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AUTOCAD 2004 – THE THIRD DIMENSION CHAPTER VI

RAJENDRA SALOKHE Page 1

CHAPTER VI
HOME –3D
You have drawn a Civil plan in 2D in Chapter 2. In this chapter, we shall develop
home in 3D. We have mentioned a few core techniques to develop such 3D home. You
may innovate new techniques and apply them to your drawing.
To start with, we shall draw lines for walls of each room and outer wall. We shall
pedit them, then extrude. After that we shall subtract each room from outer boundary
wall. This will be cleared in following steps.
Look at the following plan.

Fig 6.01

1> As explained in chapter 2, draw rectangle of size 11’ X 11’ by using line
command and polar co-ordinates. You can set limits as 0’, 0’ for lower left corner
and 30’, 30’ for upper right corner.
Offset the sides of rectangle as discussed in chapter 2.

2> Use EXTEND, FILLET, TRIM commands to form rectangles for each room.
See Fig 6.02

3> We shall use PEDIT command to convert lines representing each room into
polyline.
Type PEDIT , you will be asked to
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Select polyline:
Select side AB (or BC or CD or DA).
You will be asked,
Do you want to turn it into one? <Y>
Press Enter.
You will be prompted
Enter an option [Close/ Join/ Width/ Edit/
Vertex/ Fit/ Spline/ Decurve/ Ltype gen/ Undo]:
Type J
You will be asked to
Select objects:
Select side AB, BC, CD and DA and press enter.
Again press Enter.
If you now click anywhere on side AB, BC, CD or DA, you will observe four
grips at points A, B, C and C. This means four lines i.e. four objects are
converted into single one.

4> Follow the same procedure to form polylines EFGH (kitchen), OPQR (W. C.),
STUV (Bath) and WXYZ (outer wall). See Fig 6.03

Fig 6.02 Fig 6.03

5> We shall extrude these polylines to height of 12’. Here we have assumed this
height.
At select objects: prompt, type ALL
Select View-> 3D Views -> SW Isometric
Your drawing should look like in Fig 6.04
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Fig 6.04 Fig 6.05

6> We shall subtract rooms from outer wall.


Type SUBTRACT
Select rectangle WXYZ and press enter.
Next select inside polylines representing room and press enter.
Type HI , your drawing should look like in Fig 6.05

7> Switch to plan view.


Form the given plan, you will observe door D of 4’ in length at the entrance to
Living Room. In chapter 2, while making blocks for doors, we had drawn a
rectangle of size 4’ X 0.5”. But here since wall width is 9”, we shall draw
rectangle of size 4’ X 9” using polyline and polar co -ordinates.
See Fig 6.06, door rectangle with grips revealed.

8> Follow same procedure to draw rectangle for outer doors as shown in given plan
(Fig 6.01). But remember, width for door present in inside wall will be 6” only.
Your drawing should look like in Fig 6.07

Fig 6.06 Fig 6.07


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9> Extrude these doors to the height of 7’.


Subtract these doors from rest of drawing.
See Fig 6.08

10> Next we shall form openings for windows and ventilators

11> Draw rectangle of size 5’ X 9” for window W1 and 3’ X 9” for ventilator V at


respective places.

12> See Fig 6.09 This step should be performed carefully. First change elevation of
each window
i.e. rectangle representing windows W and W1 to 4’ by CHANGE command.
Type CHANGE
Select windows W and W1 (for this refer Fig 6.01) See Fig 6.10
Next change elevation of two ventilators to height of 5’.

Fig 6.08 Fig 6.09

13> Extrude all windows and ventilators to height of 4’ -6”.

14> Subtract all these windows and ventilators from rest of drawing.
In SW Isometric view, your drawing should look like in Fig 6.11

15> We shall draw thresholds at each door. They are 3” in height.


Zoom the door at entrance to Living.
Draw rectangle at the base of door by picking endpoints with OSNAP
(See Fig 6.12)
Extrude it to height of 3”. UNION this thresholds with the rest of the drawing.
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Fig 6.10 Fig 6.11

16> Perform step 15 at each door. You must be careful because there are many lines.
So better to use zoom tools mainly window and real time.

Fig 6.12 Fig 6.13

17> Now we shall turn towards windows. Select window W1 to zoom (see Fig 6.01
for reference). We shall insert bars inside window as follows.
First change UCS as shown in Fig 6.13
Draw line AB as shown in Fig 6.13

You can temporarily turn off UCS icon by selecting


View -> Display -> UCS Icon -> On
You may zoom portion AB only if needed.
Using nearest option in OSNAP, draw a circle near point B as shown in Fig 6.14
with radius 2”. To draw other circles representing bars, we must array this circle.
Select Modify -> Array
Select circle, press enter. Again press enter.
Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 5
Again press enter.
Enter the distance between rows or specify unit cell (---): 10
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See Fig 6.14


Erase line AB.
Extrude all these 5 circles to height of 8’.
See Fig 6.15

Fig 6.14 Fig 6.15

You may union them with other drawing here.

