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Tutorial: Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Introduction

The physics of conjugate heat transfer is common in many engineering applications, includ- ing heat exchangers, HVAC, and electronic component design. The purpose of this tutorial

is to provide guidelines and recommendations for setting up and solving a conjugate heat

transfer problem using FLUENT.

The geometry and ﬂow domain consists of a ﬂat circuit board with a heat generating elec- tronic chip mounted on it. Heat is conducted through the source (chip) and the board on which it is mounted. A laminar stream of air ﬂows over the board and the chip, causing si- multaneous cooling of the solid components and heating of the air stream due to convection. Thermal energy is also transported due to the complex ﬂow ﬁeld.

This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following:

Set up appropriate boundary conditions for a conjugate heat transfer simulation in FLUENT.

Enable source terms for speciﬁed zones.

Perform ﬂow and energy calculations using various materials (both solid and ﬂuid).

Manipulate mesh adaption registers and perform Boolean operations on them.

Perform mesh adaption and verify that the solution is mesh independent.

Prerequisites

This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the FLUENT interface and that you have

a good understanding of the basic setup and solution procedures. Some steps will not be shown explicitly.

You will perform postprocessing related only to mesh adaption and veriﬁcation of a mesh independent solution. For detailed postprocessing of this simulation, refer to the FLUENT 6.3 Tutorial Guide.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Problem Description

The problem considered is shown schematically in Figure 1. The conﬁguration consists of a series of heat-generating electronic chips mounted on a circuit board. Air ﬂow, conﬁned between the circuit board and an upper wall, cools the chips and the board. As the air ﬂows over the chips and the board, its temperature rises. Taking the symmetry of the conﬁguration into consideration, the model extends from the middle of one chip to the plane of symmetry between it and the next chip.

As shown in Figure 1, each half chip is assumed to generate 1 Watt and have a thermal conductivity of 1.0 W/m-K. The circuit board conductivity is assumed to be one order of magnitude lower, at 0.1 W/m-K. Air enters the system at 298 K with a velocity of 0.5 m/s. The inlet Reynolds number (based on the spacing between the upper and lower walls) is approximately 870 and thus, the ﬂow is treated as laminar.

Figure 1: Problem Schematic

Preparation

1. Copy the mesh ﬁle, chip3d.msh.gz to your working folder.

2. Start the 3D (3d) version of FLUENT.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Setup and Solution

Step 1: Grid

1. Read the mesh ﬁle (chip3d.msh.gz).

2. Scale the grid to inches.

Grid

−→Scale

 (a) Select in from the Grid Was Created In drop-down list. (b) Click Change Length Units. (c) Close the Scale panel.

3. Check the grid.

−→ Check

Ensure that there are no negative volumes.

4. Display the grid (Figure 2).

Display
−→Grid
Y
X
Z
Grid
FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 2: Grid Display

Step 2: Models
Deﬁne
−→
Models

−→Solver

1. Deﬁne the solver settings.

 (a) Select Green-Gauss Node Based from the Gradient Option list. (b) Click OK to close the Solver panel.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

2. Enable the Energy Equation.

−→

−→ Energy

3. Select the laminar viscous model.

−→

−→ Viscous

Step 3: Materials

−→Materials

The working ﬂuid is air. You need to specify the materials for the chip and the board. These materials are assumed to have the same density and heat capacity as that of aluminum, but diﬀerent thermal conductivities.

Deﬁne

1. Model air as an incompressible ideal gas.

For this simulation, model air as an incompressible gas because there is a maximum air temperature rise of about 150 C, but very little pressure change. The incompressible ideal gas option for density treats the ﬂuid density only as a function of temperature.

 (a) Select ﬂuid from the Material Type drop-down list. (b) Select incompressible-ideal-gas from the Density drop-down list. (c) Click Change/Create.

2. Create the chip material.

 (a) Select solid from the Material Type drop-down list. (b) Enter chip for Name and delete the entry for Chemical Formula. (c) Enter 1.0 for Thermal Conductivity. (d) Click Change/Create.

FLUENT displays a question dialog asking whether to overwrite aluminum. Click No.

