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THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS
DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF RAILWAYS


CONSULTING ENGINEERING SERVICES
FOR
IMPROVEMENT OF MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION
(J BIC LOAN IP-469 & 518)



INDONESIAN RAILWAY TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR
TRACK WORK

















APRIL 2006







INDONESIAN RAILWAY TECHNICAL
STANDARD
ON
DETAILED PROCEDURE FOR TRACK
STRUCTURE DESIGN




Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure
Table of Content

1. Scope 1
2. Objective 1
3. Definition 1
4. Basic Principle 2
5. Procedure for Track Structure Design 3
6. Loading 6
6.1 Application of Load 6
6.2 Train load in the straight line section 6
6.3 Train load in the curved section 7
6.4 Design load conditions on Combination of train loads 8
7. Design specifications of Track materials 11
7.1 General 11
7.2 Rail 11
7.3 Sleepers 12
7.4 Rail Fastening 13
7.4.1 F type and other similar fastening 13
7.4.2 Fastening Apparatus with Dog Spikes 14
7.4.3 The Other Fastening Apparatus 14
7.5 Ballast Materials 14
7.6 Roadbed 15
8. Examination on Excessive loads 16
8.1 General 16
8.2 Examination on Rail bending stress 16
8.2.1 The first method of examination of rail bending stress 16
8.2.2 The second method of examination of rail bending stress 17
8.3 Examination on Roadbed Strength 18
8.3.1 The First method of examination of Roadbed strength 18
8.3.2 The second method of examination of roadbed strength 19
8.4 Examination on Cracks in PC Sleeper 19
8.5 Examination on Cracks in Track slab 20
8.6 Examination on Damage to Rail Fastening 20
8.7 Examination on Occurrence of Sudden Irregularity of Alignment 21
8.8 Examination on Push-out and Pull out of Dog spike without Base Plate 22
8.9 Examination on Pull-out of dog spike with base plate 24
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

9. Examination on Repeated load 25
9.1 Examination on Development of Irregularity of Longitudinal level of rail 25
9.1.1 Examination with the First Method 25
9.1.2 Examination by the Second Method 27
9.2 Examination on Development of Irregularity of Alignment 28
9.2.1 Allowable Development of Alignment Irregularity 28
9.2.2 Estimated Development of Alignment Irregularity 30
9.2.3 Examination on Development of Alignment Irregularity 30
9.3 Examination on Damage to rail holding part of the rail fastenings and lateral pressure
receiving part of the rail fastenings 31
9.3.1 Examination on Damage to Rail Holding Part of the Rail Fastenings 31
9.3.2 Examination on Damage to Lateral Pressure Receiving Part of the Rail
Fastenings 31
9.3.3 Examination on Rail Pad 32
10. Examination on Buckling Safety 33
11. Structure of Turnout 34
12. Additional Rule 35










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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure
List of Table


Table 5-1 Test of factor 3
Table 6.4-1 8
Table 6.4-2 9
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

1. Scope

(1) These detailed procedures shall be applied to the track structure design intended for
new installation, improvement of the track, speed-up of trains or rolling stocks, increase
in transportation capacity etc, and to confirmation of the obtainable strength and the
workable mode of maintenance of the track.

(2) These detailed procedures shall be applied to both of the existing lines and the new
lines.

(3) In case that application of each of the procedures on As is basis (i.e. without any
modification thereto) proves impractical, or use of the new technology already
developed is apparently more suitable, after careful examination/study, application of
the method different from the detailed procedures and considered the most suitable may
be used.


2. Objective

The objective under the Detailed Procedures is to design the track structure in such a manner
that it shall be so designed that it can ensure not only the safety in train operation, but efficient
and economical management, as well.


3. Definition
(Not used)









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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

4. Basic Principle

(4) The track structure shall bear the train load and guide a train or rolling stock, in
connection with which, the operating stability and the ride comfort of a train of rolling
stock shall be fully secured. Therefore, full attention shall be paid to the strength,
durability of the materials building up the track system and the irregularity of track, in
track structure design.

(5) For ballast tracks, maintenance against development of track irregularity due to
repeated operation of trains or rolling stocks, is absolutely necessary. Hence, track
structure shall be decided, taking into full account, such factors as the state of the track
concerned, the maintenance method, the cost/expenses to be incurred thereby, etc.



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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

5. Procedure for Track Structure Design


In designing the track structure, any of the following items shall be fully considered and the
requirements specified therein, shall be met with.

(6) Examination on Stress being Generated to Track Materials and Panels
With regard to excessive load and repeated load accompanied by operation of a train or
rolling stock, the stress being generated to each track material shall be calculated taking
into consideration the track structural conditions, the rolling stock and the track
situations and so on. Appropriateness of the track structure shall be judged, by
comparison of the value calculated above and the permissible values of fatigue and
destructive strength of the material obtained from the safety in train operation.
Depending on the curve passing speed of a train or rolling stock, abruptly occurring
irregularity to track alignment shall also be checked and confirmed.

Depend on track type and condition, type of material use and operation condition, the
items for confirmation shall be specified in the following table 5-1.

