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11716/1/08 REV 1

DG A III
E


COUCIL OF
THE EUROPEA UIO
Brussels, 3 February 2009


11716/1/08
REV 1



COSDP 614

DECLASSIFICATIO
of document: 11716/08 RESTREINT UE
dated: 11 July 2008
new classification: none
Subject: EU Concept for Civil-Military Co-operation(CIMIC) for EU-led
Military Operations


Delegations will find attached the declassified version of the above document.

The text of this document is identical to the previous version.

________________________




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COUCIL OF
THE EUROPEA UIO
MILITARY STAFF
Brussels, 11 July 2008


11716/08


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ESDP/PESD

COSDP 614

OTE
From: European Union Military Staff
To: European Union Military Committee
No. Prev. doc: EUMC Mtg Doc. 37/08
Subject: EU Concept for Civil-Military Co-operation(CIMIC) for EU-led Military
Operations




Delegations will find attached the EU Concept for Civil-Military Co-operation(CIMIC) for EU-led
Military Operations, which was agreed by the EUMC on 10 July 2008.

________________________

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EU COCEPT FOR CIVIL-MILITARY CO-OPERATIO (CIMIC)
FOR EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIOS

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EU COCEPT FOR CIVIL-MILITARY CO-OPERATIO (CIMIC)
FOR EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIOS
TABLE OF COTETS

TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................................................................3

REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................................4

A. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................5

B. AIM.............................................................................................................................................6

C. SCOPE........................................................................................................................................6

D. CHARACTERISTICS OF CIMIC .............................................................................................7

E. CIMIC DEFINITION.................................................................................................................8

F. CIMIC CORE FUNCTIONS......................................................................................................8

G. CIMIC-ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES IN EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIONS...................11

H. CIMIC GUIDING PRINCIPLES .............................................................................................13

I. CIMIC TASKS .........................................................................................................................17

J. CIMIC STRUCTURES & RESPONSIBILITIES ....................................................................22

K. CIVIL ORGANISATIONS ......................................................................................................25
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EU COCEPT FOR CIVIL-MILITARY CO-OPERATIO (CIMIC)
FOR EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIOS

REFERECES

A EU Concept for Military Command and Control (Doc. 10687/08, dated 16
June 2008).
B EU Concept for Military Planning at the Political and Strategic Level (Doc.
10687/08, dated 16 June 2008).
C Civil-Military Co-ordination (CMCO): Possible Solutions for the
Management of EU Crisis Management Operations - Improving
Information Sharing in Support of EU Crisis Management Operations
(Doc. 13218/5/06, dated 31 October 2006).
D Civil Military Co-ordination (CMCO) (Doc. 14457/03, dated 7 November
2003).
E NATO Military Policy on Civil-Military Co-operation - (NATO Doc. MC
411/1, dated 17 July 2001).
F NATO Civil-Military Co-operation (CIMIC) Doctrine - Allied Joint
Publication-9 (NATO Doc. AJP-9, dated June 2003).
G Guidelines on the Use of Military and Civil Defence Assets to Support UN
Humanitarian Activities in Complex Emergencies (March 2003).
H Guidelines on the Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defence Assets in
Disaster Relief. (Oslo Guidelines Rev 1.1, dated November 2007).
I The European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid, signed 18 December 2007.
J EU Concept for Military Information Operations (Doc. 6917/08, dated 25
February 2008).
K Host Nation Support Concept (Doc.10603/06, dated 15 June 2006).
L Mainstreaming Human Rights and Gender into European Security and
Defence Policy-Compilation of relevant documents (Doc. 11359/07, dated
29 June 2007).
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EU COCEPT FOR CIVIL-MILITARY CO-OPERATIO (CIMIC)
FOR EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIOS


A. ITRODUCTIO

1. The development of the European Union Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), through the
addition of the military dimension, a police component and other civilian aspects, has
enhanced the EU's crisis response options. An effective response to a crisis may require the
employment of this range of civilian and military instruments in a comprehensive, coherent
and co-ordinated manner.

2. The increasing potential for EU-led operations in already complex environments and the need
to co-operate with the external civil actors
1
operating within the same area underpin the
requirement for a CIMIC capability.