3. Create the board material.

 (a) Enter board for Name and delete the entry for Chemical Formula. (b) Enter 0.1 for Thermal Conductivity. (c) Click Change/Create.

Do not overwrite aluminum.

4. Close the Materials panel.

Step 4: Operating Conditions

1. Retain the default operating conditions.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Step 5: Boundary Conditions

1. Specify the boundary conditions for the continuum regions.

(a)

Specify the boundary conditions for the cont-ﬂuid-air zone.

i. Make sure that ﬂuid is selected from the Type selection list.

ii. Click Set

to open the Fluid panel.

A. Make sure that air is selected from the Material Name drop-down list.

B. Click OK to close the Fluid panel.

(b)

Specify the boundary conditions for the cont-solid-board zone.

i. Make sure that solid is selected from the Type selection list and click Set to open the Solid panel.

A. Select board from the Material Name drop-down list.

B. Click OK to close the Solid panel.

2. Specify the boundary conditions for the cont-solid-chip zone.

(a) Make sure that solid is selected from the Type selection list and click Set open the Solid panel.

to

i. Select chip from the Material Name drop-down list.

ii. Click OK to close the Solid panel.

3. Deﬁne the inﬂow and outﬂow boundaries.

(a)

Set the boundary conditions for the inlet zone.

i. Enter 0.5 m/s for Velocity Magnitude.

ii. Click the Thermal tab and enter 298 K for Temperature.

iii. Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet panel.

(b)

Set the boundary conditions for the outlet zone.

i. Enter 0 for Gauge Pressure.

ii. Click the Thermal tab and enter 298 K for Backﬂow Total Temperature.

iii. Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet panel.

4. Deﬁne the thermal boundary conditions.

(a) Apply the Coupled thermal condition for the following walls:

5. Set the boundary conditions for the wall-board-bottom zone.

 (a) Click the Thermal tab select Convection from the Thermal Conditions list. (b) Enter 1.5 for Heat Transfer Coeﬃcient.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

 (c) Enter 298 for Free Stream Temperature. (d) Click OK to close the Wall panel.

6. Copy the boundary conditions set for the wall-board-bottom zone to the wall-duct-top zone.

7. Click the Copy

button to open the Copy BCs panel.

 (a) Select wall-board-bottom from the From Zone selection list. (b) Select wall-duct-top from the To Zones selection list. (c) Click Copy. A Warning dialog box is displayed asking if you want to copy wall-board-bottom boundary conditions to wall-duct-top.Click OK. (d) Close the Copy BCs panel.

Verify that the boundary conditions were copied correctly. Copying a boundary condition does not create a link from one zone to another. If you want to change boundary conditions on these zones, you will have to change each one separately.

8. Set the boundary conditions for cont-solid-chip.

(a)

(b)

Enable Source Terms.

Click the Source Terms tab and click the Edit sources panel.

button to open the Energy(w/m3)

i. Select constant from the Energy drop-down list and enter 904055.

ii. Click OK to close the Energy(w/m3) sources panel. This value, based on the half-volume of the chip, yields a total energy source of 2 Watts in the chip zone.

(c)

Click OK to close the Solid panel.

9. Close the Boundary Conditions panel.

Step 6: Solution

1. Deﬁne the solution control parameters.

−→

−→ Solution

 (a) Retain the default settings for the Under-Relaxation Factors. (b) Select Second Order Upwind from the Momentum and Energy drop-down lists. (c) Click OK to close the Solution Controls panel.

2. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation.