Table 5-1 Test of factor
Items and Methods for
Confirmation in Design of Track Structure
(Used for both existing line and Shinkansen line)
Condition for confirmation
Item for confirmation
New railway track, material or
new operation condition
New/Rehabilitation
with existing
operation condition
Examination on rail
bending stress
O X
Examination on pressure
to roadbed
O X
Examination on crack to
PC sleeper
O X
Examination
on excessive
load
Examination on crack to
slab
O X
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

Examination on damage
to rail holding and lateral
force receiving part of rail
fastenings
O X
Examination on
occurrence of rapid
alignment irregularity
O (Confirmed by First method)

Examination on Dog
spikes push-out and pull-
out
O (Confirmed by First method)
Examination on
development of
longitudinal level
irregularity
O O
Examination development
of alignment irregularity
(Confirmed by First method, if necessary)
Examination
on repeated
load
Examination on damage
to rail holding and lateral
pressure receiving parts of
rail fastenings
O X

Examination on buckling
safety
O X
Note: The items marked with (x) shall be applied to the existing lines under the conditions described in
detailed procedures (Regulation) hereof.

(7) Examination on Development of Irregularity of Ballast Track
The development of the track irregularity due to repeated operation of trains or rolling
stocks (Level, Alignment) shall be estimated by the track structural and the train load
conditions, and the estimated value shall be compared with the permissible value of the
track irregularity obtained from the target level of maintenance in respect of the rolling
stock and its operating situation and the safety in operation and the ride comfort, and
appropriateness of the track structure shall be judged by the same comparison.

(8) Examination on Buckling Safety
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

Regarding the increase in Axial force in rail due to rise in temperature, the buckling
safety of track shall be checked and consequently appropriateness of the track structure
shall be judged.

(9) Structure of Turnouts
Structure of turnouts shall be checked and confirmed, in terms of whether or no, they
are so structured or shaped that they can guide a train or rolling stock into the main line
track side or the branch line side and let it pass through.


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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

6. Loading


6.1 Application of Load

Application of load shall be done according to the following:
(1) For the examinations on development of track irregularity and on stress being
generated to the track materials, mainly train load shall be taken into consideration.
Regarding the examination on the buckling stability, what shall be considered as a
main factor is Axial force in rail.

(2) Train load is the load inflicted from the car wheel to the rail, being divided into the
vertical load right angled to the track surface (wheel weight) and the lateral load in
the horizontal direction (lateral stress). Train load is also classified into two kinds of
loads, i.e. those for the straight line section and for the curved line section, in terms
of kind of load inflicting factors. Furthermore, it is divided into the static load
obtained from the rolling stock operating conditions and the track characteristics and
the dynamic load followed by track irregularities, etc.

(3) By combination of the train loads as specified in the preceding, the train load
conditions to be used in Examination on excessive train load and Examination on
Repeated train load shall be determined.

(4) Only temperature load shall be used as the load inflicted in the axial direction in
examining the buckling stability in the track. However, in case of the examination of
rail-creep, brake load and start load shall be considered.

(5) In case that the value actually measured is obtained through speed increasing test,
etc., the actual value may be used.


6.2 Train load in the straight line section

(1) Vertical Train Load
a. Vertical train load (Wheel load) at the straight line section is expressed as the
total of the static and the dynamic loads.
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

b. As the static load value, the static wheel load (1/2 of the axial load) shall be used.
c. As the dynamic load value, a formula established by fully considering the
following two factors, shall be used.
i. Inertial force accompanied by vertical vibration of car body occurring from
irregularity to longitudinal level.
ii. Shock due to vertical vibration of the mass under the spring which support
the vehicle (no suspended load) being caused by the unevenness between
wheel and rail

(2) Lateral Train Load
a. Assuming that as the static load, side to lateral load (lateral force) will not exist,
only the train load as the dynamic load, shall be considered.
b. For the dynamic load, a formula established in the view of the inertia force of
lateral vibration of car body due to irregularity of alignment, shall be used.


6.3 Train load in the curved section

(2) Vertical Load
a. Vertical train load (wheel load) is expressed as the total of the static and dynamic
loads.
b. As the static load, increase and decrease by the load due to excessive centrifugal
force shall be considered, in addition to the static wheel load.
c. The dynamic load in the curved section shall be the same as Section 6.1.(3).

(3) Lateral Load
a. Lateral load (lateral force) in the curved section, is expressed as the total of the
static and the dynamic loads.
b. As the static load, a formula established with the view of curve changing lateral
force and lateral force due to excessive centrifugal force, shall be considered.
c. As the dynamic load, a formula established with the view of inertia force
accompanied by lateral vibration of car body, shall be considered. However, in
case of the track with ordinary rail joints, the dynamic lateral force mainly from
axial shock occurring at the area near the joints shall also be taken into
consideration.

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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure


6.4 Design load conditions on Combination of train loads

(1) Load conditions in examination of stress of the materials against excessive load
a. As the load conditions when examining the stress of a track material against its
excessive load, excessive load rarely taking place in the section concerned shall
be calculated.
b. The value of the dynamic vertical and lateral load shall be three times as much as
the standard deviation.
c. In calculation of the dynamic vertical and lateral (right to left) load values, the
target values for irregularities of longitudinal level and of alignment (as specified
in the following table, the same hereinafter) shall be used.

Table 6.4-1
Description Safety Limit Remarks
Vertical vibration
Full amplitude
4.0 m/s
2

Lateral Vibration
Full amplitude
3.0 m/s
2
in case of
h

0.60 m/s
2
(4.2 2
h
) m/s
2
in case of
h
> 0.60 m/s
2

h
: Lateral static
(regular) acceleration

d. The static vertical load shall be used as the representative vertical load that is
put on with the combination of lateral loads of the sleeper lateral stress or the rail
lateral stress.