3. Co-operation with civilians may be a central part of a military operation, as in the case of
humanitarian or rescue tasks, but will vary for different types of operations. The context of
CIMIC will also change as the operations develop, ranging from maintaining the
commander's freedom of action within the operations area to assisting in shaping the
operations area to the mutual benefit of both military and external civil actors. This enables
the commander to play more effectively his part in any complex multi-functional operation.
(Refs. A & B). Military forces may be partially dependent on civilian institutions and the
population for resources, information and even security. Failure to establish and maintain
sound co-operation and co-ordination may have a detrimental impact on any EU-led military
operation.

4. Within EU, CIMIC must not be confused with Civil-Military Co-ordination (CMCO). CIMIC
covers the co-operation and coordination, as appropriate, between the EU military force and
independent external civil organisations and actors (International Organisations (IOs), Non-
Governmental Organisations (NGOs), local authorities and populations).

1
Throughout the text, the term "external" civil actors refers to actors not belonging to the EU
institutions or MS.
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In contrast, CMCO covers internal EU co-ordination of the EU's own civil and military crisis
management instruments, executed under the responsibility of the Council. (Refs. C & D).
Certainly, in EU-led military operations, CIMIC will also take into account and possibly play
a role in the overall EU co-ordination of crisis management instruments and EU military
forces may be authorised to assist EU civil bodies in the execution of tasks in support of
independent organisations or populations.

5. This concept is compatible and consistent with NATO CIMIC policies, concepts and doctrine.
(Refs. E & F).

B. AIM

6. This concept establishes the basis and framework for the planning and execution of joint and
multinational CIMIC activities.

C. SCOPE

7. This concept describes CIMIC in EU-led military operations and guides the preparation,
planning and execution of CIMIC-related activities, taking into account the operational
requirements in conflict prevention and crisis management. In addition, the concept may
provide guidance on CIMIC to MS and to appropriate military Headquarters (HQ) for EU-led
military operations.

8. Furthermore, the concept allows for establishing situation-dependent CIMIC structures, which
would, from a very early stage, enable MS and relevant (internal and external) civilian
institutions and organisations to contribute actively to the CIMIC planning process. In
addition, it will facilitate the inclusion of military inputs to co-ordinated civil and military
planning at all levels, reducing the risk of divergent planning in capitals, civilian organisations
and at EU HQ.

9. The principles and policies set out in this document apply whenever an EU-led military
operation is envisaged and/or executed. They provide sufficient flexibility for close co-
operation with the UN (in the framework of UN Civil-Military Co-ordination, refs. G & H),
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OSCE, NATO and other relevant civil organisations and for Third States
1
participating in an
EU-led military operation.

D. CHARACTERISTICS OF CIMIC

10. The purpose of CIMIC in EU-led military operations is to establish and maintain the co-
operation between the military components and any external civilian actors in theatre,
including IOs and/or NGOs. Also CIMIC, as an operational function, will establish and
maintain the co-operation with the civilian authorities and populations within the
commander's Area of Operations (AOO), in order to create the best possible moral, material,
operational and tactical conditions for achievement of the mission's purpose. CIMIC also
supports and facilitates the sustainment of conditions that will support the achievement of
lasting solutions to the crisis.

11. In operational terms, CIMIC elements of the EU military force act as an interface between the
military components of an EU-led military operation and any external civilian actor. CIMIC
does not imply the execution of functions which may rely on external actors. However, close
co-ordination of such functions is a pre-condition for an effective CIMIC contribution to EU-
led military operations. This co-ordination is further elaborated in Section H.

12. CIMIC implies neither military control of external civilian organisations or agencies nor the
reverse. It recognises that:

a. The military force in an EU-led military operation will be deployed to conduct a
military mission and, if mandated, to support the appropriate civil authority for the
implementation of civil-related tasks, or to support humanitarian activities, if requested
by humanitarian actors. The execution of civil-related tasks should be clearly identified
in the Council mandate and subsequently incorporated into the mission of the EU
military force as support to the appropriate external civilian agencies.

b. In exceptional circumstances, however, the military force may be required to carry out
tasks which are normally the task of a mandated civil authority, organisation or agency.

