigrants had come across the ocean to 'merica.
"$ co-e across p.1. When 5ou co-e across people or thin's, 5ou see or "ind the0 #ithout
plannin' or e<pe!tin' to. Rn across is si0ilar to co-e across$
; asked the antiFue dealer if she had ever come across a .indsor chair.
=n the trail, we came across some hikers from 'ustralia.
*$ co-e across p.1. When so0ethin' 5ou sa5 or do co-es across a !ertain #a5, 5our
attitude or "eelin's are per!ei1ed in this #a5 b5 other people.
; was ust oking, but I don(t think it came across that way.
%is 'merican humor didn(t come across well in Aritain.
come
come up & comes up coming up came up come up
($ co-e + EtoF p.1. When people 0o1e to#ard 5ou to a hi'her le1el or position, or "ro0
the south to the north, the5 co-e +$ Co-e !o5n is the opposite o" co-e +$
.hy don(t you come up and see me some time1
My cousin from "an 'ntonio came up to 5etroit last week.
"$ co-e + p.1. When 5ou 0o1e to a hi'her so!ial or pro"essional position, 5ou
co-e +$
; saw 5an driving a Mercedes. %e(s really coming up in the world.
The maor didn(t go to the military academy. %e came up through the ranks.
*$ co-e + p.1. When a ne# topi! is introdu!ed into a !on1ersation, it co-es +$
; don(t agree with )im about anything, so if politics comes up I ust leave the
room.
.e were discussing possible candidates to manage the new office, and your
name came up.
6$ co-e + p.1. When so0ethin' une<pe!ted happens that re,uires "urther
attention, it co-es +$
I(m sorry I can(t go to your party@ something important has come up.
Ontil this situation came up we were having a nice, rela0ing weekend.
7$ co-e + p.1. Jal#a5s !ontinuousK When so0ethin' is co-in/ +' it #ill
happen soon.
84
Mother(s 5ay is coming up so I need to buy my mother a gift soon.
The TV announcer told the audience what was coming up after the commercial.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
fall through
fall through & falls through falling through fell through fallen through
($ .a%% thro/h p.1. When people or thin's drop throu'h an openin' "ro0 one side to the
other side, the5 .a%% thro/h$
The roofer had fallen through a hole in the roof.
My Oncle Fred was ice fishing when he fell through a hole in the ice and
was never seen again.
"$ .a%% thro/h p.1. When a plan, an arran'e0ent, or a business deal does not happen or
is !an!eled be!ause o" a proble0 or be!ause so0eone does not do #hat is e<pe!ted, it
.a%%s thro/h$
The family reunion fell through after 5ad got sick.
=ur house is back on the market. The deal fell through because the
buyers couldn(t get a loan.
put
out
put up & puts up putting up put up put up
($ +t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0o1e so0ethin' to a hi'her le1el, 5ou +t it +$
3ut these knives up where the baby can(t reach them.
%e aimed the gun at me and said, :3ut your hands up or I(ll shoot.+
"$ +t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou atta!h so0ethin', su!h as a pi!ture or a si'n, to a #all, 5ou +t
it +$
The teacher had put some posters up in her new classroom.
=ur real estate agent is putting up a +for sale+ sign.
*$ +t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou build or install so0ethin', su!h as a buildin', shel", "en!e, or
#all, 5ou +t it +$
.e need to put up a fence to keep the rabbits out of our garden.
I talked to a carpenter about putting up some shelves in the family room.
6$ +t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou ere!t or asse0ble so0ethin' that is !ollapsed, "olded, or in
se1eral pie!es, 5ou +t it +$
The circus put up their tent outside of town.
The #ative 'mericans stopped by the river and put up their teepees.
7$ +t + p.1. When 5ou !ontribute 0one5 to pa5 "or or help pa5 "or so0ethin', 5ou +t
+ the 0one5.
8
14. The !harit5 #as as7ed to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N2 0illion to#ard the pur!hase o" ne# 0edi!a:
e,uip0ent.
1. So0eone had MMMMMMMM the lid MMMMMMMM so ti'htl5 that 4 !ouldnBt 'et it o"".
1$. 65 house #as destro5ed b5 a tornado. Can 5ou MMMMMM 0e MMMMM "or a "e# da5sH
1%. 4 #as upstairs #or7in' #hen 05 #i"e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to as7 0e #hat 4 #anted "or lun!h.
18. The appli!antBs !riti!is0 o" his pre1ious e0plo5er didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ell #ith the
inter1ie#er.
1*. 4 bou'ht a plasti! Christ0as tree thatBs reall5 eas5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2/. Nan!5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the 3olden 3ate =rid'e e1er5 0ornin' to 'o to #or7.
21. 4 didnBt 'o to a "an!5 415 &ea'ue !olle'e. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the hard #a5.
22. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM the #indo# shade MMMMMMMM so that #e !an 'et 0ore li'ht in here, pleaseH
23. SusieBs 0other told her that Christ0as #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so she had better be a 'ood
'irl.
ECERCISE ("& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e
a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +ast +er.ect$
1. 6i7e told 0e that Ierr5 had been an'r5 and #as 'oin' to hit =ill, but that Ierr5 had then !han'ed his
0ind and #al7ed a#a5. What had Ierr5 doneH
2. &uis had #ritten his na0e on a pie!e o" paper to sho# that he had !o0e to #or7. What had &uis doneH
3. The !arpenter had dropped suddenl5 "ro0 the se!ond "loor to the "irst "loor throu'h a hole 4N the "loor.
What had the !arpenter doneH
4. Ti005 had ar'ued #ith his 0other be!ause he didnBt #ant to 'o to bed. What had Ti005
doneH
. ToddBs e<planation 0ade a 'ood i0pression on the )ur5. What had ToddBs e<planation doneH
$. The ri!h lad5 had 'i1en the 0one5 to build an ani0al shelter. What had the ri!h lad5 doneH
88
%. The host o" the TV tal7 sho# had said that the dan!in' bear a!t #as 'oin' to ta7e pla!e ri'ht a"ter
the !o00er!ial. What had the host o" the TV sho# said about the dan!in' bear a!tH
8. The !oo7 had turned the lid o" the )ar so that it #as ti'ht. What had the !oo7 doneH
*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the lid o" the )ar a"ter the !oo7 turned it so that it #as
ti'htH
1/. The ho0eless shelter had allo#ed the0 to sleep there o1erni'ht. What had the ho0eless shelter
doneH
11. The president !an!eled his 1a!ation be!ause a serious proble0 had suddenl5 o!!urred.
Wh5 did the president !an!el his 1a!ationH
12. WeBd had a deal to bu5 a ne# house, but #e didnBt bu5 it be!ause o" a proble0. What had
happened to our dealH
13. 6arshaBs na0e had been 0entioned durin' the 0eetin'. What had 6arshaBs na0e doneH
14. The (rte'as had built a "en!e around their s#i00in' pool. What had the (rte'as doneH
1. Aou had "ound so0e old ne#spapers #hile !leanin' the atti!. What had 5ou doneH
1$. 6i'uel had tra1eled "ro0 6ia0i to Ne# Aor7. What had 6i'uel doneH
1%. The do!tor had #ritten her na0e on a pie!e o" paper to sho# that she had le"t the hospital. What
had the do!tor doneH
ECERCISE ("c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Tr3 to -a0e so-e o. the- >estions' so-e ne/ative' an! so-e +resent or
+ast +er.ect$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 2.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 4.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. .
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM $.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. %.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 8.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
8*
ECERCISE ("!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ba!7 up, 11 "ollo# up, 11 point to, 4 tr5 out, 11
!ut o"", 11 'o a"ter, 4 put to, 4 #a7e up, 11
drop o"", 11 pa5 "or, 4 ta7e out, 11 #or7 out, 11
"all o"", 1/ plan "or, 4 thro# up, 2 #rap up, 4
*. I don(t care if it takes me the rest of my life, you(ll &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& the terrible thing you didE
2. The sales0an 'ot a 'ood lead "ro0 a "riend, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on it i00ediatel5.
3. We need to ta7e the bab5 to the do!tor ri'ht no#. SheBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM t#i!e in the last hour.
4. Sales ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 13 per!ent in the last 5ear.
. That #as a 1er5 interestin' ,uestion 5ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 6ar7 at the 0eetin'.
$. +ela<, e1er5thin'Bs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o7a5.
%. Can 5ou "ollo# 0e in 5our !ar so that 4 !an MMMMM 05 !ar MMMMM at the 0e!hani!H
8. ;ri7 MMMMMMMM his son MMMMMMMM and told hi0 it #as ti0e "or s!hool.
*. 4 dro1e into the 0ountains to MMMMMMMM 05 tru!7Bs "our-#heel dri1e MMMMMMMM.
1/. Aou should al#a5s MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMan5thin' i0portant be"ore 5ou install a ne# pro'ra0.
11. The poli!e o""i!er as7ed the bo5 #here his "ather #as, and the bo5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the bar
a!ross the street.
12. 4tBs 'ettin' prett5 late. &etBs MMMMMMMM this 0eetin' MMMMMMMM.
13. The 'u5 behind the !ounter MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a s0all pie!e o" !heese so 4 !ould taste it.
14. 4t #as a bit o" a proble0 #hen Iane brou'ht her !hildren #ith her to 05 dinner part5. 4 hadnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so 0an5 people.
1. The !ensor told the "il0 dire!tor to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM so0e o" the 1iolent s!enes.
1$. IaneBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that ne# )ob in the =oston o""i!e.
*/
13. 2(C.S (NG +assive +hrasa% ver&s' (
The passive voice is used #hen #hat happened Ethe 1erbF is 0ore i0portant than
#ho did it Ethe sub)e!tFG
The scene of the crime was dosed off b% the police.
#hen the sub)e!t is ob1iousG
The tests #ere han!e! in$ Eb5 the students > #ho elseHF
or #hen the sub)e!t is un7no#nG
65 do' #as rn over$ Eb5 an un7no#n personF
The passi1e is "or0ed #ith be and the past parti!iple o" the 1erb. =e !an be in an5
tense and !an be !ontinuousG
The game has been called off.
My name was left off.
The tent Is being set up.
The criminals will be tracked down.
-s #e sa# in the "irst three e<a0ples, sa5in' #ho per"or0ed the a!tion #ith a b5
phrase is optional, but it is al#a5s possible. This is a 'ood #a5 to test a senten!e to
see i" it is in the passi1eG
The game has been called off by. the, referee.
My name was left off by >harles.
The tent is being set up by. the campers.
The criminals will be tracked down by the police.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
call
off
call off < calls off calling off called off called off
($ ca%%$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou ca%% o.. an e1ent, su!h as a part5, 'a0e, or so0ethin' else that
had been pre1iousl5 planned, 5ou !an!el it.
The football game was called off because of rain.
.e can(t call the party off! it(s going to start in half an hour.
dose off
close off < closes off closing off closed off closed off
($ c%ose $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou c%ose o.. an area/5ou prohibit people "ro0 enterin' it or
passin' throu'h it b5 lo!7in' the door or blo!7in' the entran!e.
The police closed several streets off because of the parade.
The house was so e0pensive to heat that the owners closed several rooms off.
*1
c%ose! o.. part.ad). -n area that 5ou are prohibited "ro0 enterin' or passin' throu'h be!ause
the door has been lo!7ed or the entran!e has been blo!7ed is c%ose! o..
Three rooms in the museum are closed off.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
hand in
hand in & hands in handing in handed in handed in
($ han! $$$ in EtoF p.1. When 5ou !o0plete a test, report, or pro)e!t and 5ou 'i1e it to the
person #ho assi'ned the #or7, 5ou han! it in or han! it in to that person. Trn in is si0ilar
to han! in$
The tests must be handed in no later than **$33.
%e finished his investigation and handed his report in to the committee.
"$ han! $$$ in p.1. When 5ou han! in 5our resi'nation or letter o" resi'nation, 5ou in"or0 5our
e0plo5er that 5ou are ,uittin' 5our )ob.
; was so furious that I handed my letter of resignation in the ne0t day.
The ?resident asked the cabinet members to hand in their resignations.
*$ han! $$$ in EtoF p.1. When 5ou 'i1e so0ethin' to a person o" authorit5 #ho has de0anded it
or be!ause 5ou no lon'er need or #ant it, 5ou han! it in or han! it in to a person o" authorit5.
Trn in is si0ilar to han! in$
The guard was ordered to hand his gun in after he shot the window washer.
The drivers return to the factory at D$33 and hand their keys in to the
dispatcher before they leave.
hit on hit on & hits on hitting on hit on hit on
($ hit on p.1. When 5ou thin7 o" an interestin' idea or a solution to a proble0, 5ou hit on
it.
; think I(ve hit on a way to solve this problem.
'fter two years of tests, they finally hit on the
solution.
"$ hit on p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou hit on a person o" the opposite se<, 5ou approa!h and
a''ressi1el5 tr5 to interest that person in 5ou ro0anti!all5 or se<uall5.
Gydia had a terrible time at the party. "he was hit on by every guy
there.
Get(s go somewhere else ! Mark keeps hitting on me, and I(m tired of
it.
%eave o.. leave off & leaves off leaving off left off
left off
($ %eave$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou do not in!lude people or thin's on a list, either
a!!identall5 or deliberatel5, 5ou lea1e the0 o..$
'fter what happened at the last party, 5an wasn(t surprised that he was left off the
guest list.
>heck to make sure you don(t leave anyone off the list.
L7
"$ %eave o.. p.1. When 5ou interrupt so0ethin' that 5ou intend to "inish later, 5ou %eave o..
at the point #here 5ou stop.
=kay class, we left off on page L7 last week, so open your books to page L2.
Finish your story. Oncle Fred. 8ou left off where the giant octopus was about
to eat you.
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
let off
let o"" P lets o"" lettin' o"" let o"" let o""
($ %et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou let so0eone o"" a bus or other "or0 o" transportation, 5ou stop it
so that person !an lea1e it.
The driver let her off at the corner. That(s my
house there. >an you let me off please1
"$ %et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou are %et o.. b5 a person in authorit5, 5ou are not punished or 5ou
are 'i1en onl5 a li'ht punish0ent.
It was )ake(s first offense, so the udge let him off with a
warning.
?eople were shocked that he had been let off so lightly.
*$ %et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou "ire a 'un or e<plode bo0bs or "ire#or7s, 5ou %et the0 o..$
Ere'ionalF When 5ou %et o.. stea0, 5ou e<press an'r5 "eelin's or "rustration or do
so0ethin' to relie1e those "eelin's.
The high school was evacuated after someone let off a smoke bomb.
.hen I was a kid I used to love letting off firecrackers on the Fourth of )uly.
I(m sorry I was so angry this morning@ I was ust letting off steam.
light up
light up & lights up lighting up lit up lit up
($ %i/ht$$$ + p.1. When 5ou shine li'hts on so0ethin' or atta!h li'hts to
so0ethin', 5ou %i/ht it +$
'irport runways are lit up so that pilots can see them in the dark.
The police lit the house up with their spotlights.
%it + part.ad). -"ter a li'ht is shined on so0ethin' or 5ou put li'hts inside or atta!h li'hts to
the outside o" so0ethin', it is %it +$
The signs aren(t lit up so it(s hard to see them at night.
"$ %i/ht$$$ + p.1. When 5ou %i/ht + a !i'arette, !i'ar, or pipe, 5ou use a 0at!h or li'hter
to start it burnin'.
%ere are the matches ! let(s light up. 1ighting a cigarette up ne0t to the
gasoline truck was the last thing he ever did.
*3
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
track down
track down & tracks down tracking down tracked down tracked
($ trac0$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou "ind thin's or people a"ter loo7in' 1er5 hard "or the0, 5ou
tra!7 the0 !o5n$
The terrorists were tracked down by Interpol.
I finally tracked down that book I(ve been looking for.
ECERCISE (*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The )ud'e MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM #ith a #arnin'.
2. 4t #asnBt !old enou'h, so #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ho!7e5 'a0e.
3. -s soon as Nan!5Bs bo5"riend #ent to the #ashroo0,the 'u5 at the ne<t table MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
her.
4. ;1er5 Christ0as 05 "ather used to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM our house #ith thousands
o" li'hts.
. The poli!e "inall5 MMMMMMMM the 7illers MMMMMMMM and arrested the0.
$. The prin!ipal !au'ht 0e as 4 #as MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a !i'arette in the #ashroo0.
%. The roo0 that #as da0a'ed b5 the "ire #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the publi!.
8. 4 #as reall5 an'r5 that 4 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list.
*. ThatBs a 'reat idea: AouB1e reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0ethin'.
1/. Three students 'ot a Dero be!ause their pro)e!ts #erenBt MMMMMM MMMMMM on ti0e.
11. 8ri1er, !an 5ou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM at the ne<t !ornerH
12. 8r. S0ith resu0ed his le!ture #here he had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore the lun!h brea7.
13. -"ter Wilson s!re#ed up the "inan!e depart0ent, he #as as7ed to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM his letter o"
resi'nation.
14. ;1en thou'h the ene05 soldiers #ere hal" a 0ile a#a5, #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
a "e# shots.
1. The !roo7ed poli!e o""i!ers #ere ordered to MMMMMMMM their bad'es MMMMMMMM.
*4
ECERCISE (*& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. The bride hasn(t called off. Bthe wedding, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
7. 're they closing off1 Bthe gallery, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
2. The accountant handed in. Bher report, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
H. %ave you left off1 B>armen, herC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
D. The udge let off. Bthe pickpocket, himC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
J.I told him not to light up. Bthe cigarette, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
*
%. The ;P- tra!7ed do#n. Ethe polluters, the0F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
ECERCISE (*c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives
.ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +assive$
1. Ce dis!o1ered the sour!e o" the ru0or. What happened to the sour!e o" the ru0orH
2. The students "inished their ,uiDDes and 'a1e the0 to the tea!her. What happened to the
,uiDDesH
3. The )ud'e ne1er sends "irst-ti0e o""enders to )ail. What al#a5s happens to "irst-ti0e o""endersH
4. - 'u5 started tal7in' to Ceather at the dan!e. What happened to CeatherH
. The list o" !andidates didnBt in!lude 5our na0e. What happened to 5our na0eH
$. The re"eree !an!eled the 'a0e. What happened to the 'a0eH
%. The5 are puttin' ropes around the plaDa so that no one !an 'o in. What is happenin' to the
plaDaH
8. 4n Ouestion %, a"ter the5 "inish puttin' ropes around the plaDa, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe itH
*. The battleship shined li'hts on the ene05 sub0arine. What happened to the ene05
sub0arineH
1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the sub0arine a"ter the battleship shined li'hts on itH
*$
ECERCISE (*!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s
.ro- +revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section
n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
burn do#n, let out, % point out, % set up,
!all in, loo7 at, run into, 1 ta7e apart, %
'i1e ba!7, 1 pile up, run o1er, % ta7e o"", 1
hand ba!7, plan "or, 4 s!re# out o", 3 tal7 do#n to, 3
1. 6ost o" the !it5 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the in1adin' soldiers.
2. Tea!her, #ill points be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or spellin'H
3. 8an is so rude > 4 ha1e ne1er been MMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMM li7e that be"ore.
4. - !on"eren!e #ill be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bet#een the la#5ers "or ea!h side.
. The Ta5lors #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their li"e sa1in's b5 their
sto!7bro7er.
$. The !hildren #ere happ5 to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" s!hool earl5.
%. The entire sta"" #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the o""i!e and 'i1en pin7 slips.
8. Se1eral "la#s in the plan #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
*. +a,uel #as al0ost MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 a !e0ent tru!7 #hile she #as dri1in' to #or7.
1/. There #asnBt enou'h roo0 inside the !abin, so the "ire#ood had to be MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM outside.
C. The 'eneral said the o!!upied territor5 #ould ne1er be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. The test #ill be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the students to0orro#.
13. This en'ine has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM three ti0es, but no one !an "i'ure out
#hatBs #ron' #ith it.
14. This is a 1er5 i0portant pro)e!t. ;1er5 possible proble0 0ust be MMMMMM MMMMMM.
1. 65 nei'hbor stopped at the side o" the road to !han'e a "lat tire, and he #as MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM and 7illed b5 a drun7 dri1er.
1$. ;a!h proposed desi'n "or the ne# "la' #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and re)e!ted.
*%
(6$ FOCUS ON< +artici+%e a!,ectives .or-e!
.ro- +hrasa% ver&s' (
The past parti!iples o" 0an5 ;n'lish 1erbs !an also be used as ad)e!ti1es. Aou #ill
see that senten!es #ith ad)e!ti1es "or0ed "ro0 past parti!iples are 1er5 si0ilar to
senten!es #ith 1erbs in the passi1e 1oi!eG in both !ases a "or0 o" be is used #ith
the past parti!iple. 2or this reason, it is not al#a5s eas5 to sa5 #hether a senten!e
!ontains an ad)e!ti1e "or0ed "ro0 a past parti!iple or a 1erb in the passi1e 1oi!eG
The door #as !losed. E4s this a passi1e senten!e or is dosed an ad)e!ti1eHF
So0eti0es, #hether a senten!e !ontains an ad)e!ti1e "or0ed "ro0 a past parti!iple
or a 1erb in the passi1e 1oi!e is !lear "ro0 the senten!e stru!tureG
The door was closed by the secretary, BpassiveC
The door was closed when I came home last night, BadectiveC
or the !onte<tG
Fuestion$ .hat happens if the health inspector finds rats in a restaurant1
answer$ It(s closed. BpassiveC
,uestionG 4s the #indo# openH
ans#erG 4tBs !losed. Ead)e!ti1eF
=ut in so0e !ases it is not possible to sa5 absolutel5 #hether a senten!e !ontains an
ad)e!ti1e "or0ed "ro0 a past parti!iple or a 1erb in the passi1e 1oi!e. 2ortunatel5, it is
usuall5 not 1er5 i0portant be!ause the 0eanin' is o"ten essentiall5 the sa0e. 2or that
reason, throu'hout this boo7 true ad)e!ti1es "or0ed "ro0 past parti!iples and past
parti!iples "un!tionin' as ad)e!ti1es are both !lassi"ied as parti!iple ad)e!ti1es.
6u!h 0ore i0portant than the di""eren!e bet#een ad)e!ti1es "or0ed "ro0 past
parti!iples and past parti!iples "un!tionin' as ad)e!ti1es is #hat the #ords 0ean.
So0e parti!iple ad)e!ti1es are #ritten #ith a h5phen E0a7e-upF, so0e #ithout a
h5phen E"i<ed upF, and so0e as one #ord Erundo#nF. =e!ause not e1er5one a'rees
#hi!h parti!iple ad)e!ti1es should be h5phenated/#hi!h should not, and #hi!h should
be #ritten as one #ord, 5ou #ill o!!asionall5 see the sa0e parti!iple ad)e!ti1e #ritten
#ith or #ithout a h5phen or #ritten as one #ord. -lso, =ritish ;n'lish h5phenates
0an5 parti!iple ad)e!ti1es that are not nor0all5 h5phenated in -0eri!an ;n'lish?
0an5 o" the parti!iple ad)e!ti1es sho#n unh5phenated in this boo7 are h5phenated in
=ritish ;n'lish.
*8
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
butt in
butt in P butts in buttin' in butt in butt in
($ &tt in p.1. When 5ou enter a !on1ersation, situation, or pla!e Eespe!iall5 a lineF
a''ressi1el5, rudel5, and #ithout in1itation/5ou &tt in$
; was trying to talk to Mm at the party, but Aob kept butting in.
My father taught me that it(s not polite to butt in line@ you have to go to the back
and wait your turn.
dress up
dress up & dresses up dressing up dressed up dressed up
($ !ress$$$ + p.1. When 5ou !ress +' 5ou #ear 1er5 ni!e !lothes, o"ten "or a spe!ial
o!!asion. When 5ou !ress people up, 5ou put 1er5 ni!e !lothes on the0/ o"ten "or a
spe!ial o!!asion.
8ou should always dress up for a ob interview.
The Taylors dressed their children up so they could take some pictures.
!resse! + part.ad). When 5ou are !resse! up, 5ou are #earin' 1er5 ni!e !lothes, o"ten
"or a spe!ial o!!asion.
.here are Tom and #ancy going1 They(re all dressed up.
I felt like an idiot at the party ! everyone was really dressed up e0cept
me.
"$ !ress + Eli7e/asF p.1. When people #ear old-"ashioned !lothes or !ostu0es, the5
!ress +' !ress + li7e so0eone, or !ress + as so0eone.
5id you see >harles at the %alloween party1 %e dressed up like a
cowboy.
't )ane(s costume party, everyone has to dress up as a clown.
dr% up
dr% up & dries up dr%ing up dried up dried up
($ !r3$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' !ries + or so0ethin' !ries it +' all the #ater or other
li,uid in it 'oes a#a5.
The sun came out and dried up all the
rain. The Ireat "alt Gake is slowly dr%ing
up.
!rie! + part.ad). -"ter all #ater or other li,uid in so0ethin' 'oes a#a5, it is
!rie! +$
The cowboys reached the river only to find that it was dried up.
These leaves will burn okay now that they(re dried up.
"$ !r3 + p.1. When the a0ount or suppl5 o" so0ethin' 'ets s0aller and then disappears
!o0pletel5, it !ries +$
The factory switched to synthetic rubber after the supply of natural rubber dried
up.
The small grocery store(s business dried up after a huge supermarket opened
across the street.
LL
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
fill out
.i%% ot B .i%%s ot .i%%in/ ot .i%%e! ot .i%%e! ot
($ .i%%$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou .i%% ot a "or0, 5ou put in"or0ation in the !orre!t spa!es. Fi%% in is
the sa0e as .i%% ot$
The personnel director asked "ofia to fill out an application.
0ill the withdrawal slip out and give it to the teller.
.i%%e! ot partad). -"ter all the in"or0ation is in the !orre!t spa!es o" a "or0, the "or0 is .i%%e!
ot$
%ere(s my application@ it(s all filled out. 're
these forms blank or filled out"
"$ .i%%$$$ ot p.1. When slender people 'ain #ei'ht, the5 "ill ot$
)ake was really thin when he got out of prison, but he has really filled out since then.
#icole started to fill out after she started working at the candy shop.
put awa%
put awa% & puts awa% putting awa% put awa% put awa%
($ +t$$$ a5a3 p.1. When 5ou return so0ethin' to the pla!e #here it is usuall5 stored
#hile it is not bein' used, 5ou +t it a5a3$
; told you to put awa% %our toys before you go outside.
Todd always dries the dishes, and I put them awa%.
+t a5a3 part.ad). 4" so0ethin' is in the pla!e #here it is usuall5 stored #hile it is not
bein' used, it is +t a5a3$
.here is my tool kit1 I looked in the closet, and it(s not put awa%.
The dishes are put awa%. #ow let(s watch TV.
"$ +t$$$ a5a3 p.1. When people are +t a5a3' the5 are sent to prison or a 0ental
institution.
; hope they put that maniac awa% and throw away the key.
)ake was put awa% for ten years after he was convicted of murder.
*$ +t$$ $a5a3 p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou !onsu0e lar'e ,uantities o" "ood or drin7
Eespe!iall5 al!oholi! drin7F, 5ou +t it a5a3$
Ae sure to buy plenty of beer if 5avid is coming to the party. %e can really put it awa%.
I don(t feel well. I put awa% four hot dogs and a bag of cookies.
stick up
stick up & sticks up sticking up stuck up stuck
up
($ stic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou use a 'un or other #eapon to rob people, ban7s, or
stores, 5ou stic0 the0 +$ Ho%! + is the sa0e as stic0 +$
1//
>all the policeE They(re sticking up the bank.
If we need some money, we can always stick up a liFuor
store.
stic0+ n. When so0eone uses a 'un or other #eapon to rob a person, ban7, or
store, there is a stic0+$ A ho%!+ is the sa0e as a stic0+$
' man wearing a ski mask yelled, +This is a stickup!:
The detective was asking Fuestions about the stickup last
night.
"$ stic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou put so0ethin', su!h as a pi!ture, si'n, or noti!e, in
a pla!e #here people !an see it, 5ou stic0 it +$
"am stuck a notice up about his lost dog.
I(m going to stick these +no smoking+ signs up all over the
school.
*$ stic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou push so0ethin' inside a !ontainer or spa!e that is lon'
and narro#, 5ou stic0 it +$
.e had to take "usie to the emergency room after she stuck a paper clip up
her nose.
Mark stuck his hand up the chimney to try to find the hidden key.
6$ stic0 + p.1. When so0ethin' lon' and narro# is raised abo1e the sur"a!e, it
stic0s +$
Ae careful walking around a construction site ! there might be a nail sticking
up.
My hair was sticking up in the back after ; woke up from my nap.
stc09+ part.ad). Jin"or0al > althou'h the parti!iple ad)e!ti1e stc09+ deri1es "ro0
stic0 +' the 1erb "or0 is ne1er used in this senseK When 5ou thin7 5ou are better
than other people be!ause 5ou are 0ore beauti"ul or 0ore intelli'ent or be!ause 5ou
!o0e "ro0 a hi'her le1el o" so!iet5, 5ou are stc09+$
%eather is the most popular girl in the school, but she isn(t
stuck-up.
They(re so stuck-up ! they(ll never sit at our table.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
use up
use up & uses up using up used up used up
($ se$$$ + p.1. When 5ou use up so0ethin', 5ou use all o" it.
'fter you use something up be sure to write it on the
grocery list.
I used up all the glue@ we need to buy more.
se! + part.ad). -"ter all o" so0ethin' has been used, it is se! +$
8o #e ha1e another tube o" toothpaste in the houseH This oneBs se!
+$
wind
wind up & winds up winding up wound up wound up
($ 5in! $$$+ p.1. When 5ou turn the handle or 7e5 o" a 0e!hani!al to5, #at!h, or !lo!7 to
0a7e it operate, 5ou 5in! it +$
1/1
; overslept because I forgot to wind up my alarm dock. This
toy doesn(t use batteries@ you have to wind it up.
5on! + part.ad). -"ter so0eone turns the handle or 7e5 o" a 0e!hani!al to5, #at!h, or
!lo!7, it is 5on! +$
The toy soldier is wound up. )ust push the button to make it walk.
.hat is wrong with this watch1 It(s wound up but it still doesn(t work.
5on! + part.ad). When 5ou are ner1ous or tense, 5ou are 5on! +$
5on(t even talk to )oe today. %e(s really wound up.
I(m feeling really wound up ! I need a drink.
"$ 5in! + p.1. When 5ou sa5 that so0eone or so0ethin' 5in!s + a !ertain #a5 or 5in!s
+ doin' so0ethin', 5ou 0ean that this situation #as the result o" a series o" de!isions,
a!tions, or unplanned and une<pe!ted o!!urren!es. En! + is si0ilar to 5in! +$
.e got totally lost and wound up *33 miles from the campground.
If you don(t start driving more carefully, you(re going to wind up dead.
*$ 5in! $$$ + p.1. When 5ou 5in! + an a!ti1it5 or e1ent, 5ou "inish it or 'et read5 to "inish
it. =ra+ + is si0ilar to 5in! +$
The detective wound up her investigation and made several arrests.
.e(d better wind things up here@ it(s getting late.
6$ 5in! $$$ + p.1. When 5ou #rap so0ethin' lon', su!h as an ele!tri!al !ord, rope, strin', or
0easurin' tape, around and around so that it is in a ball or on a spool, 5ou 5in! it +$
That(s enough fishing for today. Get(s wind up our lines and go home.
The firefighters wound up their fire hoses and went back to the station.
5on! + part.ad). When 5ou #rap so0ethin' lon', su!h as an ele!tri!al !ord, rope, or
0easurin' tape, around and around so that it is in a ball or on a spool, it is 5on! +$
This rope is a mess. 8ou should keep it wound up.
This electrical cord is realty wound up tight.
ECERCISE (6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. We !ouldnBt de!ide #here to 'o, so #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sta5in' ho0e.
2. =e sure 5ou MMMMMMMM this "or0 MMMMMMMM !are"ull5.
3. 65 son lo1es to eat. Ce !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an e<tra lar'e piDDa in less than "i"teen
0inutes.
1/2
-. 4Bll MMMMMMMM this noti!e MMMMMMMM on the #all.
. WeBre 'oin' out to a ni!e restaurant toni'ht, so be sure to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
$. =usiness at the s7i shop al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in su00er.
%. When 5ouBre "inished #ith 5our 6onopol5 'a0e, MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
8. Con'ress is MMMMMM MMMMMM so0e un"inished business be"ore the su00er re!ess.
*. The "ire"i'hter MMMMMM her hand MMMMMM the drain pipe to tr5 to rea!h the 7itten.
1/. The 0eetin'Bs al0ost o1er MMMMMMMM the5Bre MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM no#.
11. Iani!e #ent to the !ostu0e part5MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM li7e 6arie -ntoinette.
12. The desert is so hot that rain#ater MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM al0ost i00ediatel5.
13. 4 donBt 7no# #hat ti0e it is. 4 "or'ot to MMMMMMMM 05 !lo!7 MMMMMMMM.
14. =e !are"ul #hen 5ou sail 5our boat in this shallo# #ater. So0eti0es lo's MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
"ro0 the botto0.
1. &5dia hasMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMa little sin!e she had the bab5.
1$. -unt 9ath5 "inished 7nittin' the s#eater and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her 7nittin' needles.
1%. 2ran7 and Iesse Ia0esMMMMMM MMMMMMa ban7 in North"ield, 6innesota, in 18%$.
18. 4 hope the5 !at!h those !roo7s and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM "or a lon' ti0e.
1*. 4 MMMMMMMMall 05 ti0e MMMMMMMMon the "irst hal" o" the test and didnBt ha1e an5 ti0e le"t "or the
se!ond hal".
2/. 65 brother is so rude: Whene1er 4 tr5 to tal7 to 05 "riend 9aren, he MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and #onBt
let 0e tal7.
ECERCISE (6& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$
1. 4 hope it rains soon. (ur la#n is reall5MMMMMMMMMMM.
2. Wh5 are 5ou MMMMM MMMMMMH -re 5ou 'oin' to a part5H
3. So0e o" these "or0s are blan7 and others are MMMMM MMMMM.
4. -ll the people #ho li1e in that nei'hborhood thin7 the5Bre better than e1er5one else in to#n.
ThereBre so MMMMM MMMMM.
. 4 !anBt use 05 printer. The toner !artrid'e is MMMM MMMM, and 4 need to bu5 a ne# one.
$. The !lo!7 isnBt #or7in' be!ause it isnBt MMMMM MMMMM.
%. Tirnrn5, are 5our to5s all o1er the "loor #here the5 #ere last ni'ht, or are the5 MMMMM MMMMMH
ECERCISE (6c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. )anice dressed up. Bher son, himC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
The sun Fuickly dries up. Bthe water, itC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
Filling out isn(t necessary, Bthe entire form, itC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
/d put away in an hour. Bsi0 beers, themC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
They stuck up. Bnotices, themC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
1/4
$. 4B0 #indin' up. E05 !lo!7, itF
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
ECERCISE (6! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. Ia7e #as ridin' his 0otor!5!le too "ast and not bein' !are"ul. No# he is in the hospital #ith a bro7en
le'. What happened to Ia7eH
2. 4t #as hard tal7in' to 05 0other be!ause 05 sister 7ept rudel5 interruptin' our !on1ersation. What
did 05 sister 7eep doin'H
3. - lot o" rain "ell and 0ade a s0all la7e in the "ield. No#, a"ter a #ee7, the #ater is not there an50ore.
What happened to the #aterH
4. -le< #as pla5in' #ith his to5 trains. No# the5 are in the bo< #here he 7eeps the0 #hen he is not
pla5in' #ith the0. What did -le< doH
. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe -le<Bs to5sH
$. 4t rained three hours a'o, but no# there is no 0ore #ater in the streets. Co# #ould 5ou des!ribe the
streetsH
%. 4 turned the 7e5 in this 'rand"ather !lo!7, and no# it is #or7in'. What did 4 do to the !lo!7H
8. 4n Ouestion %, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !lo!7H
*. 8aniela put on her best !lothes "or the dan!e. What did 8aniela doH
1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 8anielaH
11. &uis #rote all the ne!essar5 in"or0ation on the "or0. What did &uis doH
12. 4n Ouestion 11, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the "or0H
1/
ECERCISE (6e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter
each one$
ba!7ed up, 11 !ut o"", 11 hoo7ed up, * s!re#ed up, 1/
bro7en-do#n, !ut up, % hun' up, * set up,
burned-out, 8 "illed in, 1/ paid "or, 4 #a7e-up, 11
!au'ht up, * 'ro#n-up, 1/ piled up, #or7ed up, *
1. The !lothes are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the !loset.
2. 4 donBt o#e an5 0one5 to the ban7 "or 05 house. 4tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
3. 65 VC+ is !onne!ted to 05 TV. 65 VC+ is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. We li1e "ar out in the !ountr5 a#a5 "ro0 to#n, our "riends, and our "a0ilies. 4 donBt li7e bein' so
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. 65 !arBs MMMMMMMMMMM, so 4 ha1e to ta7e the bus to #or7.
$. -ll the plans and arran'e0ents "or our 1a!ation are read5? e1er5thin' is MMMMMMMM MM.
%. -ll the spa!es in this "or0 ha1e the ne!essar5 in"or0ation in the0. The "or0 is
8. Nan!5Bs "our-5ear-old son #as pla5in' #ith her !o0puter, and no# itBs all MMMMM MMMMM.
*. 4 #as si!7 and 0issed se1eral ho0e#or7 assi'n0ents in s!hool. =ut 4 #or7ed hard and "inished all the
ho0e#or7 4 0issed, and no# 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1/. 4B0 1er5 ner1ous and upset about so0ethin'. 4B0MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. These 1ideotapes arenBt "or !hildren > the5Bre MMMMMMMMMMM 1ideotapes.
12. Ti005Bs 0other used a 7ni"e to !ut his 0eat into 0an5 s0all pie!es. Ti005Bs 0eat is
13. 4B0 tired all the ti0e, 4 hate 05 )ob, and 4 need a 1a!ation. 4B0 MMMMM MMMMMM.
14. 65 !o0puter !rashed last ni'ht, but "ortunatel5 all 05 i0portant "iles are
1. The hotel "or'ot 05MMMMMMMMMMM !all, and 4 0issed 05 plane.
1$. The 0a'aDines are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in a bi' sta!7.
1/$
1. 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s an! will or be
going to
Aoth will and be going to are used to talk about the future in /nglish, but they are not the same.
Pre!ictions< 5i%% or &e /oin/ to
.se #ill or be 'oin' to "or predi!tions. When 5ou predi!t the "uture, 5ou sa5 #hat 5ou thin7 #ill
happenG
The wind will blow awa% these paper plates.
The wind is going to blow awa% these paper plates.
=i%%in/ness< 5i%%
.se onl5 #ill "or #illin'ness. When 5ou o""er to do so0ethin' that 5ou do not ha1e to do, 5ou
are #illin' to do itG
; will put up the shelves for you.
P%ans< &e /oin/ to
.se onl5 be 'oin' to "or plans. When 5ou de!ide to do so0ethin' in the "uture, #hether it is
lon' and !o0pli!ated or short and si0ple, 5ou plan to do itG
%e is going to head for Me0ico ne0t week.
The "uture #ith #ill is "or0ed b5 usin' #ill plus the in"initi1e "or0 o" the 1erbG
statements$ %e will come through "an Francisco.
Fuestion$ .ill he come through "an Francisco1
negative$ %e will not come through "an Francisco.
These contractions are used with will$
I will Q I(ll
you will Q you(ll
he will Q he(ll
she will Q she(ll
it will Q it(ll
they will Q they(ll
will not Q won(t
When t#o !ontra!tions are possible, it is 0ore !o00on to !ontra!t #ill #ith not rather than #ith
a pronounG
common$ %e won(t come through "an Francisco.
uncommon$ %e(ll not come through "an Francisco.
The "uture #ith be 'oin' to is "or0ed #ith a "or0 o" be plus 'oin' to plus the in"initi1e "or0 o" the
1erbG
statement$ %e is. going to head for Me0ico ne0t week.
Fuestion$ Is he going to head for Me0ico ne0t week1
negative$ %e is not going to head for Me0ico ne0t week.
*3M
These !ontra!tions are used #ith be 'oin' toG
4 a0 ] 4B0
5ou are ] 5ouBre
he is ] heBs
she is ] sheBs
it is ] itBs
the5 are ] the5Bre
are not ] arenBt
is not ] isnBt
When t#o !ontra!tions are possible, both are e,uall5 !o00onG
!o00onG CeBs not 'oin' to hea! .or 6e<i!o ne<t #ee7.
!o00onG Ce isnBt 'oin' to hea! .or 6e<i!o ne<t #ee7.
4n in"or0al spo7en ;n'lish, 'oin' to is o"ten pronoun!ed /onna. 4t is not
ne!essar5 to pronoun!e 'oin' to in this #a5, but it is ne!essar5 to understand
it.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
blow awa%
blow awa% & blows awa% blowing awa% blew awa% blown awa%
($ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.1. When the #ind 0o1es so0ethin' a#a5 "ro0 #here it #as, it &%o5s it
a5a3$
5on(t leave the newspaper outside. The wind will blow it awa%. The picnic wasn(t much
fun. It was really windy, and everything kept blowing awa%.
"$ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.1. Jin"or0alK When a person or !o0pan5 has an abilit5, produ!t, or ser1i!e
that is 0u!h better than that o" a !o0petin' person or !o0pan5, it &%o5s a5a3 the
!o0petin' person or !o0pan5.
'pple(s new computer is so fast it(s going to blow awa% the competition. I
thought I had a chance to win the race, but /rik ust blew me awa%.
*$ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.1. Jin"or0alK When so0ethin' 5ou ha1e seen or heard 0a7es 5ou 1er5
sho!7ed, a0aDed, or e0otional, it &%o5s 5ou a5a3$
The first time I saw the ?yramids, they ust blew me awa%.
I was blown awa% when my mother told me that I was adopted.
come through
come through & comes through coming through came through come
through
($ co-e thro/h p.1. When 5ou are in a pla!e and people or thin's co-e thro/h
it, the5 pass "ro0 one side to the other side #here 5ou are.
Aetty came through the door and sat down at our
table.
The soldiers were coining through the hole in the
wall.
*3K
"$ co-e thro/h p.1. When people tra1el to 5our to#n, sta5 "or a #hile, and then lea1e, the5 co-e
thro/h or co-e thro/h to#n.
'unt "ally promised she(d come through Milwaukee on her way to Indianapolis.
*$ co-e thro/h p.1. When i0portant in"or0ation, authoriDation, or per0ission that 5ou ha1e been
#aitin' "or is re!ei1ed, it co-es thro/h$
.e can buy the house ! the loan finally came through.
The e0ecution was stopped when the call from the governor came through.
6$ co-e thro/h E#ithF p.1. When 5ou pro0ise to do so0ethin' or produ!e so0ethin' and
7eep 5our pro0ise, 5ou co-e thro/h or co-e thro/h #ith #hat 5ou pro0ised to do
or pro0ised to produ!e.
.e were all surprised when Aob came through with front row tickets ust like he said he would.
The state legislature promised to provide the financing for a new stadium, but they didn(t
come through.
7$ co-e thro/h p.1. When 5ou co-e thro/h a di""i!ult or dan'erous e<perien!e, 5ou sur1i1e it.
My Oncle Fred saw lots of action during the war, but he came through without a scratch.
+oming through the earthFuake alive was a miracle.
8$ co-e thro/h p.1. When so0eoneBs "eelin's, attitudes, or opinions !an be per!ei1ed b5
so0eone else, the5 co-e thro/h$
The author(s hatred of the dictatorship came through in the novel.
The professor(s enthusiasm for the subect really comes through in his lectures.
#nfinitive
present tense ;ing form past tense past participle
dr% out
dr% out & dries out dr%ing out dried out dried out
($ !r3 $$$ot p.1. When so0ethin' !ries ot or so0ethin' !ries it out, all the #ater or other li,uid in it
'oes a#a5.
Aefore you put this tent away, be sure you dr% it out.
'fter the flood, it took weeks for our house to dr%
out.
!rie! ot part.ad). -"ter all the #ater or other li,uid in so0ethin' 'oes a#a5, it is !rie!
ot$
My skin always gets dried out in the winter.
.e shampooed our carpet a week ago, and it(s still not dried out.
fi7 up
fi7 up & fi7es up fi7ing up fi7ed up fi7ed up
($ .i4$$$ + p.1. When 5ou "i< up a pla!e, su!h as a buildin', street, or par7, 5ou repair and de!orate it.
1/*
; am going to fi7 this place up and try to sell it.
The city decided to fi7 up the park.
.i4e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou repair and de!orate a pla!e, su!h as a buildin', street, or par7, it is
.i4e! +$
#ow that his house is fi7ed up it looks pretty nice.
.hen you see how fi7ed up )im(s apartment is now, you(ll be surprised.
.i4er9++er n. Jin"or0alK - .i4er9++er is a buildin' in poor !ondition that !an be repaired,
reno1ated, or rede!orated in order to in!rease its 1alue.
The way to make money in real estate is to buy a fi7er-upper and do as much
of the work yourself as you can.
"$ .i4$$$ + p.1. When 5ou .i4 5oursel" +' 5ou st5le 5our hair ni!el5 and put on 0a7e-
up and ni!e !lothes.
If you(re going to that fancy restaurant, you(d better fi0 yourself up.
%eather is upstairs fi7ing herself up for the prom.
.i4e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou st5le 5our hair ni!el5 and put on 0a7e-up and ni!e !lothes, 5ou are
.i4e! +$
.here(s Gydia going1 "he(s all fi7ed up.
I got all fi7ed up and my boyfriend took me to a demolition derby.
*$ .i4$$$ + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou .i4 people + #ith so0ethin', 5ou arran'e "or the0 to ha1e or
to use so0ethin' that the5 need or #ant.
.e told the hotel desk clerk that we wanted their best room, and she fi7ed us up with the honeymoon
suite.
The travel agent fi7ed me up with a limo to take me to the resort.
6$ .i4$$$ + E#ithF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou .i4 people + or .i4 the0 + #ith so0eone, 5ou
arran'e a date "or the0 #ith a 0e0ber o" the opposite se<.
Ginda and Tom are perfect for each other. I(m going to fi7 them up.
I asked )erry if he(d fi7 me up with his sister.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go with
go with & goes with going with went with gone with
($ /o 5ith p.1. When one thin' is usuall5 or al#a5s "ound #ith another, the5 /o 5ith ea!h
other.
' lot of responsibility goes with being a doctor.
I never wanted to own an old house because of all the maintenance that goes with it.
"$ /o 5ith p.1. When t#o thin's are part o" one unit or set or are 0eant to be #ith ea!h other,
the5 /o 5ith ea!h other.
11/
=ne of the fringe benefits of that ob was the car that went with it. 8ou
can(t buy the cup without the saucer that goes with it.
*$ /o 5ith p.1. When one ite0 o" !lothin' loo7s ni!e #ith another, the5 'o #ith ea!h other.
"he needs to find a blouse that goes with her new skirt.
I like white shirts because they go with everything.
6$ /o 5ith p.1. When 5ou /o 5ith people, 5ou a'ree #ith and support their idea or plan.
"enator 5olittle has no opinions. %e ust goes with the maority.
.e(ve decided to go with the committee(s recommendation.
7$ /o 5ith p.1. When 5ou !hoose so0eone or so0ethin' "ro0 a 'roup, 5ou /o 5ith 5our !hoi!e.
That gray suit was nice, but I think I(m going to go with the black one.
/veryone who applied for the ob is highly Fualified. I don(t know who I(m going
to go with.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
head back head back <
heads back
heading back headed back headed back
($ hea! &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou hea! &ac0 or hea! &ac0 to a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou return to a pla!e
#here 5ou #ere be"ore. When 5ou are hea!e! &ac0 or are hea!in/ &ac0 to a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou
are returnin' to a pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore.
.e(ll spend a month in >alifornia and then head back to 5es Moines. .e got to the beach
around *3$33, and we headed back when it started to get dark.
head
head for & heads for heading for headed for headed for
($ hea! .or p.1. When 5ou hea! .or a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou 0o1e to#ard it. When 5ou are hea!e! .or
or are hea!in/ .or a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou are plannin' to 'o there or 5ou ha1e stopped and #ill
resu0e 'oin' there. Hea! to5ar! is the sa0e as hea! .or$
Tomorrow we(re going to leave 5es Moines and head for >alifornia.
I told the guy at the gas station I was headed for "anta Fe.
"$ hea! .or p.1. When 5ou are hea!e! .or or are hea!in/ .or a !ertain situation, !ondition, or
!onse,uen!e, it is be!o0in' 0ore li7el5.
If you don(t shut your mouth you(re headed for trouble.
This is going to be a great vacation ! we(re heading for a good timeE
111
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
tell on
tell on < tells on telling on told on told on
1. tell on p.v. ,informal!used primarily by children- .hen you tell on people, you inform
someone in authority, such as a parent or teacher, that they have made a mistake or
broken a rule.
; broke a glass. 8ou(re not going to tell on me, are you1 Timmy
didn(t do his homework, and his sister told on him.
ECERCISE (7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre the
+hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The "irst ti0e 4 held 05 ne#born son in 05 ar0s it )ust MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM.
2. 4 as7ed &inda i" she #ould MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM #ith her "riend Nan!5.
3. =ob said he !ould 'et us ba!7sta'e a"ter the !on!ert, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM )ust li7e he
pro0ised.
4. This house is du0p no#, but a"ter 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM, itBll loo7 ni!e.
. 4 sa# 5ou eatin' !oo7ies be"ore dinner #hen 6o005 told 5ou not to. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM 5ou.
$. The !o0poserBs lo1e "or his nati1e land reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM throu'h in his 0usi!.
%. Can 5ou help 0eH 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMToronto, but 4B0 lost.
8. 4B1e ne1er been to the opera be"ore. 4 thin7 4Bd better MMMMMMMM 05sel"MMMMMMMM.
*. The train MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to#n three ti0es a #ee7.
1/. 4" 5ou 7eep !har'in' stu"" li7e !raD5 on 5our !redit !ards, 5ouBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ban7rupt!5.
11. 8o 5ou thin7 these bro#n pants MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this blue shirtH
12. -ll the boo7s da0a'ed in the "lood ha1e to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. Co7eBs ne# sales pro0otion is 'oin' to MMMMMMMM Pepsi MMMMMMMM.
14. We sat b5 the phone ner1ousl5 #aitin' "or the )ud'eBs de!ision to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
112
1. 65 brother #or7s in a !ar rental pla!e, and he said he !an MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM #ith a 6er!edes at
no e<tra !ost.
1$. -"ter loo7in' at pi!tures o" se1eral 0odels, the photo'rapher de!ided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Ni!ole.
1%. 8r. Wood MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the door and said hello.
18. -ll the !lothes 4 le"t outside to dr5 #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the stor0.
1*. 65 "ather hated bein' a sales0an be!ause o" all the tra1el that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the )ob.
2/. T#o o" 05 brothers #ent to Vietna0, but onl5 one MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it ali1e.
21. 4 as7ed the !ler7 in the !o0puter store i" the 0onitor MMMMM MMMMM the !o0puter.
22. 4tBs 'ettin' late and 4B0 tired. 4 thin7 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMM MMMMMM to 05 house.
23. Cis proposal 0ade a lot o" sense, so #e de!ided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
ECERCISE (7& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Use 5i%% or &e /oin/ to 5ith a%% +hrasa%
ver&s$
1. 4 as7ed the restaurant 0ana'er "or the best table in the house, and he is 'oin' to 'i1e us a table
ne<t to the "irepla!e. What is the restaurant 0ana'er 'oin' to doH
2. &indaBs "ather pro0ised to pa5 "or her #eddin', and she is sure that he #ill. What is &inda sure
aboutH
3. +a,uelBs husband is 'oin' to be 1er5 surprised #hen she tells hi0 she #on N1/ 0illion in the
lotter5. What is the ne#s 'oin' to do to her husbandH
4. CeBll repair so0e thin's in his house and paint it be"ore he puts it on the 0ar7et. What #ill he doH
. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ill the house be a"ter he 0a7es so0e repairs and paints itH
$. Ti005 #onBt tell the tea!her that Susie didnBt do her ho0e#or7 i" she 'i1es hi0 a !and5 bar. What
#onBt Ti005 doH
%. Those 0obile ho0es arenBt 'oin' to be there a"ter the tornado. What is the tornado 'oin' to doH
113
8. 4" thereBs an earth,ua7e, no one in this old buildin' #ill sur1i1e. What #onBt the people do i" thereBs
an earth,ua7eH
*. SheBll put on her ni!est out"it and her best )e#elr5 and 'et a per0. What #ill she doH
1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# #ill she loo7 a"ter she puts on her ni!est out"it and her best )e#elr5 and
'ets a per0H
11. To0orro#, 5ouBre 'oin' to lea1e San 8ie'o and 'o to Tu!son. What are 5ou 'oin' to do to0orro#H
12. - 0onth "ro0 no#, 5ouBre 'oin' to lea1e Tu!son and return to San 8ie'o. What are 5ou 'oin' to do
a 0onth "ro0 no#H
13. ;ri7 said he #onBt as7 his sister i" she #ill 'o on a date #ith 6i7e. What #onBt ;ri7 doH
14. &5dia is at the paint store to !hoose a paint !olor "or her house. She hates the !olor blue. What isnBt
&5dia 'oin' to doH
1. 4=6 has a ne# !hip thatBs t#i!e as "ast as the !o0petitionBs "astest !hip. What is 4=6 'oin' to do to
the !o0petitionH
1$. .n!le 2red is 'oin' to 1isit our to#n, sta5 "or a short ti0e, and then !ontinue on his trip to 2lorida.
What is .n!le 2red 'oin' to doH
1%. This pond is 'oin' to slo#l5 e1aporate and disappear. What is the pond 'oin' to doH
18. 4n Ouestion 1%, a"ter the pond e1aporates, ho# #ill it beH
ECERCISE (7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3
to se 5i%% an! &e /oin/ to$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
114
$.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE (7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ba!7 o"", 12
!all o"", 13
!lose o"", 13
!o0e a!ross, 12
!o0e up, 12
"all throu'h, 12
hand in, 13
hit on, 13
lea1e o"", 13
let o"", 13
li'ht up, 13
put up, 12
s!re# on, 12
si'n in, 12
si'n out, 12
tra!7 do#n, 13
1. 8id 05 e<-husband tal7 about 0e at the part5H Aes, 5our na0e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM se1eral ti0es.
2. (ur 1a!ation plans MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a"ter To0 bro7e his le'.
3. 4 told 5ou not to MMMMMMMM that !i'arette MMMMMMMM in here.
4. 2l5in' 6o0 here "or the holida5s is 'oin' to !ost N1,///. 65 brother is 'oin' to pa5 N3//, and 4B0 'oin'
to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the rest o" the 0one5.
. So "ar, the poli!e ha1e been unable to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the stolen paintin's.
$. The sear!hli'hts MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ni'ht s75, loo7in' "or ene05 bo0bers.
%. Aou !anBt 'o in that part o" the 0useu0? itBs been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. When 5ou tra1el, al#a5s MMMMMMMM the tops o" 5our toiletries MMMMMMMM ti'htl5.
*. We de!ided to MMMMMMM our s7i trip MMMMMMM be!ause there #asnBt enou'h sno#.
1/. 4 #as 'ettin' reall5 an'r5, and 4 told hi0 that 4 #as 'oin' to pun!h hi0 in the nose i" he didnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. The tea!her told the students to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their ho0e#or7.
12. 4 didnBt a'ree #ith that list o" the 1// best 0o1ies. The5MMMMMMMMso0e o" 05 "a1orites
13. The 0ana'er re0inded 6aria not to "or'et to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen she !o0es to #or7 in the
0ornin'.
11
14. 6rs. Nash isnBt in the o""i!e an50ore. She MMMMMMM MMMMMMM about an hour a'o.
1. The Iud'e told Ia7e that the ne<t ti0e he 'ot in trouble he #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM #ith
a #arnin'.
1$. 4 #as 'oin' throu'h so0e stu"" in the atti!, and 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM so0e interestin' old
pi!tures.
(8$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith /ern! o&,ects' (
Gerunds 1erbs in the -ing "or0 that "un!tion as nouns > !an ser1e as ob)e!ts o" 0an5
phrasal 1erbs.
4t is 0ore !o00on to use 'erund ob)e!ts #ith nonseparable t#o- and three-#ord
phrasal 1erbsG
She's counting on getting that job.
gerund
I don(t feel up to playing hockey.
gerund
but 'erund ob)e!ts are so0eti0es used #ith separable phrasal 1erbsG
; wouldn(t put robbing a bank past him.
gerund
Mr. Taylor wants to give smoking up.
gerund
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
believe in
believe in <
believes in
believing in believed in believed in
($ &e%ieve in p.1. When 5ou &e%ieve in so0ethin' or &e%ieve in doin' so0ethin', 5ou ha1e a
stron' opinion about so0ethin' that is i0portant to 5ou.
/ believe in working hard and saving money.
Maria doesn(t believe in se0 before marriage.
"$ &e%ieve in p.1. When 5ou &e%ieve in so0ethin', 5ou thin7 it e<ists.
5o you believe in ghosts1
#ed is an atheist@ he doesn(t believe in Iod.
11$
*$ &e%ieve in p.1. When 5ou &e%ieve in people, 5ou ha1e !on"iden!e in the0 and belie1e #hat the5 sa5
be!ause 5ou thin7 the5 are honest, !orre!t, or !o0petent.
; don(t care what anyone else says, I still believe in you.
.e want to believe in you, but we need some proof that your invention really works.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
carr%
on
carr% on & carries on carr%ing on carried on carried on
($ carr3 on p.1. When 5ou carr3 on' 5ou !ontinue as be"ore, despite a di""i!ult
e<perien!e in 5our li"e.
8ou(ll have to carr% on for the sake of the children.
It was difficult for Mrs. #elson to carr% on after her husband died.
"$ carr3 on E#ithF p.1. When 5ou carr3 on' carr3 on #ith an a!ti1it5, or carr3 on doin' an a!ti1it5, 5ou
!ontinue it or !ontinue doin' it.
The men stopped working when Ieneral >hambers entered the room, and he told them to carr% on.
"he plans to carr% on with her career after the baby is born.
They knew I was trying to sleep, but they carried on talking and singing anyway.
*$ carr3 $$$ on p.1. When 5ou carr3 so0ethin' on an airplane, 5ou 7eep it #ith 5ou in the passen'er
!o0part0ent instead o" 'i1in' it to an airline a'ent to put in the ba''a'e !o0part0ent.
This suitcase is pretty big. I hope they(ll let me carr% it on.
8ou should carr% your laptop computer on. 8ou don(t want to take any chances.
carr39on n$ Carr39on' carr39on lu''a'e, carr39on ba''a'e, carr39on ba's, and so on, are not 'i1en to an
airline a'ent to put in the ba''a'e !o0part0ent but are 7ept in the passen'er !o0part0ent o" an
airplane.
I(m staying only one night in #ew 8ork, so all I(ll need is a carr%-on bag.
6$ carr3 on EaboutF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou carr3 on or carr3 on about so0ethin', 5ou are 1er5
persistent and 1o!al about so0ethin' that upsets 5ou.
; forgot our anniversary, and she carried on all day.
I said I was sorry@ now will you please stop carr%ing on about it1
count
count on & counts on counting on counted on counted on
($ cont on p.1. When 5ou need so0ethin' i0portant to happen or a !ertain !ondition to e<ist, 5ou are
contin/ on it. When 5ou need so0eone to do so0ethin' i0portant, 5ou are contin/ on that person.
I(m counting on getting a ride to the airport with Aetty.
Farmers count on a lot of rain in the spring.
11%
"$ cont on p.1. When 5ou rel5 on so0eone or so0ethin' "or help or support i" 5ou need it,
5ou are contin/ on that thin' or that person.
I(m going to sell this car and buy one that always starts. I need a car I can count on.
The governor said that she(s counting on our support in the ne0t election.
*$ cont on p.1. When 5ou are !ertain than so0ethin' #ill happen or that a !ertain !ondition
#ill e<ist, 5ou are contin/ on it.
Man;in makes a fool of himself at every party. 8ou can count on it.
8ou can count on crowds and long lines at 5isney .orld if you go in 'ugust.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
get through
get through < gets through getting through got through gotten;got
($ /et thro/h E#ithF p.1. When 5ou /et thro/h' /et thro/h #ith an a!ti1it5, or /et
thro/h doin' an a!ti1it5, 5ou "inish it or "inish doin' it.
