a.

The applicability of the local government theories you have studied to
the council chosen
Based on Ola (1984) one of the theories on local government is The Efcient-
Service Theory. !ase and point made based on research by "orudin #ansor
$alina%ati &bdullah in The 'uccessful (mplementation of T)#* (n #alaysian +ocal
&uthority.
The paper is to e,amine the successful implementation of Total )uality
#anagement (T)#) in one of the local authorities in #alaysia. 'everal identi-able
constructs concerning participative management continuous process improvement
customer focus and employee commitment %ere selected in measuring its
contribution to the successful implementation of T)#. &s been repeatedly stated in
most literatures top management and employees should ta.e considerable e/ort in
ensuring that all 0uality instruments consistently been practiced in any
organi1ational setting. 2ith the total commitment of bot h parties then only the
mission and vision of an organi1ation could be accomplished. Based on the
population list a cross 3 sectional survey %as conducted for getting the
generali1ation of the study. 4sing 0uestionnaire as the research instrument a
proportionate strati-ed sampling %as e,ecuted %ith a total sample of 566 to
represent the %hole population of the study. The result of the investigation
demonstrated that all the identi-able constructs %ere moderately and signi-cantly
correlated %ith the successful implementation of T)#.
7uantan #unicipal !ouncil (#a8lis 9erbandaran 7uantan ) ( #97 ) recogni1ed to be
one of the success models of local authority in #alaysia. :aving a government
system local the organi1ation began to be implemented in one of the main to%ns in
the ;ast !oast <egion of #alaysia. (n the year 1915 %ith the establishment of
7uantan 'anitary Board the authority %as responsible for controlling cleanliness
health and development round. =6 years later 7uantan 'anitary Board has been
replaced %ith 7uantan To%n Board. &fter almost 1> year stay under the system the
Board has been upgraded to 7uantan To%n !ouncil %ith administrative area as %ide
as 16 s0uare miles. 2ith the gro%th momentum then in the year 19?9 7uantan
To%n !ouncil %as upgraded to 7uantan #unicipal !ouncil (#97) based upon
@overnment "ational &ct (&ct 1?1) that remained until today. &dministrative area of
#97 has developed to 5=4 .m s0uare %hich covered four district. Of the area 16A
form the area of 7uantanBs %hole to%n. 'ince its establishment in 19?9 till no%
there have been eight !ouncil 9residents that underta.e their responsibility in
ma.ing #97 a very stable council. 'trategically 9 divisions %ere structured to
ensure that the authority is able to deliver services %hich are of high 0uality
eCcient fair and friendly thus able to ful-ll customer satisfaction for every service
rendered.
The research is very much fascinated to investigate ho% successful the
implementation of T)# that %as incepted since 19?9 by #97. 'ince it involving in
0uality movement from the year 19?9 #97 had received more than 166 0uality
a%ard either given in #alaysia or given by other international bodies outside
#alaysia. The 9rime #inister )uality &%ard %as the most impressive a%ard received
by #97 in the year 1998. Other than that #97 strengthen ed itBs role after been
nominated the -rst +ocal &uthority been given the ('O certi-cation that %ill be
transform from ('O 9666*=666 to the ('O 9666*=668. But in the process of
promoting eCcient delivery the record received by the authority displayed that for
the year =66D it had received 9>1 complaints from their customer decreased to
84= complaints for the year =66> surprisingly increased to 1??= complaint in the
year =66? further increased to appro,imately 564? for the year =668 and no sign
of declining for the year =669. 2ith the statistic -gure reEecting the increasing
trend of complaints despite of e/orts done by the authority through the application
of all 0uality instruments it therefore create issues that needed management
attention. (t is important to e,plore the possibilities of certain deliverables that
could be associated %ith the phenomena in ensuring '(T)# is achievable.
The research %as conducted to investigate '(T)# at one of the local authorities in
the ;ast !oast of #alaysia. 'everal related independent variable such as customer
focus continuous improvement team%or. and involvement of employees top
management commitment and recognition training and development 0uality
system and policy practiced by the organi1ation super visioning leadership
measurement and feedbac. from the customer and employee cultural change and
many other related factors that may inEuence '(T)# in a public sector. :o%ever
the scope of the study only focused on factors such as participative management
continuous process improvement customer focus and employee commitment. For
this purpose the employees %or.ing %ith #97 %ill be the respondent for this study
This research aims to achieve the follo%ing ob8ectives*
i. To measure factors that may inEuence '(T)# in a public sector.
ii. To evaluate the e/ectiveness of '(T)# practices in the public sector.
iii. To measure the successful implementation of T)# in the conte,t of
participative management given in #97.
iv. To measure the successful implementation of T)# in the conte,t of
continuous process improvement practices in #97.
v. To measure the successful implementation of T)# in the conte,t of
customerfocus that practices in #97.
vi. To measure the successful implementation of T)# in the conte,t of
employeecommitment that given in #97
There %ere si, hypotheses been formulated to address the above problem
statement*
:1 3 The successful implementation of T)# is associated by strong participative
management.
:= 3 The successful implementation of T)# is associated by continuous process
improvement.