1
Those States could include inter alia non-EU European NATO members or those countries
which are candidates for accession to the EU.
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These tasks should only be executed when authorised in the Operation Plan (OPLAN)
and when the appropriate civil body is not present or is unable to carry out its mandate
and if an unacceptable vacuum would otherwise arise. The military force should be
prepared to undertake these tasks when requested by the recognised civil authority, until
assumed by the mandated civil authority, organisation or agency.

13. CIMIC is an important factor to enhance the effectiveness of an EU-led military operation.
The operational environment, the adequacy and stability of civil infrastructure as well as the
level of support and co-operation of the host nation and the local population will determine
the extent of the civil-military interface required.

14. CIMIC is an integral part of the military planning process and is therefore a strand of the
overall planning, although the precise content and the relative importance of CIMIC will
depend on the type of mission. CIMIC is therefore also a responsibility of the political
strategic level that must provide guidelines for CIMIC-related tasks at subordinate levels. In
order to maximize the support that CIMIC can provide to a mission, the earliest possible
deployment of CIMIC elements should be considered during the planning and execution
phase of each EU-led military operation.

E. CIMIC DEFIITIO

15. Civil-Military Co-operation (CIMIC) is the co-ordination and co-operation at all levels -
between military components of EU-led military operations and civil actors external to the
EU, including the local population and authorities, as well as international, national and non-
governmental organisations and agencies - in support of the achievement of the military
mission along with all other military functions.

F. CIMIC CORE FUCTIOS

16. General

The CIMIC core functions are grouped into three broad areas: Civil-Military Liaison (CML),
Support to the Civil Environment (SCE) and Support To the military Force (STF). These
functions are executed at all levels, although their intensity may vary from one level to the
other, depending on the scope, scale and nature of the mission.

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17. Civil-Military Liaison

a. CML is the liaison at all levels between EU military forces and civil actors external to the
EU (including IOs, NGOs, local authorities and the civil population) in support of the
mission. In particular, CML facilitates the build-up of the situational awareness of the
military commander and improves mutual understanding.

b. The aim of CML is to create and sustain a relationship between EU military forces for
CMO and the civil environment, for the advanced preparation, planning and conduct of
such an operation. This liaison should be created at all appropriate levels. Its intensity will
depend on the envisaged involvement with external civil organisations.

c. Although CML is a fundamental part of the other core CIMIC functions, it can be an
independent activity with its own purpose and aim, namely to create and sustain
permanent relationships with relevant civilian actors.

18. Support to the Military Force

a. Military commanders for EU-led military operations might require civilian support within
their respective area of responsibilities. The EU military force may be even partially
dependent on the civil society for resources and information, and may rely on the civil
authorities to provide security in certain areas. Regardless of the physical support
required, military authorities for EU-led military operations will also seek more abstract,
but equally important, civil support by encouraging the population to perceive the
legitimacy of the EU-led military operation and that its actions are in the best interest of
the population.

b. CIMIC facilitates the support to the military force in EU-led military operations other than
in the field of logistics and HNS. STF covers arrangements and activities needed to ensure
the maximum co-operation of the civil authorities, organisations and populations in
meeting the commander's requirements for supporting the mission of the military force
and sustaining its presence in a crisis situation.

c. CIMIC provides situational awareness of the "Civil-Situation" including the overall
situation of the civil population. It contributes to the military assessment regarding
military impact on the civilian environment and vice versa.
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19. Support to the Civil Environment

a. SCE could cover a wide range of military arrangements, resources or activities, to support,
in the context of the overall EU role, a civil authority or organization in the execution of
its tasks; or to sustain the basic humanitarian needs of a civil population. However, unless
otherwise specifically provided in the mandate, military forces should only be used to
support humanitarian activities in exceptional circumstances upon the request by
humanitarian actors and as a last resort, i.e. where there is no comparable civilian
alternative and only the use of military assets, that are unique in capability and
availability, can meet a critical humanitarian need. In certain circumstances, this support
may fall under the overall responsibility of mandated civil authorities. Any military
activities conducted in SCE must be included in the military mission or mandate and
agreed with the appropriate civil authority.