(2) Load conditions in Examination of stress of a material against repeated load
a. As the load conditions for examination of the material against repeated load,
considerable load often occurring in the section concerned shall be calculated.
b. Vertical and lateral dynamic load value to be used for examination of stress of the
material shall be the same as that of the standard deviation.
c. In calculation of the vertical and lateral dynamic load, the target values for the
safety in irregularities of longitudinal level and alignment of track.
d. As the vertical load that is combined with lateral load of the sleeper lateral stress
or the rail lateral stress, etc., its static load value shall be used.

(3) Load conditions for Examination on Development of Irregularities of Track.
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

a. The load conditions for examination on development of irregularities of track
shall be calculated for the whole train load in the section concerned.
b. The vertical and lateral dynamic load values to be used for estimation of
development of track irregularities (longitudinal and alignment) shall be three
times as much as the standard deviation beside its static load values.
c. In calculation of the vertical and lateral dynamic loads, the target value in the ride
comfort index(as specified in the table attached hereto, and referred to as the
same, hereinafter) shall be used.

Table 6.4-2
Target of ride comfort Remark

Vertical vibration
Full amplitude
2.5 m/s
2


h
: Lateral
2.0 m/s
2
in case of
h

0.60 m/s
2

Lateral vibration
Full amplitude
static
(regular)
(3.2 - 2
h
) m/s
2
in case of
h
> 0.60 m/s
2

acceleration



d. For the vertical load that is put on with the lateral load in estimation of
development of alignment irregularities, the static load value shall be used among
the two types (i.e. dynamic and static).

(4) Track Design load arrangement
Regarding the vertical load and the lateral load, the factor of Track Design load
arrangement shall be considered, in case that the nearest wheel are within the
distance of 2.5m.

(5) Track Design load in the axial direction
a. It shall be assumed that the temperature load is generated, in case that the rail
encounters a change in temperature when it is held in the direction of the axis and
it is inflicted evenly in the axial direction of rail and uniformly to the whole
cross-section of rail.
b. Amount of temperature load in the long rail installed section, shall be obtained by
the following formula.
) (
o
t t EA P =
Where, P : Rail axial force
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

E : Youngs modulus of rail steel
A : Rail cross-section modulus
: Rail steel liner expansion coefficient
t : Long rail temperature
t
o
: Installation temperature of long rail

(6) Braking Load and Starting Load
Regarding braking and starting loads, the corresponding specifications in the Design
standard on concrete structures, steel and composite structures shall apply.


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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

7. Design specifications of Track materials

7.1 General

Design specifications to be used for track structure shall be as per the followings, but in
the event that application of these values is considered impractical, the value obtained by
relevant test or experiment, etc. and regarded as appropriate may be applied.


7.2 Rail

(1) Bending stiffness of rail(Vertical: EI
x
and Horizontal: EI
y
)

Type of Rail EI
x
( 10
8
N-cm
2
) EI
y
( 10
8
N-cm
2
)
60kg 648.9 107.5
R54 492.7 87.7
50N 411.6 67.6
50kg 366.2 79.2
R42 290.6 49.4
40N 289.4 48.3
37kg 199.8 47.7
R33 217.7 31.6
30kg 126.8 31.9

(2) Section modulus of rail

Z
x
(cm
3
) Type of Rail
60kg 397
R54 313
50N 274
50kg 261
R42 190
40N 197
37kg 164
R33 151
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

30kg 116

(3) Rail lateral stiffness

J (cm
4
) Type of Rail
60kg 512
R54 418
50N 322
50kg 377
R42 235
40N 230
37kg 227
R33 151
30kg 152

(4) Material coefficient of steel used for design calculation

Youngs modulus 210 GPa
Shearing elasticity coefficient 81 GPa
Poissons ratio 0.3
1.1410
-5
/
o
C Line expansion coefficient


7.3 Sleepers

(1) PC Sleepers
a. For any other calculation than bending stress, PC sleeper shall be treated as a
rigid body.
b. The standard coefficient of friction between sleeper and ballast shall be 0.65.

(2) Wooden Sleepers
a. The standard compressive spring coefficient of wooden sleeper shall be
100.0MN/m.
b. The standard coefficient of friction between rail and sleeper shall be 0.60.
c. The standard coefficient of friction between sleeper and ballast shall be 0.65.

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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

(3) The Others
a. Firstly, the specifications shall be determined, according to the requirement for
design of mass, shape and dimensions etc.
b. In case that assumption of sleeper as a rigid body is impossible and spring
coefficient to compression and bending of sleeper itself is unknown, then it may
be decided, by carrying out tests or experiments.


7.4 Rail Fastening

7.4.1 F type and other similar fastening

(1) The fastening/Clip
a. Lateral spring and Tip spring constants shall be obtained by theoretical
calculation or experiment.
b. Initial fastening capability shall be obtained by theoretical calculation.
c. The standard coefficient of friction between rail and fastening spring shall be
0.25.
d. The standard coefficient of friction between fastening spring and pad shall be
0.65.

(2) Rail Pad
a. Spring coefficient shall be obtained, depending on the quality, shape etc. of
materials to be used.
b. As regards the pads as specified in JIS standard, etc., the values as indicated in
the same standard, shall be applied.