−→

−→ Residual

 (a) Enable Plot. (b) Enter 0.0001 for continuity. (c) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors panel.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

 3. Deﬁne a point monitor for the energy equation. You will deﬁne a point monitor in the recirculation region behind the chip. The solu- tion convergence is critical in this region. Surface −→Point (a) Enter 2.85, 0.25, and 0.3 for Coordinates x0, y0, and z0. (b) Enter point-monitor for New Surface Name. (c) Click Create and close the Point Surface panel. 4. Enable the plotting of the point monitor. Solve −→ Monitors −→Surface 5. Set the number of Surface Monitors to 1. 6. Enable Plot and Print for monitor-1. 7. Select Iteration from the When drop-down list. 8. Click the Deﬁne button to open the Deﬁne Surface Monitor panel. (a) Select Vertex Average from the Report Type drop-down list. (b) Set Plot Window to 1. (c) Select Temperature and Static Temperature from the Report of drop-down lists. (d) Select point-monitor from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Click OK to close the Deﬁne Surface Monitor panel. 9. Click OK to close the Surface Monitors panel. 10. Save the case ﬁle chip3d.cas.gz. 11. Initialize the solution. Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize (a) Select inlet from the Compute From drop-down list. (b) Click Init and close the Solution Initialization panel. 12. Request 200 iterations (Figures 3 and 4). Solve −→Iterate

The solution converges in approximately 145 iterations.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Residuals continuity
x-velocity y-velocity z-velocity energy

1e+01

1e+00

1e-01

1e-02

1e-03

1e-04

1e-05

1e-06

1e-07

1e-08

Y
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Iterations
Z
X
Scaled Residuals
FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)
Figure 3: Residual Plot
monitor-1
410.0000
400.0000
390.0000
380.0000
370.0000
360.0000
Average Surface Values Vertex of
350.0000
(k)
340.0000
330.0000
320.0000
Y
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Iteration
Z
X

Convergence history of Static Temperature on point-monitor

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 4: Convergence History of Static Temperature at Monitor Point

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Step 7: Data Analysis

1. Verify that mass is conserved.

Report

−→Fluxes

 (a) Select Mass Flow Rate from the Options list. (b) Select inlet and outlet from the Boundaries selection list. (c) Click the Compute button.

FLUENT displays the total mass ﬂux across each boundary selected.

The mass ﬂow rate for the inlet should be positive (indicating that mass is entering the domain), while that for the outlet should be negative (indicating that mass is leaving the domain).

The net mass ﬂux appears in the box at the lower right corner of the Flux Reports panel.

The net mass ﬂux (inlet plus outlet) should be almost zero, indicating that mass is conserved.

2. Verify that energy is conserved.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

 (a) Select Total Heat Transfer Rate from the Options list. (b) Deselect the previously selected boundaries (inlet and outlet) from the Boundaries selection list and select wall-chip and wall-chip-bottom. (c) Click the Compute button. The net heat transfer from the chip should 1 Watt since only half the chip is modeled. (d) Select surfaces where heat ﬂows into and/or out of the computational domain. (e) Retain the selection of wall-chip and wall-chip-bottom from the Boundaries selec- tion list. (f) Select the convection boundaries, wall-duct-top and wall-board-bottom, and inlet and outlet. The selection of the inlet and outlet surfaces accounts for the heat carried by the air as it enters and leaves the domain. (g) Click the Compute button.

The net heat transfer error should be very small, indicating that an overall heat balance has been achieved. It should be less than 1 % of the smallest source.

3. Close the Flux Reports panel.

Step 8: Postprocessing

You will perform postprocessing related to mesh adaption and veriﬁcation of a mesh inde- pendent solution.

1. Set up line surfaces for plotting.

Surface

−→Line/Rake

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

2. Create line surfaces line-xwss and line-cross with end points as follows:

 Line x0 y0 z0 x1 y1 z1 line-xwss 2.75 0.1001 0 4.75 0.1001 0 line-cross 3.5 0.25 0 3.5 0.25 0.5

3. Generate an XY plot of the cross-stream temperature proﬁle downstream of the chip along the line surface, line-cross.

 Plot −→XY Plot (a) Enable Node Values and Position on X Axis from the Options list. (b) Enter 0, 0 and, 1 for X, Y and, Z respectively in the Plot Direction group box. (c) Select Temperature lists. and Static Temperature from the Y Axis Function drop-down (d) Select line-cross from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Click Plot (Figure 5). Figure 5 shows the predicted cross stream temperature proﬁle behind the block. The eﬀects of the heated block are apparent. The mesh is currently too coarse to resolve the heat transfer details accurately. (f) Write the data to an output ﬁle temp-0.xy. (g) Enable Write to File from the Options list and click Write File panel. to open the Select (h) Enter temp-0.xy for XY File and click OK.