b. SCE can cover CIMIC activity ranging from arrangements to ensure exchange of
information to infrastructure repair and reconstruction, bearing in mind Military and Civil
Defence Assets (MCDA) guidelines (Refs.G & H). It might encompass a wide range of
military resources: information, personnel, material, equipment, communication facilities,
specialist expertise or training. In the case of a humanitarian crisis, it will usually be
employed in direct support of civilian aid agencies. The use of available military resources
should reflect the type and main characteristics of the operation and be based on situation
analysis, including the capabilities and needs of the civil agencies present in the AOO and
the identified shortfalls of the civilian actors. Military components may become
responsible, if mandated, for the delivery and support of humanitarian aid, when aid
agencies request assistance and are unable to carry out specific tasks. (Ref. I).

c. SCE may include operations to support public services and the environment, economic
and trade support activities, development of aid projects and activities to support IOs,
NGOs, civil authorities and organisations.

d. Decisions on the depth, duration and extent of SCE should be made at the Political and
Strategic level, taking into account political, civil and military factors.

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G. CIMIC ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES I EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIOS

20. There are a number of associated activities, which, although different, are closely linked with
CIMIC. Principal among these are:

a. Civil Emergency Planning (CEP)
CEP is a national (host nation) civil responsibility. Its planning parameters can vary
from country to country. During the crisis management process, CIMIC facilitates,
within security constraints, the co-ordination of military plans with existing or
developing CEP plans. CEP might affect freedom of movement and actions, and the
military plan must take into account the need to protect the civil population, as well as
the need to maintain vital functions in the society. It is thus essential that CIMIC
elements establish links with the relevant CEP agencies and determine how planned and
implemented CEP measures will affect EU military operations.

b. EU Military Information Operations (EU Mil Info Ops) (Ref. J)

(1) CIMIC activities can directly contribute to establish and build confidence in the
EU-led military operations gaining the trust and support of the local population.
Due to this direct relationship with the local population, CIMIC and EU Mil Info
Ops must maintain a permanent and close relationship.

(2) CIMIC and EU Mil Info Ops must also work closely to co-ordinate information
activities, as appropriate, with the IOs (in particular the UN) and NGOs present in
the AOO.

(3) Planning of CIMIC actions will need to consider the expected influence on
information campaigns. Conversely, EU Mil Info Ops planning will take into
account CIMIC activities in Information Campaign planning.

c. Host Nation Support (HNS)

(1) HNS is civil and military assistance rendered by a Host Nation (HN) to EU
military forces which are located on, operating in, or transiting through the HN's
territory (Ref. K).

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It seeks to provide support in the form of equipment, facilities and services,
including area security and administrative support in accordance with concluded
HNS arrangements between the EU force and/or TCNs and a HN. HNS facilitates
the introduction of EU military forces into an AOO by providing essential
reception, staging and onward movement support. HNS could reduce the amount
of (logistic) forces and equipment required for sustaining and redeploying the
military forces.

(2) Reaching HNS agreements is not a CIMIC task. Nevertheless, in some
circumstances, CIMIC may play a role by providing co-ordination and liaison with
local authorities to assist in making the necessary civil resources available.
Additionally, CIMIC will help to ensure a balance between the use of resources by
EU military forces, local populations and external civil actors, with a view to
avoiding unnecessary civilian hardship. Consequently close co-ordination between
the CIMIC and HNS elements of the EU military force is required.

d. Contracting

(1) Contracting is the commercial acquisition of materials and civil services for the
forces in support of an EU-led military operation.

(2) Local contracting can be supported or, in certain circumstances, may be performed
by CIMIC elements.

e. Medical Support

(1) Medical support encompasses the full range of medical planning and provision of
medical health services to maintain the force strength through disease prevention,
evacuation, rapid treatment of the diseases, injured and wounded.

(2) Medical staff may provide medical assistance, within means and capabilities, to
the local population (taking into account the capabilities of local medical and
health services for any necessary follow-up treatment), and after co-ordination
with IOs and NGOs in theatre.
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(3) If requested, medical staff can give advice to the civil community on the co-
ordination and implementation of different medical projects promoted by CIMIC
elements, IOs or NGOs, in the area of health care. Such advice will take into
consideration the potential duplication of effort and the priority requirements of
the projects.

f. Management of civil resources

(1) CIMIC elements can contribute to the co-ordination and liaison in theatre to make
civil resources available and to ensure a balanced use of resources by the military
force, the local population, IOs and NGOs.

