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Department of Nuclear Engineering,

Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences,


Nilore, Islamabad


Determination
of Major &
Minor Losses
in Pipes
Submitted To:
Dr. Inaam-ul-Haq

Submitted By:
Muhammad Asim Shahzad
NE-25, Group-4



ABSTRACT

Flow in pipes, laminar or turbulent, is subject to pressure losses that result from the
viscous stresses on the wall of the pipe. These losses are dependent on the Reynolds
number of the flow and the surface roughness of the pipe wall. This phenomenon is
described in terms of the friction factor (dimensionless pressure loss per unit length of
the pipe) in Moodys diagram (Figure 6.13 in Whites Intro to Fluids book, 7th Ed.).
Losses resulting from complex flow patterns appearing at some elements of piping
systems, such as valves, expansions, contractions, elbows, etc., can be described in
similar terms by means of a concentrated loss given by a dimensionless loss factor
K.The objective of this lab session was to experimentally measure thefriction factor for
the pipes of different diameters,head loss coefficient for different fittings, discharge
coefficient for flow measuring devices, total head loss and total pressure drop of the
system, for different values of the Reynolds number (Re).The pressure drop across the
pipes, fittings and the devices was measured in terms of mmHg by manometer. Then the
above mentioned parameters were calculated from the observed data. Calculations and
corresponding graphs showed that for a given value of Re, friction factor increases with
pipe diameter. For a given diameter the friction factor decreases with increasing Re. The
head loss coefficients for most of the fittings decrease with increasing Re and further
increase in Re, the friction factor increased slightly.Plots of the minor losses confirmed
that factor K for globe valve is higher than that of the other valves. Discharge coefficient
curves showed that venturi has relatively higher value than orifice at anyRe.


INTRODUCTION
This experiment is related to find out data for friction factors of different pipes by using
mercury manometer. Selection of mercury manometer was due to large pressure
difference between components and device has not ability to measure them with water
as manometer substance. There were three objectives;
To calculate friction factor at different flow rates in three different pipes of
different diameters.
To compute numerical values of minor losses at different flow rates of different
components and plot those values against Reynolds number.
To compute discharge coefficient of pressure measuring devices and also plot
values as function of Reynolds number.
These data are very valuable in determining pipe properties and also provide insight in
understanding relation between flow rate and friction factor, flow rate and minor losses
of various components and last but not least is relation of discharge coefficient and flow
rate and an indication that which instrument is better for measuring pressure difference
at different Reynolds number.

PROCEDURE
1. First of all started pump and adjusted flow rate for our experiment with the help
of Rota meter.
2. Measurepressure difference between two specific points on pipe diameter is
inch. Distance between points is constant in each case that is 2m.
3. Reading was recorded with the help of manometer in which mercury was as
indicative fluid.
4. In the same way pressure difference was measured for second and third pipe
diameter is inch and 1inch, respectively.
5. After measuring pressures of pipes, pressure differences of individual
components were measured one by one.
6. The same procedure is repeated for almost ten times to get better result and to
minimize errors




OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS
A. Determination of Friction Factor
Table 1: Head loss, velocity, friction factor and Reynolds number for different pipes
It is to be remembered that hf is in meter of H2O and velocity is in meters per seconds.

0.0000
0.0100
0.0200
0.0300
0.0400
0.0500
0.0600
0.0700
0.0800
0.0900
0.1000
0 20000 40000 60000
F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

F
a
c
t
o
r

Reynolds Number
Friction Factor VS Reynolds Number
0.5
inche
s
Flow
Rate
Pipe Diameter
0.5'' 0.75'' 1.0''
m
3
/sec hf Velocity (m/sec) f Re hf Velocity f Re hf Velocity f Re
0.000139 0.1004 1.094 0.0104 14727 0.0628 0.487 0.0493 9844 0.0377 0.274 0.0933 7392
0.000278 0.38905 2.187 0.0101 29453 0.1757 0.975 0.0345 19687 0.0879 0.549 0.0544 14785
0.000361 0.6526 2.843 0.0100 38289 0.2385 1.267 0.0277 25593 0.1130 0.714 0.0414 19220
0.000417 0.86595 3.281 0.0100 44180 0.3012 1.462 0.0263 29531 0.1381 0.823 0.0380 22177
0.000472 1.09185 3.718 0.0098 50070 0.2259 1.657 0.0154 33468 0.1632 0.933 0.0350 25134
0.000528 1.3805 4.156 0.0099 55961 0.4267 1.852 0.0232 37405 0.2008 1.043 0.0345 28091
0.000583 1.64405 4.593 0.0097 61851 0.4769 2.047 0.0213 41343 0.2259 1.153 0.0317 31048
0.000639 1.99545 5.031 0.0098 67742 0.56475 2.242 0.0210 45280 0.2761 1.263 0.0431 34005

B. Determination of Head Loss Coefficient for Different Pipe Fittings
It is to be remembered that hf is in meter of H2O and velocity is in meters per seconds.
Flow Rate