4. Generate an XY plot of the cross-stream velocity proﬁle downstream of the chip along the line surface line-cross.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

 (a) Enable Node Values and Position on X Axis from the Options list. (b) Enter 0, 0 and, 1 for X, Y and, Z respectively in the Plot Direction group box. (c) Select Velocity and Velocity Magnitude in the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. (d) Select line-cross from the Surfaces selection list and click Plot (Figure 6). Figure 6 shows the predicted cross stream velocity proﬁle behind the block. Flow details are smeared due to the relatively coarse mesh used. The mesh is currently too coarse to resolve the ﬂow details accurately. (e) Write the data to an output ﬁle velocity-0.xy.

5. Generate an XY plot of the stream-wise component of wall shear stress in the stream- wise direction along the center of the chip.

 (a) Disable Node Values and enable Position on X Axis from the Options list. (b) Enter 1, 0 and, 0 for X, Y and, Z respectively in the Plot Direction group box. (c) Select Wall Fluxes lists. and X-Wall Shear Stress in the Y Axis Function drop-down (d) Select line-xwss from the Surfaces selection list and click Plot (Figure 7). (e) Write the data to an output ﬁle xwss-0.xy.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

line-cross

Static

Temperature

(k)

3.55e+02

3.50e+02

3.45e+02

3.40e+02

3.35e+02

3.30e+02

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Position (in)

0.4

0.5

Static Temperature

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 5: Cross-Stream Static Temperature Proﬁle at x = 3.5 in, y = 0.25 in

line-cross
 4.50e-01 4.00e-01 3.50e-01 3.00e-01 2.50e-01 Magnitude Velocity (m/s) 2.00e-01 1.50e-01 1.00e-01 5.00e-02 0.00e+00

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Position (in)

Velocity Magnitude

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, Nov pbns, 24, lam) 2006

Figure 6: Cross-Stream Velocity Magnitude Proﬁle at x = 3.5 in, y = 0.25 in

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

line-xwss

X-Wall (pascal) Stress Shear

2.50e-03
2.00e-03
1.50e-03
1.00e-03
5.00e-04
0.00e+00
-5.00e-04
-1.00e-03
-1.50e-03
-2.00e-03
Y
2.6
2.8
3
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
Position (in)
Z
X

X-Wall Shear Stress

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 7: X-Wall Shear Stress Proﬁle Downstream of the Chip

6. Save the case and data ﬁles (chip3d.cas.gz and chip3d.dat.gz).

The solution can be improved by reﬁning the grid to better resolve the ﬂow details. It is also important to verify if the ﬂow solution is independent of the mesh size used. Create mesh adaption registers based on gradients of pressure, velocity, and temperature, as well as a region adaption register. An adaption register is a logical collection of cells that have been marked for adaption.

Then, combine the adaption registers using Boolean addition and adapt the mesh using the combination register. After continuing the iterations, examine the results obtained using the reﬁned mesh to determine if the solution is mesh independent or if further adaption is required. Mesh adaption should always be performed until mesh independence is achieved.

 (a) Retain the default selection of Curvature from the Method list. (b) Select Pressure and Static Pressure in the Gradients of drop-down lists. (c) Click Compute. FLUENT reports that the maximum adaption function value is approximately 0.000177. (d) Enter 1.77e-5 for Reﬁne Threshold.

Coarsen Threshold speciﬁes the threshold values for coarsening the grid. Cells with adaption function values (in this case, pressure gradient) below the Coarsen Threshold will be marked for coarsening. Reﬁne Threshold speciﬁes the threshold

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

values for reﬁning the grid. Cells with adaption function values above the Reﬁne Threshold will be marked for reﬁning.

When selecting values for Reﬁne Threshold, a good rule of thumb is to use ap- proximately 10% of the value reported in the Max ﬁeld (i.e., the maximum value of the adaption function).