(2) Even where a humanitarian crisis is absent, the introduction of a large military
force can reduce the available civil resources to the point where it could cause
hardship among the civilian population. It is a CIMIC task to perform a thorough
assessment of the availability of civil resources. It may also be necessary, if
requested by the local authorities, to support the civil authorities in the
management of civil resources to ensure that there are sufficient resources
available to meet both civil and military needs. In extreme cases, it may be
necessary to ration critical scarce local commodities. In this case, it will be a
CIMIC task to monitor the distribution of relevant supplies.

H. CIMIC GUIDIG PRICIPLES

21. Guiding principles governing the military direction of CIMIC.

CIMIC should be fully integrated in the objectives of the commander for any EU-led military
operation. The principles governing the military direction of CIMIC guide the military
planning for EU-led military operations and regulate the execution of CIMIC plans.

a. Mission primacy
The mandate and the resulting mission of any EU-led military operation take priority in all
circumstances. If in exceptional circumstances however, additional CIMIC-related tasks
are to be assumed, this should be done after the prioritisation of the military tasks and an
assessment of the necessary resources in co-ordination with civilian agencies has been
conducted.
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b. Command direction
The direction of CIMIC-related activities in EU-led military operations is a normal
command responsibility of the military commanders at all levels. They should be
continuously aware of the impact of military operations on the civil environment and the
impact of the civil environment on their operations. They must also be able to prioritise
and direct CIMIC activities in such a way that military effectiveness is maintained without
adding unnecessarily to civil hardship or compromising civil objectives.

c. Economy and balance
(1) Civil organisations are best suited to perform civilian tasks. If however, EU military
forces are needed to perform civil-related tasks in support of the civil environment,
only the minimum required military resources should be used, since military
resources might not always be available and are limited, and since care must be
taken to preserve the military capability. The commanders will judge the
importance of these considerations with respect to achieving the mission.

(2) For that same reason, the creation of long-term civilian dependence on EU military
resources must be avoided. Once provided, withdrawal or reduction of resources
could be difficult as it may strain civil-military relations, retard the growth of civil
authority and may cause lasting damage to public confidence in the EU-led military
operation.

d. Concentration

Military assets and capabilities available for CIMIC activities are likely to be limited.
Therefore they should be concentrated on tasks of the highest priority as dictated by the
mandate and/or mission. The decision concerning the prioritisation of CIMIC assets needs
to be closely co-ordinated with the participating States in the EU-led military operation.

e. Legal obligations and humanitarian considerations

(1) In accordance with the EU Use of Force Concept, EU military forces and HQs have
a legal responsibility to comply with all relevant international agreements relating
to the law of armed conflict and human rights, when applicable. They should seek,
within the constraints of the mandate or mission, to support and to reduce the effect
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of military operations on non-combatants. This is fundamental to consolidate
mission legitimacy. The use of military force, with few exceptions, entails human
suffering which should be relieved whenever possible and wherever it is found.
Human rights of individuals and groups must be respected and protected in
compliance with international law. In addition, the gender perspective and the
children protection issue should be mainstreamed into all CIMIC-related activities
in accordance in particular with ref. L.

(2) CIMIC has an important advisory, educational and information role in all aspects
related to the civil environment.

22. Guiding principles governing the civil-military relationship

a. Co-ordinated civil and military CIMIC planning

(1) As military and civilian activities in the AOO will affect each other, the
appropriate external civil organisations should, within the limits of security, be
involved as early as possible in the preparation, planning and execution of CIMIC
activities and vice versa.

(2) Co-ordinated civil and military CIMIC planning could be preceded by joint pre-
mission reconnaissance and assessment, for instance, in an EU Fact Finding
Mission. This would allow early co-ordination with the in-theatre civil authorities
and organisations.

b. Mutual support

(1) During any EU-led military operation, it is paramount that co-ordination should
take place with the IOs, GOs and NGOs, where and when appropriate, to improve
the interface with their local representatives and the local population. Civilian
organisations can be a valuable source of knowledge and expertise, especially
when the military formation is tasked to perform civil-related tasks. In addition,
civilian sources may often provide information on the civil situation, which can
influence the planning and execution of the EU-led military operation. However,
CIMIC elements must not be deliberately used for intelligence gathering.
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(2) The EU military force may support the civil environment by the provision of
scarce resources and services (logistic support, transport etc.) and/or by creating a
secure environment for the civil actions. These resources and services may,
however, not always be available and might be limited in terms of quantity,
quality and time.