; have so much homework that I might not get through with it until midnight.
'fter you get through washing the dishes, you can start ironing.
"$ /et thro/h EtoF p.1. When 5ou /et thro/h or /et thro/h to so0eone, usuall5 on a
telephone or radio, 5ou are able to spea7 to that person.
#ancy tried calling )im last night, but she couldn(t get through.
It wasn(t easy, but I finally got through to my brother in
Aorneo.
*$ /et thro/h EtoF p.1. When 5ou /et thro/h or /et thro/h to so0eone, 5ou 0a7e that
person understand 5our opinion or point o" 1ie#.
Mr. Toylor has tried to make his daughter understand why it(s important to work hard in school and
get good grades, but he ust can(t get through. I(ve e0plained it a hundred timesE
.hat do I have to do to get through to you1
6$ /et $$$thro/h p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou /et so0ethin' thro/h so0eoneBs head, 5ou
0a7e that person understand 5our opinion or point o" 1ie#. When 5ou /et so0ethin'
thro/h 5our o#n head, 5ou understand it.
; finally got it through my son(s head that I was serious about sending him to military school.
.hen are you going to get it through your head that our marriage is over1
7$ /et$$$ thro/h p.1. When so0ethin' /ets 5ou thro/h a di""i!ult e<perien!e, it !o0"orts
and supports 5ou.
)ulia(s faith in Iod was what got her through the loss of her husband.
%e was very nervous about giving the speech, so he had a drink to help get him
through the ordeal.
118
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go for
go for < goes for going for went for gone for
($ /o .or p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 'o "or so0ethin', 5ou li7e it a lot.
/rik really goes for scuba diving.
Get(s go to a different nightclub. I don(t go for a66.
"$ /o .or p.1. When 5ou /o .or so0ethin', 5ou tr5 to a!hie1e it.
The gymnast said she was going to go for the gold at the ne0t =lympics.
'fter she finished her master(s, she went for a ?h.5.
*$ /o .or p.1. Jal#a5s !ontinuousK When 5ou ha1e so0ethin' /oin/ .or 5ou, 5ou ha1e an ad1anta'e that
0a7es it easier "or 5ou to do so0ethin' or 'et so0ethin' that 5ou #ant.
"am(s not especially good at basketball, but he has one thing going for him ! he(s seven feet tall. I
have ten years of e0perience going for me, so I think I have a good chance of getting the ob.
6$ /o .or p.1. When 5ou sa5 that a state0ent about one person or thin' /oes .or another person or thin',
5ou 0ean that it is also true about the other person or thin'. When 5ou sa5 @That /oes .or 0e,@ 5ou are
a'reein' #ith so0eone elseBs opinion.
%eather said that Tom was a erk, and I said that that goes for Tom(s brother Aill, too.
Aetty(s really angry about it, and that goes for me, too.
hold off
hold off & holds off holding off held off held off
($ ho%! o.. p.1. When 5ou ho%! o.. or ho%! o.. doin' so0ethin', 5ou dela5 doin' it.
/ held offsetting our house until our youngest child moved out.
8ou(d better hold off accusing Mike until you(re *33 percent sure.
($ ho%! $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou ho%! o.. an atta!7, 5ou pre1ent the atta!7er "ro0 'ettin' !lose to 5ou or
"ro0 #innin' the "i'ht. 4" 5ou ho%! o.. a !o0petitor, 5ou pre1ent the !o0petitor "ro0 #innin'.
The enemy was so strong that there was no way to hold them off.
The champion held off the challenger and won the game.
put past
($ +t$$$ +ast p.1. Jused onl5 in the in"initi1e "or0 and onl5 in ne'ati1e senten!esK When 5ou #ant to
sa5 that 5ou thin7 so0eone is !apable o" doin' so0ethin' #ron', 5ou sa5 that 5ou #ouldnBt +t it
+ast that person. When 5ou #ant to #arn so0eone that 5ou thin7 another person is !apable o"
doin' so0ethin' #ron', 5ou sa5 @8onBt +t it +ast Ethat personF.@
11*
Is he capable of murder1 .ell, I wouldn(t put killing someone past him. Marvin is evil. There
isn(t any crime I wouldn(t put past him. 8ou don(t think %ank would steal money from his
grandmother1 I know him better than you do ! don(t put it past him.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
think
think about & thinks
about
thinking about thought about thought about
($ thin0 a&ot p.1. When 5ou thin0 a&ot so0ethin' or thin0 a&ot doin' so0ethin', 5ou
!onsider it be"ore 0a7in' a de!ision.
The salesman tried to get me to sign the contract, but I said I(d think about it.
I(m thinking about Fuitting my ob.
ECERCISE (8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. This house is too s0all "or our "a0il5. WeBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0o1in' to a bi''er one.
2. These s7is are prett5 bi'. 8o 5ou thin7 the5Bll let 0e MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMMH
3. This #or7 is 1er5 i0portant, and 4 7no# 5ou !an do it. 4B0 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 5ou.
4. -t the ne<t (l50pi!s, +aulBs 'oin' to MMMMM MMMMM a ne# re!ord in the pole 1ault.
. 4 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tal7in' about people behind their ba!7s.
$. 4 tried se1eral ti0es to !all Ti0 in Ti0bu7tu, but 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMM MMMMMM.
%. The roller !oaster is 1er5 popular. 4" 5ou 'o on the #ee7end, 5ou !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #aitin'
in line "or three hours.
8. -s soon as 5ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMM #ashin' the !ar, !o0e inside and eat lun!h.
*. 4 #anted to bu5 a di'ital !a0era, but 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu5in' one until the pri!es "ell.
1/. 6ar1in see0s li7e a ni!e 'u5, but he isnBt. 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM an5thin' MMMMMMMM hi0.
11. 8a1id as7ed 0e to bu5 beer #hen 4 #ent to the store, but 4 "or'ot, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
about it "or an hour.
12. The de"enders MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the atta!7ers as lon' as the5 !ould.
12/
13. 6i7e reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM auto ra!in' #hen he #as 5oun'.
14. Sall5 has a 'ood edu!ation and a pleasant personalit5. She has a lot MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
1. Co# !an 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter this terrible tra'ed5H
1$. 4B1e e<plained the rules a thousand ti0es. Wh5 !anBt 5ou MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 5our head that 4B0 the
boss around here, not 5ouH
1%. ;1er5one else thin7s 8r. Cat!herBs ideas are !raD5, but 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMM hi0.
18. .n!le Iohn #as the onl5 one #ho 7ne# ho# to run this business. No# that heBs dead, #e #onBt be
able to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1*. 4 didnBt used to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'hosts, but #hat 4 sa# last ni'ht !han'ed 05 0ind.
2/. 4B1e tried to 'et her to understand 05 point o" 1ie#, but 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to her.
21. The +epubli!ans are idiots, and thatMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMthe 8e0o!rats, too.
22. &etters "ro0 his "a0il5 helped Ia7e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his prison senten!e.
23. 4 al#a5s 7ne# that 05 brother #as the one person 4 !ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i" 4 had a proble0.
ECERCISE (8& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Iud5 li7es ta7in' pi!tures a lot. Co# does she "eel about ta7in' pi!turesH
2. 6aria didnBt "inish stud5in' until 11G// P.6. What didnBt 6aria do until 11G// P.6.H
3. The (rte'as too7 t#o ba's #ith the0 to 7eep in the passen'er !o0part0ent #hen the5 "le# to
Ne# Aor7. What did the5 do to the t#o ba'sH
4. 4n Ouestion 3, #hat 7ind o" ba's did the (rte'as 7eep #ith the0H
. Iane is !onsiderin' spendin' the su00er in =oli1ia. What is Iane doin'H
$. =ill "eels stron'l5 that huntin' is #ron'. Co# does =ill "eel about huntin'H
121
%. Paul !ouldnBt !ontinue his !areer as a dan!er a"ter his a!!ident. What !ouldnBt he do a"ter his
a!!identH
8. We dela5ed ha1in' !hildren until a"ter #e had done so0e tra1elin'. What did #e doH
*. Aou thin7 stealin' is so0ethin' Can7 #ould do. What do 5ou thin7 about Can7H
1/. Nan!5 is 'oin' to tr5 to !all her sister in Nepal toni'ht. What is Nan!5 'oin' to tr5 to do toni'htH
11. Can7 isnBt reliable. Aou !anBt be !ertain he #ill do #hat he sa5s he #ill do. What !anBt 5ou do to
Can7H
12. 8an #as 1er5 an'r5, and he 5elled and !o0plained "or three hours. What did 8an do "or three
hoursH
13. Aou !anBt be 1// per!ent !ertain that the #eather #ill be ni!e in 2lorida in the #inter. What !anBt 5ou
do to the #inter #eather in 2loridaH
14. 6an5 !hildren are sure that 0onsters are real. What do 0an5 !hildren thin7 about 0onstersH
ECERCISE (8c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3 to
se /ern! o&,ects$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
122
ECERCISE (8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!losed o"", 13
dressed up, 14
dried up, 14
"illed out, 14
"i<ed up, 1
lit up, 13
put a#a5, 14
s!re#ed on, 12
stu!7-up, 14
used up, 14
#ound up, 14
#rapped up, 4
*. >harles is so &&&&& &&&&&. %e thinks he(s better than everyone else because he comes from a rich
family.
2. No# that 5our house is MMMMM MMMMM, itBs #orth a lot 0ore.
3. There isnBt an5 0ore paper "or the !opier > itBs MMMMM MMMMM.
4. 4 #ashed and dried the dishes, and no# the5Bre MMMMM MMMMM in the !abinet.
. 2ran7Bs reall5 MMMMMM MMMMM about his #eddin' to0orro#.
$. The presents ha1e #rappin' paper on the0. The5Bre MMMMM MMMMM.
%. This "or0 has all the in"or0ation in the !orre!t spa!es. 4tBs MMMMM MMMMM.
8. The "loor o" the bathroo0 isnBt #et an50ore? itBs MMMMM MMMMM.
*. Wh5 is Sarah all MMMMM MMMMMMH 4s she 'oin' out dan!in'H
1/. =e sure the top o" the Co7e bottle is MMMMMMMMMM. 4" it isnBt, the Co7e #ill 'o "lat.
11. Aou !anBt 'o in the east #in' o" the pala!e be!ause itBsMMMMM MMMMM.
12. 4 !an see the road easil5 at ni'ht #hen 4B0 dri1in' be!ause itBs MMMMM MMMMMM.
ECERCISE (8e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
brea7 do#n, 'et o1er #ith, 3 put up #ith, 3
brea7 out, * 'i1e up, * see about, %
butt in,14 'o in "or, 3 ta7e in, %
"eel up to, 3 lea1e o"", 13 #ind up, 14
'et around to, $ loo7 "or#ard to, 3 #or7 out, 11
'et out o", $ put up, 12
1. We !ouldnBt de!ide #here to 'o "or dinner last ni'ht, so #eMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sta5in' ho0e.
123
2. Sall5 lo1es all outdoor sports, and she espe!iall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s#i00in'.
3. 4 hate !i'arettes, and 4 #ill not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s0o7in' in 05 house:
4. 4tBs been se1en 5ears sin!e To0 sa# his sister. CeBs reall5MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM seein'
her a'ain.
. 65 e5esi'ht 'ot so bad that 4 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM dri1in'.
$. 4B0 e<hausted. 4 reall5 donBtMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMdoin' an5 0ore si'htseein'.
%. The heat in 05 apart0ent doesnBt #or7. 4 need to MMMMMMMM the 0ana'er MMMMMMMM 'ettin' it "i<ed.
8. 4tBs been three hours sin!e 4 as7ed 5ou. When are 5ou 'oin' to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ta7in'
out the 'arba'eH
*. 4 pro0ised Sall5 4 #ould lend her N1,///, but no# 4 donBt #ant to 'i1e it to her. Co# !an 4 MMMMMMM
MMMMMMM MMMMMMM lendin' her the 0one5H
1/. +a7in' the lea1es is a bi' )ob, but 4 ha1e to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore it sno#s.
11. The tea!her !ontinued her le!ture #here she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the pre1ious #ee7.
12. 4 ha1enBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all the details, but 4B1e de!ided to ,uit 05 )ob and start 05 o#n
business.
13. 4 #as late to #or7 be!ause 05 !ar MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the e<press#a5.
14. 65 TV #as bro7en, so 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and had it "i<ed.
1. When 5ouBre !a0pin', 5ou should al#a5s MMMMMMMM 5our tent MMMMMMMM be"ore it 'ets dar7.
1$. 2i'htin' bet#een protesters and 'o1ern0ent troops MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter the 'eneral
!an!eled the ele!tion.
1%. The line to bu5 ti!7ets "or the "ootball 'a0e #as reall5 lon', so a lot o" people tried to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
124
(:$ 2(C.S (NG a!ver&s an! +hrasa% ver&s
-d1erbs are #ords that 0odi"5 1erbs. 6an5 ad1erbs end #ith -ly, "or e<a0ple, quickly, slowly,
suddenly, foolishly; but other ad1erbs, su!h as always, sometimes, and never, do not. The
pla!e0ent o" ad1erbs in senten!es #ith phrasal 1erbs depends on #hether the 1erb is
intransiti1e or transiti1e, and i" transiti1e, #hether it is separable or nonseparable. 4n 'eneral,
ad1erbs are pla!ed li7e ordinar5 one-#ord 1erbs #ith the e<!eption o" nonseparable phrasal
1erbs, #hi!h also allo# "or the pla!e0ent o" ad1erbs bet#een the 1erb and the parti!le. -ll
possible pla!e0ents o" ad1erbs in senten!es !ontainin' the 1arious t5pes o" phrasal 1erbs
are sho#n #ith LsG
Intransitive +hrasa% ver&s
L sub)e!t L 1erb parti!le L.
mmediately he came over.
!e immediately came over.
!e came over immediately.
Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
L sub)e!t L 1erb parti!le ob)e!t L.
L sub)e!t L 1erb ob)e!t parti!le L.
'ngrily she ripped up the paper.
'ngrily she ripped the paper up.
"he angrily ripped up the paper.
"he angrily ripped the paper up.
"he ripped up the paper angrily.
"he ripped the paper up angrily.
Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
L sub)e!t L 1erb L parti!le ob)e!t L.
Slo#l5 #e hea!e! into to#n. We
slo#l5 hea!e! into to#n. We
hea!e! slo#l5 into to#n. We
hea!e! into to#n slo#l5.
Three95or! +hrasa% ver&s
L sub)e!t L 1erbH parti!leH ob)e!t L.
;1entuall5 4 /re5 ot o. the s#eater.
4 e1entuall5 /re5 ot o. the s#eater.
4 /re5 ot o. the s#eater e1entuall5.
Pla!in' ad1erbs #ithin three-#ord phrasal 1erbs is so0eti0es possible, but it !an be proble0ati!.
So0eti0es an ad1erb bet#een the 1erb and "irst parti!le sounds a!!eptable and other ti0es it
does not. So0eti0es, an ad1erb pla!ed
12
bet#een the t#o parti!les sounds a!!eptable, and other ti0es it #ill not. This is 0ore a
0atter o" st5le than o" #hat is !orre!t or in!orre!t, so unless 5ou are sure it sounds
o7a5, it is better not to pla!e ad1erbs #ithin three-#ord 1erbs.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come
come over < comes over coming over came over come over
($ co-e over EtoF p.1. When people 0o1e "ro0 one side o" a pla!e to the other, #here 5ou
are, the5 co-e over or co-e over to #here 5ou are.
Co-e over here and sa5 that a'ain.
When he sa# 0e, he i00ediatel5 ca-e over to 05 table and said hello.
"$ co-e over EtoF p.1. When people !o0e to 5our house "or a 1isit, the5 co-e over or co-e
over to 5our house.
Would 5ou li7e to co-e over toni'htH
Ii0 co-es over to 05 house e1er5 ni'ht.
*$ co-e over p.1. When people !ross a ri1er or !ross the o!ean "ro0 east to #est or #est to
east, the5 co-e over$
My grandparents came over from "weden in *L3H.
The ferry comes over to this side of the lake every day at D$23 ?.M.
fall apart
fall apart & falls apart falling apart fell apart fallen
apart
($ .a%% a+art p.1. When the parts o" so0ethin' be!o0e !o0pletel5 separated be!ause it is old or in
bad !ondition, it .a%%s a+art$
These old shoes are starting to fall apart.
There(s no way to fi0 this thing. It has completely fallen apart.
"$ .a%% a+art p.1. When a plan, arran'e0ent, s5ste0, or a'ree0ent "ails, it .a%%s a+art$
'fter five difficult years, their marriage totally fell apart.
The peace agreement is slowly falling apart.
*$ .a%% a+art p.1. When people suddenl5 lose !ontrol and start lau'hin' or be!o0e 1er5 upset
or e0otional, the5 .a%% a+art$
"ally fell apart when she heard the tragic news.
Tom was so funny at the party last night that I ust fell apart laughing.
get back at
get back at & gets back at getting back at got back at gotten/got back
($ /et &ac0 at p.1. When 5ou /et &ac0 at people, 5ou do so0ethin' bad to the0 be!ause the5
ha1e done so0ethin' bad to 5ou.
12$
)ohn won(t forget what you did to him. %e(ll definitely get back at you someday.
"he wants to get back at her e0-husband for the way he treated her.
#nfiniti
ve present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go
go about & goes about going about went about gone about
($ /o a&ot p.1. When 5ou /o a&ot so0ethin' or /o a&ot doin' so0ethin', 5ou be'in or !ontinue to
"ollo# all the steps ne!essar5 to do it.
; have no idea how to go about opening a restaurant. /veryday he Fuietly went
about his business and never caused any problems.
grow out of
grow out of & grows out of growing out of grew out of grown out of
($$/ro5 ot o. p.1. When people be!o0e too tall or too bi' to #ear an ite0 o" !lothin', the5
/ro5 ot o. the ite0 o" !lothin'.
; bought "usie(s shoes one si6e too big, but she(s Fuickly growing out of them.
5o you want these clothes for your daughter1 Mine has grown out of them.
"$ /ro5 ot o. p.1. When people be!o0e too 0ature "or a to5, "or an interest, or "or a "or0 o"
beha1ior, the5 ha1e /ro5n ot o. it.
)udy had a big crush on a rock star when she was in high school, but after a while she grew out
of it.
)im(s son is going through a difficult stage, but he(ll grow out of it in a couple of years.
head into head into & heads into heading into headed into
headed into
($ hea! into p.1. When 5ou hea! into or are hea!e! into a pla!e or area, 5ou be'in to enter it.
; almost had an accident as I was heading into town.
.e scared away the bear, and it headed slowly into the woods.
)im was headed into 'shland when his car broke down.
rip up
rip up & rips up ripping up ripped up ripped up
($ ri+ $$$+ p.1. When 5ou tear paper or !loth into 0an5 pie!es, 5ou ri+ it +$
#ancy was furious when she read Tom(s letter, and she angrily ripped it up.
'lways rip up a check before you put it in the wastebasket.
ri++e! + part.ad). -"ter a pie!e o" paper or !loth has been torn into 0an5 s0all pie!e, it is ri++e! +$
'fter the kids opened their >hristmas presents, the floor was covered with
ripped up paper.
12%
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!ip
wear
down
#ear do#n P #ears do#n #earin' do#n #ore do#n #orn do#n
($ 5ear$$$ !o5n p.1. When so0ethin' 5ears !o5n or #hen so0eone 5ears so0ethin'
!o5n' the top or sur"a!e 'raduall5 disappears be!ause o" "ri!tion.
The feet of thousands of visitors a year have worn down the marble steps.
The mechanic told me that my car(s brake pads have worn down badly and need to be
replaced.
5orn !o5n part.ad). -"ter the top or sur"a!e o" so0ethin' has 'raduall5
disappeared be!ause o" "ri!tion, it is 5orn !o5n$
The marble steps are very old and worn down.
The tread on these tires is dangerously worn down.
"$ 5ear $$$ !o5n p.1. When people 5ear 5ou !o5n' the5 'raduall5 persuade 5ou, throu'h
persistent pressure, to !han'e 5our 0ind about a de!ision.
%e wouldn(t tell me the answer, but little by little, I wore him down.
"he still will not give us permission, but I think we(re wearing her down.
ECERCISE (:a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 #a1ed to Ii0 #hen 4 sa# hi0 a!ross the street, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and tal7ed to 0e.
2. This !o0pan5 has been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM sin!e that idiot #as 0ade the 0ana'er.
3. 8onBt lea1e the ne#spaper #here the do' !an 'et it. CeBll totall5MMMMMMMM it
4. We need a lot o" thin's "ro0 the super0ar7et. When are 5ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM to#nH
. Ia7e told the boss 4 #as drin7in' on the )ob, and 4 'ot "ired, but 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
Ia7e > 4 told his #i"e about his 'irl"riend.
$. 8urin' the -0eri!an +e1olution, the 2ren!h "leet MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and helped the -0eri!ans
"i'ht the =ritish.
128
%. The heels on 05 boots ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM badl5, and 4 need to 'et the0 repla!ed.
8. Can 5ou help 0e 'et hoo7ed up to the 4nternetH 4 ha1e no idea ho# to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
*. 8onBt spend a lot o" 0one5 on bab5 !lothes > sheBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the0 in a "e#
#ee7s.
1/. 4 need a ne# !ar. This pie!e o" )un7 is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. Sall5 as7s her parents "or a pon5 about a hundred ti0es a da5. SheBs tr5in' to MMMMMMMM the0
MMMMMMMM.
12. When his #i"e said she #anted a di1or!e, he )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. 4" 5ouBre not bus5 toni'ht, #ould 5ou li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and #at!h TVH
14. 65 "our-5ear-old son thin7s itBs reall5 "unn5 to sa5 bad #ords. 4 hope he MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit.
ECERCISE (:& ; Re5rite these sentences an! +%ace the a!ver& in +arentheses in t5o +ossi&%e
+ositions$
1. E"re,uentl5F 6s. Ta5lor !o0es o1er.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. Eso0eti0esF These !heap to5s "all apart.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. Ener1ousl5F Ce #ent about 0a7in' the bo0b.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
12*
4. Ee1entuall5F Sall5 #ill 'ro# out o" her !hildish beha1ior
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
. Erelu!tantl5F Ii0 headed into the s#a0p.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. Esuddenl5F Pat upped up 6i7eBs letter.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. EsoonF 2ran7 #ill 'etba!7 at Todd.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. E'raduall5F Ce #ore do#n 05 resistan!e.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE (:c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. The !ontra!t #as torn into 0an5 s0all pie!es. What #as done to the !ontra!tH
2. 4n Ouestion 1, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !ontra!tH
3. Cer plan is not #or7in' properl5, and thereBs a lot o" !on"usion. What is happenin' to
her planH
13/
4. 65 "riends 1isited 0e last ni'ht. What did 05 "riends do last ni'htH
. 6i7e doesnBt 7no# an5thin' about appl5in' "or a 0ort'a'e. What doesnBt he 7no#H
$. To0orro# #eBre 'oin' to dri1e "ro0 the !ountr5 to the !it5. What are #e 'oin' to do to0orro#H
%. When Iud5 #as a teena'er, she #as 1er5 sh5, but sheBs not sh5 an50ore. What did she do to her
sh5nessH
8. The old lionBs teeth are not as sharp or as lon' as the5 used to be.What has happened to the0H
*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the lionBs teethH
1/. 4 did so0ethin' bad to 05 brother, and no# he has done so0ethin' bad to 0e. What has 05
brother done to 0eH
11. The Vi7in's !rossed the o!ean be"ore Colu0bus. What did the Vi7in's do be"ore Colu0busH
12. The tea!her #al7ed a!ross the roo0 and loo7ed at 5our paper. What did the tea!her doH
13. Ii0 be!a0e 1er5 sad and lost !ontrol #hen he heard that his brother had died. What did Ii0
doH
14. This s#eater #ill be too s0all "or 05 dau'hter soon.What #ill 05 dau'hter do to the s#eater
soonH
1. The pa'es are !o0in' out o" this old boo7. What is the boo7 doin'H
1$. The poli!e are pressurin' the suspe!t to tell the truth. What are the poli!e tr5in' to do to the
suspe!tH
ECERCISE (:!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
boil do#n to, $ "i'ht ba!7, 8 hear o", 8
!hi!7en out o", * "ind out, 7i!7 ba!7, 1/
!o0e do#n #ith, $ 'et alon', * 0on7e5 around #ith, $
!o0e up, 12 'o ahead,1/ set up,
"all o1er, 8 'o throu'h #ith, $ #or7 in, 8
131
1. 4 donBt 7no# #hen the train to =oston lea1es. 4Bll as7 the ti!7et a'ent and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
2. 4 donBt li7e our nei'hbors, and the5 donBt li7e 0e. We donBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
3. Iulia #as ner1ous about blea!hin' her hair blond, and she de!ided not to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMit.
4. Sarah #as ner1ous about blea!hin' her hair blond, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
. The a0bassador #ill tr5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a 0eetin' bet#een the president and the rebel
leader.
$. We ha1e a reall5 bus5 da5 planned, but 4Bd li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a 1isit to the 0useu0.
%. 4" so0eone hits 5ou, 5ou ha1e toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
8. 4 0issed a #ee7 o" #or7 #hen 4 MMMMMM MMMMMM MMMMMM 3er0an 0easles.
*. Ca1in' a 0e!hani! "i< 05 !ar #ill !ost a lot o" 0one5, so 4Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it to
see i" 4 !an "i< it 05sel".
1/. The o#ner o" the !onstru!tion !o0pan5 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM thousands o" dollars to the
0a5or.
11. -re 5ou 7iddin'H ThatBs the 0ost ridi!ulous thin' 4B1e e1er MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. The !ountr5Bs e!ono0i! proble0s are 1er5 !o0pli!ated. Can 5ou tell 0e #hat it MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMH
13. 4B0 sorr5 4 ha1e to !an!el our lun!h date, but so0ethin' 1er5 i0portant has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM,
and 4 ha1e to return to 05 o""i!e i00ediatel5.
14. -"ter the !ar hit the telephone pole, the pole MMMMM MMMMM and !rushed the !ar.
1. 4 #as so an'r5 at 05 boss that 4 told hi0 4 #as 'oin' to ,uit, and he said,@MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, 4
donBt !are:@
132
(#$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! can, could,
will, an! would
"an, could, will, and would are modal au#iliary verbs, o"ten !alled models. 6odals
are 1er5 i0portant in ;n'lish, but the5 !an be !on"usin' be!ause the5 are used
to sa5 0an5 di""erent thin's. Cere is a basi! re1ie# o" can, could, will, and
would and their 0ost !o00on uses.
Could is used as the past tense o" !anG
4 !anBt co-e over toni'ht.
4 !ouldnBt co-e over last ni'ht.
Would is used as the past tense o" #ill Ethe "uture use o" #ill has alread5 been dis!ussed in
Se!tion 1F to tal7 about so0ethin' that #as "uture in the pastG
; didn(t buy that nice coat for my son because I knew he would Fuickly
grow out of it.
Would is used in pla!e o" #ill #hen repeatin' so0eone elseBs #ordsG
She said she #ould /et ne<t 2rida5 o..$
Would is used as the past tense o" #ill to tal7 about a repeated past a!tionG
When 4 #or7ed as a ban7 'uard, 4 #ould stan! aron! all da5 doin' nothin'.
Nor0all5, !an, !ould, #ill, and #ould ha1e di""erent uses, and it is i0portant to use the
!orre!t one? ho#e1er, in one spe!ial !ase > 0a7in' re,uests > the5 !an be used #ith
1er5 little di""eren!e in 0eanin'G
>an you get off the couch1
>ould you get off the couch 1
.ill you get off the couch1
.ould you get off the couch1
Can and !ould are used, #ith little di""eren!e in 0eanin', to as7 "or per0issionG
>an I think about it before I make a decision1
>ould I think about it before I make a decision1
Can, !ould, #ill, and #ould are used in !onditional senten!es. Conditional 0eans that a
!ondition, usuall5 stated in an i" !lause, 0ust be satis"ied "or the 0ain !lause to be true.
When the !ondition is so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, the 1erb in the i" !lause is
nor0all5 in the present tense. 4" the !ondition in the i" !lause is so0ethin' that !ould not
a!tuall5 be true, the past tense "or0 o" the 1erb is used.
When the !ondition in the i" !lause is so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, !an is used in the 0ain
!lause to dis!uss a real abilit5G
4" 4 ha1e a !ar, 4 !an co-e over$
133
When the !ondition in the i" !lause is so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, #ill is used in the
0ain !lause to dis!uss a real #illin'ness or intentionG
4" 4 ha1e a !ar, 4 #ill co-e over$
When the !ondition in the i" !lause is not so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, !ould is used
in the 0ain !lause to dis!uss an unreal or i0a'inar5 abilit5G
If I had a car, I could come over.
When the !ondition in the i" !lause is not so0ethin' that is a!tuall5 possible, #ould is
used in the 0ain !lause to dis!uss an unreal or i0a'inar5 #illin'ness or intentionG
4" 4 had a !ar, 4 #ould co-e over$
;ither the i" !lause or 0ain !lause !an o!!ur "irst in a senten!e, #ith a sli'ht !han'e in
pun!tuationG
4" 4 had a !ar, 4 #ould co-e over$ 4
#ould co-e over i" 4 had a !ar.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
breakthrou
gh breakthrough & breaks through breaking through broke through broken
($ &rea0thro/h p.1. When 5ou use "or!e to 'o throu'h a #all or other barrier, 5ou &rea0
thro/h it.
The thieves broke through the wall of the ewelry store.
The attackers couldn(t break through the thick walls of the fort.
"$ &rea0thro/h p.1. When 5ou !annot do so0ethin' be!ause o" a proble0 and 5ou "ind a
#a5 to sol1e or eli0inate the proble0, 5ou &rea0thro/h$
'fter the problem of tissue reection is broken through organ transplants will become more common.
It took three days of negotiation, but we finally broke through the deadlock.
&rea0thro/h n. -n i0portant dis!o1er5 or de1elop0ent that sol1es or eli0inates a proble0
that is pre1entin' 5ou "ro0 doin' so0ethin' is a &rea0thro/h$
5r. .ood announced an important breakthrough in the search for a cure for 'I5".
figure on
figure on & figures on figuring on figured on figured
on
($ .i/re on p.1. When 5ou .i/re on so0ethin', 5ou e<pe!t it or plan "or it.
; didn(t figure on such cold weather. I wish I(d brought a coat.
8ou can figure on spending a least hundred bucks if you(re going to that restaurant.
134
Infinitive past participle
present tense -ing form past tense
get off
get off < gets off getting off got off gotten;got off
($ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou /et o.. a bus, airplane, or train, 5ou lea1e it.
The bus stopped and I got off.
8ou can(t get off the train while it(s moving.
"$ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou are standin', l5in', or sittin' on so0ethin', su!h as a horse, bi!5!le, 0otor!5!le,
sta'e, plat"or0, or pie!e o" "urniture, and 5ou step do#n "ro0 it onto the 'round, 5ou /et o.. it.
8ou(re so la6y. .hy don(t you get off the couch and help me1 /et
off your bicycle and come inside.
*$ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou are standin' #ithin an area o" 'round, or on so0ethin' that !o1ers an area o"
'round, and 5ou 0o1e to the side o" it and step o"" o" it, 5ou /et o.. it.
The referee told the player to get off the field. 8ou(re
standing on our beach blanket ! get off itE
6$ /et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou /et so0ethin' o..' 5ou re0o1e it e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult.
; can(t get this paint off my hands. The top of this bottle
is on so tight I cannot get it off.
7$ /et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou /et a !ertain period o" ti0e o..' 5ou are allo#ed b5 5our e0plo5er to 0iss #or7
durin' this period.
?regnant women usually get three months off with pay.
>ould I get tomorrow morning off to go to the doctor1
8$ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou /et o..' or /et o.. #or7, 5ou "inish that da5Bs #or7 and lea1e 5our pla!e o"
e0plo50ent.
"ally said she wouldn(t get off work until J$33. I
haven(t gotten off early all week.
:$ /et$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' #ron' but are not punished, or 5ou are punished
onl5 li'htl5 "or it, 5ou /et o..$ So0eone #ho helps 5ou to a1oid punish0ent /ets 5ou o..$
%e killed four people, but he got off with only three years in ail.
If his lawyer hadn(t been so incompetent, he would have
gotten him off with a lighter sentence.
#$ /et o.. p.1. When 5ou stop tal7in' on the telephone, 5ou /et o.. the telephone.
/et off the phone ! I need to use itE It(s late, we(d better get off the phone.
*2D
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go
be%ond
go beyond < goes beyond going beyond went beyond gone beyond
($ /o &e3on! p.1. When people or thin's are better or #orse, or do so0ethin' in a better or
#orse #a5 than is nor0al or e<pe!ted, the5 /o &e3on! #hat is nor0al or e<pe!ted.
5id you say )ackson(s new book is good1 I think it goes be%ond good ! it(s fantasticE
"am(s wife discovered that he wasn(t ust friends with his secretary@ their
relationship went way be%ond friendship.
lift upon
lift up & lifts up lifting up lifted up lifted up
($ %i.t$$$ + p.1. When 5ou %i.t + so0ethin', 5ou use 5our hands to raise it abo1e the sur"a!e that
it #as on.
That rock is too heavy ! I can(t lift it up. 1ift
up the cover and look in the bo0.
line up
line up & lines up lining up lined up lined up
($ %ine$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's "or0 a ro#, the5 %ine +$ When 5ou arran'e people or
thin's so that the5 "or0 a ro#, 5ou %ine the0 +$
?eople lined up to buy "uperbowl tickets.
Timmy is lining his toy cars up.
%ine! + part.ad). People or thin's that "or0 a ro# are %ine! +$
?eople have been lined up outside the bo0 office for three days.
The children are lined up for attendance.
"$ %ine$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' %ines + #ith so0ethin' else, or #hen 5ou %ine + so0ethin'
#ith so0ethin' else, it is positioned !orre!tl5 in relation to so0ethin' else.
If this bolt doesn(t line up with that hole, the lock won(t work. The holes in part ' have to
line up with the holes in part A before you screw them together.
*$ %ine$$$ + p.1. When 5ou arran'e "or so0eone or so0ethin' to be a1ailable at a "uture a!ti1it5
or e1ent, 5ou %ine that thin' or person +$
; couldn(t line a clown up for "usie(s birthday party.
.ho have they lined up for the show1
%ine! + part.ad). So0eone or so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e arran'ed to be a1ailable "or a "uture
a!ti1it5 or e1ent is %ine! +$
5on(t worry about the show@ everything is lined
up.
The singer is lined up but the band isn(t.
*2J
%ine+ n. The people or thin's planned "or an e1ent are the %ine+$
The network has planned Fuite a lineup of entertainers for the half-time special.
There(s always a trape6e act in the circus lineup.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
stand
around stand around < stands around standing around stood around stood around
($ stan! aron! p.1. When 5ou stan! aron!' 3o stand in a pla!e #astin' ti0e and not doin'
an5thin' use"ul.
; have all this work to do, and you guys ust stand around watching me. The
manager told them to stop standing around and get to work.
tell apart
tell apart & tells apart telling apart told apart told apart
($ te%%$$$ a+art p.1. When it is possible to see ho# t#o si0ilar thin's are di""erent, 5ou !an te%% the0
a+art$
The twins are identical@ no one can tell them apart. 'll the puppies look the
same, and I have a hard time telling them apart.
ECERCISE (#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre the
+hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Could 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the phoneH 4 #ant to 0a7e an i0portant !all.
2. Neither side #ould 'i1e an in!h. There #as no #a5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the stale0ate.
3. 4" 5ou put this "a7e +ole< #at!h ne<t to a real one, 5ou !an MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM easil5.
4. Ii0 #anted to 'o to a 0o1ie toni'ht, but 4 told hi0 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #or7 until late.
. 4" the holes donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, the s!re#s #onBt 'o in.
$. There #erenBt an5 !hairs at the part5, so #e )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tal7in'.
%. 4 told 2ran7 that his drin7in' proble0 isnBt )ust hurtin' hi0? it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that > itBs hurtin' his
"a0il5, too.
8. The la#5er #as sure he !ould MMMMMM hi0 MMMMMM #ith onl5 t#o 5ears in prison.
*. When 4 too7 this )ob a"ter 4 "inished hi'h s!hool, 4 ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM spendin' thirt5-"i1e 5ears
here.
13%
1/. 6other #as the last one to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the airplane.
11. =ob MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM e1er5thin' in his !abinet so that itBs eas5 to "ind #hat heBs loo7in' "or.
12. &5dia told 0e she #ould tr5 to MMMMMMMM three #ee7s MMMMMMMM so #e !an 'o on 1a!ation.
13. There #ere poli!e barri!ades around the pala!e, but so0e o" the protesters MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
14. Children, stop )u0pin' on the bed #ith 5our dirt5 shoes. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht no#:
1. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the TV #hile 4 put the VC+ under itH
1$. So0e C8s !o0e #rapped in plasti! thatBs al0ost i0possible to MMMMMM MMMMMMM.
1%. 4 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a 0a'i!ian "or the birthda5 part5.
18. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !arpet. 4 )ust sha0pooed it.
ECERCISE (#& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e
a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Paul said he #ould re0o1e his !at "ro0 the table. What did Paul sa5H
2. 4 !anBt see an5 di""eren!e bet#een the ori'inal and the !op5. What !anBt 4 doH
3. ;ri7 !anBt raise the bo< o" boo7s be!ause itBs too hea15. What !anBt ;ri7 doH
4. =ill said he hadnBt e<pe!ted sno# in 6a5. What did =ill sa5H
. Nan!5 arran'ed "or a 'reat band to pla5 at the pro0 ne<t #ee7. What did Nan!5 doH
$. 4n Ouestion , ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the bandH
%. Ierr5 thou'ht the proble0 #ith his !ar is that it needs a tune-up, but the 0e!hani! said itBs #orse
than that. What did the 0e!hani! sa5H
8. The soldiers s0ashed a hole in the #all and entered the !it5. What did the soldiers do to the #allH
*. Carlos stops #or7in' at G// e1er5da5. What does Carlos do at G// e1er5da5H
138
1/. Aou #ere arrested "or drun7en dri1in', but the )ud'e 'a1e 5ou onl5 a #arnin'. What did 5ou doH
11. The tea!her 0o1ed all the des7s in his !lassroo0 so that the5 #ere in strai'ht ro#s. What did the
tea!her doH
12. 4n Ouestion 11, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the des7sH
13. She as7ed 0e i" 4 #ould stop tal7in' on the telephone. What did she sa5H
14. 4 stood at the bus stop "or an hour #aitin' "or the bus. What did 4 do "or an hourH
1. The personnel 0ana'er at 05 ne# )ob said 4 #ouldnBt ha1e to #or7 on Sunda5s. What did the
personnel 0ana'er sa5H
1$. When 5ou put a door7nob on a door, the t#o sides ha1e to be dire!tl5 a!ross "ro0 ea!h other. Co# do
the t#o sides ha1e to beH
1%. Sa0 stepped "ro0 the train. What did Sa0 doH
18. 6ar7Bs "ather told hi0 to 0o1e "ro0 the 'rass to the side#al7. What did 6ar7Bs "ather tell 6ar7H
ECERCISE (#c ; Co-+%ete these sentences' sin/ 3or o5n 5or!s' 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
this section or +revios sections$
1. &ast #ee7, he !ouldnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
2. When 4 #as 5oun'er, 4 !ould MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3. CeBll MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
4. When 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM, 4 #ould MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
. Could 5ouMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
$. Would 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
%. Can 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
8. Could 4 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
13*
ECERCISE (#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
belie1e in, 1$ 'o alon' #ith, 3 hold o"", 1$
!arr5 on, 1$ 'o "or, 1$ put past, 1$
!o0e o1er, 1% 'o #ith, 1 tell on, 1
!o0e throu'h, 1 'ro# out o", 1% thin7 about, 1$
!ount on, 1$ head ba!7, 1
'et throu'h,1$ head "or, 1
1. 4 su''ested that #e 'o to Paris, and she reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the idea.
2. -"ter 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it, 4 de!ided not to ta7e the )ob.
3. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu5in' a ne# !o0puter be!ause 4 thou'ht the5 #ould be on sale in Ianuar5.
4. 8o 5ou thin7 this 5ello# tie MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this blue shirtH
. Cer un!le pro0ised to pa5 "or her #eddin', and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
$. 4tBs 1er5 i0portant that 5ou do this #or7 !orre!tl5. 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5ou.
%. Ti005 bro7e a #indo#, and his sister MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0.
8. The dete!ti1e as7ed 0e i" Ia7e had robbed the li,uor store, and 4 said 4 didnBt 7no# but that 4
#ouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM hi0.
*. Todd said he #ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 05 house a"ter dinner and help 0e #ith 05 ho0e#or7.
1/. The reason Charles is 1i!e-president o" the !o0pan5 is that heMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the
boss on e1er5 de!ision.
11. To0orro# 4B0 'oin' to lea1e Winnipe' and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMToronto.
12. 4 probabl5 #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to Winnipe' "or a 0onth or 0ore.
13. 4 didnBt 'et Sall5 #hat she #anted "or her birthda5, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM about it all da5.
14. Aou ha1e so 0u!h #or7 to do. When do 5ou thin7 5ouBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH
14/
1. 4 bou'ht these pants "or 05 son a 0onth a'o, and heBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the0 alread5.
1$. Ned didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.2(s until he sa# one.
(D$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! the a!ver& right
The ad1erb right is o"ten used to intensi"5 the 0eanin' o" a phrasal 1erb. Pla!ed be"ore the
parti!le, right 0eans directly, immediately, or quickly. 4t is not i0portant #hether the
phrasal 1erb is intransiti1e, separable, or nonseparable. What does 0atter is #hether the
a!tion o" the 1erb is so0ethin' that !an lo'i!all5 be done dire!tl5, i00ediatel5, or ,ui!7l5.
2or e<a0ple, it #ould be illo'i!al to use right #ith stand around, or wear down:
$he aimed right at me. EShe ai-e! dire!tl5 at 0e.F
%ll bring it right over. E4Bll &rin/ it over i00ediatel5.F
&he room warmed right up. EThe roo0 5ar-e! + ,ui!7l5.F
'ight !an be used #hen a separable phrasal 1erb is separated b5 its ob)e!t? ho#e1er,
right !annot be used #hen the ob)e!t "ollo#s the parti!leG
He brought my radio right
back. Ho brought right back
my radio.
In.initive
+resent tense 9in/ .or- +ast tense +ast +artici+%e
aim at
ai- at B ai-s at ai-in/ at ai-e! at ai-e! at
($ ai- $$$ at p.1. When 5ou point a #eapon at people or thin's, 5ou ai- it at the0.
The robber aimed the gun right at my head.
%e was aiming the arrow at the apple, but he missed.
"$ ai- at p.1. When 5ou ai- at so0ethin' 5ou #ant, 5ou do #hat is ne!essar5 to 'et it.
The manager said she was aiming at a *H percent increase in sales ne0t year.
The new taw is aimed at reducing crime in the streets.
*$ ai- $$$ at p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' desi'ned to a""e!t one !lass or t5pe o" people, 5ou ai- it at
those people.
>igarette manufacturers were accused of aiming their advertising at young people.
The candidate(s speech was aimed at female voters.
141
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
bring back
bring back < brings back bringing back brought back brought back
($ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.1. When 5ou ta7e so0ethin' to another pla!e and then brin' it "ro0 that
pla!e to the pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore, 5ou &rin/ it &ac0$
; told Tom to bring my pen right back.
"ally borrowed my blue sweater and brought it back yesterday.
"$ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.1. When so0ethin' that #as popular or !urrent in the past is introdu!ed
a'ain, it is &ro/ht &ac0$
Many schools are bringing back uniforms for children.
/very few years designers try to bring miniskirts back.
*$ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.1. When so0ethin' !auses 5ou to re!all 0e0ories and e0otions "ro0 the
past, it &rin/s the 0e0ories and e0otions &ac0$
Gooking at these old pictures brought back wonderful memories.
I had tried to forget that awful incident, but this maga6ine article has brought it all back.
bring over
bring over & brings over bringing over brought over
brought over
($ &rin/$$$ over p.1. When people ta7e so0ethin' "ro0 one pla!e to the pla!e #here 5ou are,
the5 &rin/ it over$
; called Frank to ask if I could use his electric drill, and he brought it right over.
Ginda is going to bring her wedding pictures over tonight.
cool off
cool off & cools off cooling off cooled off cooled
off
($ coo% o.. p.1. When the te0perature o" a thin' or pla!e be!o0es lo#er, it coo%s o..$
It was really hot yesterday, but it cooled off in the evening.
This is too hot ! I(ll eat it after it cools off.
"$ coo%$$$ o.. p.1. When people or thin's !ause a thin' or pla!e to be!o0e !ooler, the5 coo%
it o..$
The coffee was really hot, but he put an ice cube in it and it cooled right off.
This bath is too hot. ?ut more cold water in it to cool it off.
*$ coo% o.. p.1. When 5ou be!o0e less an'r5 or less e<!ited, 5ou coo% o..$
%e(s furious now, but he(ll cool off by morning.
Their passion for each other has cooled off.
142
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go back
go back < goes back going back went back gone back
($ /o &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou return to a pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore, 5ou /o &ac0 or /o &ac0 to that
pla!e.
That restaurant was terrible. .e(ll never go back.
5orothy left the /merald >ity and went back to 9ansas.
"$ /o &ac0 EtoF p.1. When a !ondition, proble0, pra!ti!e, or !usto0 /oes &ac0 to a
!ertain ti0e, it be'an at that ti0e.
The tradition of saluting in the military goes back to the Middle 'ges.
%is drug problem goes back to his college years.
*$ /o &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou are dis!ussin' the a'e o" so0ethin', 5ou /o &ac0 or /o &ac0 to #hen it
#as !reated or started.
This table is very valuable. #t goes back to the *MJ3s.
The archeologist found ruins that go back D,333 years.
hand over
hand over & hands over handing over handed over handed over
($ han! $$$over EtoF p.1. When 5ou 'i1e so0ethin' to people be!ause the5 de0and it, be!ause the5
re,uire it, or be!ause 5ou are not its ri'ht"ul o#ner, 5ou han! it over or han! it over to the0. Trn
over is si0ilar to han! over$
; found some money in the street, and I handed it over to the police.
That(s my calculator ! hand it right over!
han!over n. When 5ou trans"er o#nership or !ontrol o" so0ethin' to so0eone be!ause that person
has de0anded it or be!ause 5ou are not its ri'ht"ul o#ner, a han!over ta7es pla!e.
The >hinese celebrated Aritain(s handover of %ong 9ong. The ?resident
demanded the immediate handover of the occupied territory.
"$ han! $$$over p.1. When 5ou 'i1e so0eone responsibilit5 "or an i0portant pro)e!t, dut5, or
proble0, 5ou han! that pro)e!t, dut5, or proble0 over or han! it over to so0eone.
Mr. .ilson retired and handed control of the company over to his son.
The TV news anchor handed the show over to the reporter at the .hite %ouse.
pull over
pull over & pulls over pulling over pulled over pulled over
($ +%%$$$ over p.1. When 5ou are dri1in' and then 0o1e 5our 1ehi!le to the side o" the road, redu!e 5our
speed, and then stop, 5ou +%% over or +%% 5our 1ehi!le over$
/ pulled over to fi0 a flat tire. .e(re lost.
Get(s pull the car over and ask someone for directions.
*H2
"$ +%%$$$ over p.1. When 5ou are dri1in' and a poli!e o""i!er si'nals 5ou to 0o1e 5our
1ehi!le to the side o" the road, redu!e 5our speed, and stop, the poli!e o""i!er +%%s 5ou
over or +%%s the 1ehi!le over$
)im was driving on the wrong side of the road, and he got pulled over by the state police.
.hen the police officer saw the driver go through a red light, he pulled the car right over.
In"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
warm
up
#ar0 up P #ar0s up #ar0in' up #ar0ed up #ar0ed up
($ 5ar- + p.1. When the te0perature o" a thin' or pla!e be!o0es hi'her, it 5ar-s +$
It(s cold outside. I hope it warms up before the picnic.
I set the thermostat at eighty degrees, and the house warmed right up.
"$ 5ar-$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's !ause a thin' or pla!e to be!o0e #ar0er, the5 5ar- it
+$
The fireplace doesn(t really warm the house up much.
That soup is cold. 8ou can warm it up in the microwave.
5ar-e! + part.ad). -"ter a thin' or pla!e has be!o0e #ar0er, it is 5ar-e! +$
3i1e the bab5 the bottle #ith the "lo#ers on it? itBs 5ar-e! +$
*$ 5ar-$$$ + p.1. When 5ou allo# a 0e!hani!al de1i!e to run "or a short ti0e be"ore bein' used,
5ou 5ar- it +$ When a 0e!hani!al de1i!e runs "or a short ti0e be"ore bein' used, it 5ar-s
+$
8ou should always warm your car up for a few minutes before you go anywhere.
In the winter I always let my car warm up while I eat breakfast.
5ar-e! + part.ad). -"ter a 0e!hani!al de1i!e has been allo#ed to 5ar- + and is read5 to be
used, it is 5ar-e! +$
.e have to go ! is the car warmed up yet1
6$ 5ar- + p.1. When 5ou do li'ht e<er!ises be"ore pla5in' a sport or e<er!isin' #ith 'reater
e""ort, 5ou 5ar- +$ When per"or0ers pla5 0usi!al instru0ents or sin' )ust be"ore a
per"or0an!e in order to be read5, the5 5ar- +$
Aefore a race most runners warm up with stretching e0ercises.
The singer warmed up in her dressing room before the concert.
5ar-9+ n. &i'ht e<er!ises done be"ore pla5in' a sport or e<er!isin' #ith 'reater e""ort are !alled
a 5ar-9+$ When a per"or0er pla5s an instru0ent or sin's )ust be"ore a per"or0an!e in order
to be read5, this is a 5ar-9+$
The runners got to the stadium early so they would have time for a warm-up.
144
5ar-9+ n$ =ar-9+ !lothes are #orn durin' a 5ar-9+$ =ar-9+ e<er!ises are done be"ore
pla5in' a sport or e<er!isin'. - 5ar-9+ 'a0e, round, and so on, is pla5ed in order to 5ar- + "or
the a!tual 'a0e.
The baseball players wore their warm-up jackets when they weren(t on the field.
ECERCISE (Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre the
+hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The piDDa #as !old, so 4 put it in the 0i!ro#a1e to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
2. 65 !ar #as 0a7in' a stran'e noise, so 4 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM to loo7 at the en'ine.
3. Can 4 use 5our la#n 0o#erH 4Bll MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to0orro#.
4. Ii0 al#a5s puts 0il7 in his !o""ee to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
. The roots o" the trouble in the 6iddle ;astMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthousands o" 5ears.
$. The ne# poli!e !hie" said that he thin7s that abolishin' !apital punish0ent #as a 0ista7e and that it
should be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. The )ud'e ordered the thie1es to MMMMM MMMMM the stolen 0er!handise i00ediatel5.
8. Cearin' .n!le IohnBs stories about the old !ountr5 MMMMM MMMMM a lot o" 0e0ories.
*. With this ne# antipollution la# #eBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM redu!in' the a0ount o" pollution b5 /
per!ent in ten 5ears.
1/. 4 as7ed Iud5 i" 4 !ould use her 1ideo !a0era, and she said she #ouldMMMMMMMMit ri'ht MMMMMMM.
11. The 0e!hani! re!o00ended lettin' the !ar MMMMMM MMMMMM be"ore dri1in' it.
12. The robber !han'ed his 0ind #hen he sa# the 'uard MMMMMMMM his shot'un ri'ht MMMMMMMM hi0.
13. The lo!al poli!e !hie"MMMMMMMMthe in1esti'ation MMMMMMMMto the 2=4 a'ents.
14. Aour "atherBs an'r5 ri'ht no#. Tal7 to hi0 about 5our 0iserable report !ard a"ter heBs MMMMMMM
MMMMMMM.
1. The !han'es at the "a!tor5 are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM redu!in' !osts and in!reasin' pro"its.
1$. The 05ster5 o" the P5ra0ids MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM nearl5 ,/// 5ears.
1%. The !oa!h al#a5s 0a7es the pla5ers MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore the 'a0e.
18. -"ter lun!h Ierr5 MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMMto #or7.
14
1*. This !o""ee is too hot. 4 !anBt drin7 it until it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2/. 4 #as MMMMMM MMMMMM b5 the sheri"" "or 'oin' ei'ht5 0iles per hour in a s!hool Done.
21. 4tBs !old no#, but itBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 noon.
ECERCISE (D& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. Could 5ou brin' ba!7. E05 tool 7it, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. 4Bll brin' o1er. E5our tool 7it, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. The air !onditioner ,ui!7l5 !ooled o"". E05 apart0ent, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. Todd handed o1er. Ehis #allet, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
. The sheri"" pulled o1er. Ethe suspe!ts, the0F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. The dri1ers are #ar0in' up. Etheir tru!7s, the0F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
14$
ECERCISE (Dc ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ Re+%ace the
n!er%ine! a!ver&s 5ith ri/ht$ Re-e-&er that ri/ht can &e se! on%3 5hen the
ver& an! the +artic%e are se+arate!$
1. The5 lit a "ire, and the !abin be!a0e #ar0 ,ui!7l5. What did the !abin doH
2. Aou #ill return to #or7 i00ediatel5. What #ill 5ou doH
3. -"ter the sun set, the ba!75ard be!a0e !ooler ,ui!7l5. What did the ba!75ard doH
4. 4" 4 sa# the "lashin' li'hts o" the poli!e !ar, 4 #ould slo# 05 !ar and stop at the side o" the road
i00ediatel5. What #ould 4 doH
. Ser'eant Iones pointed his ri"le dire!tl5 at the ene05 soldier. What did Ser'eant Iones doH
$. She told 0e to return her di!tionar5 i00ediatel5. What did she sa5H
%. &indaBs "ather told her to 'i1e hi0 his !redit !ard i00ediatel5. What did &indaBs "ather tell her to
doH
8. 4 !alled &5dia and told her 4 needed 0edi!ine "or 05 son, and she too7 the 0edi!ine "ro0 her
house to 05 house i00ediatel5. What did &5dia do to the 0edi!ineH
ECERCISE (D!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ba!7 o"", 12 'o be5ond, 18 stand around, 18
brea7 throu'h, 18 head into, 1% tell apart, 18
!o0e a!ross, 12 hit on, 13 tra!7 do#n, 13
!o0e up #ith, $ let o"", 13 #ind up, 14
"all throu'h, 12 li"t up, 18
"i'ure on, 18 put up, 12
1. The prisoners MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the #all o" the prison and es!aped.
2. 4t #as eas5 "or the0 to es!ape be!ause the 'uards had been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s0o7in' !i'arettes.
14%
3. The #arden #asnBt )ust upset #ith the 'uards > the proble0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that.
4. The 'uards used do's to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM one o" the es!aped prisoners the
ne<t da5.
. The other prisoner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e dense "orest.
$. The prisoner tried to steal a 0anBs !ar, but #hen he sa# the 0anBs lar'e do', he MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
%. The poli!e had a 0eetin' to tr5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a #a5 to !apture the prisoner.
8. The5 "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the idea o" usin' a heli!opter.
*. The heli!opter plan MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be!ause the #eather #as so bad.
1/. The poli!e thou'ht the prisoner #ould probabl5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at his "a0il5Bs house.
11. The prisoner has a t#in brother, and the poli!e !ouldnBt MMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMM.
12. That #as one proble0 the poli!e didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. (ne poli!e o""i!er #al7ed behind the house and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e 'arba'e !ans.
14. Ce heard a noise "ro0 the 'arba'e !an, so he MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe top and sa# the prisoner.
1. The prisoner MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a "i'ht, but the poli!e #ere able to !apture hi0.
1$. =oth prisoners #ere !har'ed #ith es!apin' "ro0 prison, but the )ud'e MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM
#ith a #arnin'.
148
")$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s .o%%o5e! &3 the -ing
.or-
So0e phrasal 1erbs !an be "ollo#ed b5 the -in' "or0 o" 1erbsG
%e ended up staying home.
"he lies around doing, nothing.
The -in' "or0 !an be ne'ati1eG
%e ended up not going anywhere.
"he lies around not doing anything.
Nouns and pronouns !an !o0e bet#een the phrasal 1erb and the -in' "or0G
The doctor went around the hospital visiting his patients.
)im hangs around )anice hoping she(ll fall in love with him.
Prepositional phrases !an !o0e bet#een the phrasal 1erb and the -in' "or0G
My luggage ended up on the wrong flight going to the wrong city.
I started out at the bottom working in the mailroom.
(ther ad1erbs and ad1erbial e<pressions !an !o0e bet#een the phrasal 1erb and the
-in' "or0G
Aill goes around constantly looking for bargains.
"he sta%ed up late watching TV.
# went around all day not knowing I had spinach in my teeth.
%e ended up here asking for money.
(nfinitive
present tense )ing form past tense past participle
end up
end up * ends up ending up ended up ended up
($ en! + p.1. When people en! + doin' so0ethin' or en! + a !ertain #a5, it is the result o" a
series o" de!isions, a!tions, or unplanned and une<pe!ted o!!urren!es. En! + is si0ilar to
5in! +$
' hurricane was approaching Florida, so we ended up coming home from our vacation
early.
)udy has never gone skydiving before, so she(ll probably end up in the hospital with two
broken legs.
"$ en! + p.1. When people or thin's en! + in a pla!e, this pla!e is #here their )ourne5 ends
e1en thou'h the out!o0e 0a5 ha1e been unplanned or une<pe!ted.
%ow did Gondon Aridge end up in 'ri6ona1
The ta0i driver didn(t understand me, and we ended up in #ewark
instead of #ew 8ork.
*HL
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go around
go around & goes around going around gone around gone around
($ /o aron! p.1. When people or thin's "ollo# a !ir!ular path and return to the sa0e pla!e, the5
/o aron!$
The horse has gone around the track three times.
It took seven days to go around the island.
"$ /o aron! p.1. When people or thin's "ollo# an indire!t or !ur1ed path in order to a1oid an
obsta!le or to !han'e dire!tion, the5 /o aron! or /o aron! the
obstacle.
%eather went around the curve too fast, and she ended up in the ditch.
There was some broken glass in the street, but I went around it.
*$ /o aron! p.1. When an ob)e!t spins or turns, it /oes aron!$
The disk drives in computers go around very fast.
The children have to stay on the merry-go-round until it stops going around.
6$ /o aron! p.1. When 5ou /o aron! a pla!e, 5ou 1isit 1arious parts o" it.
The president went around the state giving the same speech at every stop.
The e0terminator is going around the house looking for rats.
7$ /o aron! p.1. When 5ou /o aron! in a !ertain !ondition or /o aron! doin' so0ethin',
5ou 'o to 1arious pla!es and allo# other people see 5ou.
; was so embarrassed ! I went around all day with my 6ipper open.
're you going to go around all day wearing that stupid hat1
8$ /o aron! p.1. When 5ou /o aron! doin' so0ethin', 5ou 'o to 1arious pla!es and
deliberatel5 do so0ethin' that 0a5 bother or upset other people.
The new manager goes around telling everyone how to do their obs.
5on(t go around sticking your nose in other people(s business.
:$ /o aron! p.1. When so0ethin' /oes aron!' it spreads to 1arious parts o" a lar'er pla!e.
' rumor went around that the plant was going to close.
%e probably has the flu@ it(s been going around.
#$ /o aron! p.1. When so0ethin' is bein' distributed to a 'roup o" people and there is enou'h
"or e1er5one, there is enou'h to /o aron!$
There wasn(t enough food to go around and some of the famine victims got nothing.
5on(t make the pieces of wedding cake too big, otherwise there won(t be enough to go around.
1/
#nfinitiv
e present tense -ing form past tense past participle
/o off go off & goes off going off went off gone off
($ /o o.. p.1. When a 'un /oes o..' it "ires. When a bo0b /oes o..' it e<plodes. When an
alar0 or alar0 !lo!7 /oes o..' it 0a7es a loud noise.
The terrorists were killed when the bomb went off accidentally.
I was late for work because my alarm clock didn(t go off.
"$ /o o.. p.1. When an ele!tri!al de1i!e or s5ste0 /oes o..' it stops operatin'. Co-e on is the opposite o"
/o o..$
The electricity went off at K$23 last night.
' thermostat makes the air conditioner go off if it gets below a certain temperature.