:5 3 The successful implementation of T)# is associated by customer focus.
:4 3 The successful implementation of T)# is associated by employee commitment.
:D 3 The factor of ((G) that is participative management continuous process
improvement customer focus and employee commitment may inEuence the factor
of (HG) that is successful implementation of T)#.
:> The participative management %ith the continuous process improvement may
lead to the successful implementation of T)#.
(n addressing the issue concerning reliability of the instrument 56 sets of
0uestionnaire %as early distributed to the selected respondent and collected for
analysis. The measurement %as done by calculating the !ronbachBs alpha that
indicates ho% %ell the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. 2ith
some minor improvements the -eld %or. %as e,ecuted. The data collected %as
again sub8ected to the reliability analysis to establish the reliability of measure. The
result for the reliability test of this research is sho%n in table 1
Fre0uency analysis is used to analy1e the overall information of the respondent
based on pro-le information. This study %as incriminating the entire nine (9)
Hepartments in #97 involving 566 respondents. The result for the study is sho%n
belo%.
Table 2: Frequencies of Respondents Profle
Table 1 above sho%ed the pro-le of the respondent for this study. Out of 566
respondents D?A %ere males and 45A females involved in the survey. !onsidering
the respondentBs age distribution 48.?A %ere those %ithin 5? 3 4> years old.
:o%ever those %ithin the age of 18 3 => years old made up only 5.6A of the
sample. The representation on marital status of the respondent displayed that
8?.?A %ere married follo%ed by the respondents %ho %ere single (11.5A) and the
rest of them %ere in the other status (6.5A). (n term of race composition 9D.? A of
them %ere #alays follo%ed by !hinese =.5A and (ndian =.6A. &nalysis from the
aspect of education level e,hibited that 1D.6A %as only having '<9I9#< or +!;
(+o%er !erti-cate of ;ducation) 45.?A having an education at '9# level
('econdary school level certi-cate) and the other 14.5A had succeed to further
their study to the higher level such as 'T9#Isi8il (45 people) 18A at Hiploma +evel
(D4 people) 8.?A at Hegree +evel (=> people). There %as no respondent having
further Hegree such as #aster or 9hH. & total of 5D.?A of the respondents %ere
convergent to the group of %or. %ho are in the group of 'upporting 'ta/ (J77 3 !)
16A %ere from Top #anagement and 9rofessional 1>.5A %ere from 'upporting
'ta/ (J77 3 B) =>A %ere from 'upporting 'ta/ (J77 3 H) and 16.5A %ere from
'upporting 'ta/ (J77 3 (#@). Through the analysis of the %or.ing e,perience 59.?A
had been %or.ing mor e then =1 years and already familiar %ith the 0uality
instrument practices in #97. <espectively those %ith 11 to 1D years > to 16 years
1> to =6 years and less than D years of %or.ing e,perience %ere 19.?A 1?.5A
14.?A and 8.?A represented. &nalysis according to the respondentsB level of
understanding of T)# that had been practiced in #97 revealed that >>A of them
%ere familiar %ith the 0uality instrument practices in the organi1ation. The rest of
them (5=.?A) did not have enough understanding and on ly 1.5A did not
understand at all about the 0uality instrument practices in #97.
There are seven (?) cross 3 tabulation procedures performed in this analysis* 3
Table 5 above displayed the analysis bet%een gender and '(T)#. The analysis
revealed that ma8ority of the gender respondent agreed that the organi1ation had
'(T)#. :o%ever the value of 9earson !hi 3 s0uare of 6.666 indicated that %as
signi-cant di/erence a mong the group. &nalysis bet%een age and '(T)# sho%ed
that 166A of the respondents bet%een 18 3 =6 years old agreed that the
organi1ation had successfully implemented T)#. For the respondents bet%een =? 3
5> years old ma8ority (9?A) of them agreed and only 5 A of them %ere uncertain
about the '(T)#. 'imilarly as for the respondents bet%een the age of 5? 3 4> years
old 98A agreed and only =A %ere uncertain that the organi1ation had successfully
implemented the T)#. The same pattern %as also displayed for the res pondents of
D1 years old and above %hereby ma8ority of them agreed that the organi1ation had
been successfully implemented T)#. Further analysis bet%een marital status and
'(T)# %as performed The analysis sho%ed that ma8ority (166A) of the respondent
%ith single status 9>.D8A of married respondents and only 55.55A of the
respondents %ith other status agreed that the organi1ation managed to achieve
'(T)#. Only the small number of the married respondents and having the others
status %ere uncertain %ith the '(T)# in the organi1ation. &nalysis bet%een races
and successful implementation of T)# sho%ed that 166A of the !hinese and
(ndian respondent agreed the successful implementation of T)# in the organi1ation.