(3) Spring Supporters (Support Plate)
The compressive strength of spring supporter shall be obtained, according to JIS
E 1118: Test on Compressive strength with necessary modification.

(4) Compressive Strength of Support Plate
Compressive strength of support plate shall be obtained, according to JIS E 1118:
Test on compressive strength with necessary modification.

(5) Pull-out Resistance of Buried Plate (Embedded Insert)
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

Pull-out resistance of buried plate shall be obtained, according to JIS E1118: Test
on pull out resistance with necessary modification.

7.4.2 Fastening Apparatus with Dog Spikes

(1) Clear indication shall be made as to whether or no tie plates are used.

(2) As regards the factors or items that are used in design calculation for use of tie
plates and specified in JIS standard etc., the values as indicated in the same
standard shall be applied, and regarding the factors or items not specified in JIS
standard, etc., the dimensions actually measured shall be applied.

(3) Push out limit of dog spike shall be set as its standard at 7.0 kN.

(4) Pull out limit of dog spike shall be set at 1.0mm as its standard.

7.4.3 The Other Fastening Apparatus

In case of use of the fastening apparatus corresponding to neither 3 nor 4 above, the
design values shall be obtained, by theoretical calculation and performance of test/s.


7.5 Ballast Materials

In case of use of crushed stones, the design values shall be obtained as follows:

(1) The width actually measured shall be treated as the standard for the width of ballast
shoulder. Nevertheless, in a case (such as new installation of rail) that such a
measurement is impossible, the design value may be used.

(2) The standard unit mass shall be fixed at 1.7 t/m
3
.

(3) Ballast spring constant shall be 200.0MN/m as its standard regardless of ballast
thickness


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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

7.6 Roadbed

Such soil roadbed, stabilized roadbed, other types of roadbed, site ground roadbed as
specified in Standard on Design of Soil Structures and the concrete-structured roadbed
as specified in Standard on Design of Concrete Structures shall be treated as the
Standard of Roadbed, whose design values shall be obtained as follows:

(1) With regard to soil roadbed, stabilized roadbed, other type of roadbed, site ground
roadbed, the geometrical features shall be clarified, and then a variety of factor values
to be used for design calculations shall be obtained, by performing tests etc.
a. The test method shall be as per Standard Design of Earth Work. However, the
allowable bearing capacity of soil roadbed may be fixed at 2.88 kg/cm
2
.
b. K30 value of plate bearing test
c. Kohn Penetration resistance value
d. Allowable bearing capacity of roadbed

(3) Regarding concrete structured roadbed, it shall be treated as a rigid body, and the
values referred to in (1) above, may be fixed as infinite.

(4) In the event of use of any other roadbed than (1) and (2) or, of insertion of an
intermediate material between ballast and roadbed and further it being impossible to
classify into the rigid structure, the following items shall be determined/established
by performing the necessary tests, etc.
a. Spring coefficient of the roadbed and the intermediate material
b. Allowable bearing capacity of the roadbed and the intermediate material


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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

8. Examination on Excessive loads


8.1 General

With regard to examination of excessive loads, the strength conforming to the train load,
shall be secured and confirmed.

(1) Rolling stocks entering the line for the first time

(2) At the time of new laying and improvement of track (Examination to be conducted by
use of the maximum speed)

(3) At the time of improvement of the maximum speed or increase of the curve passing
speed, in existing lines.


8.2 Examination on Rail bending stress

Among the line divisions where the highest speed train or rolling stock in the line section
concerned(heaviest one among the highest speed trains) and the heaviest train or rolling
stock run at their maximum speed, the smallest radius curve shall be picked up, in the
case of which, the rail bending stress under the excessive load and allowable stress shall
be calculated, and examined.

8.2.1 The first method of examination of rail bending stress

When examining the rail bending stress by the first method, it shall be carried out
according to the following procedure.

(1) According to the real sudden rupture strength and the fatigue limit, figures/data on
durability limit shall be obtained.

(2) Residual stress shall be considered.

(3) Temperature stress shall be considered for regular rail and long rail respectively.
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure


(4) From the figures on durability limit, the allowable stress of rail against train load
shall be obtained.

(5) Additional stress occurring from lateral force shall be taken into account.

(6) Allowable stress for wheel load shall be calculated, and be multiplied by 0.8 into
Permissible bending stress of rail (
P
). Furthermore, rail fatigue limit of half
amplitude in calculation of the allowable bending stress value (fatigue limit in
terms of each type of rail) may be as per the following table, instead of the
preceding (1) through (4).

Fatigue limit of rail (Mpa)
Type of Rail
Regular rail Long rail
R60 130 112
R54 130 112
50N 130 112
50 kg 126 107
R42 130 112
40N 130 112
37kg 122 102
30kg 122 102


(7) Rail bending generated stress (
ao
,
ai
) shall be calculated and obtained.

(8) The safety shall be confirmed, from and in the light of the relationship of
ao

p
,
ai

p
.

p
; Allowable bending stress

8.2.2 The second method of examination of rail bending stress

The second method of examination shall be as per the following procedure:

(1) Allowable rail bending stress (
p
) shall be fixed as the following.
- Long rail : 130 Mpa (1300 kg/cm
2
)
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

- Standard rail : 160 Mpa (1600 kg/cm
2
)

(2) Assuming the track deformation as a continuous elasticity supporting model, the
maximum rail bending moment, shall be obtained from the influence line.