*$ /o o.. E#ithF p.1. When 5ou /o o.., 5ou lea1e a pla!e or the people 5ou are #ith and 'o to a di""erent
pla!e. When 5ou /o o.. #ith so0eone, 5ou lea1e a pla!e or the people 5ou are #ith and 'o to a
di""erent pla!e #ith the0.
Mark went off not reali6ing he had left his wallet at home.
't the museum "ally went off with her friends to see some things we weren(t
interested in.
6$ /o o.. p.1. When an e1ent or plan /oes o.. #ell, s0oothl5, #ithout a proble0, or #ithout a hit!h Ea hit!h
is a proble0F, it happens as planned.
The drug bust went off without a hitch.
The invasion didn(t go off the way the general planned it.
7$ /o o.. p.1. When a road, trail, path, and so on, /oes o..' it lea1es the 0ain road, trail, or path, and 'oes
in a di""erent dire!tion.
This trail that goes off to the left will take you to the campground.
.e didn(t know which way to go ! one path went off to the left, the other
to the right.
go on
go on & goes on going on went on gone on
($ /o on p.1. When an ele!tri!al de1i!e or s5ste0 /oes on' it be'ins to operate.
' thermostat makes the air conditioner go on if it gets above a certain temperature. The lights
goes on automatically if someone walks near the door.
"$ /o on p.1. When so0ethin' /oes on' it happens. @WhatBs /oin/ onH? is a !o00on in"or0al
'reetin'.
Tell me what went on at the party last night. If you see anything
illegal going on call the police immediately.
*$ /oon p.1. When people 'o on, the5 !ontinue doin' so0ethin'. So0eti0es, on is repeated "or
e0phasis.
11
; asked her to be Fuiet, but she went right on singing.
)ust go on with what you(re doing. I(ll wait until you(re finished.
I told him to stop talking, but he went on and on and on and on.
6$ /o on p.1. When an e1ent or a!ti1it5 /oes on' it !ontinues.
The party went on until dawn. I hate long
meetings that go on for hours.
7$ /o on p.1. When 5ou /o on in"or0ation, 5ou are able to !ontinue an in1esti'ation or other
pro)e!t be!ause 5ou ha1e this in"or0ation.
The detective said he needs more to go on and asked the public for information.
The auto company won(t recall MD,333 cars because of one accident. That(s ust not
enough to go on.
8$ /o on p.1. When 5ou /o on a diet, 5ou start a plan to lose #ei'ht.
# go on a diet every )anuary.
I have to go on a diet@ my high school reunion is in two months.
:$ /o on p.1. When 5ou sa5 @3o on@to people, 5ou are en!oura'in' the0 to do so0ethin'.
8es, caviar is fish eggs, but it(s good ! go on try it.
=h, go on ! don(t be afraid.
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
hang around
han' around P han's around han'in' around hun' around hun' around
($ han/ aron! p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou han/ aron! or han/ aron! doin' so0ethin', 5ou
sta5 in a pla!e #ithout a purpose "or bein' there or be!ause 5ou are #aitin' "or so0eone or
so0ethin'.
I had to hang around for three hours waiting for the bus.
Aob(s been hanging around the house all day. 5oesn(t he have anything to do1
"$ han/ aron! p.1. Jin"or0alK When people sta5 in a pla!e instead o" lea1in', the5 han/
aron!$
.hat(s the hurry1 ,ang around for a while, and when I finish my homework we can watch
TV.
5o you have to go or can you hang around for a while1
*$ han/ aron! p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou han/ aron! people, 5ou spend a lot o" ti0e #ith
the0. When 5ou han/ aron! a pla!e, 5ou spend a lot o" ti0e there.
/rik(s mother is worried. "he doesn(t like the guys he(s hanging around with.
)im and Aill were good friends. They always hung around when they were kids.
12
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
lie around
lie around P lies around l5in' around la5 around lain around
($ %ie aron! p.1. When 5ou %ie aron! or %ie aron! doin' so0ethin', 5ou re!line and rela< and do
not do an5thin' i0portant.
Today is my day off, so don(t ask me to do any work. I(m ust going to lie around.
'll my sister ever does is lie around watching soap operas.
"$ %ie aron! p.1. Jal#a5s !ontinuousK When so0ethin' is %3in/ aron!' it is
disor'aniDed and no one is usin' it or pa5in' attention to it.
)ake is a slob. There are empty beer cans and old newspapers l%ing around all over his house.
.e need to do something about all that unk l%ing around in the backyard.
start out
start out & starts out starting out started out started out
($ start ot p.1. When 5ou be'in so0ethin', 5ou start ot$ Start ot is used to dis!uss ho# the end o"
so0ethin' #as di""erent "ro0 its be'innin'.
The stock market started out in positive territory but closed 733 points lower.
#ancy started out as a secretary, thinking she might have a future with this company, but she
doesn(t feel that way anymore.
sta% up
sta% up & sta%s up sta%ing up sta%ed up sta%ed up
($ sta3 + p.1. When so0ethin' sta3s +' it re0ains in a pla!e that is hi'her than 'round le1el.
That shelf won(t sta% up if you put all those books on it.
The astronauts sta%ed up for 7H* days.
"$ sta3 + p.1. When 5ou sta3 up, 5ou 'o to bed later than 5ou nor0all5 do.
)udy(s tired because she sta%ed up until dawn studying for a chemistry test.
5on(t sta% up late ! tomorrow(s a school day.
ECERCISE ")a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre the
+hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. This is a dan'erous nei'hborhood > so sta5 #ith 0e and donBt MMMMM MMMMM b5 5oursel".
2. Aesterda5 at #or7 &eti!ia MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sho#in' e1er5one her en'a'e0ent rin'.
3. Weddin' !ere0onies in so0e !ountries !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or da5s.
4. The bo0b #ill MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at e<a!tl5 $G//.
13
. Where are 5ou 'oin'H Wh5 donBt 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until Ii0 !o0es ho0e and then #e !an
order a piDDa.
$. The dri1er too7 a #ron' turn, and #e MMMMMMM MMMMMMM in the 0iddle o" no#here.
%. (n Sunda5s 05 husband usuall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the !ou!h #at!hin' "ootball 'a0es.
8. 65 laD5 son MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the house all da5 not li"tin' a "in'er to help #ith an5thin'.
*. SheBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at her ne# )ob #or7in' onl5 part-ti0e, but later sheBll s#it!h to
"ull-ti0e.
1/. =u5 lots o" !ha0pa'ne "or the part5? 5ou #ant to be sure thereBs enou'h to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. =ill li7es to 'o to bed earl5 > he !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM past 8G// P.6.
12. +osa #anted to stud5 0edi!ine in !olle'e, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM stud5in' la# instead.
13. The paleontolo'ist #as a0aDed to "ind dinosaur e''s )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the desert.
14. 4 !anBt belie1e 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMto#n #earin' those dirt5 !lothes all da5.
1. 4B0 sorr5 4 0issed the part5. 8id an5thin' e<!itin' MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
1$. 4B0 ner1ous about the #eddin'. 4 hope it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the #a5 #e planned it.
1%. - ru0or is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the s!hool about t#o o" the tea!hers.
18. 4tBs nor0al "or the po#er to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM durin' a thunderstor0.
1*. 4" that poster doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith tape, #eBll ha1e to use thu0b ta!7s instead.
2/. 4n the 0ornin' 8r. S0ith usuall5MMMMMMMMMMthe hospital 1isitin' his patients.
21. Ii0 is usuall5 a 'ood bo5, but #hen he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith Ia7e he 'ets in trouble.
22. Ce #as tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a slo# tru!7 #hen he had the a!!ident.
14
23. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a diet t#o #ee7s a'o, and so "ar 4 ha1enBt lost an oun!e.
24. 4n the past no one belie1ed that the earth MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the sun.
2. 4" 5ouBre lea1in', #hat are 5ou #aitin' "orH MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, lea1e:
2$. Co# !an 4 0a7e su!h an i0portant de!ision #ith so little in"or0ationH 4 need 0ore to MMMMMMMM.
2%. 4B0 surprised that the heat MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last ni'ht > itBs onl5 Septe0ber.
28. 6i'uelBs ne# ra!e !ar is reall5 "ast. Aesterda5 he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the tra!7 in re!ord ti0e.
2*. -"ter 5ou !ross the brid'e, 5ouBll see a 'ra1el road that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a la7e and heads to#ard
the 0ountains.
3/. 4 donBt #ant to retire. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #or7in' as lon' as 4 !an.
ECERCISE ")& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. AouBre 'oin' to spend the da5 on the so"a #at!hin' TV. What are 5ou 'oin' to do all da5H
2. &5dia #al7ed to 1arious pla!es in her ne# house 0a7in' de!oratin' plans. What did &5dia do in her
ne# houseH
3. The letter #as supposed to 'o to -ustria, but it "inall5 arri1ed in -ustralia. What happened to the
letterH
4. The ele!tri!it5 stops #or7in' e1er5da5 at 2G//. What does the ele!tri!it5 doH
. Ioe !alled and as7ed #hat #as happenin'. What did Ioe as7H
$. =ob 'oes to e1er5 o""i!e at #or7 tellin' a#"ul )o7es. What does =ob do at #or7H
%. Iani!e didnBt 'o to bed all ni'ht. What did Iani!e doH
8. 8an sta5s in his house all da5. Ce doesnBt 'o an5#here or do an5thin'. What does 8an do all da5H
*. Aou #ere late to #or7 be!ause 5our alar0 !lo!7 didnBt rin' this 0ornin'. What didnBt 5our alar0 !lo!7
do this 0ornin'H
1/. Ierr5 #ent to 0an5 pla!es #earin' a Ca#aiian shirt. What did Ierr5 doH
11. When it 'ets dar7 the street li'hts be'in to operate auto0ati!all5. What do the li'hts doH
12. 4 bou'ht onl5 t#ent5-"i1e hot do's "or the part5, but thirt5 people sho#ed up, so so0e people didnBt
'et a hot do'. Wh5 didnBt so0e people 'et a hot do'H
13. There are a lot o" potholes in the street, and 4 ha1e to a1oid the0 #hile 4B0 dri1in'. What do 4 ha1e to
do #hile 4B0 dri1in'H
14. 4 !ouldnBt de!ide bet#een the red !ar and the blue !ar, but 4 "inall5 de!ided on the red !ar. What did 4
"inall5 doH
1. 6r. Watson is the brains o" this !o0pan5. 4" he le"t #e !ouldnBt !ontinue. What !ouldnBt #e do #ithout
6r. WatsonH
1$. Iane be'an the pro)e!t thin7in' it #ould ta7e onl5 a "e# #ee7s. What did Iane doH
ECERCISE ")c ; =rite ori/ina% sentences sin/ these +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section
an! +revios sections .o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .or-$ The .irst n-&er a.ter the ver& is
the sectionI the secon! n-&er is the -eanin/$ It is on%3 that -eanin/ that can &e
.o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .or-$ Tr3 to -a0e so-e o. the sentences si-i%ar to those in the
FOCUS section$
brea7 do#n, /3 'o on, 2//3 start out, 2//1
!o0e o1er, 1%/1,2,3 han' around, 2//1 sta5 up, 2//2
end up, 2//1 lie around, 2//1 ta7e o"", 1/%
'o around, 2//4,,$ sho# up, 1/1 #ind up, 14/2
'o o"", 2//3 stand around, 18/11
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
*. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
1$
1/. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
11. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
12. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
13. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
14. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE ")!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ai0 at, 1* !all o"", 13 'o about, 1% rip up, 1%
blo# a#a5, 1 !ool o"", 1* 'o ba!7, 1* s!re# out o", 3
brea7 out, * dr5 out, 1 hear o", 8 see a bout, %
brin' o1er, 1* 'i1e up, * pa5 "or, 4 #or7 up, *
1. 65 tea!her 0ade a 0ista7e #hen he !orre!ted 05 test and MMMMMMMM 0eMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ten
points.
2. AouBd better #ear a )a!7et > it has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM outside.
3. Cer letter 0ade 0e so 0ad that 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
4. Aou donBt need to ra7e the lea1es? the #ind #ill MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
. We 7ne# #e didnBt ha1e an5 hope o" #innin' the battle, so #e MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
$. Aou !anBt run ten 0iles on the "irst da5 o" 5our e<er!ise pro'ra0. Aou ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to
it.
%. 6i!hael didnBt see the red li'ht and hit a 'asoline tru!7. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his 0ista7e #ith his
li"e.
8. Sa0 as7ed 0e i" 4 7ne# so0eone na0ed 2ran!is!o, and 4 said 4 had ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0.
*. 65 "a0il5 has been in 6assa!husetts sin!e the se1enteenth !entur5. The5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the
6a5"lo#er.
1/. (ur trip to 6ia0i #asMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM be!ause o" the hurri!ane.
11. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM the dentist MMMMMMMM 'ettin' 05 teeth #hitened.
12. 8o 5ou 7no# ho# to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM 'ettin' a passportH
1%
13. This ru' is #et? letBs ta7e it outside to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the sun.
14. The ne# restri!tions on !i'arette ad1ertisin' are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM redu!in' the le1el o" teena'e
s0o7in'.
1. The5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" prison b5 tunnelin' under the prison #all.
1$. We donBt ha1e enou'h plates "or the part5, so 4 !alled 6aria and as7ed her to MMMMMMMM so0e
MMMMMMMM.
"($ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! should an!
ought to
Should and ou'ht to ha1e t#o i0portant 0eanin's in ;n'lish. (ne is "a0iliar to 0ost students, but the
other is not.
A /oo! i!ea< sho%! an! o/ht to
Should and ou'ht to !an be used to sa5 that doin' so0ethin' is a 'ood idea be!ause it #ill
bene"it the person 5ou are spea7in' aboutG
8ou should !ip up your coat.
8ou ought to !ip up your coat.
or be!ause the person 5ou are spea7in' about is e<pe!ted, thou'h not re,uired, to do
so0ethin'G
8ou should bring in the groceries for your mother.
8ou ought to bring in the groceries for your mother.
-lthou'h should and ou'ht are 0odal au<iliar5 1erbs, ou'ht 0ust be used #ith to. 4n other
#ords, ou'ht does not e,ual should, ou'ht to e,uals should. Ne1er sa5 should to.
Ver3 +ro&a&%e< sho%! an! o/ht to
=oth should and ou'ht to are used to sa5 that so0ethin' is 1er5 probable, 1er5 li7el5, or */
per!ent sure to happen > that i" e1er5thin' is nor0al, as e<pe!ted, or as planned, a
!ondition #ill 1er5 probabl5 e<ist or so0ethin' #ill 1er5 probabl5 happenG
The rebel territory should settle down once winter comes.
The rebel territory ought to settle down once winter comes.
4n the e<a0ples abo1e, either should or ou'ht to !an be used > the5 ha1e the sa0e 0eanin'
> ho#e1er, onl5 should is used in ,uestionsG
18
"hould Tom !ip up his
acket1
=ught Tom to !ip up his
acket1
and onl5 should not or shouldnBt is used in ne'ati1e senten!esG
Tom should not !ip up his acket.
Tom ought not to !ip up his
acket.
Should not Eor shouldnBtF is used to sa5 that so0ethin' is not probable.
4t 0eans that so0ethin' is 1er5 i0probable, 1er5 unli7el5, or */
per!ent sure not to happen > that i" e1er5thin' is nor0al, as
e<pe!ted, or as planned, a !ondition #ill 1er5 probabl5 not e<ist or
so0ethin' #ill 1er5 probabl5 not happenG
I set the thermostat at si0ty-five degrees, and I(m sure it won(t get
below seventy tonight, so the heat shouldn(t go on.
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
look around
loo7 around P loo7s around loo7in' around loo7ed around loo7ed around
($ %oo0 aron! p.1. When 5ou turn 5our head to see #hat is behind 5ou or around 5ou, 5ou %oo0
aron!$
I heard a sound, and I looked around to see who it was.
"ally looked around the room and didn(t recogni6e
anyone.
"$ %oo0 aron! p.1. When 5ou %oo0 aron! or %oo0 aron! a pla!e, 5ou 'o to 1arious parts o" the
pla!e in order to see #hat it is li7e or #hat is there.
8ou should look around before you decide whether you want to buy the house.
Ginda looked around the bookstore but didn(t find anything interesting.
look over
look over & looks over looking over looked over looked over
($ %oo0$$$ over p.1. Jusuall5 separatedK When 5ou %oo0 so0ethin' over' 5ou loo7 at it or
read it !are"ull5 and thorou'hl5.
%e ought to look the car over before he buys it.
%ere(s the first chapter of my new book@ look it over and tell me what you
think.
pick on
pick on & picks on picking on picked on picked
on
($ +ic0 on p.1. When 5ou +ic0 on people, 5ou !ontinuall5 tease and !riti!iDe the0.
"usie, you shouldn(t pick on your little brother.
The teacher never critici6es anyone else ! she picks only
on me.
1*
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
settle down
settle down < settles down settling down settled down settled down
($ sett%e $$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou sett%e !o5n' 5ou be!o0e less a!ti1e, ner1ous, or upset.
When 5ou sett%e other people !o5n' 3o do so0ethin' to 0a7e the0 less a!ti1e, ner1ous,
or upset. Ca%- !o5n is si0ilar to sett%e !o5n$
.hy are you so nervous about the test1 )ust settle down@ you(ll do ust
fine.
>an(t you settle the children down1 'll that noise is driving me cra6y.
"$ sett%e$$$ !o5n p.1. When a !on"used or 1iolent situation be!o0es less !on"used or 1iolent,
it sett%es !o5n$ When 5ou sett%e a !on"used or 1iolent situation !o5n' 5ou 0a7e it less
!on"used or 1iolent and 0ore !al0. Ca%- !o5n is si0ilar to sett%e !o5n$
Nioting and arson continued for three days before the area settled down.
The head of the union spoke to the angry strikers to try to settle them down.
*$ sett%e !o5n p.1. When people sett%e do#n, the5 start to li1e a less a!ti1e li"e and perhaps
'et 0arried, bu5 a house, and start a "a0il5.
Mike led a pretty wild life when he was in his early twenties, but he got married when he
was 7L and settled down.
My son is forty-one. I wish he(d settle down and raise a family.
step on
step on & steps on stepping on stepped on stepped on
($ ste+ on p.1. When 5ou ste+ on so0ethin', 5ou pla!e 5our "oot on it.
If the carpenter steps on a nail, she(ll have to go to the hospital for a tetanus shot.
"am stepped on a cockroach.
"$ ste+ on p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou sa5 ?Ste+ on it@ to so0eone #ho is dri1in' a !ar, 5ou
are tellin' the dri1er to dri1e "aster.
%ank needed to get to the airport in fifteen minutes, so he told the ta0i driver to step on
it.
2tep on itE .e have to be at work in ten minutes.
take out on
take out on & takes out on taking out on took out on taken out
on
($ ta0e$$$ ot on p.1. When 5ou ta0e so0ethin' ot on people, 5ou un"airl5 !riti!iDe or
punish the0 be!ause 5ou are an'r5 about so0ethin' that has o!!urred or about so0ethin'
that so0eone else has done.
If you(re mad at your boss, you shouldn(t take it out on your wife.
%eyE It(s not my fault you got a speeding ticket. .hy are you taking it out on me1
1$/
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
think
ahead
think ahead " thinks ahead thinking ahead thought ahead thought ahead
($ thin0 ahea! p.1. When 5ou thin0 ahea!' 3o plan "ora "uture situation or a!ti1it5 so that 5ou
#ill not ha1e a proble0.
.hen we(re out camping, there won(t be any stores around if you forget something, so think
ahead.
.e thought ahead before we drove through the desert@ we took forty liters of water.
!ip up
!ip up & !ips up !ipping up !ipped up !ipped up
($ @i+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou @i+ + a !oat or other ite0 o" !lothin', 5ou !lose it #ith a Dipper.
It(s free6ing outside < !ip your coat up.
I can(t 6ip my dress up. >an you1
@i++e! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou @i+ + a !oat or other ite0 o" !lothin', it is @i++e! +$
Gook at Timmy out there in the snow without his coat !ipped up.
Aefore you go to the airport, make sure your suitcases are !ipped
up.
ECERCISE "( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4tBs not 5our brotherBs "ault 5ou "ailed the 0ath test. Aou shouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
hi0.
2. Ti005 le"t so0e o" his to5s on the "loor. =e !are"ul not to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM the0.
3. ThereBs a 'u5 in 05 !lass #hoBs reall5 0ean and 0a7es )o7es about 0e. 4 told the tea!her that heBs
al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e.
4. So0eone !alled 05 na0e, and 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to see #ho it #as.
. Iane is alread5 thirt5-"our, but sheBs not interested in MMMMMM MMMMM and ha1in' !hildren.
$. 4B1e MMMMMM MMMMMM 5our resu0e, and 4 thin7 5ouBre the ri'ht person "or this )ob.
%. Ti005 and Susie #ere runnin' around the house li7e !raD5, so 4 pla5ed their "a1orite 1ideotape to tr5
to MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
8. Aou should MMMMMMMM 5our ba!7pa!7 MMMMMMMM? other#ise all 5our boo7s are 'oin' to "all out.
1$1
*. The t#o !ountries ha1e a histor5 o" border !lashes, but thin's ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the
last "e# 5ears.
1/. 4B1e ne1er been in 5our house be"ore? 4Bd li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and see ho# 5ouB1e
de!orated it.
11. Aou donBt #ant to arri1e in To75o and realiDe 5ou "or'ot so0ethin' i0portant ba!7 in Van!ou1er,
so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. WeBre late >MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it:
ECERCISE "( & ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 8an ou'ht to loo7 at the !ar 1er5 !are"ull5 be"ore he de!ides #hether to bu5 it. What should 8an
doH
2. Aou #ent to a bi' boo7store and #al7ed around so that 5ou !ould see #hat boo7s the5 ha1e.
What did 5ou do in the boo7storeH
3. (ur nei'hbors #ere ar'uin' all e1enin', but the5 stopped ar'uin' and 'ot ,uieter at around 1G//
-.6. What did our nei'hbors do around 1G// -.6.H
4. 4tBs "reeDin' outside, so 5ou ou'ht to !lose the Dipper on 5our )a!7et. What should 5ou do to 5our
)a!7etH
. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the )a!7et a"ter it is !losedH
$. -t the 0eetin', the boss as7ed =ett5 so0e di""i!ult ,uestions, and =ett5 #asnBt read5 #ith the
ans#ers. What didnBt =ett5 doH
%. 2ran7 un"airl5 !riti!iDes his son. What does 2ran7 do to his sonH
8. 6ar7 had a bad da5 at #or7, and #hen he !a0e ho0e he 5elled at his #i"e. What did 6ar7 do to
his #i"eH
*. When 6i7e #as dan!in' #ith Ceather, he put his "oot on her "oot. What did 6i7e do to
CeatherBs "ootH
1$2
ECERCISE "( c' Revie5 ; Re5rite the n!er%ine! 5or!s in the sentences sin/
these +hrasa% ver&s .ro- +revios sections an! sho%! or o/ht to$ Re-e-&er that
o/ht to is not sa%%3 se! in ne/ative sentences$
brea7 throu'h, 18 !ool o"", 1* hold up, %
burn out, 8 "all o"", 1/ pull throu'h, 2
!o0e o1er, 1% 'et o"", 18 #ar0 up, 1*
!o0e throu'h, 1 'et throu'h, 1$ #ind up, 14
!o0e up, 12 'o "or, 1$
E4a-+%e< 4" the5 'o to that restaurant, the5 #ill 1er5 probabl5 e<pe!t to pa5 N2//.
4" the5 'o to that restaurant, the5 should "i'ure on pa5in' N2//.
or
4" the5 'o to that restaurant, the5 ou'ht to "i'ure on pa5in' N2//.
1. =usiness in this restaurant #ill 1er5 probabl5 de!rease in Ianuar5.
2. The5 are 1er5 probabl5 "inishin' the in1esti'ation.
3. These !heap shoes #ill 1er5 probabl5 not sta5 in 'ood !ondition 0ore than three 0onths.
4. Ii0 "lies "ro0 2lorida to =oston e1er5 5ear in -pril, and itBs -pril no#. Ii0 #ill 1er5 probabl5 tra1el to
=oston soon.
. 4t al0ost al#a5s 'ets !ooler in (!tober, and itBs (!tober 1st toda5, so it #ill 1er5 probabl5 'et !ooler
soon.
$. PaulBs disease is not serious, so he #ill 1er5 probabl5 be #ell a'ain.
%. 2ran!is!o al0ost ne1er #or7s past G//, and itBs 4G/ no#. Ce #ill 1er5 probabl5 stop #or7in' in a "e#
0inutes.
8. &5dia li7es s7iin' a lot, so i" 5ou su''est that #e 'o s7iin' ne<t #ee7end, she #ill 1er5 probabl5 li7e
the idea.
*. The ene05 soldiers ha1e been tr5in' to s0ash a hole in the #all o" the "ort "or t#o hours, and the5 #ill
1er5 probabl5 s0ash a hole in the #all soon.
1$3
1/. Sall5 said she #ould !o0e to 05 house at G3/ and itBs G4/ no#. She #ill 1er5 probabl5 !o0e to
05 house soon.
**. This work normally takes four hours to finish, so if you start at L$33 you will very probably finish
around *$33.
12. The train al0ost al#a5s passes throu'h to#n at 3G2, and itBs 3G2/ no#, so the train #ill 1er5
probabl5 pass throu'h to#n in "i1e 0inutes.
13. 4 put a lot o" #ood on the "ire, so it 1er5 probabl5 #ill not stop burnin' be"ore 0ornin'.
14. The !ar heater is on 0a<i0u0, so it #ill 1er5 probabl5 'et #ar0 soon.
ECERCISE "( !' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
brin' ba!7, 1* 'o around, 2/ hand o1er, 1* pull o1er, 1*
end up, 2/ 'o ba!7, 1* han' around,2/ rin' up, 8
"all apart, 1% 'o o"", 2/ lie around, 2/ start out, 2/
'et ba!7 at, 1% 'o on, 2/ line up, 18 sta5 up, 2/
1. -"ter 6ar7Bs "ather died, To0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the o""i!e !olle!tin' 0one5 to bu5 so0e "lo#ers
"or the "uneral.
2. Who said 5ou !ould use 05 !a0eraH MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM ri'ht no#:
3. The s0o7e alar0 in our 7it!hen MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM e1er5 ti0e 4 "r5 !hi!7en.
4. WeB1e been dri1in' "or "i1e hours strai'ht. &etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and rest "or a "e# 0inutes.
. (ur tra1el a'ent is tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a hot air balloon to ta7e us to the top o" 6t.
;1erest.
$. &ast ni'ht 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM late #at!hin' Casablan!a on TV.
%. 65 old bi!5!le is in 1er5 bad !ondition. 4 ou'ht to bu5 a ne# one be"ore it !o0pletel5
8. 4B0 0ad at Sarah "or tellin' 05 husband #hat happened at the o""i!e part5. 4Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM her so0eda5.
1$4
*. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM thin7in' it #ouldnBt !ost 0ore than N3// to "i< 05 !ar, but 4B1e alread5 spent
0ore than N%//.
1/. Ii005 didnBt used to 'et in trouble until he started to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith Ia7e.
11. 4" 5ou donBt ,uit s0o7in' and lose so0e #ei'ht, 5ouBre 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM d5in' be"ore
5ouBre "i"t5.
12. Visitin' 05 old hi'h s!hool last #ee7MMMMMMMMMMMMMMa lot o" 'reat 0e0ories.
13. -re 5ou 'oin' to do an5thin' toda5 or )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #at!hin' TVH
14. 4B0 sorr5 4 interrupted 5our stor5. Please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1. The !ashier MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 stu"" and said, @That !o0es to N4%.21.@
1$. -l"onso le"t his !redit !ard at the restaurant, so he had to MMMMMM MMMMMM to 'et it.
""$ FOCUS ON< the +artic%e up an! the a!ver&s
right an! all
The parti!le up is used in 0an5 phrasal 1erbs, and one o" its uses is to sa5 that so0ethin' has
been done thorou'hl5 or !o0pletel5G
The buildin' &rne!$ EThe buildin' #as da0a'ed but not destro5ed.F
The buildin' &rne! UP $ EThe buildin' #as !o0pletel5 destro5ed.F
+i'ht, dis!ussed in Se!tion 1*, is o"ten used in phrasal 1erbs #ith up to indi!ate
that the a!tion o" the 1erb not onl5 happened thorou'hl5 and !o0pletel5 but also
,ui!7l5G
They ate it up. BThey ate all the food.C
They ate it right up. BThey ate all the food, and they ate it Fuickly.C
+e0e0ber that ri'ht !an be used in this #a5 onl5 a"ter an ob)e!t that is separatin' the 1erb
and parti!leG
They ate the pi66a right up.
They ate right up the pi66a.
;1en thou'h up indi!ates that the a!tion o" the 1erb is thorou'h and !o0plete, all is
so0eti0es used "or "urther e0phasis #ith parti!iple ad)e!ti1es deri1ed "ro0 phrasal
1erbs #ith upG
My ta0es are all paid up.
The drain is all plugged up.
1$
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
burn up
burn up < burns up burning up burned up burned up
($ &rn + p.1. When so0ethin' is !o0pletel5 destro5ed b5 heat or "ire, it &rns +$
The meteor burned up in the atmosphere.
The rocket(s fuel will burn up after only forty
seconds.
"$ &rn$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's destro5 so0ethin' #ith heat or "ire, the5 &rn it +$
There(s no more coal. .e burned it all up.
)et engines burn up fuel at a tremendous rate.
&rne! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' is !o0pletel5 destro5ed b5 heat or "ire, it is &rne! +$
There isn(t anymore firewood@ it(s all burned up.
The house is all burned up. There(s no way it can be
saved.
*$ &rne! $$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When so0ethin' 0a7es 5ou 1er5 an'r5, it &rns 5ou +$
It really burns me up when other people take credit for my work.
I have to say something to "ally about what she did. It(s burning me up.
&rne! + part.ad). Jin"or0alK When 5ou are 1er5 an'r5, 5ou are &rne! +$
)im was burned up when his boss critici6ed him during the
meeting.
Nela0 ! it(s nothing to get all burned up about.
clear up
clear up & clears up clearing up cleared up cleared up
($ c%ear + p.1. When a proble0, 0isunderstandin', or disease 'oes a#a5, it c%ears +$
The misunderstanding cleared up right away after we talked about it.
My rash is clearing up by itself. I don(t need to go to the doctor.
c%eare! + part.ad). -"ter a proble0, 0isunderstandin', or disease 'oes a#a5, it is
c%eare! +$
; feel great. My sinus infection is all cleared up.
/verything(s okay. It was a big misunderstanding, but it(s cleared up now.
"$ c%ear$$$ + p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' to sol1e a proble0 or 0isunderstandin' or do
so0ethin' to !ure a disease, 5ou c%ear it +$
/veryone was confused about the new policy, so a memo was issued that
cleared everything up.
The medicine 5r. "mith gave me cleared the infection up.
1$$
*$ c%ear + p.1. When !louds in the s75 'o a#a5, the #eather c%ears +$
Onless it clears up we(ll have to cancel the picnic.
It was a beautiful day after the sky cleared up.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
count
up
count up < counts up counting up counted up counted up
($ cont$$$ + p.1. When 5ou !ount all o" so0ethin' to see ho# 0an5 o" the0 there are, 5ou
cont the0 +$
+ount the money up and tell me what the total is.
+ounting up the yes and no votes is going to take a long time.
eat up
eat up & eats up eating up ate up eaten up
($ eat$$$ + p.1. When 5ou eat "ood +' 5ou eat all o" it.
There(s no more pi66a@ 5avid ate it all up. 5on(t eat
up the cake before your father gets a piece.
"$ eat$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' eats + so0ethin' else, su!h as 0one5 or ti0e, it uses all
o" it.
I(m broke. Fi0ing my car last week ate up my entire paycheck.
I don(t want to go shopping with you. It(ll eat up the whole day.
heat up
heat up & heats up heating up heated up heated up
($ heat $$$+ p.1. When so0ethin' or so0eone 0a7es so0ethin' hotter, the5 heat it up.
.aiter, this soup is cold. .ould you heat it up for me1
"ometimes the sun heats up the desert to *73 degrees.
heate! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' or so0eone 0a7es so0ethin' hotter, it is heate! +$
5on(t give the baby that cold bottle@ give her this heated up one.
The spaghetti has been in the microwave for five minutes, so I(m sure it(s heated
up by now.
pa% up
pa% up & pa%s up pa%ing up paid up paid up
($ +a3 + p.1. When 5ou +a3 up, 5ou pa5 all the 0one5 5ou o#e to a person, ban7, and so on,
usuall5 as a result o" pressure to pa5 the 0one5.
' guy from the collection agency called and told me I(d better pa% up.
I wasn(t surprised when the insurance company refused to pa% up.
1$%
+ai! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou are +ai! up, 5ou ha1e paid all the 0one5 5ou o#e to a person,
ban7, and so on.
; told the bill collector that he had made a mistake. I(m alt paid up.
Aetty(s VI"' card is paid up so there won(t be any finance charge ne0t
month.
plug up
plug up & plugs up plugging up plugged up plugged up
($ +%/$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's blo!7 a narro# passa'e, su!h as a pipe, drain, or
hole, so that nothin' !an "lo# throu'h it, the5 +%/ it +$
5on(t pour bacon grease in the sink@ it(ll plug up the drain.
I need to plug up the hole in the roof where the rain is leaking in.
+%//e! + part.ad). When a narro# passa'e, su!h as a pipe, drain, or hole, is
!o0pletel5 blo!7ed so that nothin' !an "lo# throu'h it, it is +%//e! +$
>all the plumber@ the sink(s plugged up.
My nose is all plugged up and I can(t smell anything.
wipe up
wipe up & wipes up wiping up wiped up wiped up
($ 5i+e $$$ + p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 re0o1e a li,uid "ro0 a sur"a!e b5 0o1in' a to#el or
spon'e a!ross it #ith a s#eepin' 0otion, 5ou 5i+e the li,uid +$ F=i+e + is si0ilar to 5i+e
o..I ho#e1er, 5ou 5i+e + a li,uid, but 5ou 5i+e o"" the sur"a!e the li,uid is on.F
"usie spilled her milk, and her mother told her to wipe it all up.
8ou(d better wipe up the water on the bathroom floor before someone falls.
ECERCISE ""a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 8onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the potato !hips. &ea1e so0e "or 0e.
2. We ha1e to MMMMMMMM the hole in this boat MMMMMMMM "ast be"ore it sin7s.
3. 4t MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM #hen people s0o7e in a nons0o7in' se!tion.
4. There #as a lot o" !on"usion about the ne# plan, so #e as7ed To0 to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
"or us.
. The bill !olle!tor threatened to repossess 05 !ar i" 4 didnBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
$. The pain 4 had in 05 shoulder MMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMM a"ter 4 tried the ne# therap5.
%. (7a5, letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the points to see #ho #on the 'a0e.
8. 4t #as !loud5 in the 0ornin', but around 11G// it MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM.
*. 4t hasnBt rained in 0onths, so this dr5 "orest #ill reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i" thereBs a "ire.
1$8
1/. Would 5ou 'et a to#el and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !o""ee 5ou spilledH
11. 4Bll put 5our dinner in the re"ri'erator, and 5ou !an MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMMM#hen 5ou !o0e ho0e.
12. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all these old papers in the "irepla!e.
13. 4 didnBt ha1e an5 insuran!e, so pa5in' "or those hospital bills reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM all 05 sa1in's.
ECERCISE ""& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. The5 burned up. Ethe #ood, itF
2. Ce ou'ht to !lear up. Ethe 0isunderstandin', itF
3. Would 5ou !ount upH Ethe 1otes, the0F
4. Ca1e the5 eaten upH Eall the !and5, itF
D. I can(t plug up. Bthe hole, itC
*JL
$. Wipe up ri'ht no#: Ethat #ater, itF
ECERCISE ""c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. Aou !o0pletel5 blo!7ed the drain so that #ater !ouldnBt 'o throu'h it. What did 5ou do to the
drainH
2. 4n Ouestion 1, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the drainH
3. 4B0 puttin' 05 !o""ee in the 0i!ro#a1e to 0a7e it hotter. What a0 4 doin' to 05 !o""eeH
4. 4n Ouestion 3, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 05 !o""ee a"ter 4 ta7e it out o" the 0i!ro#a1eH
. ;ri7 hasnBt !ounted all the 0one5. What hasnBt ;ri7 doneH
$. AouBll pa5 all 5our late 0ort'a'e pa50ents. What #ill 5ou do to 5our 0ort'a'eH
%. 4n Ouestion $, ho# #ill 5ou be re'ardin' 5our 0ort'a'eH
8. The poli!e used "ire to destro5 all the dru's. What did the poli!e doH
*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the dru's no#H
1/. 65 disease #ent a#a5 i00ediatel5. What did 05 disease doH
11. Sarah is !leanin' up all the oran'e )ui!e that she spilled on the "loor. What is Sarah doin'H
12. Carlos al#a5s eats all his bab5 "ood, and he eats it ,ui!7l5. What does Carlos doH
1%/
ECERCISE ""!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!arr5 on, 1$ 'o #ith, 1 loo7 around, 21 step on, 21
!ount on,1$ hand in, 13 put a#a5, 14 ta7e out on, 21
dress up, 14 head ba!7, 1 si'n in, 12 thin7 ahead, 21
dr5 up, 14 head "or, 1 si'n out, 12 Dip up, 21
1. 4Bll be there #hen 5ou need 0e. Aou !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e.
2. 8o 5ou thin7 these shoes MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 dressH
3. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so that 5ou ha1e e1er5thin' 5ou need #hen 5ou 'et there.
4. &inda is here in the o""i!e so0e#here > she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at 8G2.
. &inda al#a5s lea1es at G//, and itBs al0ost $G// no#, so 4B0 sure she has alread5 MMMMMMM .
$. That 'u5 is !raD5. Ce ou'ht to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. When 5ou "inish #ith the )ob appli!ation, 5ou !an MMMMMM it MMMMMM to the se!retar5.
8. 4 donBt thin7 #e should 0a7e an5 !han'es no#. &etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM our ori'inal plan.
*. The part5 #ill be !asual, so 5ou donBt ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1/. 6aria told 0e she #ould be in the librar5 bet#een %G// and 8G//, but 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM and
!ouldnBt "ind her.
11. ThereBs so0e bro7en 'lass there > donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
12. 4 hope it rains soon. The la7e is startin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMM5our !oat > itBs "i"teen de'rees belo# Dero outside.
14. Iani!e hates her )ob, and she MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM MMMMMMM her husband.
1. 4B0 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM San 8ie'o, and 4 should 'et there b5 late a"ternoon.
1$. 4Bll sta5 in San 8ie'o "or a #ee7 and then MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to &os -n'eles.
1%1
"*$ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s that
re>ire an a!!itiona% +artic%e 5hen se! 5ith an
o&,ect' "
-s #e sa# in Se!tion *, 0an5 phrasal 1erbs that !an be used both intransitive%3 and
transitive%3 re,uire a se!ond parti!le #hen the5 are used transiti1el5, #hi!h 0a7es the0 three-
#ord phrasal 1erbs.
-lthou'h these phrasal 1erbs ha1e a three-#ord 1ersion, the5 re0ain !lassi"ied as t#o-
#ord 1erbs be!ause the t#o-#ord and three-#ord phrasal 1erbs ha1e the sa0e 0eanin'
> the5 are 1ariations o" the sa0e 1erbG
He .i%%e! in$ Ce .i%%e! in
"or 6i7e.
There are, ho#e1er, three-#ord phrasal 1erbs that share the sa0e 1erb and "irst parti!le as
another t#o-#ord phrasal 1erb but ha1e an entirel5 di""erent 0eanin'. These are t#o
di""erent phrasal 1erbs and are !lassi"ied separatel5G
%e put up a poster.
%e put up with her rudeness.
#nfiniti
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
crack down
crack down & cracks down cracking down cracked down cracked down
($ crac0 !o5n EonF p.1. When 5ou crac0 !o5n or crac0 !o5n on so0eone or
so0ethin', 5ou en"or!e rules and la#s 0ore than 5ou en"or!ed the0 be"ore or 5ou 0a7e
ne#, stron'er rules and la#s.
The chief of police said he was going to crack down on car theft.
The students have been coming to class later and later everyday. It(s
time to start cracking down.
crac0!o5n n. When 5ou en"or!e rules and la#s 0ore than 5ou en"or!ed the0 be"ore, this
is a crac0!o5n$
The FAI is planning a maor crackdown on organi6ed crime.
'fter the crackdown the crime rate plunged.
cut down
cut down & cuts down cutting down cut down cut down
($ ct$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou ct !o5n a tree, 5ou use a sa# or an a<e to !ut it
and 0a7e it "all to the 'round.
8ou should cut that dead tree down before it falls on your house.
The builder was critici6ed for cutting down so many trees when he built the house.
"$ ct$$$ !o5n p.1. Jin"or0al > al#a5s separatedK When 5ou ct people !o5n to siDe,
5ou do or sa5 so0ethin' to 0a7e the0 "eel less i0portant or less po#er"ul.
1%2
I(m tired of that erk. I(m going to cut him down to si6e.
%ank thinks he(s such a tough guy. "omeone ought to cut him down to si6e.
*$ ct !o5n EonF p.1. When 5ou ct !o5n or ct !o5n on so0ethin' that 5ou !onsu0e,
5ou use it less. When 5ou ct !o5n or ct !o5n on so0ethin' 5ou do, 5ou do it less. Ct
&ac0 is si0ilar to ct !o5n$
If you can(t Fuit smoking, you should at least cut down.
My doctor said cutting down on fat in my diet would lower my
cholesterol.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
drop
out
drop out < drops out dropping out dropped out dropped out
($ !ro+ ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou !ro+ ot or !ro+ ot o" a s!hool, a trainin' !ourse, or other
pro'ra0, 5ou lea1e be"ore !o0pletin' it.
The program is very difficult, and about M3 percent of the students drop out.
Ginda(s father was very disappointed when she dropped out of college.
!ro+ot n$ A !ro+ot is so0eone #ho has le"t s!hool, usuall5 hi'h s!hool or !olle'e, be"ore
'raduatin'.
Many successful people are college dropouts.
get awa%
get awa% & gets awa% getting awa% got awa% gotten/got
awa%
($ /et a5a3 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou es!ape "ro0 people #ho are !hasin' 5ou be!ause the5
#ant to hurt 5ou or be!ause 5ou ha1e !o00itted a !ri0e, 5ou /et a5a3 or /et a5a3 "ro0
the0.
.hen he took the knife out of his pocket, I got awa% from him fast.
Ay the time the police arrived, the robbers had already gotten
awa%.
/eta5a3 n. When 5ou es!ape "ro0 people #ho #ant to !apture or hurt 5ou, 5ou 0a7e a
/eta5a3$
The robbers made their getawa% in a blue Ford.
The car used for the getawa% was found abandoned in the ne0t town.
"$ /et a5a3 E#ithF p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' that is snea75 or #ron' and 5ou are not
punished or !riti!iDed "or it be!ause no one 7no#s or !ares about it, 5ou /et a5a3
#ith it.
)ake has been cheating on his ta0es for years, and he always gets awa% with
it.
%e got awa% with kilting his e0-wife even though everyone knew he was
guilty.
*$ /et a5a3 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou /et a5a3 "ro0 people or pla!es, 5ou lea1e the0 e1en
thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult.
I(m tired of this town. I need to get awa%.
Frank was talking and talking, and I couldn(t get awa% from him.
1%3
6$ /et a5a3 p.1. When 5ou /et a#a5, 5ou 'o on 1a!ation.
; have a lot of work to do, but I(ll try to get awa% for a week or two.
.e always try to get awa% in )anuary and go skiing.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hold
out
hold out & holds out holding out held out held out
($ ho%! $$$ ot p.1. When 5ou ho%! ot 5our hand, 5ou e<tend it in "ront o" 5our bod5
so that so0eone !an sha7e hands #ith 5ou or put so0ethin' in 5our hand. Ho%! ot
is si0ilar to +t ot$
Maybe Mr. 8oung is mad at me. I held out my hand, but he didn(t shake it.
The street was filled with beggars holding their hands out.
"$ ho%! ot p.1. When a suppl5 o" so0ethin' is enou'h "or 5our needs, the suppl5 ho%!s
ot$
The beer held out until the end of the party, but we didn(t have enough wine.
This is all the money I have, so it has to hold out until I get paid again.
*$ ho%! ot p.1. When 5ou ho%! out, 5ou resist an atta!7, pressure, or te0ptation or 5ou
!ontinue to sur1i1e in a dan'erous situation.
More than *,333 enemy soldiers attacked the fort. There were only LK of us inside, but
we held out for two weeks.
I haven(t had a cigarette in three days, and I don(t know how much longer I can hold
out.
ho%!ot n. So0eone #ho resists an atta!7, pressure, or te0ptation is a ho%!ot$
The enemy soldiers are in control of the country, but there are some holdouts hiding in
the mountains.
There are still a few holdouts who don(t have credit cards.
6$ ho%! ot E"orF p.1. When 5ou ho%! ot or ho%! ot "or so0ethin', 5ou re"use to
!o0pro0ise in a ne'otiation and a!!ept an5thin' less than 5our ori'inal de0ands.
The basketball player is holding out for a million dollars a game.
The union spokesman said the union members would hold out until their
demands were met.
ho%!ot n. When 5ou re"use to !o0pro0ise in a ne'otiation and a!!ept an5thin' less than
5our ori'inal de0ands, 5ou are a ho%!ot$
'll the players have signed contracts e0cept for two holdouts.
make up
make up & makes up making up made up made up
($ -a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou in1ent a stor5 to entertain or "ool people, 5ou -a0e the stor5
+$ When 5ou in1ent a lie to de!ei1e people, 5ou -a0e the lie +$
1%4
My son asked me to make up a story about monsters.
%ank told his boss he was late for work because he had to go to the doctor, but he
ust made that e0cuse up.
made-up part.ad. .hen a story is invented or fictional, it is made-up.
There(s no truth to any of this ! it(s ust a made-up story.
8. make up BofC p.v. ,often passive- .hen people or things make up a larger thing, they
together form that larger thing. .hen a larger thing is made up of people or things, they
together form that larger thing.
>hildren under fifteen make up D3 percent of the population.
'n airplane is made up of thousands of parts.
*$ -a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou -a0e + 5our 0ind, -a0e + 5our 0ind about
so0ethin', or -a0e + 5our 0ind about doin' so0ethin', 5ou de!ide #hi!h !hoi!e
to 0a7e or #hi!h a!tion to ta7e.
; like both the blue dress and the red dress. I can(t make up my mind.
My daughter still hasn(t made up her mind about which college to attend.
Marsha made her mind up about Fuitting her ob and oining the #avy.
-a!e + part.ad). -"ter 5ou -a0e + 5our 0ind or -a0e + 5our 0ind to do
so0ethin', 5our 0ind is -a!e +$
5on(t waste your time talking to Tom about it ! his mind is made up.
6$ -a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou ha1e an a0ount o" 0one5 that is not enou'h "or a !ertain
re,uire0ent and 5ou add 0ore 0one5 so that it #ill be enou'h, 5ou -a0e + the di""eren!e
bet#een the a0ount 5ou ha1e and the a0ount 5ou need.
The cashier was supposed to have :MDD at the end of her shift, but she had only :M2D, so she
had to make the shortage up with her own money.
I didn(t have enough saved to pay for college, but my Oncle Fred made up the difference.
7$ -a0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' that 5ou #ere re,uired to do earlier but did not,
su!h as attend a !lass, ta7e a test, or !o0plete a ho0e#or7 assi'n0ent, 5ou -a0e it +$
9aren asked the teacher about making up the test that she missed.
The teacher told her she could make it up tomorrow after school.
6. make... up p.v. ,the noun and adectives derived from this verb are much
more commonly used than the verb itself- .hen you make yourself up you put
lipstick, eye shadow, and so on, on your face.
"he made herself up and went to the party.
make-up n. Make-up is cosmetics$ lipstick, mascara, and soon.
%eather(s father thinks she wears too much make-up.
1%
-a!e9+ part.ad). -"ter people ha1e put on -a0e9+' the3 are -a!e9+$
5id you see Gydia1 "he(s really beautiful when she(s all made-up.
:$ -a0e + E#ithF p.1. When t#o people -a0e + or -a0e + #ith ea!h other, the5 end
an ar'u0ent and resu0e "riendl5 relations.
"ally and )im had a big fight, but they made up the ne0t day. Mr.
Aaker said he won(t make up with his wife until she apologi6es.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
sta%
out
stay out < stays out staying out stayed out stayed out
($ sta3 ot p.1. When 5ou sta3 ot' 5ou do not return to 5our house.
5o you let your kids sta% out past M$331
I sta%ed out late last night, and I(m really e0hausted.
"$ sta3 ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou sta3 ot o" a pla!e, 5ou do not 'o inside it.
8our father(s busy cooking dinner, so sta% out of the kitchen.
8ou can(t come in here. 2ta% out!
*$ sta3 ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou sta3 ot o" a situation, su!h as an ar'u0ent, "i'ht, battle, or
#ar, 5ou do not 'et in1ol1ed in it.
This fight doesn(t involve you, so sta% out.
)ake has sta%ed out of trouble since he left prison.
watch out
watch out & watches out watching out watched out watched out
($ 5atch ot E"orF p.1. When 5ou 5atch ot or 5atch ot "or so0ethin', 5ou re0ain alert "or
so0eone or so0ethin' that is dan'erous or i0portant. When 5ou tell people to 5atch ot or
5atch ot "or so0ethin', 5ou are #arnin' the0 o" possible dan'er. =atch ot is the sa0e as
%oo0 ot$
(atch out when you(re crossing a busy street.
9aren said she would meet us here at *7$33, so watch out for her.
(atch out! There(s a snake in the grass.
I dropped a glass in the kitchen, so watch out for broken glass.
ECERCISE "*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. -re 5ou tellin' 0e the truth, or did 5ou MMMMMMMMM that MMMMMMMMMH
2. AouBre 'oin' to a dan'erous area. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM "or 0u''ers.
3. 4 ha1e to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM on salt in 05 diet be!ause o" 05 hi'h blood pressure.
4. We had to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM t#o trees to 0a7e roo0 "or the ne# s#i00in' pool.
1%$
. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the #ater > so0eone sa# a shar7.
$. The soldiers in the "ort !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a'ainst su!h a hu'e and po#er"ul ar05.
%. The .nited States is MMMMMM MMMMMM o" people "ro0 0an5 di""erent ra!es and !ultures.
8. 4t #as too hard to #or7 and 'o to s!hool at the sa0e ti0e, so Todd had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o"
!olle'e.
*. Car0en !an pa5 onl5 hal" o" the 0one5 she o#es 0e, but &uis pro0ised to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the
di""eren!e.
1/. - 'roup o" !on!erned !itiDens is de0andin' that the poli!e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on prostitution in
their nei'hborhood.
11. The ban7 robbers MMMMMMMMMMMMMM in a #hite sedan #ith 2lorida li!ense plates.
12. When the President #al7s past 5ou, MMMMMMMM 5our hand MMMMMMMM and 0a5be heBll sha7e it.
13. 4 reall5 need a 1a!ation. 4 ha1enBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in three 5ears.
14. 4 told 05 son that i" he !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" trouble, 4B0 'oin' to send hi0 to 0ilitar5 s!hool.
1. The airline pilots are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or a 1 per!ent raise, and the5 #ill not a!!ept an5thin'
less.
1$. The storeBs !losin' in "i1e 0inutes, so 5ou need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5our 0ind about #hi!h pair
o" shoes 5ou #ant.
1%. -"ter "ourteen 5ears he thou'ht he had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith the 0urder, but he #as #ron'.
18. -ll Ioe does is !o0plain and !riti!iDe. 4 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "ro0 hi0.
1*. 6i7e didnBt !o0e ho0e until 4G3/ in the 0ornin', and his "ather #as "urious that he MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM so late.
2/. Ce thin7s heBs so s0art. 4 hope so0eone MMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMM to siDe so0eda5.
21. =e !are"ul about ho# 0u!h 5ou spend > this 0one5 has to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM R until payday.
1%%
22. =ob and 6arsha had a bi' ar'u0ent, but the5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith ea!h other and no#
e1er5thin' is o7a5.
23. The pro"essor #arned the students that i" the5 0issed the "inal e<a0ination, the5 !ould not
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE "*& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. The prin!ipal is 'oin' to !ra!7 do#n MMMMMMMM s0o7in' in the bathroo0.
2. 4" 5ou #ant to lose #ei'ht, !ut do#n MMMMMMMM !a7e and !oo7ies.
3. Ce dropped out MMMMMMMM !olle'e be"ore 'raduation.
4. -"ter Ia7e robbed the li,uor store, he #as arrested and sent to )ail. Ce didnBt 'et a#a5 MMMMMMMM
robbin' the li,uor store.
. The 2ren!h #or7ers are holdin' outMMMMMMM a 1// per!ent raise and a t#o-da5 #or7#ee7.
$. There are a lot o" rattlesna7es around here, so #at!h out MMMMMMMM the0.
%. Ti005Bs 0other told hi0 to sta5 out MMMMMMMM the !oo7ie )ar.
ECERCISE "*c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. The union 0e0bers are on stri7e, and so0e #ill not 'o ba!7 to #or7 unless the5 'et the 1/
per!ent raise the5 de0anded in the be'innin'. What are the union 0e0bers doin'H
2. So0e union 0e0bers a!!epted a % per!ent raise and #ent ba!7 to #or7, but not the union
0e0bers in Ouestion 1. What #ould 5ou !all the union 0e0bers in Ouestion 1H
3. Ii0 and his sister had a bi' "i'ht, but the5 apolo'iDed to ea!h other, and no# e1er5thin' is o7a5.
What did Ii0 and his sister doH
4. Ia7e stopped 'oin' to hi'h s!hool be"ore he 'raduated. What did Ia7e doH
. 4n Ouestion 4, #hat is Ia7eH
$. Aou !onsidered bu5in' either a To5ota or a Nissan, and then 5ou 0ade 5our de!ision. What
did 5ou doH
%. 65 elbo# is 1er5 sore, so 05 do!tor told 0e to pla5 less tennis. What did 05 do!tor tell 0eH
1%8
8. 6ost o" the 8e0o!rats #ill 1ote in "a1or o" the ne# la#, but a "e# are resistin' pressure to 1ote
5es. What are the 8e0o!rats #ho donBt #ant to 1ote 5es doin'H
*. 4n Ouestion 8, #hat are the 8e0o!rats #ho donBt #ant to 1ote 5esH
1/. 6r. and 6rs. (rte'a #ent to a part5 and didnBt !o0e ho0e until 3G// -.6. What did the5 doH
11. The e<plorerBs suppl5 o" "ood and #ater has to last "or three 0onths. What does the e<plorerBs
suppl5 o" "ood and #ater ha1e to do "or three 0onthsH
12. ;ri7 in1ented a "unn5 stor5 "or his dau'hter. What did ;ri7 doH
13. 4n Ouestion 12, ;ri7Bs "unn5 stor5 #asnBt true. Co# #ould 5ou des!ribe itH
14. 6r. 2lores !heats on his ta<es, but so "ar he hasnBt been !au'ht. What has 6r. 2lores
done so "arH
1. There are a lo' o" bi' tru!7s on the road, so #hen 5ou dri1e, 5ou ha1e to be !are"ul. What do
5ou ha1e to do #hen 5ou dri1eH
1$. The poli!e are 'oin' to start #or7in' harder to pre1ent !ri0e. What are the poli!e 'oin'
to doH
1%. 4n Ouestion 1$, #hat !an 5ou !all the plan to #or7 harder to pre1ent !ri0eH
ECERCISE "*!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ai0 at, 1* "all apart, 1% stand around, 18
belie1e in, 1$ 'et throu'h, 1$ tell apart, 18
brea7 throu'h, 18 'o "or, 1$ thin7 about, 1$
burn up, 22 'ro# out o", 1% #ipe up, 22
!o0e o1er, 1% hold o"", 1$
!ount up, 22 put past, 1$
1. 8o 5ou #ant these bab5 !lothesH 65 dau'hter has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the0.
2. 4tBs al#a5s a 'ood idea to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM installin' a ne# so"t#are 1ersion until the5 'et all
the bu's out.
1%*
3. 3et a paper to#el and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 'rape )ui!e 5ou spilled.
4. 4B0 not sure #hat 4 #ill do. 4 ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
. 4 ha1e a lot o" #or7 to do, so 4 probabl5 #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until 4G//.
$. The t#ins loo7 e<a!tl5 li7e ea!h other. Co# do 5ou MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMMH
%. The #alls o" this "ort are ten "eet thi!7. No one !ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. We "inished our !ard 'a0e, and Sean MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the points.
*. The ne# la# is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM redu!in' air pollution.
1/. 4 need to "i< this table. 4tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. +a!^tiel su''ested 0o1in' to the suburbs, and her husband MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the idea.
12. That 'u5Bs a lunati!. ThereBs nothin' 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0.
13. WeMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe old #ood in the "irepla!e.
14. 65 nie!e is thirteen 5ears old, but she still MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Santa Claus.
1. The si'n in the store #indo# said the5 open at 1/G//, but #e had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until
1/G2/ be"ore the5 opened the doors.
1$. Would 5ou li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 05 house toni'ht and ha1e dinnerH
24. 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s se! as nons' "
-s #e sa# in Se!tion , t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs are so0eti0es a!!ented on the 1erb
and so0eti0es on the parti!le. T#o-#ord nouns, ho#e1er, are al#a5s a!!ented on the
1erb e1en i" it is the parti!le o" the t#o-#ord 1erb that is a!!entedG
1erbG SHO= o.. nounG SHO=9o.. 1erbG s%o5
2O=N nounG SLO=!o5n
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come down
come down < comes down coming down came down come down
($ co-e !o5n EtoF p.1. When so0eone 0o1es to#ard 5ou to a lo#er le1el position, or "ro0 north
to south, that person co-es !o5n or co-es !o5n to #here 5ou are. Co-e + is the opposite o"
co-e !o5n$
18/
It(s been raining for an hourE It(s really coming down.
My friend from >anada comes down to visit us in #ew Me0ico once in a while.
"$ co-e !o5n p.1. When 5ou 0o1e to a lo#er le1el so!iall5 or "inan!iall5 and re!ei1e less
respe!t "ro0 other people be!ause o" this !han'e, 5ou co-e !o5n in li"e.
%ank certainly has come down in life ! he lost his ob, house, and family because of his
gambling problem.
Mark used to be so successful, but now he has so many problems. %e has really come down
in life.
co-e!o5n n$ A co-e!o5n is a 0o1e to a lo#er le1el so!iall5 or "inan!iall5 that
!auses 5ou to re!ei1e less respe!t "ro0 other people.
' few years ago he was the manager of this restaurant, but now he(s only
a waiter ! what a comedown.
*$ co-e !o5n EtoF p.1. When 5ou lo#er the pri!e 5ou are as7in' "or so0ethin', 5ou co-e
!o5n or co-e !o5n to a lo#er pri!e.
; won(t buy her car unless she comes down to : *7,333.
The union won(t come down a nickel in its salary demands.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
1et up
let up < lets up letting up let up let up
1. let up BonC p.v. .hen something becomes less strong, less intense, or less severe, it
lets up.
The rain finally let up yesterday.
Mike(s parents are very strict with him. %e(s only a boy. They should let up on him.
letup n. . letup is a reduction in how strong, severe, or intense something is.
There was no letup in terrorist bombings after the peace treaty was signed.
print out
print out & prints out printing out printed out printed out
($ +rint $$$ot p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a !o0puter #rite so0ethin' on paper, 5ou +rint it
ot$
'fter I finished writing my letter, I printed it out and signed it.
I can=t print this out ! my printer is broken.
+rintot n. When 5ou 0a7e a !o0puter #rite so0ethin' on paper, the paper is a +rintot$
; put the printout of the =ctober sales report on the sales manager(s
desk.
sha0e +
shake up < shakes up shaking up shook up shaken up
1. shake... up p.v. .hen something upsets, shocks, or frightens you badly, it shakes
you up.
*K*
"eeing all those dead bodies sure shook me up.
I was really shaken up when I learned that my uncle had been killed.
sha0en + part.ad). When so0ethin' upsets, sho!7s, or "ri'htens 5ou badl5, 5ou are
sha0en +$
&ea1e 2ran7 atone. Ce )ust 'ot so0e bad ne#s, and heBs a bit sha0en + about it.