c. Common goals

Whenever possible, common goals, to achieve unity of effort in response to a
developing crisis, should be established, recognised and integrated into the EU military
plans. In order to achieve this, a close link to the appropriate civilian agencies and
organisations should be established on all levels of command.

d. Shared responsibility

The ethos, structure and working practices of the external civil organisations with which
military forces in EU-led military operations must co-operate are extremely diverse. An
agreed sharing of responsibilities is the condition for a durable and mutually-beneficial
relationship to be established and maintained.

e. Transparency

(1) Successful CIMIC activities require mutual trust and confidence. CIMIC in all
its aspects should be transparent, demonstrating competence, capability and
resolve in order to win the trust and confidence of the civil environment. The
possible tension between the civil and military might lead to confusion and
misunderstanding at times, being potentially aggravated by perceived political
bias, media inaccuracy or distortion and poor communication. Transparency is
vital in preventing and defusing such potentially volatile situations, because it
instils trusts, increases confidence and encourages mutual understanding.

(2) CIMIC elements will be valuable sources of information and will be advocates
of the military cause, but they will rapidly become ineffective as such if
deliberately used for intelligence gathering.
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(3) It must be recognised that military information cannot always be shared with
civilians. On the other hand, such information could allow civil organisations
to adapt themselves to the developing situation and thereby enhance the overall
effectiveness of the CIMIC effort. Appropriate information sharing is therefore
to be actively pursued.

f. Consent

Although not ultimately necessary, every effort should be made to secure the willing
consent of external civilian organisations and local populations with which the EU
military force is dealing.

g. Communication

Effective communication with civil authorities, external organisations and populations
is vital to maintaining consent and co-operation. Civilian organisations, with which the
EU military force is expected to interact, will to a large extent, preserve their own
priorities. Indeed, some may take the view that co-operation with the military forces and
their own independence is mutually exclusive. The key to minimise these difficulties is
to maintain open and constant communication.

h. Cultural awareness

Sustained sensitivity and knowledge of local customs, mores, history, monuments,
social structures, cultures and ways of life is of fundamental importance to EU-led
military operations.

I. CIMIC TASKS

23. General

a. CIMIC covers a wide range of tasks throughout the different phases of the EU crisis
management process.

b. Specific CIMIC tasks can be executed in several phases of this process and at different
levels, although the intensity and function will depend on the respective phase, level
and the envisaged civil counterpart.
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24. CIMIC tasks

a. Planning

(1) The impact of factors relating to the civil dimension of an EU-led military
operation should be assessed during the routine phase and throughout the entire
crisis management process. CIMIC planning for EU-led military operations at the
various levels should be coherent and interdependent. As part of the overall EU
military planning process, it is defined as a co-operative external civil-military
venture, aimed at selecting and implementing a coherent course of action, which
will support the achievement of the EU-led military operation objectives and the
desired end-state.

(2) Planning related tasks include the development and maintenance of conceptual,
planning and procedural CIMIC documents:
(a) CIMIC concept.
(b) CIMIC Supporting Plans (SUPLAN), SOP and directives, as appropriate.

b. Advice

CIMIC elements have an important advisory role during each phase of the crisis
management process. CIMIC elements at all levels will offer clear advice on appropriate
actions to ensure constructive civil-military co-operation and advice on how an EU-led
military operation and the civilian population and institutions will affect each other.

c. Education and Training

CIMIC elements are responsible for the production of information to ensure that EU
military planners and military forces in EU-led military operations are prepared with a
background knowledge of the civil-military environment.

d. Communication

Effective co-operation between the civil and military is only possible if there is constant
communication at all levels. A pro-active relationship between civil and military
counterparts should be established, maintained and improved where possible.
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e. Information exchange

CIMIC provides up-to-date information on civilian organisations in general and
specifically for those in the AOO. Civilian sources will often provide additional
information of military relevance. Conversely, CIMIC can be used, within security
limitations, to provide civilian organisations with similar information on the military
organisation and, in the event of a crisis, of its planned operations.

f. Co-ordination

(1) Given differing mandates, cultures and perceptions, there will be a permanent
requirement to co-ordinate activities to ensure long-term goals are achieved. CIMIC
supports the commander's function to promote co-ordination of activity between the
EU force and the external civil organisations, local population and authorities.