(4) It shall be confirmed that the rail stress (
i
) of which are generated by the
maximum rail bending moment, and allowable bending stress should satisfy the
relation materialized in the following formula.

i

p

p
; Allowable bending stress


8.3 Examination on Roadbed Strength

Among the curves where the highest speed train ( the heaviest rolling stock in the highest
speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run through at the highest speed, the smallest
radius curve shall be picked up, against which, the roadbed- affected stress under the
excessive load and the allowable stress shall be obtained, and the roadbed strength shall be
examined.

8.3.1 The First method of examination of Roadbed strength

When examining the roadbed strength with the first method, the procedure thereof
shall be as per the following:

(1) The examination of roadbed strength shall be conducted by the following
formula, with the values of the pressure to roadbed being calculated by the design
load and the allowable bearing capacity of roadbed.

P
smean
q
a


Where, P
smeam
: Average pressure to roadbed
q
a
: Allowable bearing capacity of roadbed

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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

(2) The allowable bearing capacity of roadbed shall be calculated/obtained
separately, according to Standard on Design of soil structures and Standard on
Design of foundation structures.

(3) Regarding the roadbed structured by any other than the material assumed as a
rigid body, the method of (1) above, shall be applied.


8.3.2 The second method of examination of roadbed strength

When examining the roadbed strength with the second method, the procedure thereof
shall be as per the following:

(1) The allowable bearing capacity of roadbed may be applied at 2.88kg/cm
2
.

(2) Assuming the rail deformation as a continuous elasticity supporting model, the
maximum pressure to roadbed (P
bdy
) shall be obtained, and it shall also satisfy the
following formula, with the allowable bearing capacity of roadbed.

P
bdy
q
a



8.4 Examination on Cracks in PC Sleeper

Among the curves where the highest speed train in the line division concerned (the
heaviest rolling stock in the highest speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run at the
highest speed, the smallest radius curve shall be picked up, against which, the stress under
the excessive load, shall be calculated/obtained, and then cross-examined with the
acceptable stress obtained through the following:

(1) Bearing pressure of ballast shall be assumed.

(2) The acceptable value of the stress generated by the excessive load shall be obtained
from the value of effective pre-stress.


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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

8.5 Examination on Cracks in Track slab

Cracks in Track slab shall be examined in the following manner.

Among the curves where the highest speed train in the line division concerned (more
specifically, the heaviest rolling stock in the highest speed train) and the heaviest rolling
stock run at the highest speed, the smallest radius curve shall be picked up, towards
which, the stress being generated by excessive loads being inflicted when the said rolling
stocks run at the maximum speed, shall be calculated/obtained, and then cross-examined
with the acceptable stress obtained from the following:

(1) RC Track Slab
Stress of reinforcement bar shall be calculated from the moment being generated by
the load, but shall be within the limit of the allowable steelstress (1,800kg/cm
2
).

(2) PRC Track Slab
Stress of reinforcement bar shall be calculated from the moment being generated by
the load, but shall be within the limit of the allowable steel stress (1,000kg/cm
2
) for
RRC slab.


8.6 Examination on Damage to Rail Fastening


Among the curve sections where the highest speed train (the heaviest rolling stock in the
highest speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run at the maximum speed, the smallest
radius curve shall be picked up, towards which, the stress being generated by excessive
loads when the said rolling stocks run through it at the maximum speed, shall be
calculated/obtained, and then examined in comparison with the allowable stress values for
the following:

(1) Examination on Damage to Rail Holding Part
The stress generated due to excessive loads or counter-action of the rail holding part
to prevent irregular inclination of rail from occurring, shall be calculated/obtained,
and then examination shall be made, in the form of comparison of the allowable stress
or the permissible load, according to the following procedure.
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure


a. Limit line for durability of fastening springs shall be calculated and organized by
real sudden rupture strength, fatigue limit, time limit, elasticity limit and yield
point etc.
b. Initial fastening stress of the spring and bolt shall be considered.
c. From the second sudden rupture limit and the second exhaustion limit in the
durability limit figure, the allowable stress of the spring to the load shall be
calculated and obtained. Further, in case of impossibility of theoretical
calculation of the stress generated to the springs, etc., it may be obtained by tests.
d. According to JIS E1118: Test on Pull-out resistance, the pull-out load limit to
buried plate (embedded insert) shall be calculated, and the allowable load shall be
fixed at 1/4 as much as the said pull-out resistance.
e. From the fatigue limit and the yield point in the bolt durability figure, the
allowable stress of the fastening bolt to the load shall be obtained.

(2) Examination on Damage to Lateral Force Receiving Part of Rail Fastenings
The stress being generated to lateral force receiving part shall be calculated/obtained,
under the excessive load and then examined by comparison thereof with the allowable
stresses obtained in the following:

a. Durability limit Figure of fastening springs shall be calculated/obtained by real
sudden rupture strength, fatigue limit, time limit, elasticity limit and yield point.
b. Initial fastening stress of the fastening spring and the support plate or receiving
plate shall be taken into account.
c. From the second sudden rupture strength limit and the second exhaustion limit in
the durability limit figure of fastening springs, the allowable stress to the load
shall be obtained.
d. According to JIS E1118: Test on Compressive Strength, the bearing pressure
limit of support plate or receiving plate shall be calculated/obtained, and the
allowable stress shall be half the said limit.