"$ sha0e $$$+ p.1. When 5ou 0i< so0ethin' b5 sha7in' it, 5ou sha0e it +$
8ou have to shake up Italian dressing before you open the bottle.
5id you shake this can of paint up"
*$ sha0e$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0a7e 0a)or !han'es in an or'aniDation or business, 5ou
sha0e it +$
The new >/= shook up management at my company, and a lot of people lost their obs
or were transferred.
?eople are getting a little la6y around here. It(s time to shake things up.
sha0e9+ n. - 0a)or !han'e in an or'aniDation or business is a sha0e9+$
There was a big shake-up at my company, and a lot of people lost their obs or
were transferred.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
show
show off & shows off showing off showed off shown off
($ sho5$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou sho5 o..' 5ou let people see so0ethin' 5ou ha1e or
so0ethin' 5ou !an do in a 1er5 ob1ious and e<!essi1e #a5.
"ally(s boyfriend gave her a huge diamond engagement ring, and she showed it off to
all her friends. The boy was showing off by riding his bicycle with no hands when he
fell and hurt himself.
sho59o.. n. So0eone #ho sho5s o.. is a sho59o..$
5id you hear 'lfonso speaking French at the party so everyone could hear1
.hat a show-off!
slow down
slow down & slows down slowing down slowed down slowed down
($ s%o5$$$ !o5n p.1. When so0ethin' !auses people or thin's to do so0ethin' 0ore
slo#l5, it s%o5s the0 !o5n$
I was driving pretty fast, but I slowed down after I saw the police car.
?roduction at the factor% slowed down when half the workers got sick.
s%o5!o5n n. When people or thin's do so0ethin' 0ore slo#l5, a s%o5!o5n o!!urs.
The sno# !aused a bi' s%o5!o5n on the hi'h#a5 this 0ornin'.
182
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
stop over
stop over & stops over stopping over stopped over stopped over
($ sto+ over p.1. When 5ou interrupt a )ourne5 Eusuall5 an airplane )ourne5F "or a short
sta5 so0e#here, 5ou sto+ over$
5avid stopped over in Gondon on his flight from #ew 8ork to Moscow.
2topping over in 5ubai on the way to Aangkok wasn(t any fun ! we couldn(t
even leave the airport.
sto+over n. When 5ou interrupt a )ourne5 "or a short sta5 so0e#here, usuall5 an airplane
)ourne5, 5ou 0a7e a sto+over$
/ "le# "ro0 4stanbul to Philadelphia #ith a "our-da5 sto+over in -0sterda0.
"$ sto+ over p.1. When 5ou 1isit so0eone "or a short ti0e, 5ou sto+ over$
.ould you like to stop over after dinner and see our vacation pictures1
>an you vacuum the living room, please1 The 8oungs are stopping over tonight,
and I want the place to look nice.
trade in
trade in & trades in trading in traded in traded in
($ tra!e $$$ in p.1. When 5ou 'i1e an old !ar or other pie!e o" e<pensi1e e,uip0ent to
so0eone 5ou are bu5in' a ne# !ar or pie!e o" e,uip0ent "ro0 in order to 'et a lo#er
pri!e, 5ou tra!e the old !ar or pie!e o" e,uip0ent in$
'fter the twins were born, Naul traded his pickup truck in for a station wagon.
.e(ll get a good price on our new photocopier if we trade in our old one.
tra!e9in n. -n old !ar or pie!e o" e,uip0ent that 5ou tra!e in "or a ne#er one is a tra!e9
in$
Most of the used cars sold by dealers are trade-ins.
ECERCISE "6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. AouBre dri1in' too "ast. Please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that bottle o" salad dressin' be"ore 5ou open it.
3. The real estate a'ent sa5s he thin7s the sellers #ill MMMMMM MMMMMM a little in their as7in' pri!e.
4. 65 ne# !ar !ost N24,///, but 4 MMMMMMMM 05 old !ar MMMMMMMM "or N1,///.
. Ii0 is upstairs. -s7 hi0 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM here "or a 0inute, o7a5H
$. MMMMMM MMMMMM in &ondon "or a "e# da5s on 5our #a5 to 4ndia is a 'ood #a5 to 'et o1er )et la'.
183
%. 4 #as prett5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the ne#s, but no# 4B0 o7a5.
8. &uis MMMMMMMM his ne# !ar MMMMMMMM to his "riends 5esterda5.
*. The bo0bin' !ontinued "or "our da5s be"ore it "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1/. &eti!ia used to be ri!h, but she lost all her 0one5 'a0blin', and no# she !anBt e1en pa5 her bills.
SheBs reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in li"e.
11. When 5ou "inish #ritin' that stor5, MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and 'i1e it to 0e. 4 #ant to read it.
12. This !o0pan5 #as losin' 0one5 until the ne# o#ners !a0e in and MMMMMMM thin's MMMMMMMM.
13. 4 ha1e to !lean the house be!ause Pat and 6i7e 0i'ht MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM toni'ht.
ECERCISE "6& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith nons .ro- this section$
1. 4 #or7ed "or 05 !o0pan5 "or thirt5-one 5ears be"ore 4 'ot "ired in the bi' MMMMMMMM.
2. 4 had a "our-hour MMMMMMMMMMM in &os -n'eles on 05 #a5 to Ca#aii.
3. Ni!ole used to ha1e her o#n !o0pan5, and no# sheBs dri1in' a ta<i. ThatBs ,uite a MMMMMMMM.
4. The #ind ble# all ni'ht #ithout an5 MMMMMMMMMMMM.
. Ne# !ar dealers usuall5 ha1e a lot o" MMMMMMMMMMM "or sale at lo# pri!es.
$. The sno# !aused a bi' MMMMMMMMMMMM on the interstate this 0ornin'.
%. -"ter the !o0puter "inished #ith the data, 4 too7 the MMMMMMMMMMMM upstairs to the sales depart0ent.
8. CeBs lost a lot o" #ei'ht, and no# he #ears reall5 ti'ht pants e1er5da5. What a MMMMMMMMM he is.
ECERCISE "6c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to +t
the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. The rain slowed down. Btraffic;itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
7. %e printed out. Bhis letter, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. The bad news has shaken up. B)im and #ancy, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
H. I got :D,333 for trading in. Bmy old car, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
D. >helsea(s parents showed off. Bher perfect report card, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE "6! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
*. 'fter the computer finished the calculations,E printed the answers on a piece of paper. .hat
did I do1
2. 4n Ouestion 1,#hat #ould 5ou !all the paper #ith the ans#ersH
3. ToddBs "riend in 6innesota is 'oin' to 1isit Todd in Ne# (rleans. What is ToddBs "riend 'oin' to
doH
H. #ed walks around without a shirt so the girls can see his muscles. .hat does #ed do1
D. In Puestion H, what is #ed1
18
$. When 4 bu5 05 ne# !ar, 4Bll 'i1e the dealer 05 old !ar so that 4 !an 'et a lo#er pri!e on the ne#
!ar. What #ill 4 do #ith 05 old !arH
%. 4n Ouestion $, #hat #ould 5ou !all 05 old !arH
8. The ne# boss "ired a lot o" e0plo5ees, hired ne# e0plo5ees, and 0ade a lot o" !han'es. What
did the ne# boss doH
*. 4n Ouestion 8, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat the ne# boss didH
/. Sandra used to be 0arried to a prin!e, but no# sheBs di1or!ed and bro7e. What has
Sandra doneH
1. 4n Ouestion 1/, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat happened to SandraH
12. 4t rained "or t#o #ee7s strai'ht be"ore it stopped. What did the rain doH
13. 4n Ouestion 12, #hat #ould 5ou !all #hat the rain didH
4. There #as a bi' a!!ident on the hi'h#a5 5esterda5 0ornin', and tra""i! #as a#"ul. What did the
a!!ident do to the tra""i!H
. 4n Ouestion 14, #hat #ould 5ou !all the tra""i! situationH
1$. Aou "le# "ro0 8en1er to 6ia0i, but 5ou had to spend a "e# hours in -tlanta on the #a5. What did
5ou do in -tlantaH
1%. 4n Ouestion 1$, #hat #ould 5ou !all 05 1isit to -tlantaH
18. 6i7e sa# a terrible a!!ident this 0ornin' #hile he #as dri1in', and it upset hi0 a lot. What did the
a!!ident do to 6i7eH
1*. 4n Ouestion 18, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 6i7e a"ter he sa# the a!!identH
ECERCISE "6e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these nons .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er
/iven a.ter each one$
ba!7up, 11 drop-o"", 11 "ollo#-up, 11 tr5out, 11 !ra!7do#n, 23
dropout, 23 lineup, 18 #or7out, 11
1. The do!tor said 4 #as !ured, but he #ants 0e to see hi0 in a 5ear "or a MMMMMMMMMM.
18$
2. 8ru's are 'ettin' to be a bi' proble0 in 05 sonBs s!hool. 4 thin7 itBs ti0e "or a MMMMMMMM.
3. When 4 #as nineteen, 4 #as a MMMMMMMMMMMMM #ith no "uture, but then 4 'ot s0art and "inished s!hool.
4. -"ter the a!!ident, the hu0an !annonball #as dropped "ro0 the !ir!us MMMMMMMMMMMM.
. The MMMMMMMMMMMMMM "or the bas7etball tea0 #ill be ne<t Saturda5 at 1/G// -.6.
$. Iani!e )ust 'ot ba!7 "ro0 the '50, and sheBs reall5 e<hausted "ro0 her MMMMMMMMMMMM.
%. 4 use the pro'ra0 on the hard dis7, but 4 ha1e a MMMMMMMMMMMMMM on a "lopp5.
8. =usiness at the restaurant used to be 'ood, but there #as a bi' MMMMMMMMMMMMMM a"ter that !ase o"
"ood poisonin'.
ECERCISE "6.' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
brin' o1er, 1* 'o be5ond, 18 loo7 around, 21 tell on, 1
!ool o"", 1* han' up, * settle do#n, 21 #at!h out, 23
!ount up, 22 hold out, 23 sta5 out, 23 #ipe up, 22
"i'ure on, 18 li"t up, 1* step on, 21
1. Aoun' 0an, i" 5ou donBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM o" trouble at s!hool, 4B0 'oin' to send
5ou to 0ilitar5 s!hool:
2. These suit!ases are so hea15 4 !an barel5 MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
3. - 'ood histor5 boo7 doesnBt si0pl5 tell 5ou #hat happened, it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
that and tells 5ou #h5.
4. Todd 'ot in trouble #ith his 0other a"ter he bro7e a #indo# and his sisterMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0.
. 4" 5ouBre 'oin' to that bad nei'hborhood late at ni'ht, please be !are"ul and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or
0u''ers.
$. That 0useu0 is hu'e. 4" 5ou #ant to see e1er5thin', 5ou should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM spendin' the
entire da5 there.
%. This !o""eeBs #a5 too hot. Can 5ou 'et 0e an i!e !ube so 4 !an MMMMMMM it MMMMMMMH
18%
8. That !o0pan5 #ants to hire 0e, but 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or 0ore 0one5.
*. 65 brother is 'oin' to 1isit toni'ht, and heBs MMMMMMMM his "ian!ee MMMMMMMM.
1/. 4B1e ne1er been to this store be"ore? 4 #ant to MMMMM MMMMM and see #hat the5 ha1e.
11. 65 husband #as 1er5 an'r5 #hen our thirteen-5ear-old dau'hter !a0e ho0e at 4G// in the
0ornin', so 4 told hi0 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and let 0e tal7 to her.
12. We had onl5 t#ent5 0inutes to 'et to the airport, so #e told the ta<i dri1er to MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMit.
13. -"ter the 1otes #ere MMMMMM MMMMMMM, Senator 8olittle #as de!lared the #inner.
14. Ti005, 'et a paper to#el and MMMMMM MMMMMM this )ui!e 5ou spilled on the "loor.
1. &eti!ia said 'ood-b5e and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the telephone.
"7$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! have to' have
got to, an! must
!ave to, have got to, and must ha1e t#o i0portant uses in ;n'lish. (ne is "a0iliar to
0ost students, the other is not.
=ut be"ore dis!ussin' that, letBs pa5 spe!ial attention to ha1e 'ot to. Ca1e to and ha1e
'ot to 0ean e<a!tl5 the sa0e thin'. =oth are !o00onl5 used, and both are a!!eptable
standard ;n'lish. Ca1e to deri1es "ro0 ha1e, and ha1e 'ot to deri1es "ro0 ha1e 'ot. So
#h5 the 'ot in ha1e 'ot toH - 'ood ,uestion. 3ot in ha1e 'ot to 0eans nothin' and
ser1es no purpose #hate1er. Ca1e 'ot to is a uni,ue, idio0ati! 1ariation o" ha1e to.
There is no point in tr5in' to understand the 'ra00ar o" ha1e 'ot to be!ause there isnBt
an5. &i7e other idio0s, it 0ust si0pl5 be 0e0oriDed. Thou'h ha1e to and ha1e 'ot to
0ean the sa0e thin', their "or0s are di""erent, espe!iall5 in ,uestions and ne'ati1e
senten!es. 4n the e<a0ples belo#, the !ontra!ted "or0s are the 0ost !o00on in
e1er5da5 spo7en ;n'lishG
state0en
tG
Aou ha1e to co-e !o5n$ Aou ha1e 'ot to co-e !o5n.
Aou ha1e to co-e !o5n$ AouB1e 'ot to co-e !o5n.
,uestionG 8o 5ou ha1e to co-e !o5nH Ca1e 5ou 'ot to co-e !o5nH
ne'ati1eG Aou do not ha1e to !o0e do#n. Aou ha1e not 'ot to co-e
!o5n.
Aou donBt ha1e to !o0e do#n. Aou ha1enBt 'ot to co-e !o5n.
Re>ire-ent
Ca1e to, ha1e 'ot to, and 0ust are both used to sa5 that so0ethin' is re,uired,
ne!essar5, 0andator5 > there is no !hoi!e in the 0atterG
188
8ou have to make up the test.
8ou(ve got to make up the test.
8ou must make up the test.
-lthou'h 0ost students learn this use o" 0ust earl5 in their studies, it is a!tuall5 the
least !o00on #a5 to use 0ust. =oth ha1e to and ha1e 'ot to are 0u!h 0ore
!o00onl5 used "or this purpose.
Near certaint3
The other i0portant use o" ha1e to, ha1e 'ot to, and 0ust is to sa5 that so0ethin' is **
per!ent !ertain > that based on the "a!ts and based on #hat #e see and 7no#, no
other !on!lusion is possible about so0ethin'. We are ** per!ent !ertain, and all #e
need is !on"ir0ation to be 1// per!ent !ertainG
)anice, you have been working for *7 hours without a break. 8ou have to be tired. B' logical
assumption, but until )anice confirms that she is tired, the speaker cannot be *33 percent
certain.C
; would never take that book out of this room. It(s got to be here somewhere. B' logical
assumption, but until the speaker finds the book, he cannot be *33 percent certain that it is in
the room.C That man is from )apan. I(ve never spoken with him, but he must speak )apanese.
B' logical assumption, but until the speaker hears the man speaking )apanese, he cannot be
*33 percent certain.C
.hen have to, have got to, and must are used in this way, it is must that is more
common than the others. %ave to and have got to, when used for this purpose, have
greater emphasis and are used for dramatic effect$
Mark has to be the biggest idiot in the entire world.
.here is Gydia1 "he(s got to be here somewhere.
Infinitive&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
do with
($ !o 5ith p.1. Jused onl5 in the in"initi1e "or0K When 5ou sa5 that one thin' has
so0ethin' to !o 5ith another, 5ou 0ean there is a !onne!tion bet#een the t#o.
5on(t blame me for what happened@ I had nothing to do with it.
I(m not sure what this part does, but I think it must have something to do
with the transmission.
have on
have on & has on having on had on had on
($ have$$$ on p.1. When 5ou #ear so0ethin', su!h as an ite0 o" !lothin', per"u0e, or
!os0eti!s, 5ou have it on$
"ally had red pants and a blue shirt on.
I didn(t have a raincoat on and I got all wet.
*KL
"$ have$$$ on p.1. When 5ou have an ele!tri!al de1i!e on' 5ou are usin' it.
Gast summer was so cool that we had the air conditioner on only two or three
times.
.hat(s that sound1 5an must have the radio on.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
hurr%
up
hurr% up & hurries up hurr%ing up hurried up hurried up
($ hrr3 + p.1. When 5ou hrr3 up, 5ou do so0ethin' ,ui!7l5.
#icole has to hurr% up if she(s going to finish her work before D$33.
If we don(t hurr% up we(re going to miss the beginning of the
movie.
"$ hrr3$$$ + p.1. When 5ou hrr3 so0ethin' +' 5ou do it 0ore ,ui!7l5. When 5ou hrr3
people up, 5ou ur'e the0 to do so0ethin' 0ore ,ui!7l5. When 5ou sa5 ?Hrr3 up,@ to people,
5ou are tellin' the0 to do so0ethin' 0ore ,ui!7l5.
/veryone was really hungry, so I asked our cook to hurr% dinner up.
There were only five minutes left to finish the test, so the teacher hurried the
students up. ,urr% up! I(m not going to wait for you all day.
knock over
knock over & knocks over knocking over knocked over knocked
over
($ 0noc0$$$ over p.1. When 5ou 0noc0 people or thin's over' 5ou use "or!e to 0a7e the0 "all
to a horiDontal position.
The force of the e0plosion knocked me over.
The children were playing, and they knocked the lamp over.
lighten up
lighten up & lightens up lightening up lightened up lightened up
($ %i/hten + EonF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou %i/hten + or %i/hten + on people, 5ou be!o0e
less harsh or less stri!t in 5our treat0ent o" the0.
8ou(re awfully hard on your daughter. Maybe you ought to lighten up on her.
8ou(ve been critici6ing me all day. .ill you please lighten up"
"$ %i/hten $$$+ p.1. When 5ou %i/hten up, 5ou !han'e the sub)e!t o" !on1ersation "ro0
so0ethin' serious to so0ethin' 0ore !heer"ul and pleasant.
/nough talk about business. Get(s lighten things up around here.
1ighten it up ! you(ve been talking about death and ta0es all night.
plan ahead
plan ahead & plans ahead planning ahead planned ahead planned
ahead
($ +%an ahea! p.1. When 5ou +%an ahead, 5ou plan "or a "uture situation or a!ti1it5 so that 5ou
#ill not ha1e a proble0 then. P%an ahea! is si0ilar to thin0 ahea!$
)anice is a good manager. "he always plans ahead in case there(s a problem.
1*/
3lan ahead ! you don(t want any problems when you(re 733 miles from
the nearest town.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
settle for
settle for & settles for settling for settled for settled for
($ sett%e .or p.1. When 5ou sett%e .or so0ethin', 5ou a!!ept it e1en thou'h it 0a5 not be
e<a!tl5 #hat 5ou #ant or need.
The strikers wanted an K percent pay increase, but they settled for D percent.
5r. "mith has very high standards. %e won(t settle for second best.
think up
think up & thinks up thinking up thought up thought up
($ thin0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou thin7 up so0ethin', su!h as an idea, solution, or plan, 5ou use
5our i0a'ination to !reate it.
; have to think up a way to solve this problem.
Maria thought up a great way to make some e0tra money.
"top worrying ! I(ll think something up.
ECERCISE "7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. WeBre 'oin' to be late i" 5ou donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2.1 told the store 0ana'er that 4 #anted a "ull re"und and that 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM ? MMMMMMM an5thin'
else.
3. 6r. Wol"e MMMMMMMM a #hite suit MMMMMMMM last ni'ht.
4. IoeBs been an'r5 all da5. 4 #ish heBd MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. The tru!7 hit the li'ht pole and MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
$. Aou ha1e to tal7 to so0eone in the shippin' depart0ent about 5our 0issin' order. 4 ha1e nothin'
toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMshippin'.
%. 4" 5ouBre 'oin' on an i0portant business trip, 5ou should MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM so 4 that 5ou donBt
"or'et so0ethin' 5ouBll need later.
8. Ia7e is tr5in' to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a #a5 to 0a7e 0one5 #ithout #or7in'.
*. 3o upstairs and MMMMMMMM 5our sister MMMMMMMM. 4B0 a"raid sheBs 'oin' to be late "or s!hool.
1/. WeB1e been tal7in' politi!s all ni'ht. &etBs MMMMMMMM thin's MMMMMMMM, o7a5H
11. 4 li7e to MMMMMMMM the radio MMMMMMMM #hen 4 'o to bed.
1*1
ECERCISE "7& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Charles #ore a red shirt 5esterda5. What did Charles doH
2. Sean #ants a 1 per!ent raise, and he #onBt a!!ept less. What #onBt Sean doH
3. 8r. Wood is thin7in' about the i0portant 0eetin' she #ill 'o to ne<t #ee7 so that she #ill be
read5. What is 8r. Wood doin'H
4. Ia7e hit Ierr5 so hard that Ierr5 "ell to the "loor. What did Ia7e do to Ierr5H
. Ned told Todd to #or7 0ore ,ui!7l5. What did Ned tell Todd to doH
$. 4 'ot a letter about 05 in!o0e ta<es. What #as the letter aboutH
%. Ser'eant Iones has been 5ellin' at the soldiers all da5. What should Ser'eant Iones doH
8. =ett5 needs a Callo#een !ostu0e, and sheBs usin' her i0a'ination to !reate one. What is =ett5
doin'H
ECERCISE "7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE "7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter
each one$
burned up, 22 lined up, 18 ripped up, 1% Dipped up, 21
!leared up, 22 0ade-up, 23 sha7en up, 24
dried out, 1 paid up, 22 #ar0ed up, 1*
heated up, 22 plu''ed up, 22 #orn do#n, 1%
1*2
1. 4tBs "reeDin' outside > 0a7e sure 5our !oat is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. 8onBt start dri1in' 5et? the !arBs not MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3. We tal7ed about the proble0, and no# e1er5thin' is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4,1 need lotion? 05 s7in is reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. Can7 is su!h a liar. 8onBt belie1e an5 o" his MMMMMMMM e<!uses.
$. -"ter 4 'i1e =ill ten bu!7s, 4 #onBt o#e hi0 another penn5. 4Bll be totall5 MMMMMMMM MMM.
%. Pat #as prett5 MMMMMMMMMMM a"ter the a!!ident.
8. =ill #as "urious at his e<-#i"e, and no# all his photos o" her are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and in the
'arba'e.
*. People are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or three blo!7s to bu5 World Series ti!7ets.
1/. 8onBt drin7 that !o""ee > itBs not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11.1 !anBt s0ell or taste an5thin'? 05 nose is all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. 4 #as reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter he too7 05 !al!ulator #ithout as7in' 0e and then lost it.
13. The heels o" 05 old !o#bo5 boots are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 4 need to 'et the0 "i<ed.
ECERCISE "7e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre to se the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5
the %esson n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!all in, hand out, 1/ s!re# on, 12 stop o1er, 24
!lear up, 22 hoo7 up, * sho# o"", 24 trade in, 24
!o0e do#n, 24 let up, 24 slo# do#n, 24 #ar0 up, 1*
'o ba!7, 1* print out, 24 sti!7 up, 14
1. The !ar dealer is as7in' N2%,/// "or the !ar 4 #ant, but 4 thin7 he 0i'ht MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to
N24,///.
2. While 5ou 'o to the librar5, 4Bll 'o to the 'ro!er5 store, and #eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at the !orner in
one hour.
3. =e sure 5ou MMMMMMMM the top o" that 0ustard )ar MMMMMMMM ti'htl5.
4. ;ri7 !he!7s the ti0e e1er5 "i1e 0inutes so that he !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his ne# +ole< #at!h.
1*3
. 6i7e #asnBt at #or7 toda5. CeMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMsi!7.
$. When =ill "lies to &os -n'eles, he al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in =an'7o7.
%. The !ar dealer said heBll 'i1e 0e a 'ood deal i" 4 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 05 old !ar.
8. We MMMMMMMM the noti!es MMMMMMMM all o1er to#n.
*. The 0e0o "ro0 the personnel o""i!e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lot o" !on"usion about the ne# 1a!ation
poli!5.
1/. This #eather is terrible. 4 #onder i" this stor0 is e1er 'oin' to MMMMMM MMMMMM.
11. Turn the heater on, and the roo0 #ill MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM.
12._BNan!5 #as dri1in' too "ast, so 4 told her to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. The tea!her #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the tests until the students are ,uiet.
14. -"ter 5ou "inish #ritin' 5our report,MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMMM and 'i1e it to 0e.
1. PaulBs "ro0 Colo0bia, but he hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM there "or se1en 5ears.
"8$ 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s an! the a!ver& back
The ad1erb ba!7 is so0eti0es used #ith phrasal 1erbs to 0ean a'ain. The "ollo#in' senten!es
ha1e the sa0e 0eanin'G
We /ot to/ether a'ain. We /ot
ba!7 to/ether$
=a!7 is al#a5s pla!ed dire!tl5 be"ore the parti!le. When ba!7 is used #ith separable phrasal
1erbs, the ob)e!t 0ust separate the 1erb and parti!le, and ba!7 0ust be pla!ed bet#een the
ob)e!t and the parti!leG
/ put the engine back together. #
put back together the engine.
8o not !on"use the ad1erb ba!7, #hi!h 0odi"ies phrasal 1erbs, #ith the parti!le ba!7 that is
part o" so0e phrasal 1erbs Eand has the sa0e 0eanin' o" a'ainF.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
get together
get together & gets together getting together got together gotten/got
together
/et to/ether E#ithF p.1. When t#o people /et to/ether' the5 0eet and spend ti0e to'ether.
When 5ou /et to/ether #ith so0eone, 5ou 0eet and spend ti0e #ith
1*4
that person. When a 0an and #o0an resu0e a relationship a"ter separatin', the5 /et ba!7
to/ether$
If you(re not busy tomorrow night, would you like to get together"
.e(re going to get together with Aill and #ancy tomorrow.
)udy and "am had separated, but now they(ve gotten back together.
/et9to/ether n. -n in"or0al 'atherin' is a /et9to/ether$
I(m having a little get-together tonight. .ould you like to come1
"$ /et$$$ to/ether p.1. When 5ou /et thin's to/ether' 5ou !olle!t the0 so the5 are in the
sa0e pla!e.
8ou should get all your tools together so you will have them when you need them.
Ginda got all her ta0 records together to show to her accountant.
*$ /et$$$ to/ether p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou /et 5oursel" to/ether' or /et it to/ether' 5ou
'ain !ontrol o" 5our e0otions a"ter 5ou ha1e be!o0e upset or e0otional.
Aob was very upset before the party, but he got it together before the guests
came.
%ey, get yourself togetherE /veryone is watching you.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go
over
go over < goes over going over went over gone over
($ /o over EtoF p.1. When people 0o1e "ro0 #here 5ou are to a pla!e, thin', or person
that is "arther a#a5 "ro0 5ou, the5 /o over or /o over to that pla!e, thin', or person.
I(m busy. /o over there and stop bothering me.
I was hot, so Maria went over to the window and opened it.
"$ /o over EtoF p.1. When 5ou 'o to so0eoneBs house "or a 1isit, 5ou /o over or /o over
to that personBs house.
%ave you gone over to #icole(s house to see her new baby yet1
I went over to /rik(s for dinner last night.
*$ /o over p.1. When 5ou !are"ull5 read or re1ie# i0portant #ritten 0aterial, 5ou /o over
it.
%ere(s a maga6ine article I ust finished writing. /o over it and tell me what you
think.
The actor went over his lines before the audition.
/oin/9over n. When 5ou e<a0ine or inspe!t so0ethin' !are"ull5, 5ou 'i1e it a /oin/9
over$
I gave his report a good going-over and found a lot of mistakes.
6$ /o over p.1. When 5ou !are"ull5 e<plain so0ethin', usuall5 so0ethin' that is
!o0pli!ated but i0portant, 5ou /o over it.
1*
Aefore the trial %ank and his lawyer went over what %ank was going to say.
#o one understood the manager(s plan after he e0plained it, so he went back over it.
7$ /o over p.1. When an idea, su''estion, or per"or0an!e is a!!epted and li7ed b5 other
people, it /oes over$
"enator 5olittle(s plan to raise ta0es didn(t go over with the
voters.
The sinaer(s performance went over well with the critics.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go up
go up < goes up going up went up gone up
($ /o + EtoF p.1. When 5ou 0o1e to a hi'her le1el or position, or "ro0 south to north, 5ou /o
+ or /o + to that pla!e. Eo !o5n is the opposite o" /o +$
"u6ie came down from her tree house to eat lunch, but she went back up after she
finished.
I spend the winters in Me0ico, and go up to my home in =hio in the summer.
"$ /o + EtoF p.1. When the !ost, rate, ,ualit5, ,uantit5, or le1el o" so0ethin' in!reases, it
/oes +$ Eo !o5n is the opposite o" /o +$
The price of gas hasn(t gone up in two years.
In the summer the temperature in "audi 'rabia can go up to *7D
degrees.
*$ /o + EtoF p.1. When a s!hedule or plan ends at a !ertain ti0e or date, the s!hedule or
plan /oes + to that ti0e or date.
5o you have the new schedule1 This one goes up only to the end of 'pril.
The teacher gave the students a syllabus that went up to the midterm.
6$ /o + EtoF p.1. When so0ethin' e<tends to a !ertain point that is "arther north or at a
hi'her ele1ation, it /oes + to that point. Eo !o5n is the opposite o" /o +$
This trail went up to the base camp at the foot of the mountain.
Interstate D goes up to "eattle.
7$ /o + EtoF p.1. When 5ou approa!h a person, 5ou /o + to that person.
There(s "arah, /o up and introduce yourself.
)anice isn(t shy ! she went right up to the president of the company and
asked for a raise.
let in on
let in on & lets in on letting #n on let in on let
in on
($ %et$$$ in on p.1. When 5ou tell people in"or0ation that is se!ret or not #idel5 7no#n, 5ou %et
that person in on the in"or0ation.
Ieneral >hambers let me in on the top secret information.
I(m going to let you #n on something not many people know about me.
1*$
Infinitive&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
open up
open up & opens up opening up opened up opened up
($ o+en $$$+ p.1. When 5ou o+en so0ethin' up, 5ou re1eal #hat is inside so that people
!an see it.
"ofia opened the bo0 up and looked inside.
Mike(s going to open up his computer to try to find the problem.
"$ o+en $$$ + p.1. When 5ou o+en a roo0 or buildin' +' 5ou unlo!7 or open the doors so
that people !an enter.
The office closes at *7$33 for lunch and opens back up at *$33.
The manager was late and didn(t open up the store until *3$23.
*$ o+en $$$ + p.1. When a ne# business starts, it o+ens + or is o+ene! + b5 so0eone.
; was driving through town, and I noticed that a new book store has opened up on Maple
"treet.
)immy wants to open up a restaurant near the new office building.
put together
put together & puts together putting together put together put together
($ +t$$$ to/ether p.1. When 5ou asse0ble the parts o" so0ethin', 5ou +t it
to/ether$ Pt to/ether is the opposite o" ta0e a+art$
"ally got a bicycle for her birthday, and her father put it together after
dinner.
It was easy taking my car(s engine apart, but putting it back together was a
lot harder.
"$ +t$$$ to/ether p.1. When 5ou or'aniDe so0e ideas, plans, or su''estions in order
to sho# the0 to so0eone or dis!uss the0 #ith so0eone, 5ou +t the0 to/ether$
Mr. and Mrs. Flores want to redecorate their house, so they asked an interior designer to put
some ideas together.
I have an interesting idea for a new business, and I(m putting together a proposal.
*$ +t$$$ to/ether p.1. When 5ou position people or thin's so that the5 are !lose to ea!h
other or tou!hin', 5ou +t the0 to/ether$
The teacher told Timmy and Mike to put their desks together so they could work on their
proect.
.hen you plan your dinner party seating arrangement, put %eather and )immy together.
shut off
shut off & shuts off shutting off shut off shut off
($ sht$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou sht o.. an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e, 5ou !ut the po#er 'oin' to
it so that it stops operatin'. Trn o.. and s5itch o.. are si0ilar to sht o..$
1*%
Timmy(s mother told him to shut off the TV and go to bed.
I(m free6ing. .ould you mind shutting the air conditioner off"
sht o.. part.ad). -"ter 5ou sht o.. an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e, it is sht o..$
Trne! o.. and s5itche! o.. are si0ilar to sht o..$
.ell, no wonder it(s so cold in here ! the heat(s shut off.
shto.. n. When 5ou sht o.. so0ethin', or #hen so0ethin' shts o..' this a!tion is a
shto..$ When 5ou sht o.. so0ethin', 5ou use the shto.. s#it!h, button, 1al1e, and so
on.
The electricity shutoff lasted twenty minutes.
In case of emergency, turn this shutoff valve
here.
start up
start up & starts up starting up started up started up
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
($ start ...up p.1. When an ele!tri!al or 0e!hani!al de1i!e starts + or so0eone starts it
+' it be'ins to operate.
My car(s engine died at a red light, and it wouldn(t start up
again.
8ou push this button here to start the computer up.
start9+ n. When 5ou start + so0ethin', or so0ethin' starts +' this a!tion is a
start9+$ When 5ou start + so0ethin', 5ou use the start9+ s#it!h, button, and soon.
To start the computer up push this start-up button.
If your computer(s hard disk crashes, you can use a floppy as the start-up disk.
"$ start$$$ + p.1. When 5ou start + a ne# business or !o0pan5, 5ou ta7e the steps
ne!essar5 to be'in a ne# business or !o0pan5.
8ou should have a detailed business plan before starting a business up.
)ane borrowed the money she needed to start up her business from her uncle.
start9+ n$ A start9+ or start9+ business or !o0pan5 is a ne# business or
!o0pan5.
>ost start-up businesses aren(t successful.
ECERCISE "8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Aour i0portant papers are all o1er the house. Aou should MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMM and 7eep
the0 in a sa"e pla!e.
2. 4t #as so !old this 0ornin' that it too7 hal" an hour to MMMMMMMM 05 !ar MMMMMM.
3. This is a#"ull5 !o0pli!ated. Could 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it one 0ore ti0eH
4. The poli!e ordered the people in the house to MMMMMMMM the doorMMMMMMMM.
1*8
. The ser'eant MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the hill to loo7 "or the ene05 soldiers.
$. The a!!ount e<e!uti1e #as as7ed to MMMMMMMM so0e ideas MMMMMMMM "or a ne# ad1ertisin' !a0pai'n.
%. 4B0 tr5in' to sleep. Would 5ou please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the li'htsH
8. &inda sa# her "a1orite 0o1ie star, but she #as too sh5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to hi0 and as7 "or his
auto'raph.
*. 4Bll MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little se!ret.
1/. 4B0 'oin' toMMMMMMMMMMMto ToddBs house to help hi0 #ith his 0ath ho0e#or7.
11. This !alendar is useless>itMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMonl5 to -u'ust.
12. Than7 5ou "or 5our appli!ation. 4 #illMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit !are"ull5 and !all
5ou in a "e# da5s.
13. This )i'sa# puDDle has 1,/// pie!es. 4tBll ta7e "ore1er to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
14. 4" that bi' dis!ount store MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM outside o" to#n, all these little shops #ill 'o out o"
business.
1. The le1el o" #ater in the ri1er al#a5s "alls durin' the su00er but MMMMMMMM ba!7 MMMMMMMM the ne<t
sprin'.
1$. Sa0Bs idea o" 'i1in' all the #or7ers a 1/ per!ent pa5 raise didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM#ell #ith
0ana'e0ent.
1%. 4 7no# 5ouBre upset, but 5ou ha1e to MMMMMMMM 5oursel"MMMMMMMM.
18. (n Saturda5 ni'hts 6i7e usuall5 MMMM MMMMM #ith so0e "riends and pla5s po7er.
1*. -s soon as #e arri1ed at the part5, 8a1id MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the bu""et table and 'rabbed a plate.
2/. Without the !o0bination, thereBs no #a5 to MMMMMMMM this sa"e MMMMMMMM.
21. MMMMMMM all 5our Spanish boo7s MMMMMMMM on the sa0e shel".
22. This road MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the ne<t to#n, but thatBs #here it ends.
23. 4Bll need around N2,/// to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 ne# business.
1**
ECERCISE "8& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. 4 #ish the5 #ould open up near 0e. Ea bran!h o""i!e, oneF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
7. Gydia put together, Bthe food processor, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. 8o 5ou 7no# ho# to shut o""H Ethe photo!opier, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
H. ?ush this button to start up. Bthe generator, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE "8c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. Frank read my report carefully. .hat did Frank do to my report1
7. In Puestion *, what did Frank give my report1
3. Iud5 #al7ed to#ard the 7in', stopped ne<t to hi0, and 'a1e hi0 the petition. What did Iud5 do
to the 7in'H
4. 6i7e told 0e a se!ret. What did 6i7e doH
D. Aill and some friends are going to meet and spend some time together. .hat are Aill and his
friends going to do1
2//
J. In Puestion D, what is this activity called1
M. My computer begins to operate from the hard disk. .hat does my computer do from the hard disk1
8. 4n Ouestion %, #hat #ould 5ou !all the hard dis7H
L. The mayor(s plan to fight crime in the streets was very successful with the voters. .hat impression
did the mayor(s plan have on the voters1
*3. The heater stops operating automatically when the temperature reaches a certain point. .hat
does the heater do automatically1
**. In Puestion *3, what is the temperature that makes the heater stop operating called1
*7. 8ou Fuit your ob so that you could begin your own company. .hy did you Fuit your ob1
*2. In Puestion *7, what would you call your new company1
*H. 8ou assembled all the parts of your model airplane. .hat did you do to your
model airplane1
*D. This airplane schedule gives flight times until 5ecember 2*. .hat does the airplane
schedule do1
*J. The supermarket unlocks its doors and lets people in at M$33 '.M. every day. .hat does the
supermarket do at M$33 '.M. every day1
ECERCISE "8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-9J
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
do #ith, 2 ha1e on, 2 loo7 o1er, 21 settle "or, 2
end up, 2/ hurr5 up, 2 pi!7 on, 21 sho# o"", 24
'o o"", 2/ 7no!7 o1er, 2 plan ahead, 2 ta7e out on, 21
'o on, 2/ li'hten up, 2 put on, 1 thin7 up, 2
*. I(m asking :*3,333 for my car, but I(ll &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& :K,D33.
7. That new manager is really hard on the employees. %e ought to &&&&&& &&&&&&.
2. 't the supermarket, Tom hit the stack of bo0es with his shopping cart and &&&&&&&& them &&&&&&&&.
73*
4. We had planned to 'o to 2ran!e on our 1a!ation, but #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'oin' to Spain
instead.
. Will 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM: 4" #e donBt lea1e soon #eBre 'oin' to be late.
$. 6ar7 hates his )ob, and he !o0es ho0e e1er5 ni'ht and MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his
"a0il5.
%. 65 do!tor 'ot the test results "ro0 the lab, and she MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM 1er5 !are"ull5.
8. MMMMMMMM 5our !oat MMMMMMMM. 4tBs !old outside.
*. 8onBt #ait until the last 0inute to 0a7e 5our 1a!ation airline reser1ations. Aou ha1e to MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
1/. The dete!ti1e didnBt belie1e that the 'un had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a!!identall5.
11. 4 hated 05 older brother #hen 4 #as a 7id. Ce al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e.
12. Co# are #e 'oin' to 'et N// in t#o da5sH We need to MMMMMM MMMMM a 'ood plan.
13. 4 didnBt understand e1er5thin' the !o0puter shop 'u5 said, but it had so0ethin' to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM 0e0or5.
14. Ii0 tries to ans#er e1er5 ,uestion the tea!her as7s. CeBs al#a5sMMMMM MMMMMM.
1. That 0eetin' #as so borin'. 4t see0ed li7e it #as 'oin' to MMMMM MMMMM "ore1er.
1$. The poli!e o""i!er 0ust be o"" dut5? he doesnBt MMMMMMMM his uni"or0 MMMMMMMM.
":$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e
off an! the a!ver& right
The parti!le o"" is used in 0an5 phrasal 1erbs to sa5 that so0ethin' is separated or
re0o1edG
The !up handle &ro0e$ EThe handle is bro7en, but it is still atta!hed to the !up.F The
!up handle &ro0e o..$ EThe handle is no lon'er atta!hed to the !up.F
+i'ht, dis!ussed in Se!tion 1*, is o"ten used #ith these phrasal 1erbs to indi!ate that
the a!tion o" the 1erb happened ,ui!7l5G
2/2
Ce 5ashe! the dirt o..$ EThe dirt #as re0o1ed.F Ce 5ashe! the
dirt ri'ht o..$ EThe dirt #as re0o1ed ,ui!7l5.F
+e0e0ber that ri'ht !an be used in this #a5 onl5 a"ter an ob)e!t that separates the
1erb and the parti!leG
%e washed the dirt right
off. %o washed right off the
dirt.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
bite off
bite off & bites off biting off bit off bitten off
($ &ite$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou bite o"" so0ethin', 5ou use 5our teeth to re0o1e a pie!e. When
5ou &ite o.. 0ore than 5ou !an !he#, 5ou a'ree to do so0ethin' that 5ou do not ha1e the
ti0e or the abilit5 to do.
The lion bit off a huge piece of the 6ebra(s flesh.
8ou can(t finish that huge proect by tomorrow. I think you(ve bitten off more than you can
chew.
break off
break off & breaks off breaking off broke off broken off
($ &rea0$$$ o.. p.1. When so0ethin' &rea0s o.. or so0eone &rea0s so0ethin' o..' a part
or s0aller pie!e is separated "ro0 so0ethin' lar'er b5 "or!e.
)im broke off a piece of chocolate and gave it to his girlfriend.
=ne of the arms broke off the statue when it fell off the pedestal.
&ro0en o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' &rea0s o..' it is &ro0en o..$
The handle of the coffee cup is broken off.
($ &rea0$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou &rea0 o.. relations or !onta!t #ith so0eone, 5ou de!ide to
end relations or !onta!t #ith that person.
The two countries broke off relations with each other.
I was so angry at my in-laws that I broke off alt contact with them.
dr% off
dr% off & dries off dr%ing off dried off dried off
($ !r3$$$ o.. p.1. When so0ethin' !ries o.. or 5ou !r3 so0ethin' o..' #ater or other
li,uids that are on it e1aporate.
It rained for only a few minutes, so the streets dried off Fuickly.
Geave your wet clothes outside and let the sun dr% them off.
!rie! o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has !rie! o..' it is !rie! o..$
They can(t play baseball because the field isn(t dried off.
- 2/3
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
knock
off
knock off & knocks off knocking off knocked off knocked off
($ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 0noc0 so0ethin' o..' 5ou either a!!identall5 or deliberatel5 use
"or!e to 0a7e it "all "ro0 a pla!e abo1e the 'round to the 'round belo#.
"usie knocked a glass off the table and broke it.
The cat knocked the clock off the shelf.
"$ 0noc0 o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 0noc0 o..' 3o "inish #or7in'.
I Fuit working at D$33 last night, but "ean didn(t knock off until
K$23.
8ou(ve been working all day. .hy don(t you knock off"
*$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou sa3 ?Knoc0 it o..? to people, 5ou #ant the0 to stop
doin' so0ethin' that is botherin' 5ou.
If you don(t knock it off you(ll be sorry.
I(m tired of listening to you critici6e me. ?nock it
off!
6$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 0noc0 so0ethin' o..' 5ou 0a7e so0ethin' ,ui!7l5 and not 1er5
!are"ull5.
The artist knocked off a Fuick sketch and gave it to the waiter.
5an prefers writing novels, but he sometimes knocks off a maga6ine article to
make a few bucks.
7$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou 0noc0 people o..' 5ou 7ill the0.
)ake was sent to prison for knocking off his brother-in-law.
Mario was the head of a gang of criminals until he was knocked off by a rival.
tear off
tear off & tears off tearing off tore off torn
off
($ tear$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou use "or!e to re0o1e a pie!e o" so0ethin' that is "le<ible
> paper, !loth, and so on > 5ou tear it o..$
/ tore off a coupon for fro6en pi66a at the supermarket.
'le0 always tears the tags off his shirt collars.
torn o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been torn o..' it is torn o..$
There aren(t any more coupons. They(re alt torn off.
wash off
wash off & washes off washing off washed off washed off
($ 5ash $$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 5ash so0ethin' o.. or 5ash the dirt o.. so0ethin', 5ou use
#ater and soap to re0o1e dirt or un#anted ite0s "ro0 a sur"a!e.
Mike washed off his car.
Mike washed the dirt off his
car.
73H
5ashe! o.. part.ad). -"ter 5ou 5ash so0ethin' o.. or 5ash the dirt o.. so0ethin', it is
5ashe! o..$
The maid said she had washed the grease off the wall, but the wall didn(t
look washed off to me.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
wear
off
wear off < wears off wearing off wore off worn off
($ 5ear o.. p.1. When the sur"a!e o" so0ethin' is 'raduall5 re0o1ed b5 "ri!tion or e<posure to
the ele0ents so that #hat is beneath the sur"a!e is e<posed, the sur"a!e 5ears o..$
8ou could see the wood where the paint had worn off.
The gold wears off this cheap ewelry right away.
5orn o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has #orn o"", it is 5orn o..$
These ancient temples used to be very colorful, but now all the paint is worn off.
"$ 5ear o.. p.1. When the e""e!ts o" dru's or al!ohol 'raduall5 'o a#a5, the5 5ear
o..$
The wounded soldier was in great pain after the morphine wore off.
%e(s going to have a big headache after the vodka wears off.
*$ 5ear o.. p.1. When an e0otional "eelin' 'raduall5 'oes a#a5, it 5ears o..$
'fter the shock of getting fired wore off I started to get angry.
.hen I met )im I fell in love immediately, but that wore off Fuickly as I got to
know him better.
wipe off
wipe off & wipes off wiping off wiped off wiped off
($ 5i+e $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 re0o1e a li,uid "ro0 a sur"a!e b5 0o1in' a to#el or
spon'e a!ross it #ith a s#eepin' 0otion, 5ou 5i+e the sur"a!e o"". Aou !an either 5i+e o..
so0ethin' that is #et or 5i+e o.. the li,uid. =i+e + is si0ilar to 5i+e o..I ho#e1er, 5ou 5i+e
+ a li,uid, but 5ou 5i+e o.. the sur"a!e the li,uid is on.
(ipe off your face.
(ipe the food off your face.
5i+e! o.. part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been 5i+e! o..' it is 5i+e! o..$ That
table doesnBt loo7ed 5i+e! o.. to 0e. =i+e it o.. a'ain.
ECERCISE ":a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. +a,uel MMMMMMMM a pie!e o" paper MMMMMMMM and #rote her phone nu0ber on it.
2. -"ter 4 #ashed the #indo#s, 4 MMMMMM the0 MMMMMM #ith so0e old ne#spapers.
2/
3. Ierr5 has to "inish a lot o" #or7 be"ore he 'oes ho0e, so he probabl5 #onBt MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM until late.
4. 4t rained last ni'ht, so donBt pla5 outside until the 'rass MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. =e !are"ul #hen 5ou "eed horses. The5 !an MMMMMMM 5our "in'er ri'ht MMMMMMM.
$. The do!tor said the sedati1e #ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter "our or "i1e hours.
%. The shop o#ner #as a"raid to MMMMMMMM the 'an' 'ra""iti MMMMMMMM his #all.
8. -"ter Ia7e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Can7, he #as !har'ed #ith 0urder.
*. 8urin' the stor0, a tree bran!h MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and "ell on the roo".
1/. Aoust#o 7ids ha1e been ar'uin' all da5. MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM ri'ht no#:
11. 4 !anBt use this old t5pe#riter an50ore. The painted letters ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 7e5s.
12. The t#o sides !ouldnBt a'ree on a solution, and the ne'otiations MMMMMMMM
13. 4Bll tr5 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a "e# 0ore pa'es o" 05 boo7 be"ore 4 'o to bed.
14. 4t #as a lon' ti0e be"ore the sho!7 o" his brotherBs death MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1. 8onBt put 5our 'lass o" #ine so !lose to the ed'e o" the table. So0eone 0i'ht MMMMMM
itMMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE ":& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ Use ri/ht 5ith >estions " an! 8$
1. -le< has bitten o"". Ethe head o" the 'in'erbread 0an, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. The 0o1ers bro7e o"". Ethe !up handle, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2/$
2. ?lease dry off. Bthe dishes, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. 8onBt 7no!7 o"". Ethe ash tra5, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
D. >an I tear off1 Bthese mattress tags, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
J. The )anitor washed off. Bthe blood, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
M. "he didn(t wipe off. Bthe milk, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE ":c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Tr3 to se ri/ht 5ith so-e o. the
ans5ers$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 used #ater to re0o1e the 0ud "ro0 05 !ar. What did 4 do to 05 !arH
2. Ti005 "or!ibl5 re0o1ed the propellers o" 05 0odel airplane. What did Ti005 do to 05 0odel
airplaneBs propellersH
3. 4n Ouestion 2, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the 0odel airplaneBs propellersH
2/%
4. Aou put 5our ar0 in the #ater, and the shar7 re0o1ed it #ith its teeth i00ediatel5. What did the
shar7 do to 5our ar0H
. Aou !ould see that the rin' #asnBt solid 'old be!ause the brass under the 'old #as 1isible.
What happened to the 'oldH
$. 4n Ouestion , ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the 'oldH
%. 4 a!!identall5 hit the la0p #ith 05 ar0, and it "ell to the "loor. What did 4 do to the la0pH
8. Aou used a paper to#el to re0o1e the 'lass !leaner "ro0 the 0irror. What did 5ou do to
the 0irrorH
*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the 0irror a"ter 5ou re0o1ed the 'lass
!leanerH
1/. Aou ha1e to re0o1e the #ater "ro0 the table be"ore 5ou paint it. What do 5ou ha1e to
do to the table be"ore 5ou paint itH
11. 4n Ouestion 1/, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the table a"ter the #ater is re0o1edH
12. Aou re0o1ed the 'i"t #rappin' paper "ro0 the 'i"t. What did 5ou do to the 'i"t #rappin' paperH
13. 4n Ouestion 12, a"ter usin' "or!e to re0o1e the 'i"t #rappin' paper, ho# #ould 5ou
des!ribe the #rappin' paperH
ECERCISE ":!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!lear up, 22 'o up, 2$ open up, 2$ shut o"", 2$
!o0e do#n, 24 heat up, 22 pa5 up, 22 start up, 2$
eat up, 22 let in on, 2$ plu' up, 22 thin7 ahead, 21
'o o1er, 2$ let up, 24 put to'ether, 2$ trade in, 24
1. 4" 4 donBt !o0e up #ith N23/ b5 2rida5, the5Bre 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 ele!tri!it5.
2. The 'u5 "ro0 the !olle!tion a'en!5 de0anded that 6i'uel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i00ediatel5.
2/8
3. 4t rained "or "ort5 da5s and "ort5 ni'hts be"ore it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. 4" 5ou had MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM,5ou #ould ha1e e1er5thin' 5ou need no#.
. We had a lot o" ,uestions about our s!hool pro)e!t, but the tea!her MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
$. 6ar7 said his audition didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ell, and he doesnBt thin7 heBll 'et the part.
%. Soldiers are trained to ta7e their ri"les apart and MMMMMMMM the0 ba!7 MMMMMMMM.
8. 4 thin7 N1,/// is a little hi'h "or that !ar. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little, 4 0i'ht be interested.
*. The poli!e !losed the ille'al !asino, but it MMMMMMMM ri'ht ba!7 MMMMMMMM a "e# da5s later.
1/. No one at the part5 ate the !arrot sti!7s, but the5 MMMMMMMM the shri0p ri'ht
11. 4 hate usin' the sto1e on reall5 hot su00er da5s? itMMMMMMMMthe #hole house MMMMMMMM.
12. The 0ini0u0 #a'e hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 0ore than three 5ears.
13. The senator MMMMMMMM her aides MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her plan to run "or the presiden!5.
14. 4 doubt i" 4Bll 'et 0u!h i" 4 MMMMMMMM this old !ar MMMMMMMM.
1. The en'ine MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM #hen 4 turned the 7e5.
1$. 65 dau'hter put one o" her stu""ed ani0als in the toilet and MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM.
2/*
"#$ 2(C.S (NG +assive +hrasa% ver&s' "
When separable phrasal 1erbs are in the passi1e, the5 !annot be separated b5 the
ob)e!t o" the 1erb be!ause the ob)e!t o" the a!ti1e 1erb is the sub)e!t o" the passi1e
senten!e > there is no ob)e!tG
a!ti1e G Ii0 ca%%e! &ac0 6i7e. passi1e
G
6i7e #as ca%%e! &ac0.
sub)e!t ob)e!t sub)e!t
a!ti1e G Ii0 ca%%e! 6i7e &ac0.
sub)e!t ob)e!t
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
beef up
beef up < beefs up beefing up beefed up beefed up
($ &ee.$$$ + p.1. When 5ou &ee. + se!urit5 or so0e other arran'e0ent to pre1ent or deal
#ith a proble0, 5ou 0a7e this arran'e0ent stron'er.
'fter the terrorist attack, security was beefed up at the embassy.
The hospital decided to beef up its emergency facilities.
The coach is planning to beef the defense up.
&ee.e!9+ part.ad). -"ter se!urit5 or so0e other arran'e0ent to pre1ent or deal #ith a
proble0 has been 0ade stron'er, it is &ee.e!9+$
The ambassador is confident that the beefed-up security will prevent any
further terrorist attacks.
break up
break up & breaks up breaking up broke up broken
up
($ &rea0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou &rea0 + a "i'ht, 5ou stop the "i'ht.
Two students were fighting, and the teacher broke them up.
There was no way I could break up the fight between the two dogs.
"$ &rea0$$$ + p.1. When a 'atherin' o" people separates, it &rea0s +$ When the poli!e tell
people #ho are 'athered to'ether in a !ro#d to separate and lea1e the area, the poli!e &rea0
the 'atherin' +$
The meeting should break up around 2$33.
The police ordered the gang members to break it up.
The demonstration was broken up by riot police.
*$ &rea0 $$$+ E#ithF p.1. When t#o people end a ro0anti! relationship, the5 &rea0 +$ When
5ou end a ro0anti! relationship #ith another person, 5ou &rea0 + #ith that person. When
other people !ause a !ouple to &rea0 +' the5 &rea0 the !ouple +$
I was sad to hear that )im and #ancy had broken
up.
It was )im(s secretary who broke them up.
7*3
&rea0+ n. When t#o people end a ro0anti! relationships &rea0+ o!!urs. Nan!5
is 1er5 upset about the &rea0+$
6$ &rea0$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' brea7s into s0aller pie!es, it &rea0s +$ When 5ou
brea7 so0ethin' into s0aller pie!es, 5ou &rea0 it +$
The meteor broke up when it entered /arth(s
atmosphere.
"ally broke the cookie up before giving it to her baby.
&rea0+ n. When so0ethin' brea7s into s0aller pie!es, a &rea0+ ta7es pla!e.
The &rea0+ o" -TPT !reated se1eral s0aller telephone !o0panies.
7$ &rea0$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' &rea0s + the da5 or so0e other period o" ti0e, it
interrupts that ti0e and 0a7es it less borin'.
The bank guard likes to chat with the tellers once in a while to break up the day.
My day was broken up by a going-away party for one of my coworkers.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
call
call back & calls back calling back called backed called back
($ ca%% $$$&ac0 p.1. When 5ou ca%% so0eone ba!7, 5ou !all a person on the telephone #ho has
!alled 5ou earlier.
)anice left a message asking me to call her back.
Aob was called back by the salesman.
"$ ca%%$$$ &ac0 p.1. When 5ou lea1e a pla!e or #al7 a#a5 "ro0 a person and are then as7ed to
return, 5ou are ca%%e! &ac0$
; remembered something after she walked away, and I called her back.
Mike handed his letter of resignation to his boss, but he was called back after he left the
office.
call up
call up & calls up calling up called up called up
($ ca%% $$$+ p.1. When 5ou ca%% people up, 5ou !all the0 on the telephone.
#icole called me up and asked me to come to her party.
/very evening I(m called up by charities asking for
money.
carr% out
carr% out & carries out carr%ing out carried out carried out
($ carr3$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou !arr5 out a dut5, tas7, assi'n0ent, or order, 5ou do it.
"ean will carry your duties out while you(re on vacation.
The boss was furious because his orders hadn(t been carried out.
"$ carr3$$$ ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou carr3 so0ethin' ot o" a pla!e, 5ou hold it in 5our hands and
ta7e it "ro0 that pla!e.
211
It took four guys to carr% the pool table out.
5avid was so drunk that we had to carr% him out of the bar.
carr3ot n. 2ood that 5ou ta7e "ro0 a restaurant and eat in another pla!e is carr3ot or
carr3ot "ood. Ta0eot and ta0eot "ood are the sa0e as carr3ot and carr3ot "ood.
.e usually take carr%out food when we go to visit 'unt 9athy.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
give awa%
give away < gives away giving away gave away given away
($ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.1. When 5ou /ive so0ethin' a5a3' 5ou 'i1e it to so0eone #ithout as7in'
"or an5thin' in return be!ause 5ou do not #ant it or be!ause 5ou #ant to help the person 5ou
are 'i1in' it to.
This old furniture isn(t worth very much, so I think I(ll ust give it awa%.
%e made nearly a billion dollars, but after he retired he gave most of his money awa%.
"$ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.1. When 5ou /ive a se!ret a5a3' 5ou a!!identall5 re1eal that
se!ret.
; haven(t seen that movie yet, so don(t give awa% the ending.
8ou can trust me with the secret. I haven(t given it awa%
*$ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.1. When 5ou /ive 5oursel" a5a3' 5ou a!!identall5 re1eal so0ethin' se!ret
about 5oursel". When so0ethin' /ives 5ou a5a3' it a!!identall5 re1eals so0ethin' se!ret
about 5ou.
Mark tried to keep his affair a secret, but he was given awa% by his credit card
bills.
Toad claimed he didn(t care about "ally anymore, but he gave himself away when
he asked who she had gone to the party with.
giveawa% n. . giveawa% is a statement or action that reveals secret information.
; knew I was going to be fired from my ob when everyone stopped talking to me
! that was the giveawa%.
mess up
mess up & messes up messing up messed up messed
up
($ -ess$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou -ess + a pla!e, 5ou 0a7e it dirt5 or
disor'aniDed.
)im made spaghetti sauce, and he really messed up the kitchen.
8ou kids can play in the living room, but don(t mess it up.
-esse! + part.ad). -"ter 5ou -ess + a pla!e, it is -esse! +$
It looks like Timmy was the last one in the bathroom ! it(s really messed up.
"$ -ess$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou -ess + a situation, 5ou !reate proble0s.
When 5ou -ess + a plan or arran'e0ent, 5ou inter"ere #ith it and pre1ent it "ro0 happenin' as
planned. Mess + is si0ilar to scre5 +$
212
/verything was perfect until you messed it up.
=ur honeymoon was messed up by the airline strike.
-esse! + part.ad). When 5ou inter"ere #ith a plan or arran'e0ent and pre1ent it "ro0
happenin' as planned, it is -esse! +$ Messe! + is si0ilar to scre5e! +$
Aob changed my plan, and now it(s totally messed up.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
stand
up
stand up & stands up standing up stood up stood up
($ stan! + p.1. When 5ou stan! up, 5ou !han'e "ro0 a sittin' position to a standin'
position. Eet + is si0ilar to stan! +$
/veryone stands up when the udge enters the courtroom.
.hen the students are sleepy, the teacher makes them stand up.
"$ stan!$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou stan! people up, 5ou do not arri1e at their house
as 5ou ha1e pro0ised or at a so!ial e1ent or 0eetin' #here 5ou are e<pe!ted.
%eather had a date with )im last "aturday night, but she was stood
up.
The senator was scheduled to speak at our meeting, but he stood us
up.
ECERCISE "#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lon' airplane "li'ht into t#o or three shorter "li'hts, it isnBt as borin'.
2. 65 #or7roo0 #as !lean and neat, but 05 brother did so0e #or7 and he MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
3. 4tBs 'oin' to be a surprise part5, so donBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
4. The nei'hborhood !oun!il as7ed the poli!e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their patrols in hi'h !ri0e
nei'hborhoods.
. 4 ha1enBt tal7ed to Sa0 in a lon' ti0e. 4 thin7 4Bll MMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMM toni'ht.
$. The 'eneral e<pe!ts his orders to be MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM i00ediatel5.
%. 4n so0e !ountries, students al#a5s MMMMMMM MMMMMMM #hen the5 spea7 in !lass.