(2) Co-ordination of external civil and military activities will help to achieve a greater
external civil-military unity of effort, prevent duplication and redundant CIMIC
activities and conserve valuable resources. Although not always feasible, common
and properly co-ordinated civil-military concepts, guidance, SOP and compatible
structures should be sought.

(3) If feasible, the geographical areas of responsibility of the military force in EU-led
military operations and key civil organisations should coincide. Common
boundaries will facilitate a better common analysis and understanding of the
situation and so drive more appropriate CIMIC activities. If possible and within
security constraints, military HQ for EU-led military operations or command
elements should be located together with or near to key civil authorities or HQ.

(4) Inter-agency meetings further enhance mutual efforts of the EU military force and
civil actors.

(5) The exchange of liaison officers between the EU military forces and key civil
organisations enhances communication, allows rapid dissemination of information
and establishes a focal point for enquiries.
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g. Arrangements

CIMIC elements can support the drafting of arrangements covering other military aspects
(Memorandum Of Understandings (MOUs), technical arrangements, etc) in order to
underpin the civil-military co-operation rationale.

h. Transition and termination activities

(1) Transition is the process that leads to the conclusion of the EU-led military
operation. It aims at a smooth and seamless handover of civil-related activities to
the proper, mandated authorities. The number of civil-related tasks undertaken by
the military force will have an effect on the transition of these tasks to the
appropriate civil authority.

(2) As appropriate, CIMIC elements will assist the appointed civil authorities. As the
military reduces in numbers and in the scope of its responsibilities, CIMIC
elements will continue to assist in the transfer of civil-related tasks executed by the
military force to the appropriate civil authority. CIMIC functions that are no longer
necessary due to the gradual stabilisation of the crisis area will cease.

(3) Finally, CIMIC input to the "Lessons learned" process is required during all phases
of EU-led military operations.

i. Assessment

Continuous assessment of all aspects of the theatre civil environment is a key role of
CIMIC. It is the synthesis of information on the crisis area, analysed for specific CIMIC
application, that will form the basis upon which the requirement for, and execution of,
additional CIMIC tasks and any civil-military activities will be determined. Such
assessments shall also form the basis of CIMIC advice given to the commander for EU-
led military operations.
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j. Implied tasks

Based on the decisions taken by the Council on the mandate and the mission of the EU
military force, the execution of the CIMIC tasks may include:

(1) Provision of services or facilities to meet immediate life sustaining needs of the
population (subject to the proviso that no civilian organisation is able to meet those
needs and in co-ordination with them).

(2) Monitoring, evaluation, analysis and review of implemented CIMIC tasks to
determine and enhance their efficiency and effectiveness and to ensure that CIMIC
objectives are met. This is especially important when HNS is limited or non-
existent and when the international community assumes functions of government.

(3) Close co-ordination with the medical staff and coordination of medical assistance to
the local population (subject to the proviso that no civilian organisation is able to
meet those needs and in co-ordination with them).

(4) Monitoring and control of CIMIC activities, especially those where local
contractors are involved.

(5) Harmonisation of civil and military tasks performed in theatre where possible.

(6) Provision of expertise to the commander.

(7) Liaison and contacts with non-EU civilian actors.

(8) Relations with civilian resource and service providers.

(9) CIMIC reports and updates.

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J. CIMIC STRUCTURES & RESPOSIBILITIES

25. Permanent CIMIC structures

European Union Military Staff (EUMS)

a. The EUMS develops and co-ordinates CIMIC tasks at the Political and Strategic level.

b. Responsibilities

(1) General
(a) Initiate the development of concepts and procedures in the field of CIMIC.
(b) Support and participate, as directed, in the development of CMCO.
(c) Co-ordinate and liaise with relevant external civil organisations regarding
CIMIC.

(2) Crisis
(a) Introduce CIMIC aspects into EU crisis response planning as appropriate.
(b) Consult on CIMIC aspects with EU MS, Third States, potential HNs and
relevant external civil organisations and authorities.
(c) Liaise with the EU OHQ on CIMIC issues.