8.7 Examination on Occurrence of Sudden Irregularity of Alignment

In case of operating a train or rolling stock at more than 20 km/h higher speed than the
basic speed specified in Basic Velocity under speed restriction through curves in the table
21
Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

on train operating speed, the safety towards occurrence of sudden irregularity of track
alignment shall be examined. The examination shall, ini principle, be conducted by the
lateral pressure to sleeper due to excessive loads and the lateral ballast resistance of
sleeper under consideration of the differences according to the track structures and load
conditions. However, another examination method may be used, so long as it can satisfy
the formulas related to the design load.

Rail pressure by static wheel load, lateral stress to rail from excessive lateral force, lateral
ballast resistance shall be calculated/obtained, and it shall be confirmed that the following
formula is met with.

85 . 0
12 0
2 1
<
+

r
r r
P g
Q Q



Where, Q
r1
: Lateral pressure to outer rail
Q
r2
: Lateral pressure to inner rail
g
o
: Ballast lateral resistance
: Friction coefficient between sleeper and ballast
P
r12
: Total of pressures of outer rail and of inner rail


8.8 Examination on Push-out and Pull out of Dog spike without Base
Plate

In the following cases, in respect of the push-out and pull-out of dog spike, the lateral
pressure to rail being generated excessive considerable loads, pull-out of dog spike and
amount of irregular rail inclination, shall be examined.

(1) Locations subjected to examination:
a. For Locomotive
i. Curve radius 600m or less
ii. Curve radius less than 800m where a train or rolling stock runs at the speed
more than 85km/h.

b. For any other than Locomotive
i. Curve radius of 600m or less
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

ii. Curve radius of over 600m to under 800m where a train or rolling stock runs
at the speed more than 95 km/h.
iii. Curve radius of over 800m to under 1,400m where a train or rolling stock runs
at the speed of more than 105 km/h.

(2) Regarding the examination on Push-out of dog spike, the allowable stress as obtained
as per the following, shall be examined:

a. Maximum push-out force of dog spike for the sleeper to be used, shall be
calculated/obtained;
b. Friction coefficient between sleeper to be used and rail shall be
calculated/obtained;
c. Pressure to outer rail by static wheel load and lateral pressure to rail by excessive
load, shall be calculated/obtained, and it shall be confirmed that they satisfy the
following formula.

h r r
S P Q + <
1 1


Where, Q
r1
: Lateral pressure to outer rail
P
r1
: Vertical pressure to outer rail
S
h
: Maximum pull-out force of dog spike
: Friction coefficient between rail and sleeper

(3) Regarding the examination on pull out of dog spike, the pull-out limit of dog spike,
shall be calculated/obtained.

Regarding the pull-out of dog spike, the degree of irregular inclination of rail as
obtained from excessive loads and the following values provided as per the following
shall be examined.

a. Pull-out limit of dog spike for the sleepers to be used shall be examined.
b. Compressive strength coefficient of sleeper to be used, shall be
calculated/obtained.
c. Pressure to outer rail by static wheel load and lateral pressure to rail by excessive
lateral under shall be calculated/obtained, and it shall be confirmed that they
satisfy the following formula.
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure


3
2
1
2 p
1 r
lim
r
b
D
P
+
<



Where,
r
: Degree of irregular inclination of rail

lim
: Pull-out limit of dog spike
D
p2
: Compressive spring coefficient of sleeper
b
3
: Width of rail bottom


8.9 Examination on Pull-out of dog spike with base plate

Only for location where the bearing capacity of dog spikes etc. that connect baseplate to
rail are continuously diminished, the degree of irregular inclination of rail by excessive
loads towards the pull-out of dog spike, etc, shall be examined, as follows:

3
2 p
1 r
lim
r
b
D
P

+
<



Where, D
p2
: D
p2
= D
p2
b
3
/b
3
b
3
: Width of bottom of base plate


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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

9. Examination on Repeated load

In new installation of line, should the design maximum train speed and the design passing
tonnage be increased, then examination on track structure and its maintenance shall be
conducted as per the procedures specified in Sections 27 through 29 in order to confirm that
the safety in train operation is ascertained/ maintained.


9.1 Examination on Development of Irregularity of Longitudinal level of
rail

Regarding development of irregularity of longitudinal level, 1) The track structural
conditions and the allowable irregularity of longitudinal level as estimated from the target
for maintenance and the maintenance conditions, 2) The estimated irregularity of
longitudinal level as made from the rolling stock and rolling stock-operation conditions,
or 3) The maintenance target level corresponding to the performance of rolling stock and
its operating speed shall be examined, in accordance with the following, and
propriety/suitability of the track structure shall be judged.