8. The hu'e i!eber' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen it dri"ted into #ar0er #ater.
*. =rea7in' 05 le' sure MMMMMMMM 05 s7i trip MMMMMMMM.
1/. Iani!e didnBt !o0e to 05 house last ni'ht as she pro0ised. She MMMMM 0e MMMMM.
213
11. Ti005 and his "riend #ere "i'htin', and Ti005Bs 0other MMMMMMMM the "i'ht MMMMMMMM.
12. These bo<es are reall5 hea15. Can 5ou help 0e MMMMM the0 MMMMM o" the houseH
13. -"ter the rall5 ended, the !ro#d ,ui!7l5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and #ent ho0e.
14. 4B0 too bus5 to tal7 on the phone no#. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM laterH
1. =ob !lai0ed to ha1e an e<!ellent edu!ation, but he #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 his poor
'ra00ar.
1$. 6ar7 is 1er5 upset. Cis 'irl"riend )ustMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM#ith hi0.
1%. Ii0 told the 3irl S!outs that he didnBt #ant to bu5 an5 !oo7ies, but as the5 #al7ed a#a5 he
!han'ed his 0ind and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
18. 4nstead o" !har'in' "or the so"t#are pro'ra0, the !o0pan5 de!ided to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
"ree.
ECERCISE "#& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. The White Couse bee"ed up. Ese!urit5, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. The poli!e are brea7in' up. Ethe protest, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. - trained te!hni!ian ou'ht to !arr5 our. Ethe e<peri0ent, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. The "oundation 'a1e a#a5. Ethe 0one5, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
214
D. "usie always messes up. Bthe bathroom, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
J. Todd stood up. B%eather, herC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE "#c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +assive$
1. 8r. Wood #ill do the test o" the ne# dru'. What #ill happen to the testH
2. The statue #as s0ashed b5 thie1es. What happened to the 'old statueH
3. The !hildren 0ade the house dirt5 and disor'aniDed. What happened to the houseH
4. 4n Ouestion 3, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the houseH
. 6i7eBs "riend pro0ised to !o0e to his house, but he didnBt. What happened to 6i7eH
J. 9aren called "arah, but "arah was at school. "arah didn(t call 9aren later. .hat didn(t happen
to 9aren1
%. - super0ar7et !hain 'a1e the "ood to !harit5 and didnBt re!ei1e an5 0one5 "or it. What happened
to the "oodH
8. The pala!e is 0a7in' se!urit5 stron'er. What is happenin' to se!urit5 at the pala!eH
*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the se!urit5 no#H
1/. The personnel 0ana'er #ill !all all the !andidates "or the )ob. What #ill happen to all the
!andidates "or the )obH
21
ECERCISE "#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ba!7 up, 11 "i< up, 1 rip up, 1% tear do#n, 8
blo# a#a5, 1 hand out, 1/ sti!7 up, 14 tra!7 do#n, 13
!ut o"", 11 hold up, % ta7e in, % use up, 14
drop o"", 11 la5 o"", 1/ ta7e out, 11 #a7e up, 11
1. The hard dis7 is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the !o0puter operator e1er5 da5.
2. The old buildin's are bein' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 0a7e roo0 "or a ne# o""i!e buildin'.
3. The isnBt an5 paper in the !opier. So0eone MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
4. &ast ni'ht 4 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 a loud noise.
. 4 !anBt belie1e 4 #as nai1e enou'h to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 hi0.
$. The librar5 boo7 4 #anted had alread5 been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
%. So0ethin' a0aDin' happened 5esterda5. Aou are 'oin' to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM #hen 4 tell 5ou
about it.
8. -"ter the old house had been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, it loo7ed a lot better.
*. 6an5 e0plo5ees are reall5 #orried that the5Bre 'oin' to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1/. 4 #as tal7in' to 05 brother on the phone #hen 4 #as suddenl5 MMMMMM MMMMMM.
11. 65 shirt #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen 4 "ell o"" 05 bi!5!le.
12. The entire buildin' is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 these "our steel bea0s.
13. The pa0phlets #ill be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in train stations and airports.
14. The li,uor store #asMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMa'ain last ni'ht.
1. The "il0 #asMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMat the photo lab.
1$. The es!aped prisoner #as easil5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the 2=4 a'ents.
21$
"D$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! might' may'
an! can
Possi&i%it3< -a3 an! -i/ht
=oth 0a5 and 0i'ht are used to e<press a 0ediu0 le1el o" possibilit5. When 0a5 and
0i'ht are used to e<press possibilit5 in the present or "uture, their 0eanin' is the sa0e,
but 0a5 has a sli'htl5 0ore "or0al sound. 6i'ht is sli'htl5 0ore !o00on in e1er5da5
-0eri!an ;n'lishG
#ancy might drop in tonight.
#ancy may drop in tonight.
The spea7er belie1es that the possibilit5 that Nan!5 #ill !ro+ in and the possibilit5 that
she #ill not !ro+ in are appro<i0atel5 e,ual.
Re>ests< -a3 an! -i/ht
=oth 0a5 and 0i'ht are used to 0a7e re,uests. 6a5 has a "or0al sound, and is less
!o00on than 0i'ht. Can is the 0ost !o00on in -0eri!an ;n'lishG
0ost !o00onG Can 4 !ro+ in toni'htH
"or0alG 6a5 4 !ro+ in toni'htH 1er5 rareG
6i'ht 4 !ro+ in toni'htH
Per-ission< -a3 an! can
6a5 and !an are also used to 'i1e per0ission. 4n this !ase, 0a5 is 0u!h 0ore "or0al
and is 0u!h less !o00on than !an. 6i'ht is not used "or this purposeG
8ou can drop in after dinner. 8ou
may drop in after dinner.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense pastStidple
ask
ask for < asks for asking for asked for asked for
($ as0$$$ .or p.1. When 5ou as0 .or so0ethin', 5ou tell so0eone that 5ou #ant it.
.e asked the waiter for some more coffee.
My wife might ask for more vacation time instead of a raise.
"$ as0 .or p.1. When 5ou sa5 that people are as0in/ .or so0ethin' or as0in/ .or it, 5ou 0ean that
the5 are doin' or sa5in' so0ethin' that is li7el5 to result in punish0ent or a ne'ati1e !onse,uen!e.
I(m warning you ! if you keep doing that, you(re asking for trouble.
8ou(re asking for itE 5on(t say that again.
21%
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come apart
come apart < comes apart coming apart came apart come apart
($ co-e a+art p.1. When so0ethin' co-es apart, the parts separate be!ause it is old or in
bad !ondition or be!ause the parts #ere not stron'l5 !onne!ted to ea!h other.
This toy airplane is such a piece of unk that it came apart in my hand.
Ae careful with this old book. It(s coming apart.
drop in
drop in & drops in dropping in dropped in dropped #n
%K!ro+ in EonF p.1. When 5ou !ro+ in on people, 5ou 1isit the0 une<pe!tedl5.
If you(re ever in my neighborhood drop in.
"ally dropped in on Marsha last night.
flip out
flip out & flips out flipping out flipped out flipped out
($ .%i+ ot p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou .%i+ out, 5ou be!o0e 1er5 upset or 1er5 an'r5.
Aob flipped out when the city doubled his property ta0es.
9eep your hands off )im(s computer ! he(ll flip out if you screw it up.
look out
look out & looks out looking out looked out looked out
($ %oo0 ot E"orF p.1. When 5ou %oo0 ot or %oo0 ot "or so0ethin', 5ou re0ain alert "or
so0eone or so0ethin' that is dan'erous or i0portant. When 5ou tell people to %oo0 ot' 5ou
are #arnin' the0 o" possible dan'er. Loo0 ot is the sa0e as 5atch ot$
1ook out for bears when you camp in the mountains.
There(s a lot of ice on the road, so look out.
%oc0ot n$ A %oc0ot is so0eone #ho %oo0s ot "or so0eone or so0ethin' that is
dan'erous or i0portant.
The burglars had lockouts on every corner to warn them if the police came.
luck out
luck out & lucks out lucking out lucked out lucked out
($ %c0 ot p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou %c0 ot' so0ethin' 'ood happens to 5ou or 5ou a1oid
so0ethin' bad happenin' to 5ou.
Todd lucked out when he found that lottery ticket on the ground@ it was a : * million
winner.
I missed my flight, and the plane crashed. I guess I lucked out.
218
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
make out
make out & makes
out
making out made out made out
($ -a0e $$$ot p.1. When 5ou !an -a0e so0ethin' out, 5ou !an see it or hear it e1en thou'h
it is di""i!ult to do so.
The audio system is so bad in the bus station that I can never make out what the speakers
are saying. I think that might be a mountain goat up there near the top of the mountain. I
can ust barely make it out with these binoculars.
8. make... out p.v. ,always used with +to be+- .hen you make people or things out to be
a certain way or a certain thing, you describe or consider them to be this way or to be this
thing.
"top complaining ! my food isn(t as bad as you make it out to be.
The critics made the film out to be a real bore, but I liked it.
*$ -a0e$$$ ot EtoF p.1. When 5ou #rite the ne!essar5 in"or0ation on the "ront o" a !he!7, 5ou
-a0e the !he!7 ot$ When 5ou #rite the na0e o" a person, !o0pan5, or other or'aniDation
on the !he!7, 5ou -a0e the !he!7 ot to that person, !o0pan5, or or'aniDation.
%ow should I make this check out"
There must be a mistake@ this check is made out to my brother, not to me.
#ancy made a check out to the I?" for : *M,333.
made out part.ad. 'fter the necessary information has been written on the front of a
check, the check is made out.
Is the check made out or is it blank1
6$ -a0e ot EonF p.1. When 5ou -a0e ot or -a0e ot on so0ethin', 5ou do
so0ethin' su!!ess"ull5 or sur1i1e a situation e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult.
9aren had a ob interview yesterday. I wonder how she made out.
/ven though )erry has lost his ob, we(ll make out somehow.
%ow did you make out on the test yesterday1
run across
run across & runs across running across ran across run across
($ rn across p.1. When people or thin's rn across a pla!e, roo0, or buildin',
the5 0o1e "ro0 one side to the other 1er5 ,ui!7l5.
The receiver ran across the field and caught the ball.
It(s cra6y to run across the street through the traffic instead of waiting for the light.
"$ rn across p.1. When 5ou rn across people or thin's, 5ou see or "ind the0
#ithout plannin' or e<pe!tin' to. Co-e across is si0ilar to rn across$
21*
; don(t go to that supermarket anymore because I may run across my e0-
husband. Aob ran across one of his army buddies at the baseball game.
ECERCISE "Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Can 5ou tell 0e #hat this sa5sH 4 !anBt MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM #ithout 05 'lasses.
2. The store #eBre 'oin' to is on the ri'ht side o" the street, so MMMMMM MMMMMM "or it.
3. Aou didnBt "i< this 1er5 #ell? itBs alread5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a'ain.
4. (7a5, 4Bll 'i1e 5ou the 0one5. Who should 4 MMMMMMMM the !he!7 MMMMMMMM toH
. 4B0 'oin' to be in 8anBs nei'hborhood to0orro#, so 4 0i'htMMMMMMMMMMMMMM on hi0 "ora ,ui!7
1isit.
$. -nnBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen she sees this !i'arette burn on her anti,ue table.
%. Sall5 thin7s she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o7a5 on her dri1in' test.
8. 4 #asnBt surprised #hen 4 MMMMMM MMMMMM Sa0 at the bea!h? he 'oes there a lot.
*. ThatBs enou'h: 4" 5ou donBt stop botherin' 0e, 5ouBreMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it.
1/. - poli!e o""i!er stopped 0e "or 'oin' "ort5 0iles o1er the li0it, and all he did #as 'i1e 0e a
#arnin'. 4 reall5MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.didnBt 4H
11. ;1er5 ni'ht people !all and MMMMMM MMMMMM 0one5 "or one !harit5 or another.
12. &eti!ia #as ri'ht about that restaurant. 4t #as )ust as 'ood as she MMMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to
be.
ECERCISE "D& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. Aou 'ot 1er5 upset #hen 4 #re!7ed 5our !ar. What did 5ou doH
2. Ti005 0i'ht tell Santa Claus that he #ants a ne# bi!5!le. What 0i'ht Ti005 doH
3. 4 une<pe!tedl5 0et 05 !olle'e roo00ate at the airport this 0ornin'. What did 4 do at the
airport this 0ornin'H
4. To0 #rote all the ne!essar5 in"or0ation on the !he!7. What did To0 doH
22/
. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !he!7 a"ter To0 #rote all the ne!essar5
in"or0ation on itH
$. =ett5 isnBt e<pe!tin' 0e, but 4 0i'ht 'o to her house this e1enin' to 1isit her. What 0i'ht 4 do to
=ett5H
%. The pie!es o" this !hair are be!o0in' separated. What is the !hair doin'H
8. Aou didnBt ha1e 5our ho0e#or7 read5, but the tea!her didnBt "ind out be!ause she "or'ot
to as7 5ou "or it. What did 5ou doH
*. 4 !anBt read #hat that si'n sa5s be!ause itBs so "ar a#a5. What !anBt 4 doH
1/. SusieBs "ather told her to be !are"ul about !ars #hen she rides her bi!5!le in the street. What did
SusieBs "ather tell her to doH
ECERCISE "Dc ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
this section$
1.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
!ra!7do#n, 23 hando1er, 1* start-up, 2$ #ar0-up, 1*
!uto"", 11 holdout, 23 sti!7up,14
"i<er-upper, 1 shuto"", 2$ ta7eout, 11
1, The !o0pan5 is a!!eptin' appli!ations "or the position until the MMMMMMMMMMM date, March Jth.
77*
2. - MMMMMMMMMMM be"ore e<er!ise is a 'ood idea.
3. We bou'ht a MMMMMMMMMMM, "i<ed a "e# thin's, added a bathroo0, and sold it a 5ear later "or a ni!e
pro"it.
4. 6o0 doesnBt "eel li7e !oo7in' toni'ht, so #eBre 'ettin' MMMMMMMMMMM "ood.
. ;<!ept "or a "e# MMMMMMMMMMM hidin' in the hills, all the rebels surrendered a"ter the pea!e treat5.
$. The an'r5 !itiDens de0anded a MMMMMMMMMMM on !ri0e in their nei'hborhood.
%. 6ost business MMMMMMMMMMM "ail in less than three 5ears.
8. 4" tideBs a proble0 #ith the 0a!hine, the MMMMMMMMMMM s#it!h is ri'ht here.
*. The pri0e 0inister de0anded the i00ediate MMMMMMMMMMM o" the hosta'es.
1/. The !on1enien!e store MMMMMMMMMMM #as re!orded on 1ideotape.
ECERCISE "De' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
brea7 up, 28 do #ith, 2 'o up, 2$ settle "or, 2
!all ba!7, 28 dr5 o"", 2% 7no!7 o"", 2% stand up, 28
!all up, 28 'i1e a#a5, 28 li'hten up, 2 thin7 up, 2
!arr5 out, 28 'o o1er, 2$ 0ess up, 28 Dip up, 21
1. The tea!her #as too stri!t #ith her students, and the prin!ipal su''ested that she MMMMMMMM.
2. To0 #as e<pe!tin' Nan!5 to !o0e to his house "or dinner, but she MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM.
3. &ettin' Ti0i-n5 use 05 !o0puter #as a 0ista7e. Ce MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM, and no# it doesnBt
#or7.
4. The5Bre as7in' N34/,/// "or their house, but the5 0i'ht MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N3//,///.
. 4 told the s!hool prin!ipal that Can7 0i'ht ha1e so0ethin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the "ish in the
s#i00in' pool.
222
$. -ndre# Carne'ie #as a 1er5 ri!h 0an, but he MMMMMMMM 0ost o" his 0one5 MMMMMMMM be"ore he
died.
%. 4 'a1e ;ri7 05 telephone nu0ber, and he said he 0i'ht MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM toni'ht.
8. ;ri7 !alled #hile 4 #as in the sho#er, so no# 4 need to MMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM.
*. -"ter the So1iet .nion MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 1**1, se1eral ne# nations !a0e into e<isten!e.
1/. The !oa!h is #orried that the rain-soa7ed "ootball "ield 0i'ht not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM in ti0e "or
the 'a0e.
11. The !o0pan5 is plannin' toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMa 0a)or reor'aniDation.
12. 8onBt put the !andle there? the !at 0i'ht MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM and start a "ire.
13. The students didnBt understand the lesson, so the tea!her MMMMMM MMMMMM it a'ain.
14. 4tBs reall5 !old out there > 5ou 0i'ht #ant to MMMMMMMM 5our !oat MMMMMMMM.
1. The Wilsons arenBt sure #here the5 #ill spend their 1a!ation. The5 0a5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to
-las7a to 1isit their son.
1$. NedBs a drea0er. CeBs al#a5s tr5in' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a #a5 to 0a7e 0one5 #ithout
#or7in'.
*)$ FOCUS ON< +artici+%e a!,ectives .or-e! .ro-
+hrasa% ver&s' "
-s #e sa# in Se!tion 14, the past parti!iples o" 0an5 phrasal 1erbs !an be used as parti!iple
ad)e!ti1es. The ad1erb all is so0eti0es used to e0phasiDe parti!iple ad)e!ti1es #ith the 0eanin'
o" 1er5 or !o0pletel5. =ut the senten!e 0ust be lo'i!al > all is used onl5 to e0phasiDe a
parti!iple ad)e!ti1e that des!ribes a !ondition that !an be partial, less than !o0plete, and so on.
&oo7 at this e<a0ple #ith 1er5 and t#o ordinar5 ad)e!ti1esG
0a7es senseG CeBs 1er5 si!7. does not 0a7e
senseG CeBs 1er5 dead.
The "irst senten!e abo1e 0a7es sense be!ause it is possible to be 1er5 si!7, but the
se!ond does not 0a7e sense be!ause it is not possible to be 1er5 dead.
223
0a7es senseG The 0an is all s+ace!9ot$ does not
0a7e senseG The 0an is all %oc0e! in$
The "irst senten!e 0a7es sense be!ause it is possible to be sli'htl5 s+ace!9ot' but
it is not possible to be sli'htl5 %oc0e! in Ea door is either lo!7ed or it isnBtF.
When all is used #ith the 0eanin' o" 1er5 or !o0pletel5 in a senten!e #ith a
plural sub)e!t, it is identi!al in appearan!e to allBs 0ore !o00on 0eanin' o" all the
people, all the thin's, and so on.
The men are a;; spaced-out.
This senten!e is a0bi'uousG it !ould be understood to 0ean that e1er5 0an is
s+ace!9ot or that the 0en are !o0pletel5 s+ace!9ot$
#nfinitivte
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
lock in
lock in & locks in locking in locked in locked in
($ %oc0$$$ in p.1. When 5ou %oc0 people in' 5ou lo!7 a door or 'ate so that the5 !annot
lea1e a roo0, buildin', or other pla!e.
"even people died because they were locked in the burning building.
It(s dangerous to lock children in a car.
%oc0e! in part.ad). When people !annot lea1e a roo0, buildin', or other pla!e
be!ause the door or 'ate is lo!7ed, the5 are %oc0e! in$
WeBre %oc0e! in > #eBll ha1e to brea7 a #indo#.
"$ %oc0$$$ in p.1. When 5ou %oc0 in an interest rate, pri!e, ti0e slot, and so on, 5ou 0a7e it
de"inite so that it #ill not !han'e in the "uture.
; met with the loan officer at the bank and locked in a mortgage rate.
If you want to use the condo at the beach this weekend, you need to pay a deposit
to lock it in.
%oc0e! in part.ad). -"ter 5ou 0a7e an interest rate, pri!e, ti0e slot, and so on, de"inite so that
it #ill not !han'e in the "uture, it is %oc0e! in$
The farmer isn(t worried about what happens to the price of soybeans because
the price of his crop is locked in.
1ock out
lock out & locks out locking out locked out
locked out
($ %oc0$$$ ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou %oc0 people ot or %oc0 people ot o" a pla!e, 5ou lo!7 a
door or 'ate so that the5 !annot enter a roo0, buildin', or other pla!e.
The 8oungs got home and found that their son had locked them out of their house.
I hide an e0tra key under the bumper of my car so that I won(t get locked out.
224
%oc0e! ot part.ad). When people !annot enter a roo0, buildin', or other pla!e be!ause
the door or 'ate is lo!7ed, the5 are %oc0e! ot$
.e(re locked out5 we(ll ust have to wait outside until someone comes home.
"$ %oc0$$$ ot p.1. When a business %oc0s ot #or7ers, the #or7ers are prohibited "ro0
#or7in' b5 the business 0ana'e0ent.
Management locked the workers out after they refused to sign the new contract.
.hen the owners heard talk of a strike, they locked the employees out.
%oc0e! ot part.ad). -"ter a business %oc0s ot #or7ers in order to prohibit the0 "ro0
#or7in', the #or7ers are %oc0e! ot$
.e(re locked out. %ow can we earn a living1
%oc0ot n. When a business %oc0s ot #or7ers in order to prohibit the0 "ro0 #or7in', it is
a %oc0ot$
The lockout lasted for three months.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
punch
in
punch in < punches in punching in punched in punched in
($ +nch$$$ in p.1. When 5ou !o0e to 5our #or7pla!e and put 5our ti0e !ard in the ti0e
!lo!7 to re!ord the ti0e 5ou ha1e arri1ed, 5ou +nch in$
5on(t forget to punch in as soon as you get to work.
Mark was late, so # punched him in.
+nche! in part.ad). When 5ou are +nche! in' 5ou are at 5our #or7pla!e, on dut5, and
bein' paid.
If you(re punched in you shouldn(t be sitting down smoking a
cigarette. punch out
punch out & punches out punching out punched out punched out
($ +nch $$$ ot p.1. When 5ou lea1e 5our #or7pla!e and put 5our ti0e !ard in the ti0e
!lo!7 to re!ord the ti0e 5ou ha1e le"t, 5ou +nch ot$
"ally(s not at work@ she punched out at D$3K. )im
usually forgets, so his boss punches him out.
+nche! ot part.ad). When 5ou are +nche! ot' 5ou are not at 5our #or7pla!e, or i"
5ou are there, 5ou are o"" dut5 and not bein' paid.
The manager asked why I wasn(t working, and I told him I was punched out.
put out
put out & puts out putting out put out put out
($ +t$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou e<tin'uish a "ire or so0ethin' that is burnin', 5ou +t it
ot$
22
3ut that cigarette out immediately.
It was two hours before the fire was put out.
"$ +t $$$ot p.1. When 5ou ta7e so0ethin' "ro0 inside a buildin' or stora'e pla!e and lea1e it
outside "or so0eone to ta7e, use, or deal #ith, 5ou +t it ot$
The garbage truck comes early tomorrow morning, so put the trash bags out tonight.
)udy put some clothes out for her daughter to wear the ne0t day.
*$ +t$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou +t ot 5our hand, ar0, "oot, or le', 5ou e<tend it "ront o" 5our
bod5.
Mike put out his leg and tripped me.
I put my hand out but she refused to shake it.
6Kt$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou +t 5oursel" ot' 5ou tr5 1er5 hard to help so0eone.
"ofia really put herself out to make her new daughter-in-law feel welcome.
5on(t put yourself out. I can make my own dinner.
7$ +t $$$ot p.1. When 5ou +t people out, 5ou in!on1enien!e the0.
/rik really put Aill out when he asked him for a ride to the airport at 2$33 in the morning.
8ou(ve done so much to help me. I(m sorry to have put you out.
8$ +t ot p.1. When 5ou are +t ot b5 people, 5ou are anno5ed b5 so0ethin' the5 ha1e
said or done.
; was really put out by having to take a ta0i to work because Mike hadn(t returned my
car.
5an was put out by "am(s ungrateful attitude.
+t ot part.ad). When 5ou are anno5ed b5 so0ethin' that so0eone has said or done, 5ou are
+t ot$
Maria(s put out5 the manager thanked everyone who worked on the proect
e0cept her.
:$ +t$$$ ot p.1. When a boo7, 0a'aDine, ne#spaper, or 0usi!al re!ordin' is
published or issued, it is +t ot$
The publisher is planning to put a new maga6ine out that will appeal to teenage girls.
Frank "inatra put out several classic recordings in the *LD3s.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
sort out
sort out < sorts out sorting out sorted out sorted out
($ sort$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou sort a 'roup o" thin's ot' 5ou separate the0 into s0aller
'roups a!!ordin' to one or 0ore !hara!teristi!s.
22$
'fter you take the laundry out of the dryer, you have to sort it out.
The mail arrives at the post office alt mi0ed together, and it has to be sorted
out before it can be delivered.
sorte! ot part.ad). -"ter 5ou separate thin's into s0aller 'roups a!!ordin' to one or 0ore
!hara!teristi!s, the5 are sorte! ot$
The mail is sorted out and ready to be delivered.
"$ sort$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou do so0ethin' to sol1e a proble0 or to !orre!t a
0isunderstandin', 5ou sort it ot$
)anice was angry with me about what happened last night, but I called her and we sorted
everything out.
/veryone is confused about the new plan. .e ought to talk to Mrs. Taytor and sort everything
out.
sorte! ot part.ad). -"ter 5ou do so0ethin' to sol1e a proble0 or to !orre!t a
0isunderstandin', it is sorte! ot$
Mike and Tom had a big fight, but everything is sorted out now.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
space
out
space out & spaces out spacing out spaced out spaced out
($ s+ace$$$ ot p.1. Jin"or0al>used 0ostl5 b5 5oun' peopleK When 5ou spa!e out or #hen
so0ethin' s+aces 5ou ot' so0ethin' or so0eone !on"uses 5ou and !auses 5ou to "or'et
#hat 5ou #ere sa5in' or doin' at that 0o0ent.
This place is really weird ! it(s spacing me out. "orry, what
did you say1 I wasn(t listening ! I spaced out.
s+ace!9ot part.ad). When so0ethin' or so0eone !on"uses 5ou and !auses 5ou to "or'et
#hat 5ou #ere sa5in' or doin' at that 0o0ent, 5ou are s+ace!9ot$
%alf of what )erry says doesn(t make any sense@ he(s all spaced-out.
wash up
wash up & washes up washing up washed up washed up
($ 5ash + p.1. When 5ou 5ash +, 5ou #ash 5our hands thorou'hl5.
Io and wash up ! it(s time for dinner.
The surgeon washed up before the operation.
"$ 5ash + p.1. When so0ethin' in a la7e, a ri1er, or the sea 5ashes +' it is !arried b5
the #ater to the land and le"t there.
The police were called when a dead body washed up on the beach.
?ieces of the sunken boat continued to wash up for weeks.
22%
ECERCISE *)a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 had to brea7 a #indo# #hen 4 MMMMMMMM 05sel"MMMMMMMMo" 05 !ar.
2. Iud5 #as MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM b5 her brotherBs !riti!is0 o" the #a5 sheBs raisin' her !hildren.
3. The 'uard MMMMMMMM the prisoner MMMMMMMM her )ail !ell.
4. The =a7ers or'aniDed a ni!e part5 "or their dau'hterBs birthda5. The5 reall5 MMMMMMMM
the0sel1es MMMMMMMM.
. 65 bro#n so!7s are 0i<ed #ith 05 bla!7 so!7s. 4 ha1e to MMMMMMM the0 MMMMMM.
$. Ioe #as late to #or7, so the 0ana'er MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM.
%. The "orest "ire #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the rain.
8. The restaurant 0ana'er told the !oo7 toMMMMMMM MMMMMMM be"ore handlin' "ood.
*. The "a!tor5 #or7ers "inished their shi"ts and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1/. Than7s "or helpin' 0e 0o1e 05 piano. 4B0 sorr5 to MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM.
11. We 'ot a "i<ed-rate 0ort'a'e so #e !ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lo# rate,
12. The #or7ers #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 0ana'e0ent durin' a labor dispute.
13. 4 totall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and "or'ot about the !a7e in the o1en,
14. Sall5 and her brothers had a bi' ar'u0ent, but the5 'ot e1er5thin' MMMMM MMMMM.
1. -s 4 #as "allin', 4 MMMMMMMM 05 ar0 MMMMMMMM to prote!t 05 head.
1$. Wre!7a'e "ro0 the !rashed airplane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the !oast.
1%. Ii0 MMMMMMMM bo#ls o" peanuts MMMMMMMM "or his 'uests.
18. The band hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a C8 in three 5ears.
ECERCISE *)& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. Ce lo!7ed in. Ethe !raD5 'u5, hi0F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
228
7. )im Iocked out. Bhis wife, herC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. 5id you punch in1 BNosa, herC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
H. .ould you punch out
M
B&inda and /rik,themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
D. They couldn(t put out. Bthe "ire, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
J. The bright lights spaced out. B)anice, herC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE *)c ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this
section$
1. 6ar7 isnBt #or7in'? heBs ta7in' a brea7. Ce 0ust be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. Aou !anBt lea1e the buildin' be!ause 5ouBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
3. The !lothes #ere all 0i<ed to'ether, but no# the5Bre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. 4 "or'ot 05 7e5, and 4 !anBt 'et in 05 o""i!e. 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. We had a bi' 0isunderstandin', but itBs all MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM no#.
22*
$. Ioe #ent to the store, but #hen he 'ot there, he !ouldnBt re0e0ber #hat he #anted. Ce #as
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. Nan!5 in1ited her "ather-in-la# "or dinner, and a"ter dinner he told Nan!5 that his other
dau'hter-in-la# #as a better !oo7. Nan!5 #as reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. The 0ana'er as7ed, @4" 5ouBreMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM, #h5 arenBt 5ou #or7in'H@
ECERCISE *)! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. There #as a "ire in the #astebas7et, so 4 'ot so0e #ater to e<tin'uish it. What did 4 doH
2. 4 donBt #ant the !hildren in here #hile 4B0 #or7in', so 4B0 'oin' to push the button on the
door7nob to lo!7 the door. What a0 4 'oin' to do to the !hildrenH
3. 4n Ouestion 2, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the !hildren a"ter 4 lo!7 the doorH
4. 8a1id "or'ot #hat he #as 'oin' to sa5. What did 8a1id doH
. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 8a1id #hen he "or'ot #hat he #as 'oin' to sa5H
$. Sall5 told 0e to use soap and #ater to 'et 05 hands !lean be"ore 4 handle "ood. What did
Sall5 tell 0e to doH
%. The ne#spaper is published onl5 on!e a #ee7. What is done to the ne#spaper onl5 on!e
a #ee7H
8. &5dia put Ii0Bs ti0e !ard in the ti0e !lo!7 #hen Ii0 #as late "or #or7. What did &5dia do "or
Ii0H
*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe Ii0 a"ter &5dia put his ti0e !ard in the ti0e !lo!7H
1/. Aour boo7s are all 0i<ed to'ether and 5ou ou'ht to separate the0 into di""erent 'roups. What
should 5ou do to 5our boo7sH
11. 4n Ouestion 1/, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 5our boo7s a"ter 5ou separate the0 into di""erent
'roupsH
12. 4 0ade the thie" sta5 until the poli!e !a0e b5 puttin' hi0 in the !loset and usin' a 7e5 to
pre1ent hi0 "ro0 lea1in' the !loset. What did 4 do to the thie"H
23/
13. 4n Ouestion 12, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the thie" a"ter 4 used the 7e5 to pre1ent hi0 "ro0 lea1in'
the !losetH
14. 4t reall5 anno5ed ;ri7 #hen Iane told hi0 that he needed to lose #ei'ht. Co# #as ;ri7 a""e!ted b5
IaneBs re0ar7H
1. 4n Ouestion 14, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe ;ri7 a"ter Iane told hi0 he needed to lose #ei'htH
1$. The e0plo5ees !anBt put their ti0e !ards in the ti0e !lo!7 and 'o ho0e be"ore 4G3/. What
!anBt the e0plo5ees doH
1%. 4n Ouestion 1$, a"ter the e0plo5ees put their ti0e !ards in the ti0e !lo!7, ho# #ould 5ou
des!ribe the0H
18. Iane didnBt tr5 1er5 hard to 0a7e her brother and his "a0il5 !o0"ortable #hen the5 sta5ed #ith her.
What didnBt Iane doH
ECERCISE *)e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives
.ro- +revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven
a.ter each one$
bee"ed up, 28 lit up, 13 shut o"", 2$ #orn o"", 2%
bro7en o"", 2% 0ade out, 2* torn o"", 2%
!losed o"", 13 0ade-up, 23 #ashed o"", 2%
dried o"", 2% 0essed up, 28 #iped o"", 2%
1. The !hildren ba7ed !oo7ies this 0ornin', and the5 le"t the 7it!hen allMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. The MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM se!urit5 "or!e !an handle an5 terrorist atta!7.
3. Charles didnBt pa5 his bill, and no# his ele!tri!it5 is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. 4 !anBt read the si'n be!ause the paint is all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. There arenBt an5 ta's on this 0attress. The5Bre all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
$. Those apples arenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt eat the0.
%. Aou !anBt dri1e do#n that street? itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. This !he!7 isnBt blan7? itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
*. The Christ0as tree isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM no#, but #hen it is itBll be beauti"ul.
1/. 4 put the !o""ee !up #ith the MMMMMMMM MMM handle do#nstairs. 4B0 'oin' to "i< it later.
231
11. The 7it!hen !ounter isnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt put those papers on it > the5 0i'ht 'et
'rease on the0.
12. That #as ,uite a rain #e )ust had. 4 donBt thin7 4Bll dri1e to #or7 until the roads ha1e
MMMMMMMMMMM.
13. 4 didnBt belie1e a #ord he said. 4t #as )ust a lot o" MMMMMMMMMMM nonsense.
ECERCISE *).' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
as7 "or, 2* "ill out, 14 0a7e out, 2* #ipe o"", 2%
butt in,14 ha1e on, 2 open up, 2$ #or7 out, 11
!arr5 out, 28 head into, 1% stand up, 28
drop in, 2* hurr5 up, 2 trade in, 24
drop out, 23 7no!7 o1er, 2 #ash o"", 2%
1. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" s!hool #as the du0best thin' 4 e1er did.
2. The loan appli!ation #as re)e!ted be!ause it hadnBt been MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM properl5.
3. 4B0 'oin' to as7 the !ar dealer ho# 0u!h 4 !an MMMMMMMM 05 !ar MMMMMMMM "or.
4. 65 "eet are 7illin' 0e. 4B1e been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM all da5.
. 8id 5ou see #hat Sall5 #as #earin' 5esterda5H She MMMMMMMM a 'reen dress and purple
shoes MMMMMMMM.
$. 6i7e MMMMMMMM the bartender MMMMMMMM a 'in 0artini, but she 0ade a 1od7a 0artini instead.
%. WeBll ha1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i" #eBre 'oin' to 'et to the theater be"ore the 0o1ie starts.
8. 8onBt lea1e that 'lass there > the bab5 0i'ht MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
*. 8adBs hard#are store #ent out o" business a"ter a hu'e dis!ount store MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
a!ross the street.
232
1/. Aou #onBt be able to MMMMMMMM that paint MMMMMMMM #ith #ater? 5ouBll ha1e to use turpentine.
11. 4t #as rainin', so 4 had to MMMMMMMM the #ater MMMMMMMM 05 'lasses a"ter 4 !a0e inside.
12. Ser'eant Iones has al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his orders #ithout "ail.
13. 4" 5ouBre e1er in 05 nei'hborhood,MMMMMMMMMMMMMM? 5ouBre al#a5s #el!o0e.
14. Thin's arenBt MMMMMM MMMMMM at 05 ne# )ob, and 4 thin7 4B0 'oin' to ,uit soon.
1. Iud5 le"t her ho0e in the suburbs and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !it5.
1$. When 4 0et Ii0 4 #as surprised at ho# ni!e he #as. ;1er5one al#a5s MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM to be
a real )er7.
1%. 4 #ould ha1e been ne<t, but then so0e )er7 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM line.
31. 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s an! /ern! s&,ects
-s #e sa# in Se!tion 1$, 'erunds > 1erbs in the -%ing "or0 that "un!tion as nouns >
!an ser1e as the ob)e!ts o" 0an5 phrasal 1erbs. =ut 'erunds !an also ser1e as the
sub)e!t o" a senten!eG
Eating meat everyday was something we did without.
'erund
Voting was immediately done awa% with by the dictatorship.
gerund
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
care
care for < cares for caring for cared for cared for
($ care .or p.1. When 5ou care .or !hildren or people #ho are old or si!7, 5ou pro1ide
the0 #ith the "ood or 0edi!ine the5 need or 5ou do thin's to help the0. When 5ou care
.or 0a!hines or buildin's, 5ou 7eep the0 in 'ood !ondition.
The nurses have to care for several very sick patients.
)ohn has been caring for his eighty-three-year-old mother since her stroke.
"$ care .or p.1. When 5ou care .or people or thin's, 5ou li7e the0.
233
)ane doesn(t care for coffee@ she prefers tea.
I asked "ally to go to the dance, but she said that dancing is not something she cares
for.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
cut out
cut out < cuts out cutting out cut out cutout
($ ct$$$ ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou ct so0ethin' ot or ct so0ethin' ot o" a pie!e o"
paper, !loth, or other 0aterial, 5ou use s!issors or a 7ni"e to re0o1e part o" it.
The bank robber had a pillowIcase over his head with two holes cut out.
# cut an interesting story out of the newspaper to show to my father.
ctot n. So0ethin' that has been ct ot o" a pie!e o" paper, !loth, or other
0aterial is a ctot$
Timmy made some cardboard cutouts shaped like animals.
"$ ct$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou ct ot part o" a "il0, tele1ision pro'ra0, boo7,
0a'aDine, and so on, 5ou re0o1e that part.
The movie was too long, so the director cut a couple of scenes out. Aefore the
book was published, the parts that were critical of the king had to be cut out of
>hapter H.
*$ ct$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou ct ot so0ethin' that 5ou !onsu0e, 5ou stop usin' it. When
5ou ct ot doin' so0ethin', 5ou stop doin' it. When 5ou sa5 @Cut it out@ to people, 5ou
#ant the0 to stop doin' or sa5in' so0ethin'.
"moking is the first thing you(ve got to cut out if you want to improve your health.
If you want to lose weight, you(ll have to cut cookies and ice cream out.
It bothers me when you do that, so cut it out!
6$ ct ot p.1. When a 0otor suddenl5 stops #or7in', it cts ot$
I was driving when the motor suddenly cut out.
This plane has only one engine, so if it cuts out we(re in big trouble.
do awa% with
do awa% with & does awa% with doing awa% with did awa% with done
awa% with
($ !o a5a3 5ith p.1. When 5ou !o a5a3 5ith so0ethin', 5ou eli0inate it or prohibit
it.
&oing awa% with smoking is not something that will happen soon.
"ome people think the electoral college is obsolete and should be done awa%
with.
"$ !o a5a3 5ith p.1. When 5ou !o a5a3 5ith people, 5ou 7ill the0.
Marvin inherited a fortune after he did awa% with his older brother.
The woman was accused of doing awa% with her husband with arsenic.
234
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
do
do without < does without doing without did without done without
($ !o 5ithot p.1. When 5ou do #ithout so0ethin', 5ou !ontinue li1in' or #or7in' #ithout
so0ethin' that 5ou #ant or need be!ause it is not possible or a1ailable.
.ashing your hair everyday is something you have to do without when you go camping.
&oing without is something you get used to when you(re poor.
look into
look into & looks into looking into looked into looked into
($ %oo0 into p.1. When 5ou %oo0 into so0ethin' or %oo0 into doin' so0ethin', 5ou
in1esti'ate it or 'et 0ore in"or0ation about it.
'fter receiving many complaints about the company, the attorney general decided to
look into the matter.
Maybe leasing a car is something I should look into.
plan on
plan on & plans on planning on planned on planned on
($ +%an on p.1. When 5ou +%an on so0ethin', 5ou e<pe!t it.
They wanted a large family, but having thirteen children sure wasn(t what they planned on.
8ou should plan on at least two years to finish the master(s degree program.
"$ +%an on p.1. When 5ou +%an on doin' so0ethin', 5ou intend to do it.
.hat are you planning on doing tonight1
I plan on fishing and taking a lot of pictures on my vacation.
put off
put off & puts off putting off put off put off
($ +t$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou +t o.. so0ethin' or +t o.. doin' so0ethin', 5ou dela5 or
postpone it. When 5ou +t people o"", 5ou dela5 doin' so0ethin' the5 #ant 5ou to do.
Auying a new house will have to be put off until we can afford it.
The students begged the teacher to put the test off until the ne0t week.
%e pressured me for a decision, but I kept putting him off.
"$ +t$$$ o.. p.1. When people +t 5ou o..' the5 do or sa5 so0ethin' that o""ends
5ou.
/veryone was put off b% his racist okes.
Todd went out to dinner with #ancy last night, and the way she treated the
waiter really put him off.
23
+t o.. part.ad). -"ter people do or sa5 so0ethin' that o""ends 5ou, 5ou are +t o..$ WhatBs
#ron'H Aou see0 a little put o..$
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
rule out
rule out < rules out ruling out ruled out ruled out
($ r%e$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou r%e ot people or thin's, 5ou eli0inate the0 "ro0 a list.
When 5ou r%e ot doin' so0ethin', 5ou de!ide that it is so0ethin' 5ou #ill not do
be!ause 5ou do not #ant to, be!ause it is i0possible, and so on.
The dete!ti1e inter1ie#ed all the suspe!ts and r%e! e1er5one ot e<!ept the 1i!ti0Bs e<-#i"e.
-ter the hurri!ane the5 r%e! ot 0o1in' to 2lorida.
With all these 0edi!al bills to pa5, 0a5be #e should !onsider r%in/ ot bu5in' a new car.
ECERCISE *( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 su''ested 0o1in' to 6innesota, but 05 #i"e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0o1in' an5#here !old.
2. 65 do!tor sa5s 4 should MMMMMMM MMMMMMM s!uba di1in' until 05 ear 'ets better.
3. The health depart0ent #ants to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s0o7in' #ithin t#ent5 5ears.
4. 4 sa# a "unn5 !artoon in the paper, so 4 MMMMM it MMMMMM and sent it to 05 brother.
. So0e !ountries ha1e an e<!ellent health !are s5ste0. No one has to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
0edi!al treat0ent.
$. 4 #as a little MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 his un"riendliness.
%. &etBs 'o to a di""erent restaurant? 4 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Chinese "ood.
8. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this situation to see #hat the proble0 is.
*. -"ter the re1olution, all 0e0bers o" the ro5al "a0il5 #ere MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM.
1/. Se1eral s!enes o" the "il0 had to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore the !ensors #ould appro1e it.
11. Ii0 had to ,uit his )ob to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his si!7 #i"e.
23$
12. 4 had to ta7e a ta<i to #or7 5esterda5. 65 !arBs 0otor MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht in the 0iddle o" an
interse!tion.
13. What a surprise: =ein' trans"erred to Ca#aii is so0ethin' 4 ne1er MMMMM MMMMM.
14. 3ettin' that tooth "i<ed is not so0ethin' 5ou should MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
1. What are 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM doin' #ith 5our ti0e a"ter 5ou retireH
ECERCISE *( & ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. Aou !han'ed 5our 1a!ation plans. AouBre not 'oin' ne<t #ee7? 5ouBre 'oin' to 'o later. What did 5ou
do to 5our 1a!ationH
2. ;1er5one li7es Ii0 0ore no# that he has stopped a!tin' li7e su!h a bi' shot. What did Ii0 doH
3. The President said that nothin' has been eli0inated "ro0 the list o" thin's that 0i'ht be done about
the !risis. What did the President sa5 about #hat 0i'ht be done about the !risisH
4. 6i7eBs parents donBt li7e his ne# "riend. Co# do 6i7eBs parents "eel about his ne# "riendH
. - la# #as passed that prohibits !hild labor. What does the la# do to !hild laborH
$. There arenBt an5 stores out here in the #oods, so i" 5ou "or'ot so0ethin', 5ouBll )ust ha1e to !ontinue
#ithout it. What #ill 5ou ha1e to do i" 5ou "or'ot so0ethin'H
%. 4B0 so tired o" this !arBs u'l5 !olor? 4B0 'oin' to in1esti'ate ha1in' it painted. What a0 4 'oin'
to doH
8. 4" 5ou 'o to Chi!a'o in Ianuar5, 5ou !an e<pe!t to "reeDe to death. What !an 5ou do i" 5ou 'o to
Chi!a'o in Ianuar5H
*. =ett5 #as a little o""ended b5 Sa0Bs beha1ior. Co# did =ett5 rea!t to Sa0Bs beha1iorH
1/. 4n Ouestion *, ho# did Sa0Bs beha1ior 0a7e =ett5 "eelH
11. The poli!e suspe!ted that 6r. 6a5"ield had been 7illed b5 a !o#or7er. What did the poli!e suspe!t
about 6r. 6a5"ieldH
12. 8r. S0ith re0o1ed the entire tu0or #ith a 7ni"e. What did he doH
13. 65 "ather 7ept his !ar in 'ood !ondition, and it lasted "or "ort5 5ears. What did 05 "ather do to his !arH
23%
ECERCISE *( c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Tr3 to se /ern!s as the s&,ects o. so-e o. the sentences$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE *( !$ Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
as7 "or, 2* !ut do#n, 23 'et a#a5, 23 lu!7 out, 2*
bee" up, 28 drop in, 2* 'et ba!7 at, 1% 0a7e out, 2*
!o0e apart, 2* "lip out, 2* 'et o"", 18 0a7e up, 23
!ra!7 do#n, 23 'o about, 1% loo7 out, 2* run a!ross, 2*
1. 4B0 thin7in' about in1estin' in the sto!7 0ar7et, but 4B0 not sure ho# to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
2. The sound on the lan'ua'e lab tapes is so bad that 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hat the5Bre
sa5in'.
3. The #orld is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" 0an5 di""erent !ountries.
4. WeBll need to bu5 a ne# suit!ase soon. This old one is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. That #as a terrible thin' he did to 0e > 4Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi0 so0eda5.
$. Can7 "ell "ro0 a "i"th-"loor #indo#, but he landed in a s#i00in' pool and #asnBt hurt at all. Ce
sure MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, didnBt heH
%. The ho!7e5 !oa!h said that the tea0Bs o""ense is 'ood, but the de"ense needs to be
238
8. 65 dentist said 4 should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on s#eets.
*. 2ran7 reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen he "ound that bi' sna7e under his bed.
1/. &oo7 at this interestin' old boo7 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at a used boo7store.
11. The poli!e depart0ent is 'oin' to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMon !ri0e.
12. Aou 7no# #hat a bad te0per Ioe has. 4" 5ou 7eep teasin' hi0, 5ouBreMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
trouble.
13. The a!!ountant tried to e0beDDle N1//,///, but he didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMM#ith it.
14. 4snBt that #here Iane li1esH &etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMand sa5 hello.
1. Ia7e #as arrested and !har'ed #ith ban7 robber5, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be!ause
none o" the #itnesses !ould identi"5 hi0.
1$. There are a lot o" bi' tru!7s on this road. AouB1e reall5 'ot to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM "or the0
#hen 5ouBre dri1in'.
*"$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e
out
The parti!le out is used in 0an5 phrasal 1erbs and has 0an5 0eanin's. -0on' the 0ost
"re,uent 0eanin's o" out are to sa5 that so0ethin' or so0eone literall5 0o1es "ro0 the inside
to the outside o" a pla!eG
%e fell out of a tree.
Melanie came out of the house.
.e always go out through the back door.
.ould you take the garbage out please1
that so0ethin' is done !o0pletel5 or thorou'hl5G
# cleaned out the closet.
The people Fuickly cleared out.
"he emptied her purse out on the table.
?lease fill this form out.
that an a!tion or a!ti1it5 has endedG
The fire went out.
The light bulb burned out.
%ank dropped out of school.
)ane chickened out of asking her boss for a raise.
23*
that so0ethin' or so0eone is !hosen, or'aniDed, shared, or distributedG
The 0ana'er han!e! ot our pa5!he!7s.
To0 +ic0e! a ne# shirt ot$
The 0a54roo0 !ler7 sorte! ot the 0ail.
that so0ethin' is produ!ed b5 or released "ro0 a sour!eG
Cis last boo7 ca-e ot t#o 5ears a'o.
8onBt %et the do' ot$
That 'roup hasnBt +t ot a ne# C8 in a lon' ti0e.
that so0ethin' is re0o1ed, eli0inated, or e<!ludedG
' page was accidentally left out of the book when it was printed.
"he cut a cartoon out of the paper.
The negative test result ruled out cancer.
%is editor took several paragraphs out of the article.
that so0ethin' is per!ei1ed, sensed, "ound, or a!,uiredG
I .i/re! ot the ans#er.
8id 5ou .in! ot #hen the 0o1ie startsH
That si'n is too "ar a#a5 to -a0e ot$
6i7e scre5e! -e ot o" a hundred bu!7s.
that so0ethin' in!reases in siDe, !apa!it5, len'th, or areaG
?aul started to fill out after he got married.
'fter I gained twenty-five pounds I had to let my pants out.
It(s dangerous to stick %our head out a car window.
that so0ethin' i0portant or dan'erous should be #at!hed "orG
Mike is supposed to meet us here, so watch out for him.
1ook out this is a very busy intersection.
or that so0ethin' is done "or a len'th o" ti0eG
The criminals held out for three hours before surrendering.
>ollege is hard work, but you(ve got to stick it out.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
clean
out
clean out < cleans out cleaning out cleaned out cleaned out
($ c%ean $$$ot p.1. When 5ou c%ean so0ethin' out, 5ou !lean the inside !o0pletel5 so that
no dirt, dust, trash, and so on, re0ains inside.
Mark was fired and told to clean his desk out and leave.
.e clean out our garage every spring.
24/
c%eane! ot part.ad). -"ter 5ou !lean the inside o" so0ethin' !o0pletel5 so that no dirt, dust, or
trash, and so on, re0ains inside, it is c%eane! ot$
#ow that the garage is cleaned out there(s room for my car.
"$ c%ean $$$ ot Eo"F p.1. Jin"or0alK When people c%ean 5ou ot or c%ean 5ou ot o" 5our 0one5,
the5 de!ei1e 5ou or pressure 5ou into 'i1in' the0 all 5our 0one5 or spendin' all 5our 0one5 "or
their bene"it. When an e<pense c%eans 5ou ot' it re,uires 5ou to spend all 5our 0one5.
' con artist cleaned my grandmother out of :D3,333.
%aving three kids in college at the same time really cleaned me
out.
*$ c%ean $$ $ot Eo"F p.1. Jin"or0alK 4" thie1es c%ean a pla!e ot or c%ean a pla!e ot o"
so0ethin', the5 ta7e e1er5thin' that is 1aluable.
I got home and found that my place had been cleaned out.
The thieves cleaned the ewelry store out of all its diamonds and
emeralds.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
clear
out
clear out < clears out clearing out cleared out cleared out
($ c%ear$$ $ot p.1. When people c%ear ot or c%ear ot o" a pla!e or the5 are c%eare!
ot o" a pla!e, the5 lea1e it.
'fter the police threw tear gas, the crowd cleared right out.
+lear out! This is private property.
"$ c%ear$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou c%ear ot a pla!e, 5ou re0o1e thin's that are un#anted or in
the #a5 in order to 0a7e 0ore roo0 or to 0a7e the pla!e !leaner.
Gook how much more room we have in the attic now that we(ve cleared all that unk out.
The car dealer had a sale so that he could clear out some space for the new cars.
come out
come out & comes out coming out came out come out
($ co-e ot Eo"F p.1. When people or thin's lea1e a pla!e, roo0, or house that 5ou are
not in, the5 co-e ot o" it.
"usie(s friend came to the door and asked her to come out and play.
The police held their fire when they saw the gunman coming out of the house
with his hands in the air.
8. come out BofC p.v. .hen something comes out of a certain place or area, it starts there.
This speaker must not be connected@ no sound is coming out.
The most wonderful aroma came out of the kitchen.
*$ co-e ot EtoF p.1. When people lea1e a !it5 and co-e ot to a pla!e outside the !it5
#here 5ou are, the5 tra1el to that pla!e.
241
.ould you like to come out and visit our farm1
#ed loves it in the city@ he hasn(t come out to the suburbs in a long time.
6$ co-e ot Eo"F p.1. When thin's or people 'o throu'h an e<perien!e or treat0ent, the
!ondition the5 are le"t in b5 that e<perien!e or treat0ent or the result o" that e<perien!e
or treat0ent is ho# the5 co-e ot$
It was a tough game, but our team came out on top.
%ow did the investigation come out"
# came out of that awful e0perience a wiser person.
7$ co-e ot E#ithF p.1. When a boo7, 0a'aDine, 0usi!al re!ordin', 0o1ie, or tele1ision
sho# is "inished and 0ade a1ailable to the publi!, it co-es ot$ When a boo7,
0a'aDine, 0usi!al re!ordin', 0o1ie, or tele1ision sho# is "inished and 0ade a1ailable to
the publi!, the !o0pan5 publishin' it or the person #ho !reated it co-es ot #ith it.
The band(s new >5 came out last month, and it(s already number one on the
charts.
Aarren(s is coming out with a new book on T=/FG soon.
8$ co-e ot p.1. When in"or0ation be!o0es 7no#n to the publi!, it co-es ot$
/veryone was shocked when it came out that the butler had murdered the
duke.
.hat really happened when ?resident 9ennedy was assassinated may never
come out.
:$ co-e ot Eo"F p.1. When dirt or a stain is re0o1ed b5 !leanin', it co-es ot or
co-es ot o" #hat it is in.
5on(t get grape uice on that white blouse ! it(ll never come out.
That paint might come out of the carpet if you try turpentine.
#$ co-e ot p.1. When "lo#ers or lea1es start to 'ro#, the5 co-e ot$
.e had a very warm winter, and the flowers started coming out in February.
=ak tree leaves always come out later than the leaves of other trees.
D$ co-e ot p.1. When !louds 0o1e and the sun be!o0es 1isible, it co-es ot$
The rain stopped, the sun came out and there was a beautiful rainbow.
.ait till the sun comes out@ you(ll get a better picture.
()$ co-e ot E"or4in "a1or o"4a'ainstF p.1. When people #ith authorit5 and in"luen!e
co-e ot "or or co-e ot in "a1or o" people or thin's, the5 publi!l5 announ!e support
"or the0. When people #ith authorit5 and in"luen!e co-e ot a'ainst people or thin's,
the5 publi!l5 announ!e opposition to the0.
.e were surprised when the mayor came out for legali6ing gambling.
The senator from #orth >arolina came out against the tobacco legislation.
242
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
empt%
out
empty out < empties out emptying out emptied out emptied out
($ e-+t3$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou !o0pletel5 re0o1e the !ontents o" a spa!e or !ontainer,
5ou e-+t3 it ot$
The police officer told me to empt% out my pockets.
'fter we empt% this room out we can start painting.
e-+tie! ot part.ad). -"ter the !ontents o" a !ontainer ha1e been !o0pletel5 re0o1ed,
the !ontainer is e-+tie! ot$
#ow that the room is emptied out we can start laying the carpet.
($ e-+t3 ot p.1. When all the people in a pla!e lea1e it, the pla!e e-+ties ot$
'fter the concert is over, it(ll be twenty minutes before the auditorium empties out.
There was trash everywhere after the stadium emptied out.
fall out
fall out & falls out falling out fell out fallen out
($ .a%% ot Eo"F p.1. When 5ou "all "ro0 or throu'h so0ethin' that is abo1e 'round le1el to
the 'round belo#, 5ou .a%% ot or .a%% ot o" it.
5id he fall out or was he pushed1
I found a baby bird that had fallen out of its nest.
"$ .a%% ot E#ith4o1erF p.1. When 5ou .a%% ot #ith people, 5ou be!o0e upset or an'r5
#ith the0. When t#o people .a%% ot o1er so0ethin', the5 be!o0e upset or an'r5 #ith
ea!h other be!ause o" a disa'ree0ent about that thin'.
'lfonso fell out with his sister when he critici6ed her husband.
Melanie and "arah started a company, but they fell out over who would be
president and who would be vice-president.
.a%%in/9ot n. When people ha1e a .a%%in/9ot' the5 be!o0e upset or an'r5 #ith ea!h other
and no lon'er ha1e "riendl5 relations.
The 0ana'er o" the baseball tea0 ,uit a"ter he had a .a%%in/9ot #ith the o#ner.
go out
go out & goes out going out went out gone out
($ /o ot Eo"F p.1. When people or thin's lea1e a pla!e, roo0, or house that 5ou are in,
the5 /o ot or /o ot o" it. Co-e in is the opposite o" /o ot$
I(m trying to study ! go out and play in the backyard.
#ancy was so sick that she didn(t go out of the house for a
week.
"$ /o ot EtoF p.1. When people lea1e a !it5 #here 5ou are and /o ot to a pla!e outside
the !it5, the5 tra1el to that pla!e.
243
Gast weekend we went out to )im(s cabin on the lake.
This Thanksgiving I(m going to go out to my brother(s house.
*$ /o ot p.1. When so0ethin' that is burnin' /oes ot' it stops burnin' be!ause it has
no 0ore "uel or be!ause so0ethin', su!h as #ater or la!7 o" o<5'en, has !aused it to stop
burnin'.
The campfire went out during the night.
The forest fire didn(t go out until it started to rain.
6$ /o ot p.1. When an ele!tri!al li'ht /oes ot' it stops produ!in' li'ht be!ause it is no
lon'er re!ei1in' po#er.
The lights in the barracks go out every night at *3$33.
.hen the old tree fell on the power lines, every light in town went out.
7$ /o ot E#ithF p.1. When t#o people #ith a ro0anti! interest in ea!h other /o ot' the5
'o to'ether to a pla!e o" entertain0ent in order to ha1e "un and spend ti0e to'ether.
Mike(s nervous ! he(s going out with %eather tonight.
"ally and )im went out for three years before they Fot married.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
leave
out
leave out & leaves out leaving out left out left out
($ %eave$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou %eave people or thin's ot' 5ou a!!identall5 or
deliberatel5 do not in!lude the0 in a 'roup.
The director left out several parts of the book when she made the film.
Tell me the entire story from beginning to end. 5on(t leave anything out.
%e.t ot part.ad). When 5ou "eel %e.t out, 5ou "eel i'nored and unappre!iated b5 others
in a 'roup.
#o one talked to )erry at the party. %e ust sat in the corner feeling left out.
stick out
stick out & sticks out sticking out stuck out stuck
out
($ stic0 ot p.1. When so0ethin' stic0s ot' it e<tends "ro0 #hat it is atta!hed to.
Ae careful walking in the woods, there are a lot of branches sticking out.
I cut myself on a nail that was sticking out of the wall.
"$ stic0$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou stic0 so0ethin' ot' 5ou e<tend it out#ard.
Timmy stuck his tongue out when his mother gave him
spinach.
.e all stuck our heads out the window to get a better look.
*$ stic0$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou stic0 ot an unpleasant or di""i!ult e<perien!e, 5ou !ontinue
#ith it until it is o1er, rather than ,uit.
244
I hate this ob, but I need the money, so I(ll ust have to stick it out until I find a better one.
>ollege isn(t easy, but if you stick it out, you(ll be glad you did.
6$ stic0 ot p.1. When a !hara!teristi! or "eature o" so0ethin' stic0s ot' that "eature is
1er5 noti!eable.
'lan(s nearly seven feet tall and has red hair, so he really sticks out in a crowd.
=ne thing that really stuck out about him was the strange way he laughed.
ECERCISE *"a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Susie MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" her tree house and bro7e her ar0.
2. The sun "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the a"ternoon.
3. 4 heard so0e stran'e 1oi!es MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the ne<t roo0.
4. - sharp pie!e o" #ood #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, and 4 'ot a splinter "ro0 it.
. When the truth "inall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, 5ouBll all be 1er5 surprised.
$. 4t #as a 'ood thin' #e had those !andles #hen the li'hts MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. This te0porar5 )ob #ill last onl5 t#o #ee7s, so e1en thou'h 4B0 bored, 4 'uess 4 !an
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
8. That !roo7 MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM o" e1er5thin' 4 o#ned.
*. 8a1idBs stor5 didnBt 0a7e an5 sense be!ause he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the part about the 0issionaries
and the !annibals.
1/. 6i7e, itBs startin' to rain. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMand !lose the !ar #indo#s, please.
11. Ta7e these #astebas7ets out to the 8u0pster and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
12. 4tBs a sure si'n o" sprin' #hen the tulips start to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. This #ood is 'reen. ;1en i" 5ou !an 'et it to burn, itBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht a#a5.
14. The =a7ers said the5 #ould lo1e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 1isit us here at our ran!h so0e #ee7end.