 (e) Click Mark. FLUENT creates a pressure gradient adaption register. FLUENT reports that approximately 150 cells were marked for reﬁnement and no cells were marked for coarsening in the console. (f) View the cells marked for pressure gradient adaption (Figure 8). (g) Click the Manage button to open the Manage Adaption Registers panel. (h) Select gradient-r0 from the Registers selection list. (i) Click Display.

You can modify the display of the adaption register by setting the respective op- tions in the Adaption Display Options panel. You can open this panel by clicking

the Options

button in the Manage Adaption Registers panel.

Figure 8 shows the cells marked for pressure gradient adaption. These cells are concentrated on the front face of the block, where the static pressure is changing abruptly due to stagnation and change in the direction of the air ﬂow.

(a) Select Velocity

and Velocity Magnitude from the Gradients of drop-down lists.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

 (b) Click Compute. FLUENT reports that the maximum adaption function value is approximately 0.00057. (c) Enter a value of 5.7e-5 for Reﬁne Threshold (10% of the maximum value). (d) Click Mark. FLUENT creates a velocity gradient adaption register. The FLUENT console win- dow reports that approximately 1550 cells were marked for reﬁnement. (e) View the cells marked for velocity gradient adaption (Figure 9).

 (a) Select Temperature lists. and Static Temperature from the Gradients of drop-down (b) Click Compute. FLUENT reports that the maximum adaption function value is approximately 0.0977. (c) Enter a value of 0.00977 for Reﬁne Threshold (10% of the maximum value). (d) Click Mark. FLUENT creates a temperature gradient adaption register. The FLUENT console window reports that approximately 380 cells were marked for reﬁnement. (e) View the cells marked for temperature gradient adaption (Figure 10).

Figure 10 shows the cells marked for temperature gradient adaption. These cells are concentrated mainly near the block (where the temperature is changing rapidly).

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

4. Create a region adaption register.

−→Region

The Region Adaption panel is displayed.

 (a) Enter the Input Coordinates as follows to select the region for adaption. Min (in) Max (in) X 2.75 5.0 Y 0.1 0.4 Z 0 0.5 (b) Click Mark. FLUENT reports that approximately 1450 cells were marked for reﬁnement in the console window. (c) View the cells marked for region adaption.

Figure 11 shows the cells marked for region adaption. Region adaption allows you to specify a bounding box that is used to select cells for adaption. In this case, the cells behind the block are selected for reﬁnement.

 (a) Select the registers gradient-r0, gradient-r1, gradient-r2, and hexahedron-r3 from the Registers selection list in the Manage Adaption Registers panel. (b) Click the Combine button.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Figure 11: Cells (approx. 1450) Marked for Region Adaption

region adaption registers. The FLUENT console window reports that a total of approximately 3100 cells are marked as a result of combining the four adaption criteria.

(c) View the cells marked for adaption.

6. Adapt the mesh using the combination register, combination-r4.

 (a) Select combination-r4 from the Registers selection list in the Manage Adaption Registers panel. (b) Click Adapt.

A Question dialog box is displayed asking for conﬁrmation of Hanging-node mode.

Click Yes to conﬁrm Hanging-node mode.

FLUENT indicates that the cell count has increased to approximately 39220 as a result of mesh adaption.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Step 10: Solution

1. Request an additional 400 iterations. (Figures 13 and 14).

The solution converges in 330 additional iterations.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Figure 13: Residual Plot After First Mesh Adaption

monitor-1

410.0000

400.0000

390.0000

380.0000

370.0000

360.0000

350.0000

(k) 340.0000

330.0000

320.0000

Average Surface Values Vertex of

Y
Z
X

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Iteration

Convergence history of Static Temperature on point-monitor

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 14: Convergence History of Static Temperature at Monitor Point After First Mesh Adaption

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Step 11: Postprocessing

In this step, you will determine whether the solution is independent of the mesh, or if further mesh adaption is required. This is determined by comparing the predicted proﬁles of temperature, velocity, and wall shear stress for the reﬁned mesh with those obtained for a relatively coarse mesh. Hence, you can evaluate how sensitive the solution is, with respect to changes in mesh size.