18> Here we shall draw windowpanes. Turn on UCS icon by selecting


View -> Display -> UCS icon -> On.
Change UCS as shown in Fig 6.16
Draw rectangle-representing windowpane by picking endpoint along Y-axis and
midpoint along X-axis as shown in Fig 6.16.
Mirror this rectangle.
Change ELEVATION of both these rectangles to –2” by CHANGE command one
by one. See Fig 6.16
Extrude these two rectangles to the height of 4”.
We shall rotate these windowpanes.
Type UCS , again press enter.
Next select Modify -> Rotate.
First select windowpane as shown in Fig 6.17.

Fig 6.16 Fig 6.17


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Specify base point as point that is inside window and at the bottom of it.
Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 70
Similarly rotate other windowpane by –750 (or as you wish).
Now if you feel to add some extra work to windowpanes, you may add. It
entirely depends on you. But do it before rotating windowpanes, otherwise you
have to change UCS so that it lies on face of windowpane.
You may UNION here itself, look at Fig 6.18

19> Repeat step no. 17 and 18 at each window.

Fig 6.18 Fig 6.19

20> Now we shall turn towards two ventilators.


Select NE Isometric View.
Zoom one of the ventilators. Set UCS parallel to front face of ventilator.
Draw rectangle as shown in Fig 6.20
Use nearest option in OSNAP to draw this.
Array this rectangle (Rectangular array).
Specify number of rows as 5.
Specify distance between rows as 10”.
Next change elevation of all these 5 rectangles by –1”.
EXTRUDE these rectangles to height of –7”.
See Fig 6.21
Now set UCS as shown in Fig 6.22

Click on any rectangle, grips will appear at corners. Again click on grip as shown
in Fig 6.23, that grip will turn red.
It is hot grip. Next right click, a hot grip pop up menu will appear.
Select ‘Rotate’ from it.
Specify rotation angle as 150.
Press Esc twice to get rid of grips.
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Perform same operation at remaining rectangles. UNION them.


Your drawing should look like in Fig 6.24

Fig 6.20 Fig 6.21 Fig 6.22

21> Repeat same procedure at second ventilator.

22> It’s now time to insert doors.


First select World UCS.
Select View -> 3D Views -> Plan View -> World UCS.
First we shall insert door D (4’ in size) at main entrance.
Draw rectangle of size 4’ X 9” (using polyline) EXTRUDE it to height of 6’ -9”.
Actually, door height is 7’, but threshold is 3” high.
Rotate this door by –15 as shown in Fig 6.25

Fig 6.23 Fig 6.24 Fig 6.25

Move this door at opening as shown in Fig 6.26


In SW Isometric View, your drawing will look like in Fig 6.27
You will observe partially opened door at the entrance.
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Fig 6.26 Fig 6.27

23> Repeat above procedure at each and every door. Take care about opening of door
and their sizes
Extrusion height will be 6’ -9” always.
Now your drawing will look like in Fig 6.28

24> Now let us draw plinth. Here we shall make use of ‘Construction line’.
Select Draw -> Construction Line, following message will appear in command
window,
_xline Specify a point of [Hor/Ver/Ang/ Bisect/ Offset]:
Type O
You will be asked to
Specify offset distance or [Through] <Through>:
Type 3
Now you will be asked to
Select a line object:
Click on line representing outer wall of home at entrance to Living Room as
shown in Fig 6.29
Everything will appear dashed. Next you will be asked to
Specify side to offset
Click on left of the Figure. Your drawing will look like in Fig 6.30
Now offset outer line representing wall on respective sides.
If offsetted line does not appear at the base of home, you may have to erase old
construction lines and draw new one.
Fig 6.31
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Fig 6.28 Fig 6.29

Fig 6.30

Fig 6.31
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25> Now trim these construction lines to form rectangle representing plinth
Switch to Plan View. You will observe there is very less distance between these
lines and outer wall of home.
Now PEDIT these four lines.
Selected lines are shown in Fig 6.32

Fig 6.32 Fig 6.33

26> EXTRUDE this PEDITED line to height of –1’ -6”.


After HIDE, your drawing will look like in Fig 6.33

27> We shall draw steps at entrance to Living Room. There will be 3 steps in total.
As you know, there width is 10” and length 4’.
Zoom the portion of door at the entrance. Using polyline, draw it. Copy it twice.
It will look like in Fig 6.34. Rectangles shown dashed with grips revealed.

28> Change elevation of all these rectangles to –1’ -6”.


Extrude first rectangle to height of 6”, middle one to height of 1’ and inner to
–1’ -6”.
Union these steps, home and plinth. See Fig 6.35

29> We shall draw chajja over the windows.