1. The soldiers #ere ordered to MMMMMMMM the protesters MMMMMMMM o" the plaDa.
1$. 6i7e and =ob MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o1er #ho #ould pa5 "or the #indo# the5 bro7e pla5in' baseball.
24
1%. The reporter said that he e<pe!ted the 'o1ernor to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a'ainst the proposed
le'islation.
18. Ii0Bs 'oin' to be storin' so0e o" his stu"" in the atti!, so letBs 'o up and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so0e
spa!e "or it.
1*. S!ott MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the trial #ith his reputation badl5 da0a'ed.
2/. -"ter the bo0b threat #as announ!ed, the theater MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in about t#o 0inutes.
21. =ett5 has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith ;ri7 sin!e hi'h s!hool.
22. 4tBs not 1er5 s0art to MMMMMMM 5our ar0 MMMMMMM the #indo# o" a 0o1in' !ar.
23. 4 li7e it here in the !it5. When 4 MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM to 8a1idBs house in the !ountr5 4 'et bored.
24. The tal7 sho# host as7ed the author about his ne# boo7 #hi!h is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM soon.
2. The bur'lars MMMMMMMMM the !oin shop MMMMMMMMM o" its 0ost 1aluable !oins.
2$. 4tBs been an hour. -re 5ou e1er 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" the bathroo0H
2%. 8onBt e1en bother #ashin' this blouse > the in7 #ill ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
28. 6i7e #ants to sell his !ar, so heBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and #ash it be"ore an5one loo7s
at it.
2*. 4 donBt re0e0ber 0u!h about Ned, but one thin' MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM > he al#a5s #ore bla!7.
ECERCISE *"& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. The !roo7ed la#5er !leaned the0 out MMMMMMMM a s0all "ortune.
2. Ia7e !a0e out MMMMMMMM the ban7 and surrendered.
3. Would 5ou li7e to !o0e out MMMMMMMMM 05 pla!e in the !ountr5H
4. Se1eral publishers are !o0in' outMMMMMMMMM boo7s on the sub)e!t.
. The pri0e 0inister li7ed the idea, so #e #erenBt surprised #hen he !a0e outMMMMMMMM the plan.
24$
$. -s e<pe!ted, the leader o" the opposition !a0e out MMMMMMMM the plan.
%. 6i7e "ell out MMMMMMMM his brother MMMMMMMM #ho #ould pa5 their "atherBs 0edi!al bills.
8. Ti005Bs "ather told hi0 not to 'o out MMMMMMMMM the house.
*. WeBre 'oin' out MMMMMMMMM the suburbs ne<t #ee7end.
1/. CeatherBs 'oin' out MMMMMMMMM To0 toni'ht.
11. Can7 "ell outMMMMMMMMMa hot air balloon.
ECERCISE *"c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. 65 son !leaned out. Ethe base0ent, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. 4 need to !lear out. Ethe storeroo0, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. Sarah e0ptied out. Ethe bo<es, the0F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. The "a!tor5 le"t out. Ean i0portant part, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
24%
. 8onBt sti!7 out. E5our ne!7, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE *"! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. So0e i0portant in"or0ation is bein' re1ealed to the publi!. What is happenin' to the
in"or0ationH
2. -ll the people in the plaDa le"t. What did the people doH
3. -ll the people in the plaDa le"t. What happened to the plaDaH
4. 4B0 'oin' to ta7e 05 'irl"riend to a ni'ht!lub. What a0 4 'oin' to do #ith herH
. The soldier #as 7illed in the battle. What didnBt the soldier doH
$. We didnBt as7 6ar7 to )oin our !lub. What did #e do to 6ar7H
%. 4n Ouestion $, ho# does 6ar7 "eel be!ause #e didnBt as7 hi0 to )oin our !lubH
8. The 4+S too7 all 5our 0one5. What did the5 do to 5ouH
*. The 0usi! !o0pan5 released a ne# C8 last #ee7. What did the 0usi! !o0pan5 doH
1/. ;1er5one noti!es Carr5 be!ause he has 1er5 lon' hair and a lon' beard. What does Carr5 doH
11. The Chi!a'o Tribune announ!ed in an editorial that the5 #ere "or the +epubli!an !andidate.
What did the Chi!a'o Tribune doH
12. =illBs an'r5 #ith Ii0, and the5Bre not spea7in' to ea!h other. What did =ill do #ith Ii0H
13. 4n Ouestion 12, #hat did =ill and Ii0 ha1eH
248
ECERCISE *"e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!are "or, 31 hold out, 23 pun!h out, 3/ sort out, 3/
!ut out, 31 lo!7 in, 3/ put o"", 31 spa!e out, 3/
do a#a5 #ith, 31 loo7 into, 31 put out, 3/ #ash up, 3/
do #ithout, 31 pun!h in, 3/ rule out, 31 #at!h out, 23
1. Susie, 4 told 5ou to stop hittin' 5our sister, so MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM:
2. -"ter 4 lost 05 )ob, 4 learned to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lot o" thin's 4 used to thin7 #ere ne!essities.
3. Watson 0ade a real 0ess out o" the pro)e!t, so the boss as7ed 0e to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
4. 4 totall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and dro1e t#ent5 0iles past #here 4 #as 'oin'.
. Ce5, thatBs reall5 dan'erous, 5ouBd better MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
$. 4B0 'oin' to 'et to #or7 late to0orro#. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMMH
%. 4B0 reall5 si!7 o" this !it5. 4B0 'oin' to "l5 to San 2ran!is!o and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the )ob situation
there.
8. 6ost o" the pla5ers ha1e si'ned their !ontra!ts, but a "e# are MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
*. Water #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an ele!tri!al "ire.
1/. The 0ana'er re0inded 0e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be"ore 'oin' ho0e.
11. 8urin' Prohibition, the 'o1ern0ent tried toMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM MMMMMM drin7in' al!ohol.
12. The !han!es that his horse #ill #in the ra!e are 1er5 s0all, but 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
!o0pletel5.
13. &oo7 ho# dirt5 5our hands are: 3oMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM be"ore 5ou eat dinner.
14. 4 #ant to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lo# interest rate be"ore rates 'o up a'ain.
1. Than7s "or in1itin' 0e to the !on!ert, but 4 donBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMrap 0usi!.
1$. 6illions o" people MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM doin' their ta<es until the last 0inute.
24*
**$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an!
-i!sentence a!ver&s
-s #e sa# in Se!tion 1%, ad1erbs are #ords that 0odi"5 1erbs. So0e ad1erbs are !alled
0idsenten!e ad1erbs be!ause the5 are !o00onl5 pla!ed in the 0iddle o" a senten!e.
6idsenten!e ad1erbs are usuall5 pla!ed be"ore 0ain 1erbsG
Ce L /oo.s aron!$ She L
he%+e! hi0 ot$
a"ter an5 "or0 o" beG
Ce is L /oo.in/ aron!$ She #asnBt L
he%+in/ hi0 ot$
and bet#een an au<iliar5 Ehelpin'F 1erb and the 0ain 1erbG
Ce #ill L /oo. aron!$
"he can(t T help him out.
4n ,uestions, a 0idsenten!e ad1erb is usuall5 pla!ed bet#een the sub)e!t and
the 0ain 1erbG
8oes he L /oo. aron!H
4s he L /oo. in/ aron!H
%as she T helped him out"
The "ollo#in' are !o00on 0idsenten!e ad1erbs.
A!ver&s o. .re>enc3
ever typically normally hardly ever
always ordinarily occasionally almost never
constantly often sometimes never
almost always freFuently seldom not ever
usually generally rarely
Other -i!sentence a!ver&s
already merely ultimately probably
ust finally eventually most likely
2/
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
blow
up
blow up & blows up blowing up blew up blown up
($ &%o5$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' &%o5s + or #hen so0eone &%o5s so0ethin' +' it
e<plodes.
"even people were killed when the building blew up.
The hiackers ultimately blew the plane up.
"$ &%o5$$$ + p.1. When so0ethin' &%o5s + or #hen so0eone &%o5s so0ethin' +' it
be!o0es 0u!h lar'er be!ause air or so0ethin' else is bein' "or!ed into it.
It always takes me an hour or more to blow up the balloons for a party.
%ank blew up a beach ball and threw it in the pool.
*$ &%o5$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0a7e a pi!ture or photo'raph lar'er, 5ou &%o5 it +$
# blew the photograph up and framed it.
.hen you blow this photo of the car up you can make out the license plate
number.
&%o5+ n. - &%o5+ is a pi!ture or photo'raph that has been 0ade lar'er.4
0ade a &%o5+ o" the photo and "ra0ed it.
6$ &%o5 + Eat4o1erF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou &%o5 + or &%o5 + at so0eone, 5ou
suddenl5 be!o0e 1er5 an'r5. When 5ou &%o5 + o1er so0ethin', 5ou suddenl5 be!o0e
1er5 an'r5 be!ause o" it.
%eather blew up when she saw her boyfriend dancing with Ginda.
%eather blew up at her boyfriend when she saw him dancing with Ginda.
5ad blew up over the increase in our property ta0es.
catch on
catch on & catches on catching on caught on caught on
($ catch on p.1. When a "ashion or habit be!o0es popular and is adopted b5 0an5 people, it
catches on$ When a produ!t or ser1i!e be!o0es popular and is used or bou'ht b5 0an5
people, it catches on$
Aeta V>Ns never caught on.
If his striped business suits catch on the designer will become famous.
"$ catch on p.1. When 5ou e1entuall5 be'in to understand so0ethin' or be'in to learn a
s7ill a"ter pra!ti!in' and stud5in', 5ou catch on$
.hen "ally studies something, she usually catches on right away.
Gearning to dance the cumbia wasn(t easy, but I eventually caught on.
*$ catch on EtoF p.1. When 5ou catch on or catch on to people, 5ou realiDe that the5 are
tr5in' to tri!7 or !heat 5ou.
21
If you keep lying to everyone, they(ll eventually catch on.
It took me a while, but I finally caught on to him.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come about
come about & coming
come about came about come about
($ co-e a&ot p.1. When so0ethin' co-es a&ot' it happens, usuall5 as a result o" a series
o" e1ents and a!tions.
%e was the richest man in town, and now he(s bankrupt. %ow did that come about"
"everal maor medical advances have come about in the last fifty years.
fall behind
fall behind & falls behind falling behind fell behind fallen
behind
($ .a%% &ehin! p.1. When 5ou are in a 'roup that is #al7in', runnin', dri1in', and so on,
and the5 0o1e ahead o" 5ou be!ause 5ou are 0o1in' 0ore slo#l5 than the others, 5ou
.a%% &ehin!$ Kee+ + is the opposite o" .a%% &ehin!$
'lfonso and Tom are walking so fast that I(ve fallen behind.
I was supposed to be following Ginda to the party, but I fell behind and got
lost.
($ .a%% &ehin! EinF p.1. When 5ou are in a 'roup that is stud5in', #or7in', and so on, and the5
learn "aster or 'et 0ore #or7 done be!ause 5ou are learnin' or #or7in' 0ore slo#l5 than the
others, 5ou .a%% &ehin! or .a%% &ehin! in 5our #or7, studies, and so on. When 5ou do not
!o0plete #or7 as "ast as it #as ori'inall5 planned and e<pe!ted, 5ou .a%% &ehin! s!hedule. Eet
&ehin! is si0ilar to .a%% &ehin!$ Kee+ + is the opposite o. .a%% &ehin!$
Timmy was sick last semester, and he fell behind in his studies.
The sales manager wanted to know why I had fallen behind the rest of the
department.
The building proect will fall behind schedule if the construction workers go on
strike.
*$ .a%% &ehin! EinF p.1. When 5ou do not 0a7e the re'ular pa50ents 5ou are re,uired to 0a7e,
5ou .a%% &ehin! or .a%% &ehin! in 5our pa50ents.
.hen I lost my ob, I fell behind in my mortgage payments.
5on(t fall behind in your payments, or your car will be
repossessed.
goof around
goof around & goofs around goofing around goofed around goofed
around
($ /oo. aron! p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou #aste ti0e pla5in' or doin' sill5 or uni0portant
thin's, 5ou /oo. aron!$ Foo% aron! is the sa0e as /oo. aron!$
My brother drives his teachers cra6y. %e constantly goofs around and creates problems.
"top goofing around and get to work.
22
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
help
out
help out & helps out helping out helped out helped out
($ he%+$$$ ot E#ithF p.1. When 5ou he%+ ot or he%+ people ot' 5ou assist the0 in doin'
so0e #or7 or 5ou lend or 'i1e the0 0one5 or so0ethin' else that the5 need.
>an you help me out" I need a hundred bucks until payday.
.e had a lot of work to do, so Maria helped out.
know about
know about & knows about knowing about knew about known about
($ 0no5 a&ot p.1. When 5ou 0no5 a&ot a situation, plan, or other in"or0ation, 5ou are
a#are o" it.
)im isn(t here. Maybe he doesn(t know about the schedule change.
Thanks for telling me, but I already know all about it.
"$ 0no5 a&ot p.1. When 5ou ha1e studied so0ethin' and learned it, 5ou 0no5 a&ot it.
I don(t know much about history. I was a business maor.
?nowing about art and being an artist are two different things.
pull off
pull off & pulls off pulling off pulled off pulled off
($ +%% $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou +%% so0ethin' o"", 5ou su!!eed in doin' so0ethin' di""i!ult
and possibl5 snea75 or ille'al e1en thou'h the !han!es o" su!!ess are not hi'h.
Mike tried to uggle three butcher knives and two bowling balls at the same time, but he
couldn(t pull it off.
.hen )ake said he was going to try to rob a Gas Vegas casino, no one believed he could pull
it off.
"$ +%% o.. p.1. When 5ou are dri1in' and 5ou +%% o"" the road, 5ou dri1e to the side o" the
road and stop.
If I get sleepy while I(m driving, I always pull off the road and take a nap.
.hen I heard that strange noise, # pulled off to the side and checked the engine.
ECERCISE **a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 need to 0o1e so0e "urniture, and itBs too hea15 "or 0e. Could 5ou MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM toni'htH
23
2. Tele1ision #as in1ented in the 1*2/s, but it didnBt start to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until the 1*/s.
3. 6ath is 1er5 di""i!ult "or 6i7e. 4" he ta7es the ad1an!ed !lass, heBll 0ost li7el5 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
4. 4 didnBt thin7 Todd !ould 0ana'e 'oin' to s!hool and #or7in' at the sa0e ti0e, but he
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
. When Ii0 sho#s his terrible report !ard to his 0other, sheBll MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
$. Nan!5Bs a hard #or7er. She ne1erMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
%. The terrorists tried to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the e0bass5.
8. - lot o" !han'es ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the last "e# 5ears.
*. The tru!7 dri1er #as lost, so he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the side o" the road and !he!7ed his
0ap.
1/. Sa0 and 8a1e are so 0u!h "aster on their bi7es than 4 a0 that 4 al#a5s MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. 8onBt as7 -nn? she doesnBt MMMMMMMM an5thin' MMMMMMMM it.
12. 4 used to be able to tri!7 05 ri!h un!le into 'i1in' 0e 0one5, but heBs startin' to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM to 0e.
13. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the balloons no#? the part5Bs 'oin' to start soon.
14. =ob started ta7in' dan!e lessons, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht a#a5.
1. 4" 5ou MMMMM MMMM in 5our !redit !ard pa50ents, 5ouBll da0a'e 5our !redit ratin'.
1$. 4 usuall5 as7 =ill #hat he thin7s be"ore 4 bu5 a sto!7. Ce MMMMMMMM a lot MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
in1estin'.
1%. 4 as7ed the photo lab to MMMMMMMM the photo MMMMMMMM 3// per!ent.
ECERCISE **& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. Todd #as "ired a"ter he ble# up MMMMMMMM his boss.
2. Todd is usuall5 so eas5'oin'. What did he blo# up MMMMMMMMMH
3. 9aren thin7s sheBs so !le1er, but 4B0 startin' to !at!h on MMMMMMMMM her.
24
4. 4" 5ou donBt start #or7in' harder, 5ouBre 'oin' to "all behind MMMMMMMM 0ath.
. Than7s "or helpin' 0e out MMMMMMMM 05 al'ebra ho0e#or7.
ECERCISE **c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The !o0pan5 started to sell !ho!olate toothpaste, but it ne1er be!a0e popular. What didnBt
!ho!olate toothpaste doH
2. Sa0 has a lot o" #or7 to do be"ore G//, so &5dia is doin' so0e o" it "or hi0 so that he #onBt
ha1e to #or7 late. What is &5dia doin' "or Sa0H
3. Nobod5 in the !ri0inal 'an' thou'ht the5 !ould steal an airplane, but the5 did. What
did the 'an' doH
4. -li doesnBt usuall5 do an5 #or7. Ce usuall5 #at!hes TV and listens to 0usi!. What does -li
usuall5 doH
. The5 so0eti0es destro5 old buildin's b5 0a7in' the0 e<plode. What do the5 so0eti0es do to
old buildin'sH
$. The tea!her "re,uentl5 'ets 1er5 an'r5 at his students. What does the tea!her
"re,uentl5 doH
%. Iani!e is a#are o" the proble0 be!ause so0eone told her about it. What !an 5ou sa5
about Iani!e and the proble0H
8. The !o0pan5 #as supposed to "inish the pro)e!t b5 Septe0ber 1, but the5 didnBt "inish until
No1e0ber 14. What happenedH
*. The pro"essor as7ed 5ou to e<plain ho# this situation happened. What did the pro"essor as7
5ouH
ECERCISE **!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!o0e out, 32 "all out, 32 loo7 into, 31 rule out, 31
!ut out, 31 'i1e a#a5, 28 plan on, 31 sort out, 3/
do #ithout, 31 'o around, 2/ put o"", 31 spa!e out, 3/
e0pt5 out, 32 'o out, 32 put out, 3/ sti!7 out, 32
2
1. Ia7e #as in )ail #hen the !ri0e #as !o00itted, so the poli!e #ere able to MMMMMMMM hi0
MMMMMMMM as a suspe!t.
2. 65 "ian!eeBs "ather 'ot si!7 suddenl5, so #e had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the #eddin' until later.
3. 4 #as a little MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen 6elanie disa'reed #ith 0e.
4. &indaBs 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 'ettin' her teeth blea!hed.
. No one #as surprised #hen the ne#s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
$. The "a0il5 business had to be sold a"ter the "a0il5 0e0bers MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith ea!h
other.
%. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and "or'ot to put so!7s on this 0ornin'.
8. 4 "elt li7e an idiot > 4 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all da5 #ithout so!7s on.
*. Aou !an still eat this apple > )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the bad part.
1/. When #e de!ided on the =aha0as "or our hone50oon, #e didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMa
hurri!ane.
11.1 #as an'r5 #ith 05 sister, but #e tal7ed and MMMMMMMM e1er5thin' MMMMMMMM.
12. Ti005 told his 0other that he hadnBt eaten an5 !a7e, but the !ho!olate "rostin' on his "a!e
MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM.
13. 4" 5ouBre stud5in' a lan'ua'e, 5ou !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a di!tionar5.
14. Ii0Bs )ob is 1er5 dan'erous, but i" he MMMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMMM "or another 5ear, he !an retire
#ith a pension.
1. These trash !ans are 'ettin' "ull. Could 5ou MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM, pleaseH
1$. Put so0e 0ore #ood on the "ire > itBs startin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2$
*6$ FOCUS ON< +ronnciation o. t5o9an! three9
5or! +hrasa% ver&s' "
-s #e sa# in Se!tions and $, phrasal 1erbs are so0eti0es a!!ented on the 1erb and
so0eti0es a!!ented on the parti!le. 4t 0i'ht see0 di""i!ult to 7no# #hether to a!!ent the
1erb or the parti!le sin!e it depends on #hether the phrasal 1erb is separable or
nonseparable, transiti1e or intransiti1e, or a t#o- or three-#ord phrasal 1erb? ho#e1er, it
boils do#n to thisG al#a5s a!!ent the parti!le a"ter the 1erb unless the phrasal 1erb is a
nonseparable, transiti1e, t#o-#ord phrasal 1erb > then a!!ent the 1erb. +e0e0ber that
so0e 1erbs !an be both transiti1e and intransiti1eG
Nonse+ara&%e' t5o95or!' intransitive
stic0 ROUN2
.%oat ROUN2
Nonse+ara&%e' t5o95or!' transitive
STICK to
STAN2 .or
STICK aron!
FLOAT ron!
Nonse+ara&%e' three95or!' transitive
%ea! UP to
Se+ara&%e' t5o95or!' transitive
ta0e BACK
!o OVER
Se+ara&%e' three95or!' transitive
+t UP to
Initive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
do over
do over < does over doing over did over done over
($ !o $$$ over p.1. When 5ou !o so0ethin' over' 5ou do it a'ain in order to i0pro1e it or
to !orre!t 0ista7es.
This is all wrong ! it(ll have to be done over.
I got a bad grade on my paper, but the teacher said I could do it
over.
2%
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
float
around
float around & floats around floating around floated around floated
($ .%oat aron! p.1. Jusuall5 !ontinuousK When so0ethin' is .%oatin/ aron! a
pla!e, it is there so0e#here, thou'h 5ou are not sure e<a!tl5 #here.
; don(t know where the stapler is, but it(s floating around here somewhere.
The new schedule was floating around the office yesterday.
"$ .%oat aron! p.1. When a ru0or or so0e in"or0ation is .%oatin/ aron!' it is
bein' repeated and dis!ussed a0on' a 'roup o" people or #ithin a pla!e.
There(s a rumor floating around that the factory(s going to be closed. "omething
about a change of management has been floating around latel%. %ave you
heard anything1
lead up to
lead up to & leads up to leading up to led up to led
up to
($ %ea! + to p.1. When one or 0ore a!tions, e1ents, or situations %ea! + to a "inal
a!tion, e1ent, or situation, the5 pre!ede and !ause or partiall5 !ause it.
"everal minor battles led up to a full-scale war. The detective said, +)ake didn(t
shoot %ank for no reason ! something led up to it.+
"$ %ea! + to p.1. When 5ou %ea! + to so0ethin' #hen 5ou are spea7in' or #ritin',
5ou 'raduall5 0o1e to#ard an i0portant point b5 sa5in' or #ritin' in"or0ation that #ill
support that point.
In his speech, the ?resident didn(t immediately announce that he would run for a
second term@ he led up to it by recalling the accomplishments of his first term.
I(ve been listening to you talk for thirty minutes. .hat(s your point1 .hat are you
leading up to"
put up to
put up to & puts up to putting up to put up to put
up to
($ +t$$$ + to p.1. When 5ou persuade or pressure people to do so0ethin' that is ille'al,
dan'erous, "oolish, or un#ise, 5ou +t the0 + to it.
; didn(t think it was a good idea to demand a raise, but my wife put me up to it.
.hen )ake was arrested for shooting %ank, he said NaFuel had put him up to it
by threatening to tell the police about his other crimes.
stand for
stand for & stands for standing for stood for
stood for
($ stan! .or p.1. When abbre1iations, a!ron50s, or s50bols represent lon'er #ords or
'roups o" #ords, the5 stan! .or the0.
The +5>+ in .ashington, 5>, stands for +5istrict of >olumbia.+
+"cuba+ stands for +self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.+
28
"$ stan! .or p.1. When people or ob)e!ts support, represent, or are identi"ied #ith ideas,
1alues, or belie"s, the5 stan! .or the0.
This flag stands for freedom. %e was a great man who stood for eFual rights and
opportunity for all people.
*$ stan! .or p.1. When 5ou #ill not stan! .or so0ethin' that 5ou thin7 is ille'al, i0proper,
or un)ust, 5ou #ill not tolerate it or allo# it to happen.
>ruelty to animals is one thing I will never stand for.
I told my son I wouldn(t stand for that kind of language in this house.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
stick around
stick around < sticks around sticking around stuck around stuck around
($ stic0 aron! p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou stic0 aron!' 3o sta5 #here 5ou are.
>an you stick around" .e(re going to have lunch in an hour.
5on(t go yet ! stick around until "arah gets here@ she(d love to see you.
stick to
stick to & sticks to sticking to stuck to stuck to
($ stic0 to p.1. When one thin' stic0s to another, it re0ains atta!hed to it.
The magnet sticks to the chalkboard because there(s metal underneath.
I used the wrong glue, and the tiles didn(t stick to the floor.
"$ stic0 to p.1. When 5ou are spea7in' or #ritin' and 5ou stic0 to a !ertain sub)e!t, 5ou tal7 or
#rite about that sub)e!t onl5.
The teacher said, +5o this paper over and stick to the point ! don(t talk about *33 other
things that aren(t important.+
In his news conference, the ?resident stuck to the new ta0 legislation, but the reporters
kept asking about the latest scandal.
*$ stic0 to p.1. When 5ou stic0 to a !ertain belie", !lai0, poli!5, habit, plan, t5pe o"
#or7, and so on, 5ou !ontinue as be"ore, #ithout !han'e. Stic0 5ith is si0ilar to stic0
to$
)ake claimed he was innocent of %ank(s murder. %e stuck to his alibi that he had been at the
racetrack when the murder occurred.
'fter the audition, the director told me I was a terrible actor and that I should stick to
singing.
6$ stic0$$$ to p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou sti!7 it to people, 5ou deliberatel5 tr5 to tease, anno5, or
e0barrass the0 #ith an a!!usation, pro1o!ati1e state0ent, or di""i!ult ,uestion.
"am thinks the new manager is an idiot, and he likes to stick it to him.
=ne woman at the shareholders( meeting really stuck it to the president of the company.
"he asked why he deserved a :*L million bonus even though the company had lost money
that year and H,333 workers had been laid off.
7DL
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
take
back
take back & takes back taking back took back taken back
($ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta0e so0ethin' &ac0 or ta0e so0ethin' &ac0 to a pla!e,
5ou ta7e it to #here it #as be"ore.
4" 5ouBre "inished #or7in' on the !ar, donBt lea1e 5our tools here? ta0e the0 &ac0 to the
'ara'e.
8o 5ou usuall5 ta0e the shoppin' !arts &ac0 a"ter 5ouB1e put 5our 'ro!eries in your car?
"$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta7e so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e bou'ht to the pla!e #here
5ou bou'ht it and as7 to ha1e it repaired, to e<!han'e it "or so0ethin' else, or "or the 0one5
5ou paid "or it, 5ou ta0e it &ac0 or ta0e it &ac0 to the pla!e #here 5ou bou'ht it.
; have to take back these pants that I bought yesterday because the 6ipper(s already
broken.
That new TV that #ancy bought was a piece of unk@ she took it back to the store and
demanded her money back.
*$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou ta0e so0ethin' &ac0 or ta0e so0ethin' &ac0 "ro0
so0eone else, 5ou a!!ept it "ro0 the person 5ou 'a1e, sold, or lent it to.
The guy at the store said he wouldn(t take my answering machine back because I had
bought it on sale.
The lady I bought this ?ersian rug from said she would be happy to take it back from me
if I changed my mind.
6$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta0e &ac0 so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e borro#ed or ta0e &ac0
so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e borro#ed to the person or pla!e that 5ou borro#ed it "ro0, 5ou return
it.
Gydia borrowed this book from the library si0 months ago, and she still hasn(t taken it
back.
I need to take )im(s lawn mower back to him.
7$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta0e people &ac0 or ta0e people &ac0 to a pla!e #here
the5 #ere be"ore, 5ou 'o #ith the0 to that pla!e.
=ur son was home from college for the summer, and we(re taking him back tomorrow.
Mike got sick again, so we took him back to the hospital.
8$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 p.1. When 5ou ta0e &ac0 so0ethin' that 5ou ha1e said, 5ou ad0it that #hat
5ou said #as untrue, un"air, or rude.
That(s not trueE 8ou take that back right nowE
I(m sorry, that was very rude of me. I take it back.
2$/
:$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.1. When so0ethin' re0inds 5ou o" a pla!e #here 5ou #ere in the
past or o" so0ethin' 5ou e<perien!ed in the past, it ta0es 5ou &ac0 or ta0es 5ou &ac0 to
a ti0e in the past.
Gooking through my high school year book sure takes me back.
My grandfather found his old uniform in the attic, and he said it took him back to
when he was stationed in /ngland during the war.
ECERCISE *6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. -"ter bein' e0barrassed last ni'ht, 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a poli!5 o" 0indin' 05 o#n
business.
2. Ca1e 5ou seen the 0anual "or this pro'ra0H 4tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the o""i!e so0e#here, but
4 !anBt "ind it.
3. 4tBs too bad 5ou !anBt MMMMMM MMMMMM. 4 #as )ust about to barbe!ue so0e !hi!7en.
4. &oo7 at these old pi!tures. The5 sure MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM.
. 4n 05 histor5 !lass #e studied the e1ents that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM World War 44.
$. +osa tried to return her en'a'e0ent rin' to her "ian!e, but he #ouldnBt MMMM it MMM.
%. The la#5er told his !lient to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the "a!ts #hen she testi"ies.
8. The es!aped prisoner #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to prison.
*. 4tBs not li7e ;ri7 to do su!h a terrible thin'. 4 thin7 so0eone MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
1/. 4 hate it #hen itBs so hu0id that 5our !lothes MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM5our s7in.
11. @.-;@ MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or .nited -rab ;0irates.
12. 4 "elt terrible about #hat 4 said, and 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM i00ediatel5.
13. (ne o" the 'u5s at #or7 is a real baseball nut "ro0 Chi!a'o, so #e lo1e to MMMMMMMM it
MMMMMMMM hi0 about ho# bad the Cubs are.
14. 4 donBt ha1e &indaBs ele!tri! drill an50ore? 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 5esterda5.
1. When people see our !o0pan5Bs lo'o, the5 7no# itMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM,ualit5 at a "air pri!e.
1$. The tailor didnBt do #hat 4 #anted hi0 to do #ith this dress. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to hi0.
1%. The restaurant 0ana'er told the bartender that she #ould not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM drin7in' on the )ob.
18. 6ar7 did su!h a bad )ob paintin' his house that he had to 'et a pro"essional house painter to
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
1*. -s soon as the !o0pan5 president 0entioned the de!rease in sales and the need to redu!e labor
!osts, #e 7ne# #hat he #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2/. 8onBt lea1e these dirt5 dishes here?MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM to the 7it!hen.
21. 8onBt pa5 an5 attention to that ru0or> itBs been MMMMMMMMMMMM"or three 5ears.
ECERCISE *6& ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. this section o. ho5
t5o9 an! three95or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rononce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in
E4ercise *6a a%o! an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$
ECERCISE *6c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Iani!e said 4 #as a !heaps7ate, but she later ad0itted that it #asnBt true. What did Iani!e doH
2. - nu0ber o" situations and e1ents helped to !ause the Ci1il War. What did those situations an
e1ents doH
3. AouB1e re#ritten this stor5 "our ti0es, and 5ouBre still not happ5 #ith it. What ha1e 5ou done to
the stor5 "our ti0esH
4. When 4 opened the bo< o" !ereal, it #as "ull o" bu's, so 4 returned it to the store. What did 4 do to
the bo< o" !erealH
. =ill has a s5ste0 "or pi!7in' 'ood sto!7s, and he al#a5s uses it. What does =ill do #ith his
s5ste0H
$. 6r. Tu!7erBs "i"teen-5ear-old dau'hter #ants to 'et a tattoo, but he absolutel5 #ill not allo# it.
What #onBt 6r. Tu!7er doH
%. Visitin' his old hi'h s!hool brou'ht ba!7 a lot o" 0e0ories. What did 1isitin' his old hi'h s!hool
do to hi0H 2$2
8. Carlos !a0e to 05 house and sta5ed "or a #hile. What did Carlos do a"ter he !a0e to
05 houseH
*. People in 05 o""i!e ha1e been readin' the latest issue o" Ti0e 0a'aDine and then 'i1in' it to
so0eone else. What has the 0a'aDine been doin'H
1/. She as7ed 0e #hat @Ph.8.@ represents. What did she as7 0eH
11,1 "elt ridi!ulous dressin' as a pin7 dinosaur "or 05 nephe#Bs birthda5 part5, but 05 brother
persuaded 0e to do it. What did 05 brother doH
ECERCISE *6!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
bite o"", 2% "all behind, 33 plan ahead, 2 sha7e up, 24
!at!h on, 33 'et to'ether, 2$ print out, 24 sta5 out, 23
!o0e about, 33 'oo" around, 33 pull o"", 33 stop o1er, 24
!o0e out, 32 let in on, 2$ put to'ether, 2$ #ear o"", 2%
1.1 as7ed Sa0 ho# his )ob inter1ie# MMMMMMM MMMMMMM, and he said it #ent 'reat.
2.1 as7ed 05 histor5 tea!her #hat led up to the -0eri!an +e1olution, and he said the #ar
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM as a result o" se1eral "a!tors.
3. -"ter the tran,uiliDer MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, the elephant #ill #a7e up.
4. The ne# o#ners o" the !o0pan5 said the5 planned to MMMMMM thin's MMMMMMM.
. When 5ouBre an adult, 5ou !anBt )ust thin7 about toda5? 5ou ha1e to MMMMM MMMMMM.
$. Toni'ht 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM #ith so0e "riends and #at!h the 'a0e.
%. 6ar7 has a ri!h "ather, so 6ar7 doesnBt #or7? he )ust MMMMMM MMMMMM 0ost o" ti0e.
8. The "inan!e 0inister MMMMMM MMMMMM a plan to re1i1e the nationBs e!ono05.
*. ThatBs a prett5 bi' pro)e!t. -re 5ou sure 5ou ha1enBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0ore than 5ou !an !he#H
1/. The ne# s5ste0 at the #arehouse #as a disaster, and #e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in "illin' orders.
11. 4 didnBt sleep at all last ni'ht > 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM dan!in' until da#n, and 4B0 reall5 beat.
2$3
12. People ha1e been tal7in' about pi!ture phones "or 5ears, but the5B1e ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. The boss MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ne# strate'5.
14. 4" 5ouBre not bus5, #ould 5ou li7e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or a #hileH We !ould #at!h TV or pla5
!ards.
1. The !roo7s tried to steal a %4% b5 pretendin' to be pilots, but the5 !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
1$. 4 "inished 05 letter, but 4 !anBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM be!ause 4B0 out o" toner.
*7$ 2(C.S (NG /ern! +hrasa% ver&s
4n Se!tion 1/ #e loo7ed at 'erunds as the ob)e!ts o" phrasal 1erbs. No# #e #ill loo7 at
phrasal 1erbs as 'erunds the0sel1es. &i7e ordinar5 1erbs, 'erund phrasal 1erbs !an
be the sub)e!t o" a senten!eG
Narrowing down the list will be difficult.
sub)e!t
the ob)e!t o" a senten!eG
We dis!ussed narro5in/ !o5n the list.
ob)e!t
or the ob)e!t o" a prepositionG
We tal7ed about narro5in/ !o5n the list.
obect of preposition
Co# and #hen phrasal 1erbs !an be separated is una""e!ted b5 their use as
'erundsG
Narro5in/ it !o5n #ill be di""i!ult.
We dis!ussed narro5in/ it !o5n$
We tal7ed about narro5in/ it !o5n$
2$4
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
fool
around
fool around < fools around fooling around fooled around fooled around
($ .oo% aron! p.1. When 5ou #aste ti0e pla5in' or doin' sill5 or uni0portant thin's,
5ou .oo% aron!$ Eoo. aron! is the sa0e as .oo% aron!$
My son is la6y. %e spends his time fooling around instead of looking for a
ob. My boss said, +I(m not paying you to fool around ! get to workE+
($ .oo% aron! E#ithF p.1. When 5ou .oo% aron! #ith so0ethin', 5ou do so0ethin' that 0a5
be dan'erous or "oolish.
0ooling around with drugs is pretty stupid.
8ou shouldn(t fool around with the insides of your computer unless you know
what you(re doing.
*$ .oot aron! E#ithF p.1. Jin"or0alK When t#o people .oo% aron! or .oo% aron! #ith ea!h
other, the5 ha1e se<ual relations, e1en thou'h one or both o" the0 0a5 be 0arried to so0eone
else or e1en thou'h their "a0ilies or so!iet5 0a5 not appro1e.
"ally(s father caught her and )im fooling around in the basement.
%er husband(s been fooling around with his secretary, and everyone in
town knows it.
go b%
go b% & goes b% going b% went b% gone b%
($ /o &3 p.1. When people /o &3 a pla!e or thin', the5 pass near that pla!e or thin'. When
a thin' /oes &3 or /oes &3 5ou, it passes near 5ou.
.e watched the parade go b%.
# went by )im(s house to see if his car was in the
driveway.
"$ /o &3 p.1. When 5ou /o &3 a pla!e, 5ou 'o there so that 5ou !an do so0ethin' or 'et
so0ethin'.
Get(s go b% ?aul(s house to get his tools before we work on your car.
8ou can forget about going b% the dry cleaner to pick up your stuff! it(s closed.
*$ /o &3 p.1. When a period o" ti0e /oes &3' it passes.
; can(t believe that thirty years have gone b% since I got out of high school.
's time went b% Aetty moved up in the company until she was the head of
the finance department.
6$ /o &3 p.1. When 5ou /o &3 a poli!5 or standard, 5ou use it as a re"eren!e or a
'uide in 0a7in' de!isions and deter0inin' 5our beha1ior. When 5ou /o &3 the boo7,
5ou "ollo# rules, poli!ies, or la#s e<a!tl5.
/oing b% the book has always been my policy.
)im told me to do one thing, and Tom told me to do another, but since Tom is the boss,
I(m going to go b% what he says.
7$ /o &3 p.1. When 5ou /o &3 a !lo!7, 5ou use it to tell the ti0e.
5on(t go b% the clock on the wall@ it(s fast. /o b% the clock on the
desk.
#o wonder I(m always late for work ! the clock I(ve been going b% is
ten minutes slow.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hold against
hold against < holds against holding against held against held against
($ ho%! $$$a/ainst p.1. When 5ou ho%! thin's a/ainst people, 5ou !ontinue to bla0e
the0 "or so0ethin' and !ontinue to be upset about it.
Ten years ago I got a promotion that #ed thought he deserved, and he(s held it against
me ever since.
)ane tost her ob because of a mistake Aob made, but she doesn(t hold it against him.
leave behind
leave behind & leaves behind leaving behind left behind left
behind
($ %eave$$$ &ehin! p.1. When 5ou %eave so0eone or so0ethin' &ehin!' 5ou 'o to a different
place.
The e0plorers left the mountains behind and entered the
ungle.
The enemy soldiers retreated and left behind a city in ruins.
"$ %eave$$$ &ehin! p.1. When 5ou %eave so0ethin' or so0eone &ehin!' 3o do not ta7e the0
#ith 5ou be!ause 5ou "or'ot or be!ause 5ou !annot or do not #ant to ta7e the0.
.e packed too much luggage for our trip, so we had to leave some things behind.
1eaving our children behind at a gas station was pretty dumb.
*$ %eave $$$ &ehin! p.1. When 5ou 0o1e, learn, or #or7 "aster than others in 5our 'roup, 5ou
lea1e the0 &ehin!$
My husband walks so fast that he always leaves me behind.
If you don(t start working harder, you(re going to be left behind.
Mark was so good at calculus that he soon left the rest of the class behind.
live with
live with & lives with living with lived with lived
with
($ %ive 5ith p.1. When 5ou %ive 5ith so0eone, 5ou li1e at the sa0e address. When 5ou sa5
that one person %ives 5ith a person o" the opposite se<, 5ou 0ean that the5 li1e in the sa0e
pla!e but are not 0arried.
1iving with my in-laws is driving me cra6y.
Mike(s been living with his girlfriend for five years. 're they ever going to get married1
"$ %ive 5ith p.1. When 5ou %ive 5ith a disease or other proble0, 5ou endure or put up #ith it.
2$$
1iving with this disease is not easy.
t can(t change the situation, so I(ll ust have to learn to live with it.
*$ %ive 5ith p.1. When 5ou %ive 5ith sha0e, 'uilt, or a pain"ul 0e0or5, 5ou !ontinue #ith
5our li"e in spite o" the sha0e, 'uilt, or pain"ul 0e0or5.
)ake committed suicide rather than live with the shame of what he had done.
%e said he couldn(t go on living with the knowledge that he had caused the death
of *H innocent people.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
make
of
make of & makes of making of made of made of
($ -a0e o. p.1. What 5ou -a0e o. so0ethin' is 5our understandin' or opinion o" it.
"o what did you make of the prime minister(s speech1
.hat he said was so strange that I didn(t know what to make of it.
narrow down
narrow down & narrows down narrowing down narrowed down narrowed
down
($ narro5$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou narro5 !o5n thin's or people in a list or 'roup, 5ou re0o1e
so0e o" the0 so that the nu0ber o" thin's or people is redu!ed.
'll the candidates for the ob have e0cellent Fualifications. )arrowing the list down won(t be
easy.
The detective narrowed the suspects down to the butler, the cook, and the maid.
trick into
trick into & tricks into tricking into tricked into tricked into
($ tric0$$$ into p.1. When 5ou tric0 people into doin' so0ethin', 5ou persuade the0 to do
so0ethin' b5 "oolin' or de!ei1in' the0. Con into is si0ilar to tric0 into$
The con artist tricked them into giving him their life savings.
I was an idiot to let %ank trick me into selling him my car for so little money.
ECERCISE *7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The 0an #ho #as 7illed in the a!!ident MMMMMMMM a #i"e and three !hildren MMMMMMMM.
7. The prosecutor &&&&&&&& )ake &&&&&&&& admitting his guilt.
2. I took a ob in )apan, and si0 years &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& before I returned to the Onited "tates.
H. ?aul(s been &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& his parents since his house burned down.
7JM
. There #ere "i"t5 !ontestants at the be'innin' o" the !ontest, but the )ud'es MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to
"i1e "inalists.
$. &oo7 at this stran'e letter 4 re!ei1ed. +ead it and tell 0e #hat 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
%. 4 #as 05 parentsB"a1orite, and 05 brother stillMMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM0e.
8. 2ran7Bs #i"e "iled "or di1or!e a"ter she learned that he #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith her best "riend.
*. The train al#a5s blo#s its #histle #hen it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1/. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM diabetes 0eans !are"ull5 0onitorin' 5our blood su'ar.
11. .MMMMMMMM 5our "riends and "a0il5 MMMMMMMM #hen 5ou e0i'rate to a ne# !ountr5 is 1er5 di""i!ult.
12. Todd "ailed the test be!ause he MMMMMMM MMMMMMM all e1enin' instead o" stud5in'.
13. Ser'eant Iones #as 1er5 stri!t #hen he #as in the -r05. Ce al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the boo7.
14. 8onBt let 5our 7ids MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith !i'arette li'hters? the5 0i'ht start a "ire.
1. Co# !an 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5oursel" a"ter the terrible thin' 5ou didH
1$. 6elanie has 05 biolo'5 boo7, so on the #a5 to s!hool 4 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her house to 'et
it.
1%. 6i7e #asnBt read5 "or the ad1an!ed al'ebra !lass, and he #as ,ui!7l5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 the rest
o" the !lass.
18. 4 MMMMMM MMMMMM 05 #rist#at!h > not the #all !lo!7 > be!ause itBs 0ore a!!urate.
ECERCISE *7& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Cer disease is in!urable, so un"ortunatel5 sheBll )ust ha1e to learn to endure it. What #ill she ha1e to
doH
2. Ii0 and 4 #or7ed on a pro)e!t to'ether, but Ii0 told e1er5one that he did all the #or7, and 4B0 still
an'r5 about it. Co# do 4 "eel about #hat Ii0 didH
2$8
3. Sall5 and her sisterBs husband 'o to a 0otel so0eti0es durin' their lun!h hour. What are the5
doin'H
4. 65 "ather has a lot o" horrible 0e0ories "ro0 the #ar. What does he ha1e to do #ith the0H
. =ill 0ade a list o" !ities that he 0i'ht 0o1e to, and then he eli0inated those that are too !old or ha1e
hi'h !ri0e rates. What did =ill do to his list o" !itiesH
$. When the boss isnBt in the o""i!e, 5ou )ust pla5 !o0puter 'a0es and 0a7e personal phone !alls. What
do 5ou do #hen the boss isnBt in the o""i!eH
%. Can7 told his sister that he needed 0one5 "or his #i"eBs do!tor bills, but he reall5 #anted 0one5 to
bu5 dru's. What did Can7 do to his sisterH
8. The s!ientist as7ed her !ollea'ue his opinion o" the test results. What did the s!ientist as7 her
!ollea'ue about the test resultsH
*. - poli!e !ar passed 0e #hile 4 #as dri1in'. What did the poli!e !ar doH
1/. SusieBs parents are 'oin' to ta7e a 1a!ation #ithout her. What are SusieBs parents 'oin' to do to
herH
11. The last 5ear passed ,ui!7l5. What did the last 5ear doH
ECERCISE *7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Tr3 to -a0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s /ern!s an! to se the- as s&,ects'
o&,ects' or o&,ects o. +re+ositions$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2$*
ECERCISE *7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
break up, 7K flip out, 7L lie around, 73 stand for, 2H
come apart, 7L float around, 2H luck out, 7L stay up, 73
do over, 2H hang around, 73 mess up, 7K stick around, 2H
end up, 73 lead up to, 2H run across, 7L take back, 2H
*. The robber was only three feet away when he fired the gun at me, but the gun ammed and didn(t
fire. I really&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&.
7. #ancy said being sick wasn(t so bad. "he &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& in bed all day watching TV and eating
ice cream.
2. I(ll &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& if you drop my new camera in the swimming pool.
H. 5an(s daughter was very sick last night, so 5an &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& all night with her.
D. This is outrageousE I will not &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& dishonesty in my company.
J. I told Mark that I would never speak to him again if he didn(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& the nasty things he
said.
M. If you(re looking for %ank, go to the bar on the corner. That(s where he &&&&&&&& MMMMMMMM.
K. ' number of minor events will &&&&&& &&&&&& &&&&&& the main event.
L. I had a very busy day planned, but I got a flat tire and that &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& everything.
*3. My boss is a erkE I worked for three days on this, and ust because he found one mistake he
made me &&&&&&&& it &&&&&&&&.
**. "am has been very depressed since he &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& with his girlfriend.
*7. %ave you seen the dictionary1 It(s &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& the office somewhere, but I can(t find it.
*2. 5on(t stand on that chair ! it(s &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&.
*H. 5o you really have to leave now1 .hy don(t you &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& for a while.
2%/
1. =ill #as tal7in' about 0o1in' to 2lorida or Ca#aii, but 4B0 not sure #here he "inall5 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
1$. So0eone told 0e that Sarah is in to#n, but 4 ha1enBt MMMMMM MMMMMMM her 5et.
*8$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e
down
The parti!le do#n is used in 0an5 phrasal 1erbs and has 0an5 0eanin's. 8o#n !an be used to
sa5 that so0ethin' literall5 0o1es "ro0 a hi'her position to a lo#er position or "ro0 north to
southG
Aob went down the ladder.
%is friends came down from >anada.
2it down5 dinner is ready.
that something decreases in si6e, intensity, Fuantity, or Fuality$
%er fever has gone down to *33 degrees.
The doctor gave her a sedative to calm her down.
.e(ve narrowed the list down to three choices.
that so0ethin' or so0eone is "ou'ht, de"eated, or o1erpo#eredG
%ank backed down when he saw my shotgun.
The police cracked down on street crime.
that so0ethin' "alls to the 'roundG
The boy was running and fell down.
The warehouse burned down.
=pen the door or I(ll break it down!
or that a process or activity is ending or has ended$
My car broke down on the highway.
The FAI tracked down the spy.
The campaign is winding down.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
back
down
back down < backs down backing down backed down backed down
($ &ac0!o5n p.1. When one side in a disa'ree0ent stops 0a7in' threats and lets the
other ha1e #hat it #ants or do #hat it #ants, the side that stops 0a7in' threats &ac0s
!o5n$
The dictator didn(t back down after the Onited #ations "ecurity >ouncil voted in favor
of sending in troops.
The police officer tried to force me to pay him a bribe, but when I said I would report
him to the chief of police, he backed down.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
calm down
calm down < calms down calming down calmed down calmed down
($ ca%- $$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou ca%- !o5n' 5ou be!o0e less a!ti1e, ner1ous, or
upset. When 5ou ca%- other people !o5n' 5ou do so0ethin' to 0a7e the0 less
a!ti1e, ner1ous, or upset. Sett%e !o5n is si0ilar to ca%- !o5n$
I was very nervous about the test, but I calmed down when I saw how easy it was.
Mike tried to calm his sister down after she had a fight with her husband.
"$ ca%- $$$ !o5n p.1. When a !on"used or 1iolent situation be!o0es less !on"used or 1iolent,
it ca%-s !o5n$ When 5ou ca%- a !on"used or 1iolent situation !o5n' 5ou 0a7e it less
!on"used or 1iolent and 0ore !al0. Sett%e !o5n is si0ilar to ca%- !o5n$
The neighborhood where the riot occurred calmed down after the army started
patrolling the streets.
' conference between the two sides was organi6ed to try to calm the situation down.
fall down
fall down & falls down falling down fell down fallen down
($ .a%% !o5n p.1. When people or thin's "all to the 'round "ro0 a hi'her position, the5 .a%%
!o5n$
I slipped on some ice on the sidewalk and fell down.
'll the dishes on that shelf will fall down if there(s another earthFuake.
go down
go down & goes down going down went down gone
down
($ /o !o5n EtoF p.1. When 5ou 0o1e to a lo#er le1el or position or "ro0 north to south,
5ou /o !o5n or /o !o5n to that pla!e. Eo + is the opposite o" /o !o5n$
Toronto is too cold, so we usually go down to Me0ico in the winter.
/oing down the mountain was a lot easier than going up.
"$ /o !o5n EtoF p.1. When the !ost, rate, ,ualit5, ,uantit5, or le1el o" so0ethin'
de!reases, it /oes !o5n$ Eo + is the opposite o" /o !o5n$
The temperature went down to 6ero last night.
The crime rate in #ew 8ork >ity has gone down.
*$ /o !o5n EtoF p.1. When so0ethin' e<tends to a !ertain point that is "arther south or at
a lo#er ele1ation, it /oes !o5n to that point. Eo + is the opposite o" /o !o5n$
%ow far south does this road go down"
5oes this road go down to the south side of town1
'fter dinner we went down to the basement and played ping pong.
7M7
6$ /o !o5n p.1. When so0ethin' /oes !o5n in a !ertain #a5, people rea!t to or
per!ei1e it in this #a5.
The new no smoking policy didn(t go down very well with the smokers in the office.
The udge(s decision went down well with the prosecutor.
7$ /o !o5n p.1. When a !o0puter or !o0puter net#or7 stops #or7in' be!ause o" a
proble0 or be!ause it has been dis!onne!ted, it /oes !o5n$
I couldn(t withdraw any money at the bank because its computers had gone down.
If your computer terminal goes down %ou can use the one in the ne0t office.
8$ /o !o5n p.1. When the sun 'oes belo# the horiDon, it /oes !o5n$
'fter the sun goes down it(ll get a little cooler.
The sun went down at K$2H last night.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
la% down
lay down < lays laying down laid down laid down
($ %a3$$$ !o5n EonF p.1. When 5ou %a3 so0ethin' !o5n' 5ou put it on a horiDontal
sur"a!e. Pt !o5n is si0ilar to %a3 !o5n$
Marsha laid the tray down.
The police ordered )ake to la% down his gun and surrender.
"$ %a3 !o5n p.1. When 5ou %a3 !o5n a ne# la#, poli!5, rule, and so on, 5ou !reate and
announ!e it.
The IN" laid down several new ta0 regulations.
>ongress decided against la%ing down any new campaign financing laws.
put down
put down & puts down putting down put down put down
($ +t $$$!o5n p.1. When 5ou +t so0ethin' !o5n' 3o put so0ethin' in 5our hand or
so0ethin' that 5ou are !arr5in' on a horiDontal sur"a!e.
The suitcase was so heavy that I had to put it down and rest for a
minute.
"usie, put that knife down. It(s dangerousE
"$ +t$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou +t people !o5n' 5ou !riti!iDe the0.
)im hates his stepfather and puts him down constantly. I(m not inviting "am to any
more parties. I hate the way he puts everyone down.
+t9!o5n n, - +t9!o5n is an insult or !riti!al re0ar7.
't the party "am asked #ancy if she had made her dress from an old curtain.
.hat a put-down!
*$ +t$$$ !o5n EonF p.1. When 5ou +t 0one5 !o5n or +t 0one5 !o5n on so0ethin', 5ou pa5 a
portion o" the !ost o" so0ethin' 5ou #ant to bu5 to be sure that it #ill still be a1ailable to 5ou #hen
5ou are able to pa5 the rest o" the !ost.
2%3
The real estate agent asked me how much money I want to put down on the
house.
I told her that I could put as much as : *D,333 down.
6$ +t$$$ !o5n Eon/"orF p.1. When 5ou add so0ethin' to a list or other #ritten 0aterial,
5ou +t it !o5n or +t it !o5n on the list. When 5ou add people to a list in order to
assi'n so0ethin' to the0, 5ou +t the0 !o5n or +t the0 !o5n "or that assi'n0ent.
Melanie(s collecting money for charity, so I told her to put me down for :D3.
I(m making a list of volunteers to help reelect "enator 5olittle. >an I put your
name down on the list1
7$ +t$$$ !o5n EonF p.1. When an airplane +ts !o5n or a pilot +ts an airplane !o5n'
the airplane lands.
'fter the engine Fuit, the pilot looked for a place to put down.
Fortunately, the pilot was able to put the plane down on a fro6en lake.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
run
down
run down < runs down running down ran down run down
($ rn !o5n EtoF p.1. When 5ou 0o1e ,ui!7l5 to a lo#er le1el or pla!e, 5ou rn !o5n or rn
!o5n to that pla!e.
Mike was running down the stairs when he fell and broke his leg.
I saw someone trying to steal my car, and I ran down to the street to try to stop him.
"$ rn $$$ !o5n p.1. When 1ehi!les or people dri1in' 1ehi!les hit and in)ure or 7ill so0eone,
the5 rn that person !o5n$
The man was run down and killed by a speeding ta0i.
'li was arrested after he ran three people down.
*$ rn !o5n p.1. When 5ou dis!uss or re1ie# ite0s on a list "ro0 the "irst to the last, 5ou rn
!o5n the list.
Get(s run down the >hristmas list and decide what to give everyone.
The teacher ran down the list of students and marked the ones who are
failing.
rundown n. . rundown is a discussion or review of items on a list.
The consultant gave the manager a rundown of the problems she had found.
6$ rn !o5n p.1. When batteries or 0a!hines rn !o5n or are rn !o5n &3 someone, they
gradually lose power or energy.
5on(t leave the car lights on for too long when the car isn(t running or the battery will
run down.
.hat time is it1 My watch ran down last night.
rn!o5n part.ad). - person or thin' that is rn!o5n is e<hausted, #ithout po#er or
ener'5.
2%4
Maybe I need to go to the doctor@ I feel so rundown all the time.
rn!o5n part.ad). - rn!o5n buildin' or nei'hborhood is in poor !ondition be!ause
it has not been 0aintained.
I went back to my old neighborhood, and I was shocked to see how rundown
it had become.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
sit
down
sit down < sits down sitting down sat down sat down
($ sit !o5n p.1. When 5ou sit !o5n' 3o !han'e "ro0 a standin' position to a
sittin' position.
The teacher told his students to sit down and open their books.
I(m e0hausted@ I haven(t sat down all day.
"$ sit$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou sit people !o5n' 5ou order the0 to sit, usuall5 so that 5ou
!an ha1e a serious dis!ussion.
.hen I found mariuana in my daughter(s purse, I sat her down and had a serious talk with
her.
The detective sat %ank down and began to interrogate him.
ECERCISE *8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ceather thin7s sheBs so hi'h-!lass. SheMMMMMMMMMMMMother people all the ti0e.
2. The situation MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter the !ease-"ire #as de!lared.
3. The sun !o0es up around $G//, and it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM around 8G//.
4. CereBs the list o" !andidates "or the pro0otion. &etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list and de!ide.
. The old #ater to#er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM durin' the stor0.
$. Aou 0ust be e<hausted. Wh5 donBt 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM and ta7e it eas5H
%. 4 sa# a to# tru!7 loo7in' "or ille'all5 par7ed !ars, so 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 05 !ar and 0o1ed it.
8. 65 o""i!e is on the ninetieth "loor, so so0eti0es it ta7es 0e "i"teen 0inutes to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to
the lobb5.
*. 4tBs hard to #rite s50path5 notes. 4 ne1er 7no# #hat to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2%
1/. The !o0pan5 tried to redu!e bene"its, but the5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen the union threatened to 'o
on stri7e.
11. The -ppala!hian Trail starts in 6aine and MMMMM all the #a5 MMMMM to 3eor'ia.
12. 8onBt MMMMMMMM the bab5 MMMMMMMM there > she 0i'ht "all.
13. 4 #as "urious about #hat 8an said, and 4 MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM and told hi0 e<a!tl5 #hat 4 thou'ht
about it.
14. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMM N 1//,/// MMMMMMMM on that house, 5ou #onBt need a 1er5 lar'e 0ort'a'e.
1. What are 5ou so #orried aboutH IustMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > e1er5thin'Bs 'oin' to be all ri'ht.
1$. The unionBs proposal to redu!e the #or7#ee7 to "our da5s didnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ell #ith the
!o0pan5.
1%. The 2ood and 8ru' -d0inistration is e<pe!ted to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a ne# set o" re'ulations
re'ardin' sea"ood inspe!tion.
18. The pri!e o" !o0puters has MMMMMMM MMMMMMM dra0ati!all5 in the last "e# 5ears.
1*. Those bo<es are too hea15 "or 5ou. MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM and let 0e !arr5 the0 "or 5ou.
2/. - pedestrian #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b5 a tru!7 on &in!oln -1enue.
21. The sto!7 e<!han'e had to stop tradin' #hen its !o0puters MMMMMMM MMMMMM.
22. MMMMMMMM a )et MMMMMMMM on an air!ra"t !arrier at ni'ht is 1er5 di""i!ult.
23. So0eone le"t this "lashli'ht on all ni'ht, and the batteries ha1e MMMMMM MMMMMM.
ECERCISE *8& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. The )o!7e5 !al0ed do#n. Ethe horse, itF
2%$
2. The 0e!hani! laid do#n. Eher tools, the0F
3. 4 put do#n. E05 boo7s, the0F
4. The ta<i ran do#n. Ethe tra""i! !op, hi0F
ECERCISE *8c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. The !ar dealer re1ie#ed the list o" the !arBs options #ith 0e. What did the !ar dealer doH
2. 4n Ouestion 1,#hat did the !ar dealer 'i1e 0eH
3. The 7in' 1isited the area #here the t#o tribes #ere "i'htin', and the "i'htin' stopped. What did the
7in' do to the areaH
4. The houses in this part o" to#n are in 1er5 bad !ondition. Co# !an 5ou des!ribe this part o"
to#nH
. 6ana'e0entBs plan 'ot a 'ood rea!tion "ro0 the #or7ers. What i0pression did the plan 0a7e on the
#or7ersH
$. 2ran7 told Nan!5 that she #as lo#-!lass. What did 2ran7 do to Nan!5H
%. 4n Ouestion $, #hat #as 2ran7Bs !o00entH
8. Sa0 sat in a !hair. What did Sa0 doH
2%%
*. The !o0pan5Bs 0ana'e0ent stopped threatenin' to "ire the #or7ers and a'reed to raise their
#a'es. What did the !o0pan5 doH
1/. The dentistBs se!retar5 #rote 05 na0e in her appoint0ent boo7. What did the se!retar5 doH
11. The soldiers stopped "i'htin' and put their ri"les on the 'round. What did the soldiers do #ith their
ri"lesH
12. Aou slipped and landed on the 'round. What did 5ou doH
ECERCISE *8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives
.ro- +revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven
a.ter each one$
burned up, 22 lo!7ed in, 3/ pun!hed in,3/ spa!ed-out, 3/
!leaned out, 32 lo!7ed out, 3/ pun!hed out, 3/ sorted out, 3/
e0ptied out, 32 paid up, 22 put out, 3/ torn o"", 2%
le"t out, 32 plu''ed up, 22 sha7en up, 24
1. 8a1idBs totall5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM toda5. Ce has e1en "or'otten his 'irl"riendBs na0e.
