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CS-03 : Computer
Fundamentals And
Emerging Technology

CS-03 : Computer Fundamentals And Emerging Technology

Unit2:-Input Devices ozanaisargi(BCA,MSCIT)
9426147423 P a g e | 2
In computing, an input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control
signals to aninformation processing system such as a computer or other information appliance. Examples of input devices
include keyboards, mouse,scanners, digital cameras and joysticks.
Many input devices can be classified according to:
modality of input (e.g. mechanical motion, audio, visual, etc.)
the input is discrete (e.g. key presses) or continuous (e.g. a mouse's position, though digitized into a discrete quantity, is
fast enough to be considered continuous)
the number of degrees of freedom involved (e.g. two-dimensional traditional mice, or three-dimensional navigators
designed for CADapplications)
Types of Input Devices

o Keyboard

A hardware device consisting of a number of mechanical buttons (keys) which the user presses to input
characters to a computer.
Keyboards were originally part of terminals which were separate peripheral devices that performed both input
and output and communicated with the computer via a serial line.
Today a keyboard is more likely to be connected more directly to the processor, allowing the processor to scan
it and detect which key or keys are currently pressed.
Pressing a key sends a low-level key code to the keyboard input driver routine which translates this to one or
more characters or special actions.
Keyboards vary in the keys they have, most have keys to generate the ASCII character set as well as various
function keys and special purpose keys, e.g. reset or volume control.
o Mouse.
o A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on adisplay screen. A mouse is a small object you
can roll along a hard, flat surface.
o Its name is derived from its shape, which looks a bit like a mouse, its connecting wire that one can imagine to
be the mouse's tail, and the fact that one must make it scurry along a surface. As you move the mouse, the
pointer on the display screen moves in the same direction.
o Mice contain at least one button and sometimes as many as three, which have different functions depending on
what program is running.
o Some newer mice also include a scroll wheelfor scrolling through long documents.
o Invented by Douglas Engelbart of Stanford Research Center in 1963, and pioneered by Xerox in the 1970s, the
mouse is one of the great breakthroughs in computer ergonomics because it frees the user to a large extent
from using the keyboard.
o In particular, the mouse is important for graphical user interfaces because you can simply point to options and
objects and click a mouse button. Such applications are often called point-and-clickprograms.
o The mouse is also useful for graphicsprograms that allow you to draw pictures by using the mouse like a pen,
pencil, or paintbrush.

o Trackball.
o A pointing device. Essentially, a trackball is a mouse lying on its back. To move the pointer, you rotate the ball
with your thumb, your fingers, or the palm of your hand.
o There are usually one to three buttons next to the ball, which you use just like mouse buttons.
o The advantage of trackballs over mice is that the trackball is stationary so it does not require much space to
use it. In addition, you can place a trackball on any type of surface, including your lap. For both these reasons,
trackballs are popular pointing devices forportable computers.
CS-03 : Computer Fundamentals And Emerging Technology

Unit2:-Input Devices ozanaisargi(BCA,MSCIT)
9426147423 P a g e | 3

o Light pens
o Light pen is an input pointing device used to draw diagram on VDU (Visual Display Unit) directly. It is connected
with VDU.
o The tip of pen contains light sensitive element which provides a very precise pointing capability directly on the
screen. It is used in engineering drawing, architect design, circuit design and other several graphics and art
works. It is also used as pointing device for menu displayed on VDU like as mouse.
o Touch screen.
o A type of display screen that has a touch-sensitive transparent panel covering the screen. Instead of using
a pointing device such as a mouse or light pen, you can use your finger to point directly toobjects on the
o Although touch screens provide a natural interface for computernovices, they are unsatisfactory for
most applications because the finger is such a relatively large object. It is impossible to point accurately to
small areas of the screen. In addition, most users find touch screens tiring to the arms after long use.
o Digitizer tablet (digitizer or graphics tablet)
o A digitizer tablet (also known as a digitizer or graphics tablet) is a tool used to convert hand-drawn images into
a format suitable for computer processing. Images are usually drawn onto a flat surface with a stylus and then
appear on a computer monitor or screen. Digitizer tablets can also be used as an input device, receiving
information represented in drawings and sending output to a CAD (computer aided design) application and PC-
based software like AutoCAD.
o Digitizers are often used along with takeoff software because they can quickly measure, transfer and store
quantities seen on a blueprint. Additional benefits are found in features such as a dimension list, which can be
saved and used for a future estimate.
o Digitizer tablets are compatible with most digitizer software programs that have a 32-bit WinTAB driver.
o Mic (Sound Input)
o A microphone (colloquially called a mic or mike; both pronounced / ma k/)[1] is an acoustic-to-
electric transducer or sensor that converts sound in air into an electrical signal.
o Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, karaokesystems, hearing
aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones,
in radio and televisionbroadcasting and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-
acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors.
o Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphone), capacitance change (condenser
microphone) orpiezoelectric generation to produce an electrical signal from air pressure variations.
Microphones typically need to be connected to apreamplifier before the signal can be amplified with an audio
power amplifier or recorded.
o Digital cameras
o A digital camera doesn't use a film. Photos are stored as digital data (bits made up of 1s and 0s), usually on a
tiny storage device known as flash memory card.
o You can connect the camera or memory card to a PC and then alter the images using a program like Adobe
Photoshop, or you can view the images on a TV set.
o Many printers have a special socket so that you can print images directly from a memory card or camera.

o POS (Point ofSale)
o Retail Payment System that substitutes an electronic transfer of funds for cash, checks, or drafts in the
purchase of retail goods and services.
o In a POS system, sales and payment information are collected electronically, including the dollar amount of the
sale, the date and place of the transaction, and the consumer's account number. If the transaction is done on a
CS-03 : Computer Fundamentals And Emerging Technology

Unit2:-Input Devices ozanaisargi(BCA,MSCIT)
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bank credit or debit card, the payment information is passed on to the financial institution or payment
processor, and the sales data is forwarded to the retailer's management information system for updating of
sales records.
o Much of the actual processing volume is for credit card sales.
o scanner
o A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar
sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in hand-held, feed-in, and flatbed types and for
scanning black-and-white only, or color.
o Very high resolution scanners are used for scanning for high-resolution printing, but lower resolution scanners
are adequate for capturing images for computer display. Scanners usually come with software, such as Adobe's
Photoshop product, that lets you resize and otherwise modify a captured image.
o Scanners usually attach to your personal computer with a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI ). An
application such as PhotoShop uses the TWAIN program to read in the image.
o Some major manufacturers of scanners include: Epson, Hewlett-Packard, Microtek, and Relisys.
o Define (a) MICR, (b) OMR, (c) OCR, (d) OBR
o a) MICR: MICR is a character recognition technology used primarily by the banking industry to facilitate the
processing of cheques. The human readable characters are printed on documents using a magnetic ink. It stands
for Magnetic Ink Character Recognition.
b) OMR: OMR which stands for Optical Mark Recognition is the process of gathering data with an optical
scanner by measuring the reflectively of light at predetermined positions on a surface.
c) OCR: OCR stands for Optical Character Recognition. OCR is the recognition of printed or written text
characters by a computer. It is the application software that allows a computer to recognize printed or written
characters, e.g. letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and pictograms using an optical scanner for input. OCR is
being used by libraries to digitize and preserve their holdings.
d) OBR: It stands for Optical Bar Code Reader which is used for reading bar-coded data. It scans a set of
vertical bars of different width for specific data and is used to read tags. Bar code reading is done by a light
pen or scanner connected to a computer.

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