Velocity

Reynolds
Number

Pipe Fittings on 1'' diameter Pipe
90
Elbow
Gradual
Increase
Gradual
Decrease
Gate
valve
Globe
Valve
Ball
Valve
Sudden
Expansion
Sudden
Contraction
m
3
/sec m/sec Re hf hf hf hf hf hf hf hf
0.000139 0.274 7392 0.0377 0 0.0251 0.0126 0.1506 0.0377 0 0
0.000278 0.549 14785 0.0251 0 0.0126 0.0126 0.3514 0.0753 0 0.01255
0.000361 0.714 19220 0.0377 0 0.0377 0.0251 0.4769 0.0628 0 0.03765
0.000417 0.823 22177 0.0628 0 0.0502 0.0377 0.5773 0.0628 0 0.03765
0.000472 0.933 25134 0.0502 0 0.0628 0.0377 0.69025 0.0753 0 0.03765
0.000528 1.043 28091 0.0628 0 0.0628 0.0502 0.8785 0.1130 0 0.06275
0.000583 1.153 31048 0.0879 0 0.0753 0.0502 0.99145 0.1255 0 0.06275
0.000639 1.263 34005 0.0879 0 0.0879 0.0628 1.1295 0.1381 0 0.0753
Table 2: Head Loss due to Friction for different Pipe fittings
Flow Rate Velocity
Reynolds
Number
Pipe Fittings on 1'' diameter Pipe
90
Elbow
Gradual
Increase
Gradual
Decrease
Gate
valve
Globe
Valve
Ball
Valve
Sudden
Expansion
Sudden
Contraction
m
3
/sec m/sec Re K K K K K K K K
0.000139 0.274 7392 9.7946 0 6.5297 3.2649 39.1784 9.7946 0 0.0000
0.000278 0.549 14785 1.6324 0 0.8162 0.8162 22.8541 4.8973 0 0.8162
0.000361 0.714 19220 1.4489 0 1.4489 0.9659 18.3528 2.41484 0 1.4489
0.000417 0.823 22177 1.8138 0 1.4511 1.0883 16.6871 1.81381 0 1.0883
0.000472 0.933 25134 1.1297 0 1.4121 0.8473 15.5335 1.69456 0 0.8473
0.000528 1.043 28091 1.1305 0 1.1305 0.9044 15.8269 2.03489 0 1.1305
0.000583 1.153 31048 1.2956 0 1.1105 0.7403 14.6216 1.85083 0 0.9254
0.000639 1.263 34005 1.0801 0 1.0801 0.7715 13.8865 1.69723 0 0.9258
Table 3: Head Loss Coefficient for different pipe fittings






0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000
H
e
a
d

l
o
s
s


c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

REynolds Number
K vs Reynolds Number
Elbow
Gradual Increase
Gradual Decrease
Gate Valve
Globe Valve
Ball Valve
Sudden Expansion
Sudden Contraction

C. Determination of Discharge Coefficient for Flow Measuring Devices
Actual
Flow Rate
Reynolds
Number
Orifice (D0 = 0.0147m) Nozzle (Dn= 0.0131m) Venturi (Dv = 0.0119m)
hL Q0 Cd hL Qn Cd hL Qv Cd
m
3
/sec Re m H2O m
3
/sec

m H2O m
3
/sec

m H2O m
3
/sec

0.000139 7392 0.2761 0.000395 0.3520 0.339 0.000347 1.1366 0.314 0.000276 26816331
0.000278 14785 0.5271 0.000545 0.5095 0.690 0.000496 1.1004 0.728 0.00042 35211568
0.000361 19220 0.9287 0.000724 0.4990 1.004 0.000598 1.2111 0.879 0.000461 41667140
0.000417 22177 1.1295 0.000798 0.5221 1.142 0.000637 1.2523 1.242 0.000549 40427140
0.000472 25134 1.34285 0.000870 0.5426 1.268 0.000671 1.2961 1.468 0.000596 42145902
0.000528 28091 1.66915 0.000970 0.5440 1.644 0.000765 1.2688 1.807 0.000662 42459191
0.000583 31048 1.9327 0.001044 0.5587 1.895 0.000821 1.2716 2.108 0.000715 43447422
0.000639 34005 2.29665 0.001138 0.5614 2.209 0.000886 1.2840 2.472 0.000774 43943443
Table 4: Discharge Coefficient for Orifice plate, Nozzel, VEnturi


0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000
C
d

Re
Cd Vs NRe
Orifice
Nozzle
Venturi

Discussion
With the available instrument we performed this experiment and results are shown in the form of
curves. Curves of this experiment are not exactly matching with those that are available in literature,
inasmuch as no smooth trend is obtained like in literature. Mismatch is due to following reasons
Instrument is too old and possibility is that there are silting in pipe
Environmental condition because of effect of temperature on density of water
Human error because in observing data from manometer and hastening in recording
readings

However results somehow matches and gives understanding between quantities in which plots are
drawn.
Conclusion
From calculations and graphical representation of the data, it can be calculated that
For a given value of Re, friction factor increases with pipe diameter
For a given diameter the friction factor decreases with increasing Re
The head loss coefficients for most of the fittings decrease with increasing Re.
Plots of the minor losses confirmed that factor K for globe valve is higher than that of the other
valves
Discharge coefficient increases with increasing Reynolds number.
Discharge coefficient curves showed that venturi has relatively higher value than orifice at any
Re.








References
1. F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 5TH Edition, McGraw HILL Company, INC, USA, 2005
2. Laboratory Manual