2. 4 li7e this !oat, but 4 donBt 7no# #hat siDe it is be!ause the ta'BsMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM,
3. 4 donBt 7no# #h5 that 'u5 "ro0 the !olle!tion a'en!5 !alled 0e > all 05 bills are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. Ni!ole hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5et. ;ither sheBs late "or #or7 or she "or'ot.
. 6ar7 borro#ed =obBs !ar and had an a!!ident, and 6ar7Bs reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM about it.
$. The 0ana'er #ondered #h5 4 #asnBt #or7in', but a"ter 4 told her 4 #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, she said it
#as o7a5.
%. Ta7e this 0edi!ine. 4tBs 'reat "or MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM noses.
8. 8o 5ou ha1e a 7e5H 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and !anBt 'et out.
*. 8o 5ou ha1e a 7e5H 4B0 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and !anBt 'et in.
1/. IaneBs reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. She )ust "ound out that her brother #as 0urdered.
11. Ii0Bs so!7s are 0i<ed #ith his brotherBs so!7s. The5Bre not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2%8
12. No one #ants to sit #ith 0e in the s!hool lun!hroo0, and it 0a7es 0e "eel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. 65 0other #as reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #hen -unt 9ath5 said our house #asnBt 1er5 !lean.
14. Wh5 isnBt the base0ent MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5etH 4 told 5ou 4B0 tired o" loo7in' at this )un7:
1. ThereBs nothin' in the roo0. 4tBs all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE *8e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
blo# up, 33 !o0e about, 33 0a7e o", 3 pull o"", 33
!are "or, 31 do #ithout, 31 0a7e out, 2* put o"", 31
!at!h on, 33 'o out, 32 narro# do#n, 3 sti!7 to, 34
!lean out, 32 lo!7 out, 3/ plan on, 31 #ash up, 3/
1. Se1eral bodies "ro0 the !rashed plane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the da5 a"ter the !rash.
2. -"ter 0other had a stro7e, #e had to hire nurses to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
3. 65 "ather #as se1ent5-t#o 5ears old #hen he 'ot his "irst !o0puter, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM ri'ht
a#a5, and no# he uses it all the ti0e.
4. The President had a lot o" bi' plans #hen he too7 o""i!e, but "e# o" the0 e1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. 6ar7 #asnBt su!!ess"ul as a sin'er. Ce should ha1e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM son'#ritin' > thatBs #hat
he does best.
$. Co# did 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on 5our "inal e<a0H
%. 4 had to !ra#l in throu'h the #indo# a"ter 05 dau'hter !losed the door and MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM
o" the house.
8. This situation is 1er5 stran'e. 4 donBt 7no# #hat to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
*.1 ha1e to "inish 05 pro)e!t toni'ht, and 4 ha1enBt e1en started it. 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM until the last
0inute.
1/. No one thou'ht 2ran7 !ould run a 0ile in less than "our 0inutes, but he MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
2%*
11. 4 reall5 depend on 05 laptop !o0puter #hen 4 tra1el on business. 4 donBt 7no# ho# 4 e1er
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMit.
12. 3eor'e and &inda MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or three 5ears be"ore the5 'ot 0arried.
13. Se1eral people #ere 7illed #hen the bo0b MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
14. =ob and 6arsha arenBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMspendin' 0ore than N2/,/// "or their
ne# house.
1. 65 di1or!e settle0ent !ost 0e a lot o" 0one5. 4t al0ost MMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMM.
1$. The 2=4 started #ith a list o" si< suspe!ts, but the5 MMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to t#o.
*:$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s se! as nons' *
When phrasal 1erbs are used as nouns, the 1erb is usuall5 in the in"initi1e "or0?
ho#e1er, a s0all nu0ber use a di""erent "or0 o" the 1erb.
2or e<a0ple, %e.t over and /ro5 + use the past parti!ipleG
.e ate leftovers the day after Thanksgiving.
The grown-ups sat at one table, and the children sat at
another.
ta%0 to and /o over use the -in/ "or0G
Mr. 8oung gave his son a good talking-to.
Aefore I buy this car, I(m going to give it a good going-over.
and /ro5n9+ uses the past parti!ipleG
(nl5 /ro5n9+s are allo#ed to dri1e.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
brush
off
brush off < brushes off brushing off brushed off brushed off
($ &rsh $$$o.. p.1. When 5ou &rsh people o"", 5ou i'nore the0 or re"use to listen to the0
be!ause 5ou are not interested in or do not li7e #hat the5 are sa5in'.
My boss ust brushes me off when I try to tell her how to increase our profits.
The reporters tried to ask him some Fuestions, but he brushed them off.
&rsh9o.. n. When 5ou 'i1e people the &rsh9o..' 3o i'nore the0 or re"use to listen to
the0 be!ause 5ou are not interested in or do not li7e #hat the5 are sa5in'.
The boss )ust 'a1e 0e the &rsh9o.. #hen 4 tried to 'i1e hi0 so0e ad1i!e. "$ &rsh $$$ o.. p.1.
When 5ou &rsh o.. a !riti!al re0ar7 or proble0, 5ou i'nore it
and !ontinue as be"ore #ithout lettin' it a""e!t 5ou.
I told 5r. "mith that he had made a mistake, but he brushed it off.
My father(s cholesterol is very high, but he ust brushes it off.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come on
come on < comes on coming on came on come on
($ co-e on p.1. When an ele!tri!al de1i!e or 0a!hine co-es on' it be'ins to
operate, usuall5 auto0ati!all5. Eo o.. is the opposite o" co-e on$
It was so cold that the heat came on last night.
.hen you open the refrigerator door, the light comes on automatically.
"$ co-e on p.1. When a tele1ision or radio pro'ra0 co-es on' it be'ins.
5o you know when the news will come on"
The late movie comes on at *$33 '.M.
*$ co-e on p.1. When 5ou #ant to en!oura'e people to do so0ethin' or #hen 5ou #ant
the0 to do so0ethin' ,ui!7l5, 5ou sa3 ?Co-e onM?
Aelieve me, you(re going to love this garlic ice cream. +ome on try
itE
+ome on! I can(t wait all day.
6$ co-e on p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou thin7 that people ha1e done or said so0ethin'
i0proper or unreasonable, 5ou sa3 ?Co-e on$?
Tom didn(t study for one minute, and you(re telling me he got *33 on the test1 =h, come on.
%ey, come on! I told you not to do that again.
7$ co-e on p.1. Jal#a5s !ontinuousK When 5ou be'in to "eel a heada!he or an illness
de1elopin', 5ou "eel the heada!he or illness co-in/ on$
I might be sick tomorrow@ I feel something coming on.
I feel a headache coming on. 5o you have any aspirin1
8$ co-e on p.1. When 5ou co-e on a !ertain #a5, 5ou spea7 or deal #ith people in that
#a5.
?aul needs to learn to be more of a gentleman. %e comes on too strong, and women don(t
like that.
Aob comes on kind of arrogant, but he(s actually a nice guy.
:$ co-e on EtoF p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou co-e on to people, 5ou approa!h the0 and tr5
to interest the0 in ro0an!e or se<.
Toad came on to )udy at the party, and she told him to get lost.
I can(t stand that guy #ed. %e(s always coming on to me.
co-e9on n. Jin"or0alK - pro1o!ati1e !o00ent or a!tion intended to interest a person in ro0an!e or
se< is a co-e9on$
281
Todd uses the same come-on with all the girls, and it never works.
co-e9on n. - dis!ount or spe!ial o""er desi'ned to 'et people to bu5 so0ethin' is a
co-e9on$
The bank is offering a free V>N as a come-on if you open an account with them.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past partic
cover
up
cover up < covers up covering up covered up covered u
($ cover$$$ + p.1. When 5ou !o1er so0ethin' !o0pletel5, 5ou cover it +$
I covered the cake up so no bugs would land on it.
+over this stuff up ! I don(t want anyone to see it.
covere! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been !o0pletel5 !o1ered, it is covere! +$ 4s
the 0eat covere! +H 4 donBt #ant "lies to land on it.
"$ cover$$$ + p.1. When 5ou cover + a !ri0e, 5ou do so0ethin' to tr5 to pre1ent other
people "ro0 learnin' o" it.
There(s no point in trying to cover up the crime. Too many people already know about it.
The mayor was accused of covering up his ties to organi6ed crime.
cover9+ n. So0ethin' 5ou do in order to pre1ent a !ri0e "ro0 be!o0in' 7no#n is a
cover9+$
The mayor denied being part of a cover-up and claimed he was innocent.
hang out
hang out & hangs out hanging out hung out hung out
($ han/ ot p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou han/ ot at a pla!e, 5ou spend ti0e there
#ithout an5 i0portant purpose. Han/ aron! is si0ilar to han/ ot$
5oesn(t #ancy have a ob1 It seems as if she hangs out at the beach every day.
I don(t have anyplace to go. 5o you mind if I hang out here for a while1
han/ot n. Jin"or0alK - han/ot is a pla!e #here 5ou spend ti0e #ithout an5
i0portant purpose.
The police closed the bar, saying it was a hangout for crooks and gang members.
leave over left over
($ %eave over p.1. Jal#a5s passi1eK When so0ethin' is %e.t over' it re0ains a"ter
people ha1e used or ta7en as 0u!h o" it as the5 need or #ant.
I guess I made too much food@ look how much is left over.
I paid all my bills and had only : *M left over.
282
%e.tover part.ad). So0ethin' that is %e.t over re0ains a"ter people ha1e used or ta7en
as 0u!h o" it as the5 need or #ant.
8ou can have this leftover pasta for lunch tomorrow.
%e.tovers n. Jal#a5s pluralK 2ood ite0s that re0ain uneaten a"ter people ha1e "inished
eatin' are %e.tovers$
1eftovers again1 .hen are we going to have something different for dinner1
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
1et down
let down & lets
down
letting down let down let down
($ %et $$$!o5n p.1. When 5ou pro0ise people 5ou #ill do so0ethin' and then "ail to do it,
5ou %et the0 !o5n$
My son promised to stop using drugs, but he let me down.
I really need you to help me move tomorrow. ?lease don(t let me
down.
%et !o5n part.ad). When people pro0ise 5ou the5 #ill do so0ethin' and then "ail to do it,
5ou "eel %et !o5n$ When 5ou are disappointed be!ause 5ou !annot ha1e so0ethin' 5ou
#ant to ha1e, be!ause 5ou !annot do so0ethin' 5ou #ant to do, or be!ause so0ethin' is
less e<!itin' than 5ou e<pe!ted it to be, 5ou "eel %et !o5n$
8ou broke your promise to me that you would Fuit smoking. I feel very let down.
%et!o5n n. When 5ou sa5 that so0ethin' is a %et!o5n' 3o are disappointed be!ause 5ou
!annot ha1e or !annot do so0ethin' 5ou #ant to or be!ause so0ethin' is less e<!itin' than
5ou e<pe!ted it to be.
I had tickets for the fifth game of the .orld "eries, but my team lost in four games. .hat a
letdown.
'fter the way everyone talked about how great the movie was, I thought it was something of a
letdown.
+a3o.. pa% off & pa%s off pa%ing off paid off paid off
($ +a3$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou +a3 o.. 0one5 that 5ou o#e or +a3 o.. the person 5ou o#e the
0one5 to, 5ou pa5 all the 0one5 that 5ou o#e.
I wasn(t happy with the people we hired to paint our house. # paid them off and told them
not to return.
It took ten years, but I finally paid off my school loan.
+ai! o.. part.ad). -"ter 5ou pa5 all the 0one5 that 5ou o#e to so0eone or to a lendin'
institution, the debt or loan is +ai! o..$
I made my last payment yesterday, and now my car loan is paid off.
"$ +a3$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou pa5 people 0one5 so that the5 #ill do so0ethin' ille'al or
allo# 5ou to do so0ethin' ille'al, 5ou +a3 the0 o..$
283
The politician tried to cover up the crime b% pa%ing off the witnesses.
5on(t e0pect the police in this city to do anything about gambling ! they(re
being paid off.
+a3o.. n$ A +a3o.. is 0one5 paid to so0eone to do so0ethin' ille'al or to allo# 5ou to do
so0ethin' ille'al.
The chief of police was videotaped accepting a pa%off.
*$ +a3 o.. p.1. When so0ethin' 5ou do +a3s o..' it is su!!ess"ul and is #orth the e""ort
5ou 0ade.
Medical school is a lot of hard work, but it(ll pa% off someday.
The restaurant changed its menu, and it really paid off. Ausiness increased
by 23 percent.
+a3o.. n. - bene"it 5ou 'ain be!ause o" an e""ort 5ou 0a7e is a +a3o..$
Ginda doesn(t get paid for the volunteer work she does.
The pa%off is knowing that she has helped other people.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
talk to
talk to < talks to talking to talked to talked to
($ ta%0 to p.1. When 5ou ta%0 to people, 5ou ha1e a !on1ersation #ith the0.
're you talking to me1
I don(t like Aob. %e talks to me like I(m some kind of idiot.
ta%0in/9to n$ A ta%0in/9to is a serious dis!ussion in #hi!h 5ou s!old or le!ture
so0eone.
5an(s behavior is outrageous. "omeone should give him a good talking-to.
ECERCISE *:a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 "or'ot to MMMMMMM the !hi!7en MMMMMMM a"ter #e "inished dinner, and the !at ate it.
2. - patient died a"ter 8r. S0ith 'a1e her the #ron' 0edi!ine, and the hospital tried to
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
3. 4 donBt !are #hat Nan!5 thin7s o" 0e. 4" she !riti!iDes 0e, 4Bll )ust MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM.
4. 4 #or7ed "or nine 5ears to 'et 05 Ph.8., and no# 4 !anBt "ind a )ob in 05 "ield. -ll that #or7 sure didnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
284
.1 set the ther0ostat so that the air !onditioner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i" it 'ets o1er ei'ht5 de'rees. $,
Aou !an trust ;ri7 to 7eep his pro0ises. Ce #onBt MMMMMMMM 5ou MMMMMMMM.
%. 4 didnBt li7e that !ar sales0an #e tal7ed to last ni'ht. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM too stron'. 8. 4 !alled
Ceather last ni'ht, but 4 didnBt MMMMM MMMMM her? she #as in the sho#er.
*. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in bars isnBt 05 idea o" "un.
1/. 4 tried to apolo'iDe to Iane, but she )ust MMMMM 0e MMMMM and !ontinued #al7in'.
11. 4 #ant to MMMMMMMM 05 0ort'a'e MMMMMMMM earl5, so 4B0 0a7in' t#o pa50ents e1er5 0onth.
12. &oo7 at TV 3uide to see #hen the sho# MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. 9aren sure isnBt sh5. 8id 5ou see ho# she #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 05 brother at the part5H
14. -"ter Than7s'i1in' so 0u!h tur7e5 #ill beMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthat #eBll be eatin' it "or t#o #ee7s.
1. 4 hope 4B0 not 'ettin' si!7. 4 "eel a !old MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1$. The !ontra!tor #as a!!used o" MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !it5 o""i!ials in e<!han'e "or !ontra!ts.
ECERCISE *:& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith nons .ro- this section$
1, Aou need to "inish s!hool. The MMMMMMMMMMM #onBt !o0e "or 5ears, but itBs #orth it.
2,1 didnBt ha1e ti0e to 0a7e an5thin' "or dinner, so #eBre ha1in' MMMMMMMM toni'ht.
3. This pla!e isnBt as beauti"ul as it loo7ed in the pi!tures. What a MMMMMMMMMMM.
4. Iud5 isnBt interested in an5thin' 4 sa5? she al#a5s 'i1es 0e the MMMMMMMMMMM.
. The senator #as !on1i!ted o" ta7in' a MMMMMMMMMMM.
$. The lo# interest rate the !redit !ard !o0pan5 o""ers i" 5ou s#it!h to their !ard is )ust a
MMMMMMMMMM. -"ter si< 0onths the5 in!rease it to 18 per!ent.
%. The politi!ian #as a!!used o" bein' part o" a MMMMMMMMMMM.
. 28
8. Aou !an usuall5 "ind Ioe at the ni'ht!lub a!ross the street. ThatBs his "a1orite MMMMM.
*. Ti005Bs not !ausin' an5 proble0s toda5. 6a5be so0eone 'a1e hi0 a MMMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE *:c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. Ned spends a lot o" ti0e at IoeBs 8iner rela<in' and tal7in' to his "riends. What does Ned do at
IoeBs 8inerH
2. 4n Ouestion 1, #hat is IoeBs 8iner to NedH
3. 6ar7 said so0ethin' that 4 thou'ht #as ridi!ulous, and 4 told hi0 to be serious and reasonable,
What did 4 sa5 to 6ar7H
4. Aou had N4//, but a"ter 5ou #ent shoppin', 5ou had N1// re0ainin'. What did 5ou ha1eH
. 65 "a1orite TV sho# be'ins at *G//. What does 05 "a1orite sho# do at *G//H
$. 8an pro0ised his dau'hter that he #ould ta7e her to the !ir!us, but he !ouldnBt 'et o"" #or7 that
da5. What did 8an do to his dau'hterH
%. 6aria is 'oin' to pa5 her last !ar loan pa50ent. What is she 'oin' to do to her !ar loanH
8. 4n Ouestion %, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 6ariaBs !ar loan a"ter she 0a7es the last pa50entH
*. Ni!ole spo7e #ith her brother about his drin7in' proble0. What did she do to her brotherH
1/. 4n Ouestion *, #hat did Ni!ole 'i1e to her brotherH
11. The heat in our house starts to operate #hen the te0perature 'ets belo# si<t5 de'rees. What
does the heat in our house doH
12. 2or lun!h 5ou ate the spa'hetti that 5our "a0il5 didnBt eat the ni'ht be"ore. What did 5ou eat "or
lun!hH
13. The restaurant o#ner 'a1e the health inspe!tor N2// to i'nore the rats in the 7it!hen. What did
the restaurant o#ner do to the health inspe!torH
14. 4n Ouestion 13, #hat #as the N2// that the restaurant o#ner 'a1e the health inspe!torH
28$
1. The head o" the health depart0ent tried to 7eep the pa5o""s in his depart0ent a se!ret. What did the
head o" the health depart0ent do to the pa5o""sH
1$. 4n Ouestion 1, #hat #ould 5ou !all the head o" the health depart0entBs atte0pt to 7eep the pa5o""s in
his depart0ent a se!retH
1%. &inda !o0plained to the !it5 about the 'arba'e in the streets, but the #o0an she tal7ed to #asnBt
interested and told her to #rite to the 0a5or. What did the #o0an &inda tal7ed to doH
18. 4n Ouestion 1%, #hat did the #o0an that &inda tal7ed to 'i1e herH
1*. Ti005Bs "riend #anted hi0 to #al7 "aster, and he told Ti005 to hurr5. What did Ti005Bs "riend sa5 to
Ti005H
2/. Ioe told 0e a'ain and a'ain ho# 'ood his "a1orite restaurant is, but #hen 4 #ent there, 4 didnBt thin7 it
#as that 'ood. What #as 05 1isit to the restaurantH
21. 4n Ouestion 2/, ho# did 4 "eel a"ter 05 1isit to IoeBs "a1orite restaurantH
ECERCISE *:!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these nons .ro- +revios
sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
blo#up, 33 'et-to'ether, 2$ 'ro#n-up, 1/ put-do#n, 3$
brea7up, 28 'i1ea#a5, 28 lo!7out, 3/ rundo#n, 3$
!utout, 31 'oin'-o1er, 2$ lo!7out, 2*
1. The 0o1ie !riti! told the dire!tor that #at!hin' his ne# 0o1ie #as #orse than 'oin' to the dentist.
That #as ,uite a MMMMMMMMMMM.
2. The MMMMMMMMMMM o" the hu'e !o0pan5 !reated se1eral s0aller !o0panies.
3. WeBre ha1in' a little MMMMMMMMMMM toni'ht. Would 5ou li7e to !o0eH
4. (nl5 MMMMMMMMMMM are allo#ed to drin7 al!ohol.
. The MMMMMMMMMMM ended a"ter the #or7ers a'reed to a 1/ per!ent pa5 in!rease.
$. 4 heard a bi' MMMMMMMMMMM in Nan!5Bs o""i!e. 4 #onder #hat the proble0 #as.
%. The dru' dealers had a MMMMMMMMMMM on e1er5 !orner.
28%
8. Ti005 told his 0other that he hadnBt eaten an5 !oo7ies, but he had !ho!olate all o1er his "a!e, so she
7ne# he #as l5in'. The !ho!olate on his "a!e #as the MMMMMMMMMMM.
*. =e"ore 5ou spend N13,/// on a used !ar, 4 su''est that 5ou 'i1e it a thorou'h MMMMMM.
1/. Carlos 0ade paper MMMMMMMMMMM shaped li7e dinosaurs.
11. The poli!e !hie" 'a1e the 0a5or a MMMMMMM o" the pre1ious 0onthBs !ri0e statisti!s.
ECERCISE *:e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
!al0 do#n, 3$ "all do#n, 3$ hold a'ainst, 3 narro# do#n, 3
!at!h on, 33 "ool around, 3 lea1e behind, 3 pull o"", 33
do a#a5 #ith, 31 'o b5, 3 li1e #ith, 3 put do#n, 3$
e0pt5 out, 32 'o do#n, 3$ 0a7e o", 3 sit do#n, 3$
1. 65 best "riend, Ceather, reall5 li7es 6i7e, but 6i7e as7ed 0e to 'o to the dan!e #ith hi0. 4 hope
Ceather doesnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 0e.
2. The real estate a'ent has sho#n us se1eral houses, but #eB1e MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM to three that #e
reall5 li7e.
3. 6i7e too7 the #astebas7ets outside and MMMMMMMM the0 MMMMMMMM.
4. =e"ore #e 'o to the bea!h, letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMTo0Bs house and see i" he
#ants to !o0e #ith us.
. 6ariaBs a "ast learner. She had ne1er pla5ed !hess be"ore, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ri'ht a#a5.
$. No one thou'ht 4 !ould 'et 1// on the test, but 4 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
%. Nothin' li7e that e1er happened be"ore. 4 didnBt 7no# #hat to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM it,
8. Aou !an reall5 s!re# up 5our !o0puter #ith that pro'ra0, so donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith it unless
5ou 7no# #hat 5ouBre doin'.
*. Pets arenBt allo#ed #here #eBre 0o1in', so #eBre 'oin' to ha1e to MMMMMMMM our do' MMMMMMMM.
1/. Polio has been al0ost !o0pletel5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
288
11. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that )er7 "or "i"teen 5ears #as horrible.
12. Ioe #as so upset a"ter the a!!ident that it #as t#ent5 0inutes be"ore he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM enou'h
to tell the poli!e o""i!er #hat happened.
13. =e !are"ul on that i!5 side#al7 > 5ou donBt #ant to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and brea7 5our ne!7.
14. 4n the su00er the sun doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until *G// in the e1enin'.
1. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM N4,/// MMMMMMMM on 05 ne# !ar and "inan!e the rest.
1$. 4B1e been standin' all da5. 4 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
*#$ FOCUS ON< the ver& keep an! a!ver&s an!
a!ver&ia%s sho5in/ !e/rees o. varia&i%it3
Phrasa% ver&s 5ith keep
Se1eral phrasal 1erbs are based on the 1erb 7eep, and it is i0portant to understand that
the essential 0eanin' o" 7eep in these phrasal 1erbs is no !han'e. -s 5ou stud5 these
1erbs, re0e0ber than in ea!h 0eanin' o" ea!h 1erb so0ethin' is not !han'in',
so0ethin' is !ontinuin' in the sa0e dire!tion or in the sa0e 0anner, or so0ethin' is
sta5in' in the sa0e pla!e or in the sa0e !ondition.
A!ver&s an! a!ver&ia%s sho5in/ !e/rees o. varia&i%it3
- 1ariet5 o" ad1erbs and ad1erbial 'roups o" #ords that to'ether "un!tion as ad1erbs are
used to 0odi"5 phrasal 1erbs that relate to so0ethin' 1ariable, su!h as distan!e, ti0e,
!ost, speed, te0perature, a0ount, or ,uantit5.
-d1erbs and ad1erbials allo# the spea7er to be 0ore pre!ise about #hat is bein'
0easured > to sa5 #hether it #as a little or a /o" or to be pre!ise about e<a!tl5 ho#
0u!h. =ut the 1erb 0ust be so0ethin' that is 1ariable. 4n !annot be so0ethin' either/or,
su!h as shut o"", "or e<a0ple Ea TV is either on or o"" > it !annot be in bet#eenF. -d1erbs
and ad1erbials are used to stren'then the 0eanin' o" the 1erbG
%e fell asleep on the train and went well be%ond his stop.
"he fell way behind in her work when she was sick.
?eep far awa% from the fire.
to #ea7en the 0eanin' o" the 1erbG
I went a bit over my budget.
?eep slightly to the right on that road.
,e fell a little behind.
The meeting may run somewhat over. 7KL
or to be e<a!tG
.e planned two weeks ahead.
/o three floors up.
"ometimes, in informal /nglish, way is repeated for e0tra emphasis$
.hat )im said went way, way, way be%ond impolite ! it was outrageous.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
keep at
keep at < keeps at keeping at kept at kept at
($ 0ee+ at p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ at it, 5ou !ontinue #ith an a!ti1it5 e1en thou'h it 0a5 be
di""i!ult. When 5ou sa3 ?Kee+ at it@ to people, 5ou en!oura'e the0 to "inish #ith an a!ti1it5
that is di""i!ult.
I know this work is difficult, but you have to keep at
it.
?eep at it@ you(re almost finished.
keep awa%
keep awa% & keeps awa% keeping awa% kept awa% kept
awa%
($ 0ee+ a5a3 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ a5a3 or 0ee+ a5a3 "ro0 people, 5ou do not
!o0e !lose to the0 or asso!iate #ith the0. When 5ou 0ee+ a5a3 or 0ee+ a5a3 "ro0
thin's, 5ou do not tou!h the0, !o0e !lose to the0, or use the0. When 5ou 0ee+ a5a3 or
0ee+ a5a3 "ro0 pla!es, 5ou do not !o0e !lose to the0 or 'o to the0.
Mark was very sick yesterday, so everyone kept awa% from him.
.e(re going to eat dinner in a few minutes, so keep awa% from those cookies.
That(s a bad neighborhood, so keep awa% from it,
"$ 0ee+$$$ a5a3 E"ro0F p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ people or thin's a5a3 or 0ee+ the0 a5a3
"ro0 so0ethin' or so0eone else, 5ou do not allo# the0 to !o0e !lose to or asso!iate
#ith so0eone or !o0e !lose to or tou!h so0ethin'.
That dog is dangerous, so keep it awa%.
?aul has an alcohol problem, so keep him awa% from the bar at the party tomorrow.
keep down
keep down & keeps down keeping down kept down kept
down
($ 0ee+ $$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ the !ost, ,uantit5, or a0ount o" so0ethin' !o5n'
5ou 7eep it a lo# le1el.
The company tried to keep its prices down.
They wanted a smalt wedding, but they have such large families that it was hard to keep
the number of guests down.
"$ 0ee+$$$ !o5n p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ the 1olu0e o" noise, 0usi!, or !on1ersation !o5n'
3o 7eep it at a lo# le1el. When people are bein' nois5 and 5ou #ant the0 to be ,uieter,
5ou tell the0 to 0ee+ it !o5n$
2*/
.ill you please keep it down5 I(m trying to study.
8ou kids can watch TV, but keep the volume down ! your mother is taking a nap.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
keep from
keep from & keeps keeping from kept from kept from
($ 0ee+ .ro- p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ .ro- doin' so0ethin', 5ou do not do it e1en
thou'h it is hard not to.
I was so angry that I don(t know how I kept from punching that guy in the nose.
The movie was so sad that I couldn(t keep from crying.
"$ 0ee+$$$ .ro- p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ people .ro- doin' so0ethin', 5ou stop the0 "ro0 doin'
it.
)im(s girlfriend(s parents don(t like him, and they try to keep him from seeing
her.
.hen I was young, my poor health kept me from doing a lot of things the other
kids did.
keep off
keep off & keeps off keeping off kept off kept off
($ 0ee+$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ o.. so0ethin', 5ou do not #al7 or stand on it. When 5ou
0ee+ other people or thin's o.. so0ethin', 5ou do not allo# the0 to #al7 or stand on it.
The sign says :?eep off the grass.+ 8ou should keep
your kids off the streets and in school.
"$ 0ee+$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ o.. dru's, !i'arettes, or other addi!ti1e substan!es,
5ou do not use the0. When 5ou 0ee+ people o.. dru's, !i'arettes, or other addi!ti1e
substan!es, 5ou pre1ent the0 "ro0 usin' the0.
"ince getting out of ail, %ank has been able to keep off drugs.
#ed is a nice guy as long as you can keep him off boo6e.
keep on
keep on & keeps on keeping on kept on kept on
($ 0ee+ on p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ on doin' so0ethin', 5ou !ontinue doin' it.
I told her to be Fuiet, but she ust kept right on talking.
5on(t stop ! keep on going.
"$ 0ee+$$$ on p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ people on at their pla!e o" e0plo50ent, 5ou !ontinue to
e0plo5 the0.
The company decided against laying all the workers off and will instead keep a few on to
maintain eFuipment until business improves.
/veryone on the hotel staff was fired after the hotel went out of business, e0cept for two guys
who were kept on to clean and paint the building.
2*1
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
keep to
keep to & keeps to keeping to kept to kept to
($ 0ee+$$$ to p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ in"or0ation to 5oursel", 5ou do not tell an5one.
This is a secret, so keep it to yourself.
I wish she would keep her racist comments to herself@ I don(t want to hear them.
"$ 0ee+$$$ to p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ so0ethin' to a !ertain !ost, ,uantit5, or a0ount, 5ou do
not let the !ost, ,uantit5, or a0ount 'o hi'her than that le1el.
%ere(s my credit card, but keep your spending to a minimum ! don(t go cra6y with it.
The room doesn(t hold a great many people, so we have to keep the number of guests
to 733.
*$ 0ee+ to p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ to the ri'ht or le"t, 5ou !ontinue 0o1in' to the ri'ht or le"t.
.hen you pass a big red barn on the highway, keep to the right@ the e0it is right after the
barn.
Faster cars are supposed to keep to the left.
keep up
keep up & keeps up keeping up kept up kept up
($ 0ee+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ an a!ti1it5 +' 5ou !ontinue doin' it.
Geopards can run e0tremely fast, but they can(t keep it up longer than a minute or two.
I told you to stop doing that. If you keep it up I(m going to get angry.
"$ 0ee+ + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou are in a 'roup that is stud5in', #or7in', and so on, and
5ou are able to learn or #or7 at the sa0e rate as the others, 5ou 0ee+ + or 0ee+ + #ith
the 'roup. Fa%% &ehin! is the opposite o" 0ee+ +$
Gydia missed several days of school last month, and now she(s having a hard time keeping
up with the rest of the class.
The assembly line was going so fast that no one could keep up.
*$ 0ee+ + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou 0ee+ + or 0ee+ + #ith people or thin's that are
0o1in', 5ou are able to 0o1e at the sa0e rate. Fa%% &ehin! is the opposite o" 0ee+ +$
Aob walks so fast that it(s hard to keep up with him.
The wounded soldiers couldn(t keep up with the rest of the army.
6$ 0ee+ + E#ithF p.1. When 5ou !an understand and respond to a situation that is
!han'in', 5ou are able to 0ee+ + #ith the situation.
>omputer technology is changing so fast. %ow can anyone keep up with it1
)ane always has some new idea. I can(t keep up with her.
2*2
7$ 0ee+$$$ + p.1. When people or thin's 0ee+ 5ou +' the5 pre1ent 5ou "ro0 'oin' to bed, or i"
5ou are in bed, the5 pre1ent 5ou "ro0 "allin' asleep.
#ed ust would not leave last night@ he kept me up until 7$33 in the morning.
That noisy party across the alley kept me up all night.
ECERCISE *#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The studentBs e<!use "or not doin' his ho0e#or7 #as so ridi!ulous that his tea!her !ouldnBt MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM lau'hin'.
2. What 4B0 'oin' to tell 5ou is hi'hl5 !on"idential, so MMMMMM it MMMMMM 5oursel".
3. The bab5Bs !r5in' MMMMMMMM Iud5 MMMMMMMM hal" the ni'ht.
4. 8onBt ,uit no# > 5ouBre al0ost "inished. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
. The !o0pan5 in!reased its pro"its b5 MMMMMMMM !osts MMMMMMMM.
$. 4B1e tried to ,uit s0o7in' a hundred ti0es, but 4 )ust !anBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM !i'arettes lon'er than a
da5.
%. Slo#er tra""i! should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ri'ht.
8. No# that 4 li1e in Ne# Aor7, 4 !anBt MMMMM MMMM #ith lo!al ne#s in 05 ho0eto#n.
*. Sall5 is reall5 an'r5 at 5our brother, so it #ould be a 'ood idea to MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM "ro0 her.
1/. 65 al'ebra !lass is too di""i!ult "or 0e. 4 !anBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
11. AouBre 'oin' to ha1e to #al7 "aster than that i" 5ou #ant to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith us.
12. PleaseMMMMMMMM5our do'MMMMMMMMour la#n.
13. 4" 5ou donBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM5our e<er!ise pro'ra0, 5ouBre 'oin' to 'ain all the #ei'ht ba!7.
14. Could 5ou MMMMMMMM the 0usi! MMMMMMMMH Aour 0otherBs tr5in' to sleep.
1. Parents tr5 to MMMMMMMM their !hildren MMMMMMMM 0a7in' 0ista7es, but so0eti0es it isnBt eas5.
1$. 4" 5ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMeatin' so 0u!h butter and so 0an5 e''s, 5ouBre 'oin' to ha1e a heart
atta!7.
2*3
1%. The ne# o#ner said the !o0pan5 #as losin' too 0u!h 0one5 to MMMMMMMM all the #or7ers
MMMMMMMM and that so0e #ould ha1e to be laid o"".
18. &oo7 at the pri!es on this 0enu: &etBs tr5 to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM a hundred bu!7s, o7a5H
1*. 4 donBt #ant to tal7 to 5ou e1er a'ain, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "ro0 0e:
ECERCISE *#& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 65 "ather as7ed 0e to spea7 0ore ,uietl5. What did 05 "ather as7 0e to doH
2. 4 told the tra1el a'ent that #e ha1e onl5 N4,/// to spend on our 1a!ation, so she has to 0a7e sure the
!ost doesnBt 'o o1er that. What did 4 as7 the tra1el a'ent to doH
3. 65 'eo0etr5 !lass is so borin' that 4 !anBt stop 05sel" "ro0 "allin' asleep. What !anBt 4 do in 05
'eo0etr5 !lassH
4. 65 tea!her told 0e that !al!ulus is di""i!ult but that 4 ha1e to !ontinue tr5in' to understand it. What did
05 tea!her tell 0eH
. The politi!al situation in Washin'ton !han'es e1er5 da5, and itBs hard to understand #hat is
happenin'. What is it hard to doH
$. Sarah and 4 #ere runnin'. 4 ,uit a"ter three 0iles, but she !ontinued runnin'. What did Sarah doH
%. AouB1e 'ot to re0ain at a 'reat distan!e "ro0 this area be!ause it is radioa!ti1e. What ha1e 5ou 'ot to
do about the radioa!ti1e areaH
8. Ceather thin7s 6i7e isnBt tellin' her e1er5thin'. What does Ceather thin7 about 6i7eH
*. Iani!e 'ot e<!ellent 'rades in her "irst 5ear o" !olle'e. 4 hope she !an !ontinue to do #ell. What do 4
hope Iani!e !an doH
1/. 4 as7ed 05 husband not to let the !hildren near 05 !o0puter. What did 4 as7 05 husbandH
11. The e!ono0ist said itBs i0portant not to let in"lation 'o hi'her. What did the e!ono0ist sa5H
12. =ill hasnBt used dru's "or "i1e 5ears. What has =ill doneH
2*4
13. 65 son is ei'hteen, so 4 !anBt stop hi0 i" he #ants to )oin the -r05. What !anBt 4 do to 05 sonH
*H. "arah(s having a little trouble in school. It(s hard for her to stay at the same level as the other
students. .hat is hard for "arah1
ECERCISE *#c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE *#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ba!7 do#n, 3$ !o0e on, 3% 'oo" around, 33 lea1e o1er, 3%
brush o"", 3% "all behind, 33 han' out, 3% run do#n, 3$
!al0 do#n, 3$ "all do#n, 3$ 7no# about, 33 sit do#n, 3$
!o0e about, 33 'o do#n, 3$ la5 do#n, 3$ tal7 to, 3%
*. Naul is constantly critici6ing me, but I usually ust &&&&&&&& him &&&&&&&&.
7. I can barely hear this radio. The batteries must be &&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&.
2. .hen the electricians went on strike, the entire construction proect &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& schedule.
H. )ake(s claim that he accidentally shot Tony si0 times didn(t &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& well with the ury.
D. The dictator &&&&&&&& &&&&&&&& after three aircraft carriers started sailing toward his country.
2*
$. 4 need to !he!7 the "urna!e. The te0perature 'ot belo# si<t5 de'rees last ni'ht, but the heat didnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. - bi', old tree MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last ni'ht and s0ashed a hole in our roo".
8. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > thereBs nothin' to 'et upset about.
*. Se1eral 0a)or !han'es in so!iet5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM as a result o" the industrial re1olution.
1/. -re 5ou 'oin' to do an5 #or7 at all toda5 or #ill 5ou )ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH
11. 8onBt #aste 5our ti0e as7in' ;ri7? he doesnBt MMMMMMMM an5thin' MMMMMMMM it.
12. Ti005Bs 0other MMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMM and tal7ed to hi0 about his bad 'rades.
13. Co# 0u!h 0one5 #as MMMMMM MMMMMM a"ter 5ou "inished pa5in' "or e1er5thin'H
14. Aou !an MMMMMMMM those papers MMMMMMMM o1er there.
1. 4 donBt ha1e an5thin' to do toda5. 4B0 )ust 'oin' to MMMMM MMMMM here and rela<.
1$. 4B0 so 0ad at her. 4Bll ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her a'ain:
*D$ FOCUS ON< +assive +hrasa% ver&s' *
-s #e sa# in Se!tion 13, the passi1e is "or0ed #ith be and the past parti!iple o" the 1erb. -
nu0ber o" 0odal au<iliar5 1erbs and si0ilar !onstru!tions are !o00onl5 used #ith beG
The meat will be chopped up by the cook.
Mark would never be picked up at the airport by a limo.
This mess can be straightened out only by me.
"uch a huge country couldn(t be taken over easily.
%er name should be crossed off the list.
The gas tank ought to be filled up before you return the car.
The concert might be sold out.
8our paychecks may not be picked up until after D$33.
The enemy must be wiped out.
I have to be picked up on time.
The fruit has to be chopped up with a clean knife.
This screwup had better be straightened out soon or you will be firedE
This stuff was supposed to be taken over to #ancy(s house yesterday.
2*$
+e!all "ro0 Se!tion 28 that phrasal 1erbs in the passi1e !annot be separated b5 an
ob)e!t be!ause in a passi1e senten!e there is no ob)e!t.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
chop
up
chop up < chops up chopping up chopped up chopped up
($ cho+$$$ + p.1. When 5ou cho+ so0ethin' +' 5ou !ut it into s0all pie!es #ith a 7ni"e or
other sharp instru0ent.
5oes this meat have to be chopped up"
+hop it up into pieces about half an inch in si6e.
cho++e! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been !ut into s0all pie!es #ith a 7ni"e or other sharp
instru0ent, it is cho++e! +$
Mi0 the chopped-up onions and celery with the mayonnaise.
cross off
cross off & crosses off crossing off crossed off
crossed off
($ cross$$$ o.. p.1. When 5ou cross so0ethin' o.. a list, 5ou dra# a line throu'h it to re0o1e it
"ro0 the list.
.hy was my name crossed off the invitation list1
+rossing it off was a mistake.
crosse! o.. part.ad). -"ter a line has been dra#n throu'h so0ethin' on a list to re0o1e it
"ro0 the list, it is crosse! o..$
%ere(s the grocery list, but don(t get this crossed-off stuff! I already got it.
fill up
fill up & fills up filling up filled up filled up
($ .i%% $$$+ p.1. When 5ou .i%% so0ethin' up, 5ou "ill it !o0pletel5.
My radiator must be leaking@ it has to be filled up with water every day.
.e always fill the tank up when we(re in Indiana because gas is cheaper there.
.i%%e! + part.ad). -"ter so0ethin' has been !o0pletel5 .i%%e! +' it is .i%%e! +$
These water containers don(t weigh very much. 're you sure they(re
completely filled up1
"$ .i%%$$$ + EonF p.1. When 5ou .i%% + or .i%% + on so0ethin', 5ou eat so 0u!h that 5ou are no
lon'er hun'r5 and !annot eat an5 0ore.
5on(t fill up on salad ! you won(t have any room for dinner.
I filled up on candy and was really sick about an hour later.
*$ .i%% + p.1. When a roo0 or other area .i%%s +' people enter it until it is "ull.
2*%
The dance floor filled up Fuickly when the band began to play.
The hotels in Nio de )aneiro always fill up at carnival time.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
pick up
pick up < picks up picking up picked up picked up
($ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou pi!7 so0ethin' up, 5ou li"t it #ith 5our hand.
'll this trash has to be picked up.
"am picked up his briefcase and left his office.
"$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 'o to a pla!e to 'et so0ethin' that #as !reated,
prepared, or le"t "or 5ou and is no# read5, 5ou +ic0 it +$
The garbage is supposed to be picked up before L$33 'M.
The travel agent said I could pick the tickets up tomorrow.
+ic0+ n. So0ethin' that is to be +ic0e! + or the pro!ess o" +ic0in/ it + is a
+ic0+$
The restaurant uses the back door for pickups and deliveries.
*$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 people +' 5ou stop 5our 1ehi!le and 'i1e the0 a ride a#a5
"ro0 that pla!e.
8ou(ll be picked up at the airport by the hotel van.
3icking up hitchhikers is dangerous.
+ic0+ n. So0eone #ho is to be +ic0e! + or the pro!ess o" +ic0in/ so0eone + is a
+ic0+$
The ta0i driver went to 7*77 #. dark "treet for a pickup.
6$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 so0ethin' + in a store, 5ou ,ui!7l5 'o into a store to bu5
so0ethin' 5ou need.
I need to pick up some milk on the way home.
>ould you pick a loaf of bread up on your way
over1
7$ +ic0$$$ + p. 1. When 5ou +ic0+ a s7ill, 5ou learn it easil5. When 5ou +ic0 + a
habit, you aFuire the habit.
>hildren can pick up a new language very Fuickly. My son
is picking some bad habits up from his friends.
8$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou resu0e doin' so0ethin' at the point #here 5ou stopped
doin' it earlier, 5ou +ic0 + at that point.
The teacher started the class by picking up where she had left off the previous week.
.hen you return to work after a long vacation, it(s hard to know where to pick up.
:$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 + a radio or tele1ision station or a !ertain
"re,uen!5 on a re!ei1er, 5ou are able to tune it to that station or "re,uen!5.
2*8
.hen the weather is right,you can pick radio stations up that are hundreds of miles away.
Ieneral )ohnston(s radio transmission was picked up by the enemy.
#$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When the poli!e or other authorities arrest people, the5 +ic0 the0 +$
The border patrol picks up several people every day trying to bring drugs into the country.
>harles was picked up for driving under the influence of alcohol.
D$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou 'et so0ethin' b5 !han!e #ithout loo7in' "or it, 5ou +ic0 it +$
# picked up a few stock tips from a guy I met on the plane.
Marsha picked up some interesting books at a used bookstore.
()$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 + the !he!7 or the tab Ea tab is a list o" 0one5 that
so0eone o#esF in a restaurant or other pla!e, 5ou pa5 it.
Tom(s a real cheapskate@ he never picks up the check.
%eather(s father picked up the tab for the entire wedding.
(($ +ic0 + p.1. When the speed, le1el, or !ondition o" so0ethin' in!reases or
i0pro1es, it +ic0s +$
Ausiness is stow this time of year, but it should pick up in 5ecember.
The song starts out slowly, but then it picks up.
+ic0+ n. -n i0pro1e0ent in the speed, le1el, or !ondition o" so0ethin' is a +ic0+$ 4" a
0otor 1ehi!le is able to a!!elerate ,ui!7l5, it has +ic0+$
The company(s profits increased after a pickup in sales.
I need to take my truck to the mechanic. It doesn(t have an% pickup.
("$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. When 5ou +ic0 + a pla!e that is 0ess5, 5ou or'aniDe or tid5 it.
Timmy(s mother told him he couldn(t play outside until he picked up his room.
Get(s pick this place up ! it(s a mess.
(*$ +ic0$$$ + p.1. Jin"or0alK When 5ou +ic0 + 0e0bers o" the opposite se<, 5ou
approa!h and su!!ess"ull5 interest the0 in a se<ual or ro0anti! en!ounter.
%ank tried to pick up Frank(s sister at the party last night, but she wasn(t interested.
?at picked up someone, and they went to a cheap motel.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
sell out
sell out & sells out selling out sold out sold out
($ se%% ot Eo"F Jo"ten passi1eK p.1. When a store se%%s ot o" so0ethin' or is so%! ot o" so0ethin',
it sells all o" it.
2**
The toy store sold out of antigravity boots in two days.
I wanted to buy that new computer game, but every store I went to was sold out of
it.
so%! ot part.ad). -"ter all o" so0ethin' "or sale in a store has been sold, the ite0 is so%!
ot$
I saw the most beautiful shoes at the mall, but my si6e was all sold out.
so%! ot part.ad). -"ter all the ti!7ets to a !on!ert, pla5, or other publi! per"or0an!e ha1e
been sold, the e1ent is so%! ot$
8ou(ll never get a ticket for the "uperbowl ! it(s been sold out for weeks.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past
participle
straighten
out
straighten out & straightens out straightening out straightened out straightened
($ strai/hten $$$ ot p.1. When so0ethin' is bent, !roo7ed, or !ur1ed and 5ou 0a7e it
strai'ht, 5ou strai/hten it ot$
My elbow is so swollen that I can(t straighten my arm out.
's the city grew, many of the winding streets were straightened
out.
"$ strai/hten $$$ ot p.1. When 5ou strai/hten ot a !on"used situation or 0isun-
derstandin', 5ou ta7e steps to 0a7e it understandable and satis"a!tor5 to e1er5one
in1ol1ed. Sort ot is si0ilar to strai/hten ot$
My hotel had me booked for the wrong days in the wrong room, but the manager
straightened everything out.
"ave your Fuestions for the meeting. /verything will be straightened out then.
strai/htene! ot part.ad). -"ter a !on"used situation or 0isunderstandin' has been 0ade
understandable and satis"a!tor5 to e1er5one in1ol1ed, it is strai/htene! ot$ Sorte! ot
is si0ilar to strai/htene! ot$
/rik was upset with 5an, but they had a talk and now everything is straightened out.
*$ strai/hten $$$ ot p.1. When 5ou strai/hten ot people #ho are a!tin' "oolishl5, 5ou do
or sa5 so0ethin' that !auses the0 to a!t 0ore responsibl5. When 5ou strai/hten ot
people #ho are !on"used, 5ou help the0 to understand.
I told my son that if he gets in trouble one more time, I(m going to send him to military
school. That really straightened him out.
I(m totally confused about what I(m supposed to do. >an you straighten me out"
take over
take over & takes over taking over took over taken
over
($ ta0e$$$ over EtoF p.1. When 5ou ta7e so0ethin' "ro0 one pla!e to another, 5ou ta0e it
over or ta0e it over to a person or pla!e.
)ane(s at home sick, so I(m going to take some chicken soup over.
'fter I finished my report, I took it over to the finance department.
3//
"$ ta0e$$$ over p.1. When people, 'roups, or !ountries ta7e !ontrol o" a pla!e b5 "or!e,
the5 ta0e it over$
'fter the government troops fled, the country was taken over by the
rebels.
The hiackers took over the plane and ordered the pilot to fly to %avana.
ta0eover n$ A ta0eover is an a!tion to ta7e !ontrol o" a !ountr5, !it5, buildin', or other
pla!e b5 "or!e.
If the situation doesn(t stabili6e soon, there(s a real chance of a military takeover.
*$ ta0e over E"ro0/asF p.1. When people are ele!ted, appointed, or hired to ta7e !ontrol
o" a !ountr5, state, !it5, business, s!hool, buildin', and so on, and to repla!e the people
in !ontrol, the5 ta0e over' ta0e over as so0ethin', or ta0e over "ro0 so0eone.
>artos =rtega will be taking over as sales manager ne0t year.
=rtega took over from Margaret >ummings, who had been the sales
manager for *H years.
ta0eover n. When people #ho are ele!ted, appointed, or hired ta7e !ontrol o" a !ountr5,
state, !it5, business, s!hool, buildin', and so on, and repla!e the people in !ontrol, a
ta0eover o!!urs.
'fter the takeover the new president made a lot of changes.
6$ ta0e over E"orF p.1. When 5ou start to do a )ob or so0e #or7 that other people are
doin' in order to allo# the0 to ta7e a brea7 or be!ause the pre1ious shi"t has ended and
a ne# shi"t has be'un, 5ou ta0e over$ When 5ou assu0e an obli'ation or a!!ept
responsibilit5 "ro0 so0eone, 5ou ta0e it over$
.e work from H$33 ?.M. to midnight, and then the graveyard shift takes over.
.hen Ginda was sick she couldn(t care for her children, so her sister took
over for her until she was well again.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
wipe
out
wipe out < wipes out wiping out wiped out wiped out
($ 5i+e$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou re0o1e dirt or li,uid "ro0 the inside o" a !ontainer #ith
a !loth, spon'e, or paper to#el, 5ou 5i+e it ot$
(ipe the microwave out ! it(s got spaghetti sauce inside it.
I wiped out the inside of the glasses so they wouldn(t dry
with spots.
"$ 5i+e$$$ ot p.1. When 5ou are tr5in' to 7ill people, #eeds, inse!ts, and so on, and
5ou 7ill all o" the0, 5ou #ipe the0 ot$
'n entire regiment was wiped out in the
battle.
The general said he would wipe out the
rebels.
5i+eot n. - situation in #hi!h all people, #eeds, inse!ts, and so on, are 7illed is a
5i+eot$
The battle was a complete wipeout. #ot a single soldier survived.
23*
ECERCISE *Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Aour pi!tures are read5 and !an be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bet#een 1/G// -.6. and $G// P.6.
2. 4 didnBt 'et the boo7 4 #anted be!ause the store #as MMMMMMM MMMMMMM o" the0.
3. ThereBs a lot o" !on"usion about the ne# poli!5. We need to ha1e a 0eetin' to MMMMMMM
e1er5thin' MMMMMMMM.
4. The 1i!e-president MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter the president died.
. Susie, 5our roo0 is 1er5 0ess5. Co0e in here and MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM ri'ht no#:
$. 6r. Nelson as7ed 0e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or &5dia #hile sheBs on 1a!ation.
%. Sales o" air !onditioners al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the sprin'.
8. 4" #e 'et a bi''er antenna, #e 0i'ht be able to MMMMM a lot 0ore stations MMMMMM.
*. 4t too7 0e an hour to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM e1er5thin' "or the bee" ste#.
1/. The soldiers #ere ordered to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the rebels.
11. Sall5 !alled and as7ed 0e to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a "e# thin's on the #a5 ho0e.
12. - !ountr5 this s0all !ould be MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM in a "e# da5s.
13. 4 #ish 4 hadnBt MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM on bread. No# 4 !anBt "inish 05 dinner.
14. 4B0 'oin' to pla5 'ol" #ith Charles ne<t #ee7. CeBs reall5 'ood, so 0a5be 4 !an MMMMMM
MMMMMMMM a "e# #a5s to i0pro1e 05 'a0e.
1. The theater MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM ten 0inutes be"ore the start o" the opera.
1$. 65 !arBs "ra0e #as so badl5 da0a'ed in the a!!ident that there #as no #a5 it !ould be
MMMMMMMM.
1%. Aou donBt need to ta7e an5 0one5 to the restaurant. 9aren said she #ould MMMMMM MMMMMMMM
the !he!7.
18. 8onBt )ust !lean the outsides o" the des7s > MMMMMMMM the insides MMMMMMMM, too.
1*. 4Bll be arri1in' at 3G4/ -.6. Would MMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMM that earl5 be a proble0H
2/. Can7Bs 'i1in' orders li7e heBs the president o" the !o0pan5. So0eone needs to MMMMM MMM
hi0 MMMMMMMM.
3/2
21. S0o7in' is a bad habit that 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the Na15.
22. &etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM these !anteens be"ore #e be'in our hi7e.
23. This !ou!h is reall5 hea15. Can 5ou help 0e MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMMH
24. -"ter 5ou 'et 5our pa5!he!7, 5ou !an MMMMMMM it MMMMMM to the !ashier to !ash it.
2. Can 5ou belie1e #hat Can7 didH Ce tried toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe bossBs dau'hter at the !o0pan5
pi!ni!.
2$. 4 "inished pa'e 4% 5esterda5, so 4Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on pa'e 48 toda5.
2%. Aou !an MMMMMMMM 05 na0e MMMMMMMM the list? 4B1e !han'ed 05 0ind.
ECERCISE *D& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. Ca1e 5ou chopped upH Ethe onions, the0F
2. Aou !an !ross off. E&indaBs na0e, herF
3. (ill up #ith #ater, Ethe a,uariu0, itF
4. 4 need to pick up at the train station, E05 parents, the0F
3/3
. Can 5ou straighten outH Ethis 0ess, itF
$. The rebels took over. Ethe ro5al pala!e, itF
%. The5 wiped out. Ethe pala!e 'uard, the0F
ECERCISE *Dc ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. The !onstru!tion business al#a5s i0pro1es in the sprin'. What does the !onstru!tion
business al#a5s doH
2. Pirates 0i'ht ta7e !ontrol o" the ship. What 0i'ht happen to the shipH
3. 4n Ouestion 2, i" pirates too7 !ontrol o" the ship, #hat #ould this a!tion be !alledH
4. There #as a 0isunderstandin' at #or7, but Ni!ole e<plained e1er5thin' to the people in1ol1ed,
and no# the5 understand. What did she doH
. 4n Ouestion 4, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the 0isunderstandin' no#H
$. 2ran7 #as supposed to 'o to the "a!tor5 so he !ould 'i1e Ned a ride ho0e. What #as
supposed to happen to NedH
%. -ll the people in the to#n #ill be 7illed #hen the ene05 !aptures it. What #ill happen to all the
people in the to#nH
3/4
8. So0eone ou'ht to dra# a line throu'h 9arenBs na0e on the list. What ou'ht to be done to 9arenBs
na0eH
*. 4n Ouestion 8, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe 9arenBs na0e a"ter so0eone dra#s a line throu'h itH
1/. Sarah #ent to the store to bu5 a C8, but the5 had all been sold. What did the store doH
11. 4n Ouestion 1/, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe the C8sH
12. To0 tried to bu5 a ti!7et "or the !on!ert, but all the ti!7ets had been sold. Wh5 !ouldnBt To0 bu5 a
ti!7et "or the !on!ertH
13. Aou !ut so0e ba!on into 1er5 s0all pie!es be"ore 5ou put it on 5our salad. What #as done to the
ba!onH
14. The laundr5 !loses at $G//, so Iane has to 'o there be"ore $G// to 'et her dress. What has to be done
to the dressH
1. The !opilot "le# the plane so that the pilot !ould eat dinner. What did the !opilot doH
1$. Todd o"ten as7s 0e to stop at the store and bu5 a ne#spaper. What does Todd o"ten as7 0e to
doH
1%. 4Bll tell Susie not to 0a7e the #ater in the bathtub rise all the #a5 to the top. What #ill 4 tell
SusieH
18. 4 stopped #ritin' 05 boo7 at pa'e *4 and later started #ritin' a'ain on pa'e *. What did 4
doH
ECERCISE *D!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
bite o"", 2% !o0e out, 32 lea1e out, 32 pull o1er, 1*
blo# up, 33 !ut do#n, 23 loo7 o1er, 21 settle do#n, 21
brea7 o"", 2% hand o1er, 1* 0a7e up, 23 slo# do#n, 24
brin' ba!7, 1* 7no!7 o"", 2% pi!7 on, 21 #ear do#n, 1%
1. 8a1idBs 0other told hi0 sheBd li7e so0e 'rand!hildren, but heBs ha1in' too 0u!h "un as a
ba!helor and isnBt interested in MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3/
2. 4 didnBt "inish 05 #or7 be!ause 4 #as trainin' a ne# e0plo5ee, and e<plainin' e1er5thin' reall5
MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM.
3. =obBs do!tor told hi0 he #as doin' too 0u!h #ei'ht li"tin' and that he should MMMMMMM MMMMMM.
4. The 0o1ie #asnBt the sa0e as the no1el. Se1eral !hara!ters #ere MMMMMM MMMMMM.
. When 4 !au'ht 05 si<teen-5ear-old dau'hter s0o7in' !i'arettes, 4 reall5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMM.
$. 4 didnBt sa5 5ou !ould use 05 !ar. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM those 7e5s ri'ht no#:
%. There 0ust be so0ethin' #ron' #ith 05 !a0era > none o" the pi!tures 4 too7 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMM.
8. Can 4 borro# 5our "ood pro!essorH 4 pro0ise 4Bll MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM to0orro#.
*. WeB1e been #or7in' sin!e %G// -.6. &etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMand "inish to0orro#.
1/. ;1er5thin' on the 0enu loo7s deli!ious. 4 )ust !anBt MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 05 0ind.
11. 4" 5ou donBt stop MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM 0e, 4B0 'oin' to tell 6o005.
12. 4 told 6ar7 not to pet the lion, but he didnBt listen, and his hand #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMM.
13. Ce realiDed he #as lost, so he MMMMMMMMM his !ar MMMMMMMMM and loo7ed at a 0ap.
14. 65 son as7ed 0e "or a 0otor!5!le "or his birthda5, but 4 told hi0 no, so heBs tr5in' to MMMMMMMM 0e
MMMMMMMM b5 as7in' 0e a'ain and a'ain and a'ain.
1. 4 'a1e 05 )ob appli!ation to the hu0an resour!es dire!tor, and he said heBd MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
and 'i1e 0e a !all.
1$. 8o 5ou ha1e an5 'lueH (ne o" the ar0s has MMMMMMM MMMMMMMthis !era0i! doll.
3/$
6)$ FOCUS ON< /ern! +hrasa% ver&s vs$ +hrasa%
ver&s .o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .or-
We ha1e seen in pre1ious se!tions that phrasal 1erbs are so0eti0es "ollo#ed b5 the -ing "or0.
We ha1e also seen that transiti1e phrasal 1erbs so0eti0es ta7e 'erund ob)e!ts. -t a 'lan!e,
there see0s to be no di""eren!e bet#een these t#o !onstru!tionsG
)im went away singing.
-in' "or0
)im stuck with singing.
'erund
=ut be!ause a 'erund is a 1erb "un!tionin' as a noun, it !an be repla!ed #ith an ordinar5
non'erund noun. Co#e1er, this is not true o" the -ing "or0G
)im went away it. )im
stuck with it.
4n"initi1e
present tense -in' "or0 past tense past parti!iple
blow off
blo# o"" P blo#s o"" blo#in' o"" ble# o"" blo#n o""
($ &%o5$$$ o.. p.v. *informal+ When 5ou do not do so0ethin' that 5ou are supposed to do
be!ause 5ou do not #ant to or be!ause 5ou do not thin7 it is i0portant, 5ou &%o5 it o..$
l was supposed to report for jury duty Monday morning, but blew it off.
!ob had a hangover, so he blew off helping Marsha fi" her car.
&rin/ +
bring up & brings up bringing up brought up brought up
($ &rin/ $$$+ EtoF p.v. When people brin' so0ethin' "ro0 a hi'her le1el or position or "ro0
south to north to #here 5ou are, the5 &rin/ it + or &rin/ it + to #here 5ou are.
#ould you please go downstairs and bring up the package that was just delivered$
%he rescue workers brought morphine up to the injured mountain climber.
"$ &rin/ $$$ + p.v. When 5ou introdu!e a ne# topi! into a !on1ersation, 5ou &rin/ it
+$
&ast night during dinner, 'ad brought up the idea of saving money by staying home instead
of taking a vacation this year.
(ou and your big mouth) #e were having a great time until you brought that up.
*$ &rin/ $$$ + EtoF p.v. When 5ou &rin/ + !hildren, 5ou !are "or the0 as the5 'ro# to adulthood.