9.1.1 Examination with the First Method

(1) Allowable development of irregularity of longitudinal level
a. Maintenance target level
i) As the maintenance target level index, the safety limit and the riding
comfort target shall be established.
ii) The safety limit for the standard deviation for irregularity of longitudinal
level is intended for securing the safety in rolling stock operation, should
correspond to the safety limit against full amplitude vertical motion.
iii) The riding comfort target in relation to the standard deviation for
irregularity of longitudinal level is established for maintaining the riding
comfort at a certain level, and the target corresponding to that for riding
comfort under the Full amplitude vertical motion conditions.
iv) The relation between the irregularity of longitudinal level and the
vertical motion shall be according to the following formula. However, in
case that it is possible to confirm the values through carrying out test/s,
the values confirmed may be used, instead of the said formula.
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure


V K
v v av
=

Where,
av
: Standard deviation of vertical motion (m/s
2
)
K
v
: Car body vibration coefficient towards vertical motion

v
: Standard deviation of irregularity of longitudinal level (mm)
V : Train operation speed (km/h)

b. Maintenance conditions
i) Frequency of track maintenance shall be fixed as constant.
ii) Considering type of the maintenance (MTT, TT) and track structural
conditions(long rail or standard rail), the residual rate of irregularity of
longitudinal level after completion of periodical repair works under the
track maintenance, shall be established.

c. Calculation of Allowable development of irregularity of longitudinal level.
Assuming that a round of damage to track and its restoration is repeated with
a constant frequency under the ordinary maintenance circumstances, the
allowable development of irregularity of longitudinal level shall be calculated
and established from the maintenance target level and the track maintenance
conditions.

(2) Estimated development of irregularity of longitudinal level
The estimated development of irregularity of longitudinal level shall be calculated
as per the following, taking into consideration the load conditions and the track
structural conditions.
a. Design load shall be calculated per wheel axle, and the location of the load is
right on the sleeper.
b. Amount of vertical displacement within the period as set forth as the
frequency of maintenance shall be calculated/obtained by calculating the
coefficients of development of vertical irregularity for all and every wheel
axles and totaling them, as follows:

=
yi y


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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

Where,
y
: Amount of Vertical irregularity within the maintenance frequency
(mm)

yi
: Coefficient of Vertical irregularity encountered at the time of
passage of the I th wheel axle.

sy by y
+ =

Where,
y
: Estimated amount of vertical irregularity

by
: Estimated amount of ballast vertical irregularity

sy
: Estimated amount of roadbed vertical irregularity

c. Estimated development of longitudinal level irregularity shall be estimated at
1/6 of the vertical irregularity within the maintenance frequency, as follows:

T 6
y
ycal

=

Where,
ycal
: Estimated development of longitudinal level irregularity
(mm/year)
T : Frequency of maintenance involvement (per year)

(3) Examination on Development of longitudinal level irregularity
Development of longitudinal level irregularity shall be examined by comparison
of the estimated development of longitudinal level irregularity and the allowable
development thereof.

9.1.2 Examination by the Second Method

(1) Calculation of Track strength(Structural coefficient M
0
)
The strength of track structure (commonly called as Structural coefficient) shall
be interpreted as the product of the impact coefficients for ballast pressure, ballast
acceleration and for wheel axle, and shall be calculated/obtained by the following
formula.

S y P M
o
=

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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

Where, P : Maximum ballast pressure against a certain wheel load
y : Maximum ballast acceleration against a certain wheel impact
S : Impact coefficient

(2) Maintenance target level corresponding to performance of rolling stock and its
operation speed
Maintenance target level to be preserved at shall be established, taking into due
consideration, the upper limit of vertical car vibration acceleration, the
performance capacity of rolling stock, the maximum operation speed, etc.

(3) Estimation of development of longitudinal level irregularity
Development of longitudinal level irregularity shall be estimated by the passing
tonnage, the average speed, the ratio of long rail laying, the roadbed conditions
and the track strength (Track structural coefficient M
0
).

(4) Calculation of Allowable development of longitudinal level irregularity
For the purpose of properly sustaining the maintenance target level, allowable
development of longitudinal level irregularity shall be estimated from the
frequency of maintenance.

(5) Examination of Development of vertical irregularity
Development of vertical irregularity shall be examined by comparing its
estimated and its allowable values of development.


9.2 Examination on Development of Irregularity of Alignment

The examination on development of irregularity of alignment shall be conducted, when
and if necessary. The allowable alignment irregularity obtained from the maintenance
target level and the maintenance conditions and the estimated alignment irregularity as
made from the track structure conditions and the curvilinear item, the rolling stock and
rolling stock-operation conditions, shall be cross-examined, and propriety/suitability of
the track structure shall be judged.

9.2.1 Allowable Development of Alignment Irregularity

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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

(1) Maintenance target level to be preserved at

a. As the maintenance target level index, the safety limit and the riding comfort
target shall be established.
b. The safety limit for full amplitude lateral motion (
hcf
) is intended for
securing the safety in train operation, and when the lateral quasi-static
acceleration remains in the range over a certain value, the value of the said
safety limit shall be reduced.
c. The riding comfort target for full amplitude lateral motion
htg
is intended for
securing the riding comfort at a certain level considered satisfactory to the
passengers, and when the lateral quasi-static acceleration remains in the range
over a certain value, the target value shall be reduced.
d. The relation between alignment irregularity and lateral motion shall be
obtained by the following formula. However, should it be possible to
confirm the relation through test/s, then the value actually obtained by the
test/s may be used.

V . . K
z h ah
=

Where,
ah
: Standard deviation of lateral motion (m/s
2
)
K
h
: Car body vibration coefficient regarding lateral motion

z
: Standard deviation of alignment irregularity (mm)
V : Train speed (km/h)


(2) Maintenance conditions

a. Frequency of track maintenance shall be fixed as constant.
b. The residual rate of alignment irregularity after completion of the periodical
maintenance work shall be established, according to type of the maintenance
(MIT, TT) and the track structural conditions (long rail or standard rail).