1. Compare the temperature proﬁles obtained for the original and the adapted meshes.

 Plot −→XY Plot (a) Enable Node Values and Position on X Axis from the Options list. (b) Enter 0, 0 and, 1 for X, Y and, Z respectively in the Plot Direction group box. (c) Select Temperature lists. and Static Temperature from the Y Axis Function drop-down (d) Select line-cross from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Load the ﬁle, temp-0.xy. i. Click the Load File button to open the Select File panel. ii. Select temp-0.xy and click OK. (f) Select Static Temperature from the File Data selection list. (g) Click Plot (Figure 15).

2. Compare the velocity proﬁles obtained for the original and the adapted meshes.

 (a) Enable Node Values and Position on X Axis from the Options list. (b) Enter 0, 0 and, 1 for X, Y and, Z respectively in the Plot Direction group box. (c) Select Velocity and Velocity Magnitude from the Y Axis Function drop-down lists. (d) Select line-cross from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Load the ﬁle, velocity-0.xy. (f) Select Velocity Magnitude from the File Data selection lists. Deselect the previous selections from the File Data selection list. (g) Click Plot (Figure 16).

Figure 15 indicates that the temperature distribution has changed considerably after adapting the mesh. This is because the original mesh was too coarse to resolve tem- perature gradients and thus, predict accurate heat transfer. Based on this comparison, you can conclude that the solution is dependent on the mesh and that a further mesh adaption should be performed.

Figure 16 indicates that the velocity distribution appears to be approaching mesh independence. However, based on the comparison of temperature proﬁles, you have already determined that another adaption should be performed.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

line-cross line-cross
3.55e+02
3.53e+02
3.50e+02
3.48e+02
3.45e+02
Static
3.43e+02
Temperature
(k)
3.40e+02
3.38e+02
3.35e+02
3.33e+02
3.30e+02
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Position (in)
Static Temperature
FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 15: Comparison of Temperature Proﬁles After First Mesh Adaption

line-cross line-cross
 4.50e-01 4.00e-01 3.50e-01 3.00e-01 2.50e-01 Magnitude Velocity (m/s) 2.00e-01 1.50e-01 1.00e-01 5.00e-02 0.00e+00

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Position (in)

Velocity Magnitude

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 16: Comparison of Velocity Magnitude Proﬁles After First Mesh Adaption

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

3. Compare the wall shear stress proﬁles obtained for the original and the adapted meshes.

 (a) Disable Node Values from the Options list. (b) Enter 1, 0 and, 0 for X, Y and, Z respectively in the Plot Direction group box. (c) Select Wall Fluxes lists. and X-Wall Shear Stress from the Y Axis Function drop-down (d) Select line-xwss from the Surfaces selection list. (e) Load the ﬁle, xwss-0.xy. (f) Select X-Wall Shear Stress from the File Data selection list. Remember to deselect any previous selections under File Data. (g) Click Plot (Figure 17).
line-xwss line-xwss

X-Wall (pascal) Stress Shear

2.50e-03
2.00e-03
1.50e-03
1.00e-03
5.00e-04
0.00e+00
-5.00e-04
-1.00e-03
-1.50e-03
-2.00e-03
Y
2.5
2.75
3
3.25
3.5
3.75
4
4.25
4.5
4.75
5
Position (in)
Z
X

X-Wall Shear Stress

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 17: Comparison of X-Wall Shear Stress Proﬁles After First Mesh Adaption

Figure 17 indicates that the wall shear stress distribution is essentially mesh independent. However, you have already determined that another adaption should be performed based on the comparison of temperature proﬁles.

Step 12: Further Mesh Adaption and Postprocessing

For most cases, one or two mesh adaptions are suﬃcient to obtain a mesh independent solution. So far, you performed one adaption in an attempt to improve the solution and migrate toward a solution that is independent of the mesh. However, another adaption should be performed to investigate if considerable changes are seen in the solution (as seen in Figure 15) after mesh reﬁnement.

When performing successive mesh adaptions, the adaption threshold values should not be changed. If they are changed (usually the tendency is to reduce them), the solution accuracy will not meet the criteria set forth by specifying the threshold values.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

The second level of mesh adaption is not shown explicitly. The results are presented and are brieﬂy discussed.