When 5ou &rin/ + !hildren to belie1e so0ethin' or to beha1e in a !ertain #a5, 5ou tr5 to tea!h this
belie" or beha1ior to the0.
3/%
%om was born in *anada, but he was brought up in the +nited States.
Bringing ,uadruplets up is a lot of work.
was brought up to believe in honesty and compassion.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
burst
out
burst out < bursts out bursting out burst out burst out
($ &rst ot p.v. When 5ou &rst ot lau'hin' or !r5in', 5ou be'in lau'hin' or !r5in'
loudl5 and suddenl5.
Heather burst out laughing when fell into the swimming pool.
#hen Sam heard the news, he burst out crying.
come back
come back & comes back coming back came back come
back
($ co-e &ac0 Etol"ro0F p.v. When people return to a pla!e #here 5ou are, the5 co-e &ac0 or
co-e &ac0 to that pla!e or co-e &ac0 "ro0 the pla!e #here the5 #ere be"ore.
%odd went to -lorida thinking it would be hot and sunny, but he came back talking
about how cold and rainy it was.
'm never coming back to this awful place again.
"$ co-e&ac0 p.v. When people, or'aniDations, !o0panies, or athletes o1er!o0e di""i!ulties
and be!o0e su!!ess"ul a'ain, the5 co-e &ac0$
My home team came back from last place and won the championship.
Senator 'olittle lost in ./00, but he came back to win in .//H.
co-e&ac0 n. When people, or'aniDations, !o0panies, or sports tea0s o1er!o0e di""i!ulties
and be!o0e su!!ess"ul a'ain, the5 0a7e a co-e&ac0$
%he !ulls were down by 12 points but won the game with an .03
point lead 4 what a comeback!
*$ co-e &ac0 p.v. When a !ondition, proble0, situation, or a!ti1it5 returns or 'reatl5
in!reases, it co-es &ac0$
l need to see the doctor. %he pain in my shoulder has come back.
%here isn't much chance that double3digit inflation will come back any time soon.
co-e&ac0 n. When a !ondition, proble0, situation, or a!ti1it5 returns or 'reatl5
in!reases, it 0a7es a co-e&ac0$
Health officials are concerned that tuberculosis is making a comeback.
6$ co-e &ac0 p.v. When a "ashion or "ad co-es &ac0' it be!o0es popular a'ain.
Miniskirts are coming back this year.
#estern movies and %5 shows go out of style and then come back every few years.
3/8
co-e&ac0 n. When a "ashion or "ad be!o0es popular a'ain, it 0a7es a co-e&ac0$ l
saved all my wide neckties because knew they%d make a comeback someday.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
get off on
get off on < gets off
on
getting off on got off on gotten off on
($ /et o.. on p.v. *informal+ When 5ou /et o.. on so0ethin' or /et o.. on doin' so0ethin', 5ou
"ind it en)o5able and e<!itin'.
Sally loves winter sports, and she especially gets off on snowboarding.
Mountain climbing is what get off on.
go awa%
go awa% & goes awa% going awa% went awa% gone awa%
($ /o a5a3 p.v. When 5ou lea1e a pla!e or lea1e a person, 5ou /o a5a3$
/o away! 'm trying to study.
Mark went away not reali6ing he had left his briefcase behind.
"$ /o a5a3 E"orF p.v. When 5ou tra1el "or a period o" ti0e, 5ou /o a5a3 "or this ti0e.
#e always go away for a few weeks in the winter.
&ydia is going to go away for a while.
*$ /o a5a3 EtoF p.v. When 5ou lea1e 5our ho0e and li1e te0poraril5 at another
pla!e, su!h as a s!hool, 5ou /o a5a3 to that pla!e.
7ane didn't go away to school8 she went to a school near her home.
Some young people are nervous about going away to school, but others
look forward to it.
6$ /o a5a3 p.v. When a !ondition, proble0, situation, or a!ti1it5 disappears or 'reatl5
de!reases, it /oes a5a3$
l have a pain in my back that never goes away.
f the rain doesn't go away, we'll have to call off the
game.
run around
run around & runs around running around ran around run around
($ rn aron! p.v. When 5ou rn aron! a pla!e, 5ou run to 1arious parts o" it.
&he cat ran around the room chasing the mouse.
&he children were running around the museum, and the guard told them to stop.
"$ rn aron! p.v. When 5ou rn aron! doin' so0ethin', 5ou 'o to 1arious pla!es tr5in'
ur'entl5 to a!!o0plish so0ethin' that is i0portant to 5ou.
%he woman was running around the store looking for her lost child.
#e ran around the house trying to rescue whatever we could from the
rising floodwater.
3/*
rnaron! n. When people are not honest #ith 5ou or help"ul to 5ou, the5 'i1e 5ou the
rnaron!$
#hy didn't you just tell me the truth instead of giving me the runaround?
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
stick with
stick with < sticks with sticking with stuck with stuck with
($ stic0 5ith p.v. When 5ou stic0 5ith a habit, plan, or t5pe o" #or7, 5ou !ontinue as be"ore,
#ithout !han'e. Stic0 to is si0ilar to stic0 5ith$
l don't like computers. 'll stick with writing letters by hand.
%odd thought about a career change but decided to stick with teaching.
"$ stic0 5ith p.v. When 5ou stic0 5ith so0ethin' that 5ou use, 5ou !ontinue to use
it.
My wife wants me to switch to decaffeinated coffee, but 'm going to stick with regular.
My mother has stuck with vory soap for forty years.
*$ stic0 5ith p.v. When 5ou stic0 5ith people, 5ou re0ain #ith the0 or re0ain lo5al to the0.
t'll be very crowded at the festival, so stick with me so you don't get lost.
%hat other guy running for senator has some good ideas, but 'm going to stick
with Senator 'olittle.
6$ stic0 $$$ 5ith p.v. When 5ou stic0 people 5ith so0ethin', 5ou "or!e the0 to ta7e
so0ethin' or deal #ith so0ethin' undesirable or unpleasant.
'm sorry to stick you with all this work, but you're the only one who can do it.
%he shoes bought don't fit, but the store where bought them doesn't accept
returns, so guess 'm stuck with them.
ECERCISE 6)a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 didnBt 7no# an5one at the part5 e<!ept &eti!ia, so 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
2. -ll Ti005Bs "riends are MMMMMM MMMMMM "or the su00er, so he #onBt ha1e an5one to pla5 #ith.
3. 4 ha1e a )ob inter1ie# at 8G3/ 6onda5 0ornin', but thatBs too earl5 "or 0e, so 0a5be 4Bll )ust
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
4. 6i'uel #as surprised ho# 0u!h he en)o5ed #at!hin' "i'ure s7atin'. Ce reall5 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMit.
31/
. &inda MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "ro0 the part5 tal7in' about #hat a 'ood ti0e she had.
$. SusieBs birthda5 part5 e<hausted 0e. The 7ids #ere MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM 5ellin' and s!rea0in' "or
hours.
%. 4 'a1e 05 'rand"ather a !o0puter, but he said heBd rather MMMMMM MMMMMM his old t5pe#riter.
8. 65 'rand0other #as MMMMMM M MMMMM on a "ar0, but she 0o1ed to the !it5 #hen she 'ot 0arried.
*. 8an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu5in' a 0otorboat, but his #i"e said it #as a !raD5 idea.
1/. 4 7no# runnin' is 'reat e<er!ise, but 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM s#i00in'.
11. 4 hope hi'h-heel shoes ne1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? the5Bre so un!o0"ortable.
12. The stran'e noise in 05 en'ine has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM, so 4B0 'oin' to ta7e the !ar to a 0e!hani!
a'ain.
13. 4 as7ed the 0e!hani! #h5 the sound 7eeps MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and !o0in' ba!7.
14. =obBs )o7e #as prett5 "unn5. ;1er5oneMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMlau'hin'.
1. =ett5 s0elled s0o7e, and she MMMMMM MMMMMMM the house "ranti!all5 loo7in' "or
the sour!e.
1$. Wh5 does the boss MMMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMMM 0a7in' !o""ee e1er5 0ornin'H Wh5 !anBt so0eone
else do itH
1%. 4 sa1ed 05 "ather a lot o" 0one5 b5 not MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM to s!hool.
18. -"ter his de"eat, the "or0er !ha0pion said he #ould MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1*. 2ran7 !a0e to 05 door #ith "lo#ers and an apolo'5, but 4 told hi0 to MMMM MMMM.
2/. Whene1er 05 brother in 2lorida 1isits 0e here in 6innesota, he MMMMMMMM so0e oran'es
ECERCISE 6)& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. The5Bre not "ollo#in' the ori'inal plan. What arenBt the5 doin'H
2. 4 too7 so0e aspirin, and 05 heada!he #as 'one "or a #hile, but no# 4 ha1e a heada!he a'ain. What
did 05 heada!he doH
311
3. Aou started to !r5 suddenl5 and loudl5. What did 5ou doH
4. Can7 #as supposed to 0eet #ith his parole o""i!er in the 0ornin', but he didnBt 'o be!ause he
#anted to sleep late. What did Can7 do to his 0eetin' #ith his parole o""i!erH
. The hotel des7 !ler7 didnBt tell 0e he had !an!eled 05 reser1ation b5 0ista7e. 4nstead he in1ented
a lot o" !raD5 e<!uses that he 7ne# #erenBt true. What did the hotel des7 !ler7 doH
$. ToddBs sister #as 1er5 upset, and he as7ed #hat the proble0 #as, but she told hi0 to lea1e her
alone. What did ToddBs sister as7 hi0 to doH
%. S7iin' is #hat Ceather li7es 0ore than an5thin'. Co# does Ceather "eel about s7iin'H
8. ;1er5one in the "a!tor5 #as bus5, so #hen the deli1er5 tru!7 !a0e, 8a1id #as "or!ed to unload it
b5 hi0sel". What happened to 8a1idH
*. Nan!5 be'an tal7in' about )oinin' the Pea!e Corps. What did Nan!5 doH
1/. The nu0ber o" people #ith 0alaria de!reased, but no# the nu0ber is in!reasin' e1er5 5ear. What
is 0alaria doin'H
11. Po1ert5 is a proble0 that ne1er de!reases or disappears. What doesnBt po1ert5 doH
12. Aou #ent on a business trip three #ee7s a'o, and 5ou ha1enBt returned 5et. What ha1enBt 5ou done
5etH
13. Ned had to !all his bro7er i00ediatel5, so he ran to 1arious pla!es loo7in' "or a telephone. What
did Ned doH
14. 4t #ould be ni!e to lea1e this !it5 "or a #ee7 or t#o. What #ould be ni!eH
1. When 4 #as 5oun', 05 parents tau'ht 0e to belie1e in the 'olden rule. What did 05
parents doH
ECERCISE 6)c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Tr3 to se either /ern!s or the -ing .or-$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE 6)!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ba!7 do#n, 3$ 'o do#n, 3$ lead up to, 34 sti!7 around, 34
do o1er, 34 'o out, 32 0a7e o", 3 sti!7 to, 34
"ool around, 3 hold a'ainst, 3 put up to, 34 ta7e ba!7, 34
'o b5, 3 la5 do#n, 3$ run do#n, 3$ tri!7 into, 3
1. -t s!hool, &uis 'ot into a lot o" trouble "or so0ethin' 4 did, and no# heMMMMMMMMit MMMMMMMM 0e.
2. 4" 4 !ould MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM a'ain, 4Bd do it di""erentl5.
3. The pri!e o" 'as is e<pe!ted toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMtoN1 a 'allon #ithin a 0onth.
4. The li'ht suddenl5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, and 4 !ouldnBt see a thin'.
. 8o 5ou ha1e to 'o alread5H CanBt 5ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or a "e# 0inutesH
$. We donBt #ant to "or'et an5thin', so letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list one 0ore ti0e to be sure.
%. The announ!e0ent #as a real surprise. 4B0 not sure #hat to MMMMMM MMMMMMM it.
8. This boo7 4 bou'ht is 0issin' so0e pa'es. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to the boo7store "or 0e
to0orro#H
*. Cri0e #as 'ettin' out o" !ontrol, so a ne# sheri"" #as ele!ted #ho pro0ised to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM the la#.
1/. That 'un is loaded, so 4 #ouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith it i" 4 #ere 5ou.
11. -"ter 4 threatened to 'o to the poli!e and tell the0 e1er5thin', he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and
stopped 0a7in' threats.
12. 65 brother al#a5s thou'ht 4 #ould be a "ailure, so no# that 4B0 ri!h, 4 lo1e to MMMMM it MMMMM hi0
b5 !o0plainin' about ho# hard it is to 7eep a thirt5-roo0 house !lean.
13. 65 son is a 'ood bo5. 4" he #as shopli"tin', 4B0 sure so0eone MMMMMMMM hi0
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit.
14. 4n 05 histor5 !lass #e studied the 1arious thin's that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the !urrent
situation.
1. The 0onth #e spent in 4tal5 #as a lot o" "un, but it see0ed to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM so ,ui!7l5.
1$. 65 brother-in-la# is so snea75. Ce tried to MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM tellin' hi0 the !o0bination
to 05 sa"e.
6($ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e in that re>ire into 5hen se!
5ith an o&,ect
We ha1e seen in Se!tions * and 23 that so0e t#o-#ord phrasal 1erbs re,uire a se!ond parti!le
#hen the5 are transiti1e, #hi!h 0a7es the0 three-#ord phrasal 1erbs. 6an5 phrasal 1erbs #ith
the parti!le in ha1e a 0eanin' that relates to entering or penetrating. When #hat is bein' entered
or penetrated is na0ed, these 1erbs be!o0e transiti1e? ho#e1er, this is not done b5 addin' a
se!ond parti!le but b5 !han'in' in to into. -nother #a5 to loo7 at it is to !onsider intro t#o
parti!les, in and to, #ritten as one #ordG
%he thief broke in.
%he thieves broke into the jewelry store.
=ut this is true onl5 "or 0eanin's o" the phrasal 1erb that relate to enterin' or penetratin',
not "or all 0eanin's. So0e 0eanin's #ith in ha1e no into 1ersion Eand are in!luded in this
se!tionF, and so0e 0eanin's #ith into ha1e no in 1ersion Eand are not in!luded in this
se!tionF. 6oreo1er, so0eti0es into is optional, and the 1erb !an be used transiti1el5 #ith
either in or into.
We see also in this se!tion that there is o"ten a phrasal 1erb #ith an opposite
0eanin' #ith in and into !orrespondin' to out and out of:
sneaked in.
sneaked out.
sneaked into the house.
sneaked out of the house.
314
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
break
in
break in < breaks in breaking in broke in broken in
($ &rea0 inlinto p.v. When 5ou &rea0 in or &rea0 into a pla!e, 5ou enter ille'all5 usin' "or!e or
de!eption.
9 thief broke in and stole my %5.
#hen saw the smashed glass in the street, knew my car had been broken into.
break-in n. . break-in is an illegal entry into a place using force or deception.
%he police investigated a break-in at the li,uor store.
"$ &rea0$$$ in p.v. When 5ou &rea0 in a ne# 0e!hani!al de1i!e or a !ar, 5ou use it slo#l5 and
!are"ull5 until 5ou are sure it read5 "or hea1ier use. When 5ou &rea0 in a pair o" shoes, 5ou
#ear the0 onl5 o!!asionall5 and "or a short ti0e until the5 are !o0"ortable. When 5ou &rea0 in
people at a ne# )ob, 5ou train and super1ise the0 and 'i1e the0 less than the nor0al a0ount
o" #or7 until the5 are read5 "or so0ethin' 0ore di""i!ult.
l don't want to wear these boots on the e"pedition. haven't broken them in
yet.
#e're breaking in a new secretary, so things have been a bit confused at our
office lately.
&ro0en in part.ad,. -"ter 5ou &rea0 in a ne# 0e!hani!al de1i!e or a !ar, a pair o"
shoes, or people at a ne# )ob, the5 are &ro0en in$
l don't want to wear those shoes to the dance. %hey're not broken in
yet.
chec0 in
check in & checks in checking in checked in checked in
($ chec0 inlinto p.v. When 5ou arri1e at a hotel and arran'e "or a roo0, 5ou chec0 in or chec0
into the hotel.
9fter arrive in 'enver, 'll go straight to my hotel and check in.
7im checked into the hotel while called home to check on the kids.
"$ chec0$$$ in p.v. When 5ou arri1e at an airport and 'i1e 5our ti!7et to an a'ent and re!ei1e a
boardin' pass, 5ou chec0 in$
(ou should check in at least two hours be fore your
flight.
(ou can wait over there in the lobby while check you
in.
chec09in n. The !ounter at an airport #here 5ou 'i1e 5our ti!7et to an a'ent and re!ei1e a
boardin' pass is the chec09in or the chec09in !ounter. The pro!ess o" chec0in/ in is chec09in$
!efore your flight you have to go to the check-in counter.
*$ chec0$$$ in p.v. When 5ou 'i1e 5our lu''a'e to an airline a'ent so that it #ill be !arried in the
ba''a'e !o0part0ent rather than the passen'er !o0part0ent, 5ou chec0 it in$
31
%hat bag is too big for carry3on 4 you'll have to check it in.
chec0e! in part.ad,. &u''a'e that has been chec0e! in or passen'ers that ha1e chec0e! in
are chec0e! in$
:ow that we're checked in, we can wait in the boarding lounge.
6$ chec0 in E#ithF p.v. When 5ou 1isit or !all people brie"l5 and re'ularl5 be!ause 5ou #ant to
'et or re!ei1e i0portant in"or0ation "ro0 the0 or to 0a7e sure that a situation 5ou are both
interested in is satis"a!tor5, 5ou chec0 in or chec0 in #ith the0.
9fter surgery, you'll need to check in once in a while to make sure the bone is healing
properly.
f Hank doesn't check in with his parole officer every week, the police will arrest him.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
+heck
out
check out < checks out checking out checked out checked out
($ chec0 ot Eo"F p.v. When 5ou pa5 5our bill, return 5our 7e5, and lea1e a hotel, 5ou chec0
ot or chec0 ot o" the hotel.
%here's always a long line of people waiting to check out at that time of the morning.
Mrs. ;orcia checked out of her hotel and took a ta"i to the airport.
checked out part.adj. 'fter you have paid your bill, returned your key, and left a
hotel, you are checked out.
<kay, we're checked out; now let's get a ta"i and go to the airport.
chec0ot n. The ti0e be"ore #hi!h 5ou 0ust chec0 ot o" a hotel in order to a1oid pa5in' "or
another da5 is the chec0ot ti0e.
#e can sleep late tomorrow8 checkout time isn't until .=>> ?.M.
($ chec0$$$ ot p.v. When 5ou chec0 a pla!e or thin' ot' 5ou inspe!t it !are"ull5 or learn
0ore about it.
%hat new Me"ican restaurant is great 4 you should check it out.
Hey ;eorge, check out that car %oad is driving. #hen did he buy it$
*$ chec0 $$$ ot p.v. When 5ou chec0 people ot' 5ou in1esti'ate the0 in order to learn 0ore
about the0. 4" 5ou sa5 that people chec0 ot' 5ou 0ean that the in"or0ation the5 ha1e 'i1en
5ou about the0sel1es, su!h as their edu!ation and #or7 e<perien!e, has been in1esti'ated
and "ound to be a!!urate.
9pplicants for child care jobs should be thoroughly checked out.
!efore you give that guy money to invest, you should check him out.
-rank didn't get the job he wanted with the *9. Some things on his
resume didn't check out.
6$ chec0 ot p.v. When 5ou chec0 ot at a store, 5ou brin' the ite0s 5ou #ant to buy to the
cashier and pay for them.
31$
%he store's closing in a few minutes. #e'd better check out.
&ook at this line. t's going to take forever to check out.
chec0ot n. The chec0ot or the chec0ot !ounter is #here 5ou pa5 "or ite0s in a
store.
(ou get the bathroom stuff, 'll get the groceries, and we'll meet at the
checkout counter.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
/o in
go in < goes in going in went in gone in
($ /o inlinto p.v. When 5ou /o in or /o into a pla!e, buildin', roo0, and so on, 5ou enter it.
t's getting too dark to play tennis. &et's go in.
-rank went into the kitchen to get a cup of coffee.
"$ /o in p.v. When so0ethin' /oes in or /oes into a pla!e, !ontainer, en!losure, and so
on, it belon's there, "its there, or !an be put there.
%hat dish goes in the cabinet ne"t to the stove.
9ll those clothes will never go in this small suitcase.
*$ /o in p.v. When soldiers enter !o0bat or an area #here !o0bat is li7el5, the5 /o in$
P%% ot is the opposite o. /o in$
%he :ational ;uard was ordered to go in and stop the riot.
%he marine shouted, @#e're going in)@ as he jumped from the landing craft.
let in
let in & lets in letting in let in let in
($ %et $$$inlinto p.v. When 5ou %et people or thin's in or %et people or thin's into a pla!e,
buildin', roo0, and so on, 5ou allo# the0 to enter b5 'i1in' the0 per0ission to enter or
b5 openin' a door, 'ate, and so on.
#hen the guests arrived, the butler opened the door to let them in.
%he guard wouldn't let me into the stadium because had forgotten my ticket.
"$ %et$$$ inlinto p.v. When an openin', su!h as a #indo#, door, hole, !ra!7, and so on,
allo#s so0ethin' to enter, it %ets it in$
%hat small window doesn't let in enough light to read by.
%he hole in the screen is letting the mos,uitoes into the house.
+%/ in
plug in & plugs in plugging in plugged in plugged in
($ +%/ $$$inlinto p.v. When 5ou !onne!t an ele!tri!al de1i!e to an ele!tri!al outlet, 5ou +%/
it in or +%/ it into the outlet. When 5ou !onne!t an5 !ord or !able to aso!7et desi'ned to
re!ei1e it, 5ou +%/ it in or +%/ it into the so!7et.
31%
l plugged my ..>3volt %5 into a AA>3volt outlet and ruined it.
%his phone isn't broken8 you just forgot to plug the phone cord
in.
+%//e! in part.ad,. When an ele!tri!al de1i!e is !onne!ted to an ele!tri!al outlet, it is
+%//e! in$
!e careful with that iron 4 it's plugged in.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
snea0 in
sneak in < sneaks in sneaking in sneaked in sneaked in
($ snea0 inlinto p.v. When 5ou enter a pla!e #ithout an5one seein' or hearin' 5ou, 5ou
snea0 in or snea0 into the pla!e.
#hen was a kid used to sneak into the movie theater through the emergency
e"it.
f you don't have a ticket for the game, you'll have to sneak in.
snea0 ot
sneak out & sneaks out sneaking out sneaked out
sneaked out
($ snea0 ot Eo"F p.v. When 5ou lea1e a pla!e #ithout an5one seein' or hearin' 5ou, 5ou
snea0 ot or snea0 ot o" the pla!e.
Susie's father told her to stay upstairs in her room, but she sneaked out through the
window.
%he principal caught me sneaking out of my chemistry class.
ECERCISE 6( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Close the door: AouBre MMMMMMMM the bu's MMMMMMMM.
2. (ne o" the students MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and stole the ans#ers "or the "inal e<a0.
3. 65 'rand"ather al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a ne# !ar b5 not dri1in' it o1er / 0iles per hour until
it had 'one 1,/// 0iles.
4. 6ar7 told 0e he bou'ht a lar'e-s!reen TV. &etBs 'o to his house and MMMMMM it MMMMMM.
. 65 laptop !o0puter is in this ba', so 4 thin7 it #ould be better to 7eep it #ith 0e on the "li'ht than
to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
$. These spea7ers MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM so!7ets in the ba!7 o" the stereo.
%. -re 5ou sure this is the ri'ht 7e5 "or this lo!7H 4t #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. When 4B0 a#a5 on a business trip, 4 al#a5s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ith 05 o""i!e e1er5 0ornin'. 318
*. 4 #as late "or !lass, so 4 #aited until the tea!her #asnBt loo7in' and MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
1/. The soldiers #ere ordered to MMMMMMMMMMMMMM and !apture the ene05 position.
11.1 donBt trust that 'u5 05 dau'hter #ants to 0arr5. 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMM.
12. 8inner is bein' ser1ed. &etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe dinin' roo0.
13. ThereBs a !ra!7 in the base0ent #all thatBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM #ater.
14. -t the super0ar7et 5ou !an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the e<press line onl5 i" 5ou ha1e "e#er than 1
ite0s.
1. WeBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 3rand Cotel on Wednesda5.
1$. -"ter a #ee7 at the hotel, #eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and 'o ho0e.
1%. -n5 bur'lar #ho tries to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 05 house is 'oin' to 'et a bi' surprise > 4B1e 'ot three
bi' do's that arenBt 1er5 "riendl5.
18. 4 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM onl5 1 0inutes be"ore 05 "li'ht ti0e, and 4 al0ost 0issed the plane.
ECERCISE 6( & ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. Iani!e entered the house ,uietl5 so that no one #ould hear her. What did Iani!e doH
2. &5dia unlo!7ed the door so that her brother !ould enter the house. What did &5dia doH
3. 6s. Cu00in's paid her hotel bill and le"t. What did 6s. Cu00in's doH
4. 4n Ouestion 3, 6s. Cu00in's had to lea1e the hotel be"ore noon so that she #ould not ha1e to pa5 "or
another da5. What is noon at the hotelH
. The #indo# o" Nan!5Bs house #as bro7en, and her )e#elr5, TV, and !o0puter #ere 'one. What
happened to Nan!5Bs houseH
$. 4n Ouestion , #hat happened at Nan!5Bs houseH
%. When 4 arri1e at the airport, 4Bll 'i1e 05 ti!7et to the a'ent, and sheBll 'i1e 0e a boardin' pass. What
#ill 4 do at the airportH
31*
8. 4n Ouestion %, #here #ill 4 'o in the airportH
*. The roo0 is "ull o" !i'arette s0o7e, and 9aren doesnBt #ant to enter it. What doesnBt 9aren #ant to
doH
1/. 4 sa# an interestin' house #ith a @"or sale@ si'n on Pine Street as 4 #as dri1in' ho0e. To0orro# 4Bll
stop and learn 0ore about it. What #ill 4 do to the house to0orro#H
11. When ;ri7 "lies to Colorado to 'o s7iin', he al#a5s 'i1es his s7is to the airline a'ent so that the5
#ill be put in the ba''a'e !o0part0ent. What does ;ri7 al#a5s do #ith his s7isH
12. 4n Ouestion 11, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe ;ri7Bs s7is a"ter he 'i1es the0 to the airline a'entH
13. Aou opened the #indo# ,uietl5, #hen no one #as loo7in', and le"t 5our house. What did 5ou doH
14. 6r. =a7er hasnBt arri1ed at his hotel and arran'ed "or a roo0 5et. What hasnBt 6r. =a7er done
5etH
1. Can7 bou'ht a ne# C8 pla5er and !onne!ted the plu' to the outlet. What did Can7 doH
1$. 4n Ouestion 1, ho# #ould 5ou des!ribe Can7Bs ne# C8 pla5erH
1%. =e"ore Ned #as hired "or his )ob in a nursin' ho0e, the hu0an resour!es 0ana'er at the nursin'
ho0e !alled his pre1ious e0plo5er and as7ed ,uestions about Ned. What #as done to NedH
18. 65 "eet are 7illin' 0e. 4t #asnBt 1er5 s0art to #ear ne# hi7in' boots that arenBt so"t and
!o0"ortable. Wh5 are 05 "eet 7illin' 0eH
ECERCISE 6( c ; =rite seven ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
4. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
$. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
32/
ECERCISE 6( !' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
blo# o"", 4/ help out, 33 start out, 2/
!o0e on, 3% lea1e o1er, 3% strai'hten out, 3*
"ill up, 3* let do#n,3% ta7e o1er, 3 *
'et o"" on,4/ li1e #ith, 3 tal7 to, 3%
'o a#a5, 4/ narro# do#n, 3
han' out, 3% put do#n, 3$
1. 4 hope 5ou li7e spa'hetti, be!ause so 0u!h #as MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter the part5 that #eBre 'oin' to
be eatin' it "or a #ee7.
2. 65 son has pro0ised 0e a hundred ti0es that heBll sta5 out o" trouble and #or7 harder in s!hool, but
he al#a5s MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM.
3. 4 #ant to #at!h the ne#s. 4tBs 'oin' to MMMMM MMMMM as soon as this 'a0e is o1er.
4. ;1en thou'h 5ou donBt li7e 5our brother, 5ou shouldnBt MMMMMMMM hi0 MMMMMMMM in "ront o" his !hildren.
. Toda5 MMMMMM MMMMM !old and rain5, but no# the sun is out, and itBs a lot #ar0er.
$. 4 !anBt dri1e be!ause o" 05 bro7en le', but Car0en said sheBd MMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMM i" 4 need
an5thin'.
%. 4B1e 'ot an appoint0ent to 'et 05 teeth !leaned to0orro# at 4G//, but i" 5ou #ant to 'o to the bea!h, 4
!an MMMMMMMM 05 appoint0ent MMMMMMMM.
8. The !o0pan5 #as !onsiderin' ei'ht !ities "or the ne# "a!tor5, but the5B1e MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to
three.
*. - lot o" the e0plo5ees are !on"used about the ne# !ontra!t. We should as7 0ana'e0ent to ha1e a
0eetin' so that #e !an MMMMMMMM e1er5thin' MMMMMMMM.
1/. &5dia is 'oin' toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM"or Iud5 durin' her 0aternit5 lea1e.
11. Cer husband said he #asnBt 'oin' to stop s0o7in' and that she #ould )ust ha1e to learn to MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMit.
12. The !o00er!ial on TV said that i" 5ou MMMMMMMM5our !arBs 'as tan7MMMMMMMM#ith their 'as, 5ouBd 'et
better 0ilea'e and a !leaner en'ine.
321
13. WeBre plannin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "or a "e# #ee7s. Would 5ou 0ind #aterin' our plants until
#e returnH
14. 8a1id put a pool table and a pinball 0a!hine in his base0ent. 4tBs a 'reat pla!e to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM and rela<.
1. Can 5ou belie1e ho# rude that 'u5 #as to 0eH Nobod5 has e1er MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 0e li7e that
be"ore.
1$. =ob is 1er5 7ind and 'enerous. Ce MMMMM MMMMMM MMMMMM helpin' other people.
6"$ 2(C.S (NG +hrasa% ver&s 5ith get, (
6an5 phrasal 1erbs are based on the 1erb get, and it is i0portant to understand that the 0eanin'
o" get in these 1erbs is not the sa0e as the nonphrasal "or0 o" get, 0eanin' receive. 4nstead, get
has a 0eanin' si0ilar to become or change to:
I got up at -:.../0 #as not up be"ore, and then 4 be!a0e up > 4 !han'ed
"ro0 not bein' up to bein' up.F
6an5 phrasal 1erbs #ith get that relate to a !han'e in ph5si!al lo!ation 0i'ht see0
identi!al in 0eanin' to a 1ariet5 o" phrasal 1erbs usin' !o0e, 'o, and other 1erbs that
des!ribe ph5si!al 0o1e0ent, su!h as walk, run, move, and so on, and o"ten the5 !an be
used #ith little di""eren!e in 0eanin'G
l came back last night. got
back last night.
=ut there is a di""eren!eG get e0phasiDes the !han'e in lo!ation? !o0e, go, and so on,
e0phasiDe the 0o1e0ent "ro0 one lo!ation to another.
4t is 1er5 !o00on to use the ad1erbs right and back #ith get phrasal 1erbs. To re1ie#
the ad1erb right, see Se!tions 1* and 22. To re1ie# the ad1erb back, re1ie# Se!tion 2$
Eand do not !on"use the ad1erb back #ith the parti!le back1.
Note that t#o "or0s o" the past parti!iple o" get are sho#nG gotten and got. Gotten is
0ore !o00on in -0eri!an ;n'lish, but got is o!!asionall5 used. =oth are !orre!t.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
/et &ac0
get back < gets back getting back got back gottenlgot back
($ /et &ac0 EtoF p.v. When 5ou return to a le1el or pla!e #here 5ou #ere be"ore, 5ou /et
&ac0 or /et &ac0 to that pla!e.
322
#e left three weeks ago, and we didn't get back until yesterday.
#here are you going$ Get right back here)
Mark lost a tot of weight when he was sick, and it took him a long
time to get back to his old weight.
"$ /et$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. When 5ou /et so0ethin' &ac0 or /et so0ethin' &ac0 to a person
or pla!e, 5ou return it to that person or pla!e.
7im uses his mother's car in the morning, but she needs it to go to work at 2=1>, so he has to
get it back before then.
have to get these books back to the library 4 they're overdue.
*$ /et$$$ &ac0 E"ro0F p.v. When 5ou /et so0ethin' &ac0 or /et so0ethin' &ac0 "ro0
so0eone or so0epla!e, 5ou ha1e so0ethin' that 5ou had be"ore.
l couldn't believe got my stolen car back.
7im borrowed a book from me three years ago, and still haven't gotten it back from him.
6$ /et &ac0 E"ro0F p.v. When 5ou /et &ac0 or /et &ac0 "ro0 so0ethin' that is 1er5 hot or
dan'erous or that 5ou should not be near, 5ou 0o1e a#a5 "ro0 it so that there is 0ore
distan!e bet#een 5ou and it.
Get back from the edge of the cliff) (ou might fall.
9s the ?resident came closer, the police told the crowd to get back.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
/et
&ehin!
get behind < gets behind getting behind got behind gottenlgot behind
($ /et &ehin! EinF p.v. When 5ou are in a 'roup that is stud5in' or #or7in', and so on, and
the5 learn "aster or 'et 0ore #or7 done be!ause 5ou are learnin' or #or7in' 0ore slo#l5
than the others, 5ou /et &ehin! or /et &ehin! in 5our studies or #or7. When 5ou do not
!o0plete #or7 as "ast as ori'inall5 planned and e<pe!ted, 5ou /et &ehin! s!hedule. Kee+
+ is the opposite o" /et &ehin!$ Fa%% &ehin! is si0ilar to /et &ehin!$
&inda had some problems last semester, and she got behind in her studies.
#ith all the bad weather we've been having, the construction project has gotten
way behind schedule.
/et &3
get b% & gets b% getting b% got b% gottenlgot b%
($/et &3 p.v. When 5ou /et &3 or /et &3 so0ethin', 5ou pass so0ethin' or so0eone
#hile 5ou are #al7in' or dri1in' e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult be!ause there is not
enou'h roo0.
*an you move all that junk in the hallway please$ t's hard for people to get by.
%here was an accident on the highway, and no one could get by.
"$ /et &3 EonF p.v. When 5ou /et &3 or /et &3 on a !ertain a0ount o" 0one5, 5ou !ontinue #ith
5our #or7 or !ontinue #ith 5our li"e e1en thou'h it 0a5 be di""i!ult.
323
'on't worry about me8 'll get by somehow.
t's not easy getting by on BAC> a week.
*$ /et &3 p.v. When so0ethin', su!h as a 0ista7e or a proble0, /ets &3 5ou, 5ou do not
noti!e it.
've got a great editor8 no mistakes get by her.
checked this report twice. How did all these misspellings get by me$
#nfinitiv
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
get
down
get down & gets down getting down got down gottenlgot
down
($ /et !o5n EtoF p.v. When 5ou 0o1e to a lo#er le1el or pla!e or "ro0 north to south, 5ou
/et !o5n or /et !o5n to that le1el or pla!e. Eet + is the opposite o. /et !o5n$ Eo
!o5n is si0ilar to /et !o5n$
(ou're going to fall out of that tree and break your neck. Get down right now)
%he first thing did after got down to Miami was go to the beach.
"$ /et$$$ !o5n E"ro0F p.v. When 5ou /et thin's or people !o5n' 5ou 0o1e the0 "ro0 a
hi'her le1el or pla!e to a lo#er one.
#hy do you always put the dishes on the top shelf$ can't get them
down.
%he fire fighters got the people down from the roof of the burning
building.
*$ /et !o5n p.v. When 5ou bend 5our bod5 and lo#er 5our head to a1oid dan'er or to
pre1ent people "ro0 seein' 5ou, 5ou /et !o5n$
#hen the enemy soldiers started shooting, the sergeant ordered his men to get
down.
Get down! f the police catch us here we'll be in a lot of trouble.
6$ /et$$$ !o5n p.v. When thin's or people /et 5ou !o5n' the5 0a7e 5ou sad or
depressed.
'on't let your troubles get you down. Everything will be all right.
7im's marriage problems are really getting him down.
get in
get in & gets in getting in got in gottenlgot
in
($ /et inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et in or /et into a pla!e, buildin', roo0, !ar, boat, and so
on, 5ou enter it.
Get in the car) #e're going now.
#e'd better get into the school 4 the bell's going to ring soon.
"$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et in or /et into a pla!e, buildin', !lub, restaurant,
0eetin', and so on, 5ou obtain per0ission to enter. When 5ou /et other people in or /et
other people into a buildin', !lub, restaurant, 0eetin', and so on, 5ou arran'e "or the0 to
enter.
#e'll never get into that club8 we don't know the right
people.
l didn't have an invitation to the party, but :ancy got me
in.
27H
*$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et so0ethin' in or /et so0ethin' into a pla!e, buildin',
roo0, !ontainer, en!losure, and so on, 5ou 'et the ob)e!t inside e1en thou'h it is di""i!ult.
%he shoes are too small 4 can't get my feet
in.
How did they get that elephant into its cage$
6$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et in trouble or /et into a di""i!ult situation or a 0ess Ea
mess is a !on"used or di""i!ult situationF, 5ou be!o0e in1ol1ed in it. When 5ou /et people
in trouble or /et the0 into a di""i!ult situation or a 0ess, 5ou !ause the0 to be!o0e
in1ol1ed in it.
Susie got in a lot of trouble at school today.
don't see any solution to this problem. How did ever get into this mess$
7$ /et inlinto p.v. When 5ou /et in or /et into a pla!e, 5ou arri1e. When the 1ehi!le 5ou
are in /ets in or /ets into a pla!e, it arri1es. Co-e in is si0ilar to /et in$
'm e"hausted. got in really late last night.
'll be waiting for you at the station when your train gets into the station.
8$ /et$$$ in p.v. When a store /ets so0ethin' in' it re!ei1es a deli1er5 o" so0ethin' that it
#ill o""er "or sale.
Daren asked the sales clerk when the store was going to get some summer dresses
in.
wanted to buy that new book, but the bookstore hasn't gotten it in yet.
:$ /et$$$ in p.v. When 5ou /et an a!ti1it5 in' 5ou "ind the ti0e "or it or 0a7e the ti0e "or it.
'inner isn't until E=1>, so we've got time to get a tennis game in.
#henever go to San -rancisco on business, try to get a baseball game
in.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
/et ot
get out < gets out getting out got out gottenlgot out
($ /et ot Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et ot or /et ot o" a pla!e, buildin', roo0, !ar, boat, and
so on, 5ou lea1e or es!ape "ro0 it.
#hen !ob heard his car's engine making a strange noise, he got out and looked under the
hood.
#e smelled gas and got out of the building just seconds before it e"ploded.
"$ /et ot EtoF p.v. When 5ou 'o to a pla!e that is #est o" #here 5ou are or to a pla!e
outside a lar'e !it5, 5ou /et ot or /et ot to that pla!e.
l love it here in the city. almost never get out to the suburbs anymore.
told my friend in :ew (ork, @f you ever get out to *alifornia, please visit me.@
*$ /et$$$ ot Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et people ot or /et the0 ot o" a pla!e, 5ou ta7e the0
out or 5ou arran'e "or the0 to lea1e.
32
%he soldiers were surrounded, so they called for a helicopter to get them out.
9fter Hank was arrested, his lawyer got him out of jail.
6$ /et$$$ ot Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et ot or /et ot o" a dan'erous, a#7#ard, or di""i!ult
situation, 5ou a1oid it. When 5ou /et people ot o" a dan'erous, a#7#ard, or di""i!ult
situation, 5ou help the0 to a1oid it.
Erik made a date with two girls for the same night. How is he going to get out of this
mess$
(ou got me into this mess 4 you get me out!
7$ /et$$$ ot Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et so0ethin' ot or /et so0ethin' ot o" a
!ontainer or pla!e, 5ou re0o1e it.
Mother's coming for dinner tonight, so let's get the good china out.
%he videotape is jammed8 can't get it out of the 5*F.
8$ /et$$$ ot Eo"F p.v. When 5ou /et dirt or a stain ot or /et dirt or a stain ot o" a
0aterial, 5ou re0o1e it b5 !leanin'.
%his detergent's ad claims it'll get dirt out even in cold water.
'o you think bleach will get this wine stain out of my white blouse$
:$ /et ot p.v. When in"or0ation /ets ot' it be!o0es 7no#n to people #ho are not
supposed to 7no# it.
!e careful 4 we'll be in a lot of trouble if this information gets out.
%here was a huge scandal after the news got out.
#$ /et ot Eo"F p.v. When 5ou lea1e 5our house and do thin's that are rela<in' and "un,
5ou /et ot or /et ot o" the house.
(ou work too hard8 you should get out more.
:ed doesn't get out of the house much8 he prefers to stay home and play computer
games.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
/et over
get over < gets over getting over got over gottenlgot over
($ /et over EtoF p.v. When 5ou /et over to a pla!e, 5ou 'o there. When 5ou tell people to
/et over here, 5ou #ant the0 to !o0e #here 5ou are.
-rancisco called and he said he needs you to help him with something, so get over to
his house right way.
Susie, get over here and clean up this mess immediately)
"$ /et over p.v. When 5ou /et over a proble0, illness, or e0otionall5 pain"ul
e<perien!e, 5ou stop lettin' it a""e!t 5ou and !ontinue #ith 5our li"e.
've got a bad cold. 've been sick for a week, and still haven't gotten over it.
(ou can't feel sorry for yourself forever 4 you've got to get over it and get on with
your life.
27J
*$ /et over p.v. When so0ethin' happens that surprises 5ou or 0a7es 5ou an'r5, and 5ou
!annot stop thin7in' about it, 5ou !annot /et over it.
l can't get over seeing my e"3wife with her new husband.
%he coach couldn't get over losing the state championship 2E to >.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
/et +
get up < gets up getting up got up gottenlgot up
($/et + EtoF p.v. When 5ou 0o1e to a hi'her le1el or pla!e, or "ro0 south to north, 5ou
/et + or /et + to that le1el or pla!e. Eet !o5n is the opposite o" /et +$ Eo + is
si0ilar to /et +$
%om, your brother is in the basement. ?lease go tell him to get right up here and start doing
his homework.
haven't gotten up to my brother's house in *anada for a long time.
"$ /et$$$ + p.v. When 5ou /et + or so0eone /ets 5ou +' 5ou rise "ro0 5our bed. When
5ou /et people up, 5ou !ause the0 to rise "ro0 their beds.
l don't usually get up until ..=>> on weekends.
make breakfast8 getting the children up and ready for school in the morning is !ill's job.
*$ /et + p.v. When 5ou !han'e "ro0 a sittin' or l5in' position to a standin' position,
5ou /et +$ Stan! + is si0ilar to /et +$
%he teacher told the sleeping students to get up.
9fter he hit me, got right up and hit him back.
ECERCISE 6"a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. That bo0b 0i'ht e<plode. 6a5be #e should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little.
2. -s soon as the !ar stopped, 4 MMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMM and #ent inside the house.
3. 4Bll lose 05 )ob i" this in"or0ation MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt tell an5one.
4. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Ii0Bs death too7 0e a lon' ti0e.
. No# the poli!e are outside. &oo7 at all the trouble 5ouB1e MMMMM 0e MMMM:
$. 4 thou'ht these pants #ere ruined a"ter 4 'ot in7 on the0, but this deter'ent MMMMMMMM the in7 ri'ht
MMMMMMMM.
%. 4 #as #or7in' in 05 o""i!e on the third "loor, and 05 boss !alled "ro0 his o""i!e on the si<th "loor and told
0e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM there i00ediatel5.
32%
8. Wor7, #or7, #or7 > thatBs all 5ou do. Aou need to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 0ore o"ten.
*. 4tBs 4G1/. 4" #e hurr5, #e 0i'htMMMMMMa round o" 'ol"MMMMMMbe"ore it 'ets dar7.
1/. 4 #as tr5in' to lea1e #or7 a little earl5, but 05 boss said, @Aou !anBt 'o ho0e until G//. MMMMMMMM
ba!7 MMMMMMMM here:@
11. Would 5ou li7e to 'o shoppin' at Wal-6art to0orro#H The5 )ustMMMMMMMM so0e ne#
stu""MMMMMMMM.
12. The 'a0e is sold out, but 4 7no# so0eone #ho 0i'ht be able to MMMMM us MMMMM.
13. What ti0e did 5our plane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last ni'htH
14. Can7 is in a lot o" trouble. 4" heMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMo" it, itBll be a 0ira!le.
1. Ni!ole does her #or7 1er5 !are"ull5 and ne1er 0a7es 0ista7es. Nothin' MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMher.
1$. Aour sisterBs upstairs sleepin'. 3o tell her to MMMMMMMM ri'ht MMMMMMMM here and eat brea7"ast.
1%. &oo7, thereBs a bear: MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > it 0i'ht see us.
18. 65 husband spent his #hole pa5!he!7 on beer and lotter5 ti!7ets. 4 donBt 7no# ho# #eBre 'oin' to
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this 0onth.
1*. 4 #ish 4 hadnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM late. 4 0issed the bus, and no# 4 ha1e to #al7 to s!hool.
2/. This is a 1er5 di""i!ult !lass. 4" 5ou donBt stud5 hard, 5ouBll MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
21. The tea!her said, @Aour 0idter0 s!ore #asnBt 1er5 'ood, but 4B0 sure i" 5ou stud5 hard, 5ouBll do a
lot better on the "inal. 8onBt let it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 5ou.@
22. ;<!use 0e, !ould 5ou 0o1eH 4 !anBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
23. 6i7e usuall5 lea1es around 8G// in the 0ornin' and MMMMM MMMMMM around G3/.
24. 65 !at has been in that tree "or three da5s. Can 5ou help 0e MMMMM her MMMMMMH
2. 4tBs a0aDin'. 4 !anBt MMMMMM MMMMMM ho# 'reat To0 loo7s. 4Bll bet heBs lost "ort5 pounds.
2$. 4" 5ou lose 5our re!eipt,MMMMMMMM 5our 0one5MMMMMMMM "or so0ethin' 5ou bou'ht is usuall5
i0possible.
328
2%. Ti005Bs 0other said,@Who said 5ou !ould lea1e the tableH MMMMMMMMM ba!7 MMMMMMMM here and "inish
5our 1e'etables:@
28. (ur nei'hbor !alled and saidlBAour do' is in 05 'arden. MMMMMM it MMMMMM:@
2*. The situation in that !ountr5 is 1er5 dan'erous, so Washin'ton is 0a7in' plans to MMMMMMMM its
e0bass5 sta""MMMMMMMM.
3/. 8a1id #as so si!7 he !ouldnBt e1en MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o" bed.
31. 4t isnBt eas5 to MMMMMMMMMthis bi' !ar MMMMMMMMMthat s0all 'ara'e.
ECERCISE 6"& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 65 "ather !a0e into 05 bedroo0, shoo7 05 shoulder, and told 0e that brea7"ast #as al0ost read5.
What did 05 "ather doH
2. 4 li1e in Ne# (rleans, and itBs di""i!ult to "ind the ti0e to tra1el to 6innesota to 1isit 05 sister. What is
di""i!ultH
3. -"ter 5ou #ere arrested "or drun7en dri1in', 5ou #ere in a lot o" trouble. What did 5ou doH
4. Aou need to return to 5our ho0e 1er5 ,ui!7l5. What do 5ou need to doH
. -"ter Iud5 pa5s her bills, she )ust barel5 has enou'h 0one5 to sur1i1e until the end o" the 0onth. What
!an Iud5 )ust barel5 doH
$. 4" Ceather doesnBt #or7 harder in her 0ath !lass, she #ill not be able to sta5 at the sa0e le1el as the
other students. What #ill happen to Ceather i" she doesnBt #or7 harderH
M. It(s been five years, but Frank is still sad about his brother(s death. .hat hasn(t Frank done yet1
8. 4 #as trapped in 05 !ar a"ter an a!!ident, but a res!ue #or7er re0o1ed 0e "ro0 05 !ar. What did the
res!ue #or7er doH
*. -le< is re0o1in' his to5 train "ro0 the !loset. What is -le< doin' to his to5 trainH
1/. Carlos is standin' on a table so that he !an 'et the to5 airplane that he thre# on top o" the re"ri'erator.
What is Carlos doin'H
11. The so"a #as too bi', and the 0o1ers !ouldnBt brin' it inside our ne# house. What !ouldnBt the 0o1ers
doH
32*
12. There is a hu'e tru!7 in "ront o" us, and #e !anBt pass it. What !anBt #e doH
13. &5dia le"t the buildin' #hen she heard the "ire alar0. What did &5dia doH
14. -"ter 'ettin' out o" her !ar, Iani!e entered it a'ain. What did Iani!e doH
1. ;ri7Bs bi!5!le #as stolen, but no# he has it a'ain. What did ;ri7 doH
1$. The pilot had 0e!hani!al proble0s #ith her airplane, but the !ontrollers on the 'round helped
her land. What did the !ontrollers do to the pilotH
1%. =ill !alled and as7ed 0e to !o0e to his house 1er5 ,ui!7l5. What did =ill as7 0e to doH
ECERCISE 6"c' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
brush o"", 3% "loat around, 34 pun!h in, 3/ snea7 out, 41
!all ba!7, 28 'o inlinto, 41 pun!h out, 3/ start up, 2$
!all up, 28 lea1e behind, 3 run around, 4/
!lear out, 32 pi!7 up, 3* sell out, 3*
!ross o"", 3* plu' inlinto, 41 snea7 inlinto, 41
1. ThereBs nothin' to eat "or dinner toni'ht. Can 5ou MMMMMMMM so0e ta7eout "ood MMMMMMMM #hen
5ou !o0e ho0e "ro0 #or7 toni'htH
2. 65 brother #ants to store so0e o" his stu"" in 05 atti!, so toni'ht 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM so0e o"
the )un7 up there MMMMMMMM to 0a7e 0ore roo0.
3. 4" 5ou #ant to 'et a ti!7et "or the Superbo#l, 5ouBll need to hurr5 > the5Bre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
"ast.
4. When 4 'o on 1a!ation, 4 #ant to rela< at the bea!h and MMMMM 05 #orries MMMMM.
. Ned is #orried. ThereBs a ru0or MMMMMM MMMMMM that so0eone is 'oin' to 'et "ired.
$. 4 !anBt "ind the to5 05 dau'hter #ants "or her birthda5 an5#here. 4B1e been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
all da5 loo7in' "or it.
%. 4B0 'oin' to be late "or #or7. Would 5ou 0ind MMMMMMMMM 0e MMMMMMMMMH
8. 8an 0ust still be here in the o""i!e so0e#here. Ce hasnBt MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 5et.
*. 4 ha1enBt tal7ed to Nan!5 in a lon' ti0e. 4 thin7 4Bll MMMMMM her MMMMMM toni'ht.
33/
1/. Nan!5 #as in the sho#er #hen 4 !alled, but her brother said sheBd MMMMMMMM 0e ri'ht MMMMMMMM.
11. -re 5ou sure this is the ri'ht 7e5H 4t #onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the lo!7.
12. 6ar'aret Cu00in's de!ided to lea1e her )ob #ith a bi' !o0pan5 and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her o#n
!o0pan5.
13. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMthe theater #as eas5. (ne o" our "riends #ent inside and opened the "ire e<it "or
the rest o" us.
14. 65 "ather #onBt let 0e 'o to the dan!e, so 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a"ter he 'oes to bed.
1. None o" the bad thin's people sa5 about Charles bother hi0. Ce )ust MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
1$. 4 0ade a list o" people to in1ite to 05 #eddin', but a"ter 4 heard all those nast5 thin's Sarah said
about 05 "ian!e, 4 MMMMMMMM her na0e MMMMMMMM the list.
1%. Well, 4 thin7 4B1e "i<ed the 1a!uu0 !leaner. &etBs MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and see i" it #or7s no#.
6*$ FOCUS ON< -o!a%s an! +resent +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s
+e0e0ber that the present per"e!t is "or0ed #ith have or the !ontra!tion %ve and the past parti!iple.
The onl5 di""eren!e is that has is not used "or the third person sin'ularG
He has run up a big bill. He would
have run up a big bill.
The 0eanin's o" the 0odal and se0i0odal au<iliaries are un!han'ed in the
present per"e!t, e<!ept "or may and might.
Past s+ec%ation an! 3o !o not 0no5 5hat ha++ene!< might have or may have
When dis!ussin' so0ethin' that #as possible in the past and 5ou do not 7no# #hat
happened, either might have or may have !an be usedG
331
l wonder where 7im is. He might have stopped off at the bar.
wonder where 7im is. He may have stopped off at the bar.
=e!ause 5ou do not 7no# #hether Ii0 stopped o"" at the bar, either might have or may
have !an be used.
Past s+ec%ation an! 3o 0no5 5hat ha++ene!< on%3 might have
When dis!ussin' so0ethin' that #as possible in the past and 5ou 7no# #hat happened,
onl5 might have !an be usedG
*limbing that tree was stupid. (ou might have fallen out.
*limbing that tree was stupid. (ou may have fallen out.
=e!ause 4 7no# that the person 4 a0 tal7in' to did not "all out o" the tree, onl5 might have
!an be used.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
&%o5 ot
blowout < blows out blowing out blew out blown out
($ &%o5$$$ ot p.v. When a "la0e &%o5s ot or is &%o5n ot b5 a stron' #ind, it stops
burnin'. When 5ou &%o5 ot a "la0e, 5ou use 5our breath to 0a7e the "la0e stop
burnin'.
'on't open the window 4 the candles will blow out.
couldn't light my cigarette8 the wind kept blowing the match out.
%he stove isn't working. Maybe the pilot light has blown out.
"$ &%o5 $$$ot Eo"F p.v. When so0ethin' is 0o1ed out#ard a#a5 "ro0 #here it #as b5 an
e<plosion or a 1er5 stron' #ind, it is &%o5n ot or &%o5n ot o" #here it #as be"ore.
%he force of the e"plosion blew all the windows out.
&ook, there's a dead bird. %he wind might have blown it out of its nest.
&%o5ot n. When a tire bursts and suddenl5 loses its air #hile 5ou are dri1in', 5ou ha1e a
&%o5ot$
Maria had a blowout while she was driving, lost control of her car, and hit a tree.
*$ &%o5$$$ ot p.v. When a pie!e o" ele!tri!al e,uip0ent or a "use &%o5s ot' it "ails
be!ause too 0u!h ele!tri!it5 is passin' throu'h it.
'on't be surprised if the fuse blows out 4 you have seven lights, your computer, and
your %5 all plugged into one outlet.
#hen lightning hit our house, it blew all the telephones out.
332
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
give
out
give out & gives out giving out gave out given out
($ /ive $$$ot EtoF p.v. When 5ou distribute so0ethin' to other people, 5ou /ive it ot or
/ive it ot to the0. Han! ot is si0ilar to /ive ot$
%hey gave out free hats to the first C,>>> fans to enter the stadium.
%he aid workers would have given more food out to the famine victims, but
they didn't have enough.
"$ /ive ot EonF p.v. When a 0e!hani!al or ele!tri!al de1i!e stops #or7in', it /ives ot or
/ives ot on 5ou. When a suppl5 o" so0ethin' is !o0pletel5 used, it /ives ot or /ives
ot on 5ou.
%he e"plorers tost their way in the desert and died after their water gave out.
bought a *hevrolet in ./G2 and drove it more than 1>>,>>> miles before it
finally gave out on me.
gross out
gross out & grosses out grossing out grossed out grossed out
($ /ross $$$ot p.v. *informal+ When so0ethin' /rosses 5ou ot' it upsets 5ou or 0a7es
5ou si!7 be!ause 5ou thin7 it is dis'ustin'.
(ou had to dissect a cadaver in your biology class$ (uk, that would've really grossed me out.
9le" hates changing his little brother's diapers 4 it grosses him out.
/rosse! ot part.ad,. When so0ethin' upsets 5ou or 0a7es 5ou si!7 be!ause 5ou thin7 it
is dis'ustin', 5ou are /rosse! ot$
l was eating an apple, and found half a worm in it. was so grossed out that almost threw
up. head toward
head toward & heads toward heading toward headed toward headed
toward
($ hea! to5ar! p.v. When 5ou hea! to5ar! a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou 0o1e to#ard it. When 5ou
sa5 that 5ou are hea!e! to5ar! or are hea!in/ to5ar! a !ertain lo!ation, 5ou 0ean that 5ou
are plannin' to 'o there or that 5ou are 'oin' there but ha1e interrupted 5our )ourne5 and #ill
resu0e it. Hea! .or is the sa0e as hea! to5ar!$
%he escaped convicts must have headed toward Me"ico.
'm heading toward ?ortland. #here are you going$
run up
run up & runs up running up ran up run up
($ rn + EtoF p.v. When 5ou run to a hi'her le1el or pla!e, 5ou rn + or rn + to that place.
un up and answer the phone if it rings, okay$
f 'd heard the baby crying, would have run up to his bedroom.
222
"$ rn $$$ + p.v. When 5ou a!!u0ulate a nu0ber o" debts, resultin' in a total debt o" a
!ertain a0ount, 5ou rn + a bill "or that a0ount.
;iving my son a credit card was a mistake 4 he ran up a BA,C>> bill in only one month.
*alling your family every week from 9ustralia must have run a big phone bill up.
rn9+ n. - lar'e, sudden in!rease in the pri!e, 1alue, or !ost o" so0ethin' is a
rn9+$
!ill was lucky to buy C>> shares of the stock just before the big run-up.
*$ rn + EtoF p.v. When 5ou run to#ard people, 5ou rn + or rn + to the0.
%he prince didn't have any bodyguards. 9nyone could have run up and attacked
him.
9fter the e"plosion, a man covered with blood ran up to me and asked for help.
Infinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
shut up
shut up < shuts up shutting up shut up shut up
($ sht + EaboutF p.v. *informal+ When people stop tal7in', the5 sht + or sht + about
so0ethin' the5 are tal7in' about. When 5ou are an'r5 and #ant people to stop tal7in', 5ou
tell the0 to sht +$
Marvin talks and talks and talks 4 he never shuts up.
said was sorry about crashing your car. :ow will you please shut up about
it)
($ sht$$$ + p.v. *informal+ When people or thin's !ause 5ou to stop tal7in', the5 sht 5ou
+$
%oad was making jokes about his wife at the party until she gave him a look that shut
him right up.
can't hear the %5 4 can you shut those kids up?
stop off
stop off ! stops off stopping off stopped off
stopped off
($ sto+ o.. EatlinF p.v. When 5ou sto+ o.. at a pla!e or sto+ o.. in an area on the #a5 to
another pla!e, 5ou stop there brie"l5 be"ore !ontinuin' 5our )ourne5.
l would have stopped off at Sally's house this morning, but was late for work.
"topping off in *airo on our way to ndia would be fun.
tr% on
tr% on & tries on tr%ing on tried on tried on
($ tr3$$$ on p.v. When 5ou tr3 on an ite0 o" !lothin' be"ore de!idin' #hether 5ou #ill bu5 it
or borro# it "ro0 so0eone in order to see i" it "its or to see i" 5ou li7e it, 5ou tr3 it on$
She must have tried on twenty pairs of shoes before making up her mind.
#ould you like to borrow this dress for the dance tonight$ Here, try it on.
334
ECERCISE 6*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 4 'ot into -tlanta last ni'ht, and to0orro# 4B0 'oin' to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 6ia0i.
2. 4 shouldB1e MMMMMMMM this s#eater MMMMMMMM be"ore 4 bou'ht it. 4tBs too s0all, and no# 4 ha1e to return
it.
3. Ni!ole "i'ured out #h5 all the li'hts #ere o""G a "use MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
4. Sa0 !ouldnBt ha1e "inished the 0arathon? his stren'th !o0pletel5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
. 4tBs a 'ood thin' &inda has health insuran!e? she has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a hu'e bill at the hospital.
$. When the 'as e<ploded, all the doors and #indo#s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. 6arshaBs al#a5s bra''in' about ho# s0art she is and teasin' 0e about 05 bad 'rades, but #hen 4
'ot 1// on the al'ebra test and she 'ot 2, it reall5 MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM.
8. WeBre not "l5in' dire!tl5 to Iapan? #eBre 'oin' to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in Ca#aii "or a "e# da5s.
*. Can7Bs bad breath MMMMMMMM e1er5one MMMMMMMM.
1/. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM: 4B0 tired o"