(3) Calculation of Allowable irregularity of alignment

Assuming that damage to track and restoration thereof are repeated regularly and
routinely within the frequency of maintenance, the allowable development of
29
Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

alignment irregularity shall be calculated/obtained by from the maintenance target
level and the track maintenance conditions.

9.2.2 Estimated Development of Alignment Irregularity

Considering the load and the track structural conditions, the estimated development of
alignment irregularity shall be calculated/obtained as per the following procedure.

(1) Design load shall be calculated in terms of every and each wheel axle, and the
location where load operates, shall be right on the sleeper.
(2) Amount of lateral irregularity within the period of the frequency of the
maintenance work, shall be obtained by calculating the coefficients of
development of lateral alignment irregularity for all and every wheel axles and
summing them up.

=
zi z


Where,
z
: Amount of lateral irregularity within the frequency of
Maintenance (mm)

zi
: Coefficient of development of lateral irregularity occurring at the
time that a train passes through the i th wheel axle.

(3) Development of alignment irregularity shall be estimated at 1/6 of the amount of
lateral irregularity, as follows:

T 6
z
zcal

=

Where,
zcal
: Estimated development of alignment irregularity (mm/year)
T : Frequency of maintenance work (per year)

9.2.3 Examination on Development of Alignment Irregularity

Examination on Development of alignment irregularity shall be conducted by
comparison between the estimated and the allowable development of alignment
irregularity.

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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure


9.3 Examination on Damage to rail holding part of the rail fastenings
and lateral pressure receiving part of the rail fastenings

Rail fastening apparatus shall be examined by calculating the stress generated by repeated
stress operating when the highest speed train (the heaviest rolling stock in the highest
speed train) and the heaviest rolling stock run through the smallest radius curve and cross-
examining it with the allowable stress value obtained through the following.


9.3.1 Examination on Damage to Rail Holding Part of the Rail
Fastenings

Examination of damage to rail holding part shall be limited to the fastening spring,
and the generated stress of the spring that resists irregular inclination of rail shall be
calculated and cross-examined with the allowable stress or load obtained through the
following procedure.

(1) From the real sudden rupture strength, fatigue limit, time limit, elasticity limit and
yield point, a figure for the durability limit line of the fastening spring shall be
obtained.

(2) Initial fastening stress of the fastening spring and bolt shall be considered.

(3) From the first sudden rupture limit and the first exhaustion limit in the figure
referred to in (1) above, the allowable stress of the spring to the load shall be
calculated/obtained. Furthermore, should calculation of the stress generated to the
wire spring be theoretically impossible, then it shall be obtained by some
alternative method, say, relevant test/s.

9.3.2 Examination on Damage to Lateral Pressure Receiving Part of
the Rail Fastenings

Examination of damage to lateral pressure receiving part shall be confined to the
fastening spring. The generated stress shall be obtained, and be cross-examined with
the allowable stress obtained through the following procedure.
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Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure


(1) From the real sudden rupture strength, fatigue limit, time limit, elasticity limit and
yield point, the fastening springs durability line figure shall be obtained.

(2) Initial fastening stress of the fastening spring and the support plate or the
receiving plate shall be considered.

(3) From the first sudden rupture limit and the first exhaustion limit in the said figure
in (1), the allowable stress towards the load shall be obtained.

9.3.3 Examination on Rail Pad

After choice of material for the rail pad, the average and the maximum compressive
stress and average strain of the rail pad againts ordinary load shall be obtained and
examined by checking against the following limits.

(1) Average compressive stress 2.0 MP
a

(2) Maximum compressive stress (at the edge) 4.0 MP
a

(3) Average strain 10.0%


32
Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

10. Examination on Buckling Safety

Buckling safety of rail against the increase of rail axial force caused as the temperature rises ,
shall be examined according to the following. However, regarding the existing lines, this
examination may be omitted.

(1) The maximum axial force (P
max
) occurring due to the anticipated change in the rail
temperature, shall be calculated/ obtained.

(2) From the rail lateral rigidity, lateral ballast resistance, bending rigidity of track panel
and alignment, the minimum buckling force (P
tmin
) shall be obtained and it shall be
confirmed that the buckling force satisfy the following formula.

2 . 1
P
P
max
min t
=
Where, : Degree of Safety


33
Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

11. Structure of Turnout

In principle, turnouts as specified in international standard shall be used. However, in case of
use of the turnouts and/or parts not stipulated in the said standard, design of the turnout shall
be made, in accordance with the specifications of widely accepted standards, with respect of
the following:

(1) Calculation of alignment and skeleton

(2) Mode of bending of each rail

(3) Mode of bending of tongue rail

(4) Mode of bending of guard rail

(5) Structure and dimensions of Crossing

(6) Structure and dimensions of bed plate and accessories

(7) Stress being generated to each member, shall be obtained, and shall be examined in the
form of comparison with the allowable stress. Further, the calculation model to be used
in computing the stress being generated to each member, shall be static structured beam,
cantilever beam or elastic supporting beam, depending on the characteristics of the
member.


34
Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

12. Additional Rule

(1) Effective date

(2) Approval to special structure and other

(3) Transition move





























35
Indonesian Railway Technical Standard Track : Detailed Procedure

Supplementary Provision

This Notice shall become effective on --, --, 2005



36