Zoom any window. Shift UCS as shown in Fig 6.36. Draw line AB, BC each 2”
in length as shown in Fig 6.36

From point C, draw polyline as follows:


1) @4’ -8” < 2 70, 2) @2” < 180, 3) @4’ -8” < 90, 4)
Press enter
Delete lines AB and BC. Now your polyline will look like as in Fig 6.37 on left
of window. Mirror this polyline on right side of window. See Fig 6.37
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Fig 6.34 Fig 6.35

Fig 6.36

Fig 6.37

Now draw arc as shown in Fig 6.38.


Select Draw -> Arc -> Start, End, Angle
Select a as start point, B as endpoint and 30 as included angle. See Fig 6.38
Offset this arc 2” above of it.
There will be a gap between outer arc and two lines.
So extend them to meet each other.
Next PEDIT these two arcs and two polylines.
EXTRUDE it to height of 2’.
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UNION it with rest of drawing. In SW Isometric View, your drawing will look
like in Fig 6.39

Fig 6.38 Fig 6.39

30> Repeat the step at each window. For this, you may need to refer Fig 6.01 for
location and size of chajja.
Now your drawing should look like in Fig 6.40

31> Next task is to place slab on the top of home. Here we shall follow procedure
similar to that in step no. 24 i.e. drawing plinth. Only difference is that we shall
OFFSET construction lines by 2’ -6”.
Note: You may draw these construction lines on a different layer.
See Fig 6.41
PEDIT these four lines.
EXTRUDE it to height of 1’.
Don’t UNION it. See Fig 6.42

Fig 6.40 Fig 6.41

32> Now you can shade drawing by using SHADE command, look at Fig 6.43
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Fig 6.42 Fig 6.43

33> It’s time to render this 3D home. Using 3D orbit, adjust the view as shown in
Fig 6.44 (not necessary to have exact view as shown in Fig 6.44)
We shall add lights to the drawing.
Select View -> Render -> Light, lights dialog box will appear.
Choose ‘Distant Light’ from drop down list next to New… button.
Click on the New… button, New Distant Light dialog box appears.
Type L01 in the light name input box.
Below in the frame of Color, click on Select Custom Color… button, Color dialog
box appears. Select Red color from it. Click OK to close this dialog box.
On right of New Distant Light dialog box, click on Modify < button in the frame
of light source vector. In command window, following message will appear.
Enter light direction TO <current>:

Location is as shown in Fig 6.44 (left).


Next message is
Enter light location FROM <current>:
Location is shown in Fig 6.44 (right)

Fig 6.44

Again New Distant light dialog box will appear.


Click OK to close it.
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Click OK to close Lights dialog box.


You will observe a red dot in front of door. Now you are ready to render this
home.
Select View -> Render -> Render… Render dialog box will appear. Click on
Render.
It will take few seconds. Your drawing should look like in Fig 6.45

Fig 6.45 Fig 6.46

34> You may add arc to the main entrance as shown in following Figure. You must
use polyline and arc option in it to do this. EXTRUDE this to the height of – 9”
and UNION it with rest of the Figure.

35> To give the door similar shape as that of the entrance, click on the door at the
main entrance; select a grip at the bottom of the door and using MOVE command
through hot grip edit pop up menu. Then using UCS tool, set UCS parallel to the
face of the door. Follow the step 34 to give arc shape at the top of the door.
UNION it with rest of the door. To place the door at its original position, use Hot
Grip Edit Feature to move door. Refer Fig 6.46 above

Special Note:

In this drawing, you may assign different colors to different rooms. This can be
done after step no. 5. See following Fig 6.47

Here colors assigned are as follows:


Outer wall – Red Bed Room – Color 11
Kitchen – Color 50 Bath & W. C. – Magneta
Living – Color 141
First selecting the room and then selecting color from Color Control window on
Object Properties Toolbar assign colors.
Colors 11, 141 are colors, which you can load by selecting Other… option in
color control widow. It will cause select Color dialog box to appear. Click on
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any color in the group of ‘Full Color Palette’. Its corresponding number will
appear in input box in front of Color, Click OK to close dialog box.
Or you may input numbers in that input box and then click on square in front of
this input box to see corresponding color.
In the similar way, you may assign different colors to doors, windows, bars,
windowpanes, chajja, plinth, slab, etc. to have colorful look.

Fig 6.47

STEPS TO ADD BACKGROUND TO YOUR DRAWING:


Select View→Render→Background… Background dialog box will appear.
From top select Image radio button. At bottom click on Find File… button
in the frame named Image, Background Image dialog box will appear.
Open Textures folder from ACAD2000 folder. Select Sky.tga file from this
folder. You will observe the name and path of this file in the input box in front
of the Name. You may click Preview button to see its preview. Click OK.
Now render the drawing.

Fig 6.48 3D HOME AFTER SHADING


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