Figure 18 shows the cells marked for the second pressure gradient adaption.

Figure 19 shows the cells marked for the second velocity gradient adaption.

Figure 20 shows the cells marked for the second temperature gradient adaption.

Figure 21 shows the cells marked for the second region adaption.

Figures 23 and 24 show the residual plot and convergence history of temperature at the monitor point respectively.

Figure 25 shows the predicted cross-stream temperature proﬁles for the three mesh reﬁnement levels. As the mesh is made successively ﬁner, the predicted proﬁle ap- proaches a shape that is independent of the mesh.

Figure 26 shows the predicted velocity proﬁles for the three mesh reﬁnement levels. The velocity proﬁle approaches a shape that is independent of the mesh.

Figure 27 shows the predicted wall shear stress proﬁles for the three mesh reﬁne- ment levels. The wall shear stress exhibits mesh independence upon successive mesh reﬁnement.

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Figure 21: Cells Marked (approx. 11300) for Second Region Adaption

Figure 22: Cells Marked (approx. 12220) for Second Mesh Adaption

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

Residuals continuity
x-velocity y-velocity z-velocity energy
1e+00
1e-01
1e-02
1e-03
1e-04
1e-05
1e-06
1e-07
1e-08
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Iterations
Scaled Residuals
FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 23: Residual Plot After Second Mesh Adaption

monitor-1

410.0000

400.0000

390.0000

380.0000

370.0000

360.0000

350.0000

(k) 340.0000

330.0000

320.0000

Average Surface Values Vertex of

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Iteration

Convergence history of Static Temperature on point-monitor

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 24: Convergence History of Static Temperature at Monitor Point After Second Mesh Adaption

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

line-cross
line-cross line-cross line-cross
3.55e+02 3.58e+02
3.50e+02 3.53e+02
Static
Temperature
(k)
3.48e+02 3.45e+02 3.43e+02 3.40e+02 3.38e+02 3.35e+02 3.33e+02 3.30e+02
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Position (in)
Static Temperature
FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 25: Comparison of Temperature Proﬁles After Two Mesh Adaptions

 line-cross line-cross line-cross line-cross 4.50e-01 4.00e-01 3.50e-01 3.00e-01 2.50e-01 Magnitude Velocity (m/s) 2.00e-01 1.50e-01 1.00e-01 5.00e-02 0.00e+00

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Position (in)

Velocity Magnitude

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 26: Comparison of Velocity Proﬁles After Two Mesh Adaptions

Solving a Conjugate Heat Transfer Problem using FLUENT

line-cross
line-cross line-cross line-cross
4.50e-01
4.00e-01
3.50e-01
3.00e-01
2.50e-01
Magnitude Velocity (m/s)
2.00e-01
1.50e-01
1.00e-01
5.00e-02
0.00e+00
Y
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Position (in)
Z
X

Velocity Magnitude

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 27: Comparison of X-Wall Shear Stress Proﬁles After Two Mesh Adaptions

Step 13: Final Mesh Adaption and Postprocessing

You have performed two mesh adaptions in an attempt to improve the solution and obtain a mesh independent solution. A third mesh adaption may be required if the results still indicate mesh dependence.

When performing successive mesh adaptions,do not change the adaption threshold values, when the solution starts converging (with respect to the mesh). If they are changed (usually the tendency is to reduce them), the solution accuracy will not meet the criteria set forth by specifying the threshold values. For a given threshold value, we would like to adapt until no cells are marked, i.e. the solution is considered to be grid-independent. Note that there are diﬀerent threshold values for each variable you are adapting on.

Summary

Laminar air ﬂow around an electronic component (chip) was simulated using FLUENT. A source term was enabled in order to simulate the heat generated by the chip. Conjugate heat transfer was investigated in the form of the heating of air as it ﬂows around the chip, conduc- tion in the chip itself, and conduction/convection in the board. Two levels of solution-based mesh adaption (based on gradients of pressure, velocity, and temperature) were performed. After the second adaption, it was determined that the solution is independent of the mesh.