For the #alay respondents appro,imately 9>A agr eed and only 4A %ere uncertain
about the '(T)# in the organi1ation. The analysis bet%een educational level and
'(T)# sho%ed that ma8ority (166A) of the respondent %ith the 'T9# (:igher 'chool
certi-cate) 0uali-cation Hiploma and Hegree holder agreed t hat the organi1ation
had achieved '(T)# target. Of those from the '9# ('econdary 'chool +evel
certi-cate) and '<9I9#< (+o%er +evel !erti-cate) holder the result demonstrated
that 9=A and 9?A agreed %ith the achievement and only ?A and 5A respectively
%e re uncertain about the '(T)# in this organi1ation. Table 5 further displayed the
analysis bet%een %or.ing group %ith '(T)#. The analysis sho%ed that ma8ority of
the respondent from the %or. group of Top #anagement and 9rofessional J77 3 B
and J77 3 (#@ agre ed that the organi1ation had been successfully implemented
T)# in the organi1ation. For the %or. group of J77 3 ! and J77 3 H only 95A and
94A agreed and only ?A and >A %ere uncertain about the '(T)# in the
organi1ation. For the analysis bet%een %or.ing e,pe rience and '(T)# the result
revealed that 166A of the respondent that had been %or.ing belo% than -ve (D)
years and 11 3 1D years agreed that the organi1ation had achieved '(T)#. &s for
the respondents %ho had 1D been %or.ing bet%een > 3 16 years 1> 3 =6 year and
more than =1 years 94A 9?A and 95A of them agreed and only >A 5A and ?A
%ere uncertain about '(T)# in the organi1ation.
For the analysis bet%een %or.ing e,pe rience and '(T)# the result revealed that
166A of the respondent that had been %or.ing belo% than -ve (D) years and 11 3
1D years agreed that the organi1ation had achieved '(T)#. &s for the respondents
%ho had 1D been %or.ing bet%een > 3 16 years 1> 3 =6 year and more than =1
years 94A 9?A and 95A of them agreed and only >A 5A and ?A %ere uncertain
about '(T)# in the organi1ation
The result of analysis clearly demonstrated that #97 had successfully implemented
T)# practices among its employees. (n addition several other dimensions such as
participative management continuous process improvement customer focus and
employee commitment e,hibited to be part of the acceptable values in the
organi1ation.
(n order for the #97 to consolidate their '(T)# they have to continuously maintain
their good communication strategy neither %ith their employees nor through their
customers. This is very much relevant since it is having such a reasonably large si1e
of employees and so much variety of services o/ered. (n order to sustain its
relevancy certain proactive strategic plan should be considered in ensuring that
any unforeseen circumstances such as unhappy internal or e,ternal customers can
be immediately managed. (t is therefore important to ma.e sure any Eo%s of
information should be e/ectively delivered from each members of employees group
that are %or.ing in #97. :igher level %or.er must be alert and .no% ho% to deliver
the information in order to ma.e sure everybody may get the inputs and bene-t
from the information that they has. (n order to be successful T)# implementation
has to start %ith top management ma.ing a commitment to%ards e,cellence and
then providing the leadership that %ould cascade that commitment to all levels and
inspire people to%ards the transformation of the organi1ations. (n ma.ing this
commitment top management should e,ecute the steering committee by providing
ade0uate allocation of funds e/ort and time for ensuing activities. Besides that as
the employees of #97 everybody not only top management must have a high
commitment in doing their responsibility for this organi1ation to ma.e sure that the
0uality improvement can be do continuously. Hespite of its success the systematic
structure of the organi1ation must be regularly revie%ed and adapted to%ards
encouraging cross functional multidisciplinary teams brea.ing do%n departmental
barriers and having consistent goals that %ould eliminate conEict of interests
bet%een departments and bet%een the levels of the organi1ations. Top do%n
communication and understanding approach al%ays formed the basis of good
relationship establishment bet%een organi1ational hierarchies. #ore attempts
should be further initiated to improve the understanding of '(T)# usefulness
especially among the contact and operational sta/ (level J77 3 ! and J77 3 H)
representing #97. The fact that they %ere the one %ho actually delivered the -nal
touch of the service o/ered is clear evidence. &s our -nding revealed that these
groups %ere not 166A supportive to '(T)# thus any positive at tempts %ill create
chances in enhancing their commitment. <eEecting the importance of %or.ing
e,perience in enhancing '(T)# obviously are very much related to the study. (t is
e,pected that this variable %ill signi-cantly contribute to the success of any
program. ;ven though our -ndings suggested the evidence but still those %ho %ere
less e,perience provide more initiative %hereas the very e,perience group loo.ed
to be less e,haustive. The main issue of this paper is to investigate '(T)# at #97 as
a one of the successful model of local authority in #alaysia. The selected predictors
of the study %ere formulated based on the literatures and intervie%s conducted
%ith the management of the local authority. By relying on the four selected
predictors %e %ere able to provide their signi-cant roles in determining the success
of T)# implementation at the organi1ation. The selected respondents %ith 566
sample si1e %ere able to generate a good generali1ation of the -ndings as the
e,ecution of sampling method %as performed using strati-ed sampling approach.
Thus any of the -ndings revealed from the investigation can be ob8ectively used as
a platform for other local authorities in preparing for a good T)# practices . (n
addition %ith this model it %ill provide an outline or the #97 to%ards increasing
their performance and endorsing the use of T)# for ensuring the success of the
organi1ation in future