26. CIMIC structures activated for a given EU-led military operation

a. Preliminary remarks

(1) Supporting CIMIC structures should be flexible and simple and shall be tailored
for each operation. They can be activated, deactivated, adapted and/or omitted in
accordance with actual needs. In addition, CIMIC should be embedded within
the respective staff structures in such a way that it will meet the actual
operational requirements with maximum efficiency.

(2) Typically, EU-led military operations will start later than political, humanitarian
and other efforts. Consequently, civilian structures or commissions which
provide co-operation and co-ordination services might already exist. The EU
military force should liaise with these structures and, after due consultation,
decide whether additional CIMIC structures are required.
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(3) In general, the required CIMIC assets for an EU-led military operation will be
developed by a force generation process. However, if appropriate, an EU MS
may assume the responsibility of being the CIMIC Lead Nation.


b. CIMIC elements at the OHQ level

The EU Operation Commander (OpCdr) is the overall authority for the execution of
CIMIC in the operation. Under his authority and in close co-ordination with the other
Staff elements, OHQ CIMIC Staff elements will be tasked to:

(1) Prepare the CIMIC input for developing the OPLAN, including any necessary
specific CIMIC sections.

(2) Develop CIMIC tasks and responsibilities for the Force and Component
Commanders.

(3) Co-ordinate the use of CIMIC capabilities made available by national authorities
for shared or co-operative use.

(4) Act as the primary point of contact for co-ordinating civilian and military activity
at the OHQ level.

(5) Monitor the overall CIMIC situation and provide relevant information to the
military and civilian actors involved in the crisis.

(6) Liaise with the EUMS.

c. CIMIC elements at the FHQ level

Once the Force Commander (FCdr) has been appointed, in addition to the FHQ staff
element, supporting CIMIC structures can be activated under his authority in order to
execute the FHQ CIMIC tasks. These structures may include a CIMIC Group, CIMIC
Task Force, CIMIC Centres or any other CIMIC elements that are deemed necessary for
the successful achievement of the military mission.

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d. CIMIC elements at Component Commander level

CIMIC resources will usually be placed under the operational control of the Land
Component Commander. The delegation of CIMIC responsibilities to the Land
Component Commander should be specified in the Operation Plan (OPLAN).

e. CIMIC elements in tactical formations or units

Subordinate formations or units must create and maintain a CIMIC capability to allow
the execution of the assigned CIMIC tasks.

f. CIMIC Centres

(1) CIMIC Centres will be created as necessary, under the overall responsibility of the
FCdr. They are organised at the required levels in the AOO depending on the
situation and are usually located outside military installations.

(2) A CIMIC Centre is a capability, which facilitates the access and coordination
between the EU military force and the local authorities, civil population, IOs and
NGOs where an EU military force is deployed. It may be composed of military
and/or civilian representatives from different agencies.

(3) A CIMIC Centre is neither a military organisation nor a decision-making
authority but has an important role in familiarising civilian actors and the local
population with the mandate, comportment, rules and procedures of an EU
military force. If appropriate, and unless security conditions dictate otherwise, a
CIMIC Centre could be collocated with an existing civilian co-ordinating
structure in order to ensure greater harmonisation of EU CIMIC plans and projects
with all other relevant civilian organisations.

(4) The OpCdr may decide to create a special CIMIC centre at OHQ level with
specific tasks and responsibilities.

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(5) Responsibilities

(a) Provide initial points of contact and liaison to facilitate harmonisation of
military and civil agencies activities.

(b) Promote transparency of the military operation among involved parties,
through briefings, meetings, and media contacts within security restraints.

(c) Provide information on issues dealing with freedom of movement, CIMIC
plans and projects, the general situation in the concerned area, the military
activities and security aspects.

(d) Advise on the availability and mechanisms of military assistance to civil
organisations.

K. CIVIL ORGAISATIOS

27. General

a. Civil organisations are responsible for a wide range of activities including humanitarian
aid, human rights, protection of minorities, refugees and displaced persons, legal
assistance, medical care, reconstruction, agriculture, education, arts, sciences and general
project funding. They are numerous and sophisticated and may be present in any potential
theatre of operations. They generally remain strongly independent from political control in
order to preserve their autonomy and effectiveness. In many cases their impartiality can be
of crucial importance in rebuilding relations when political dialogue has broken down.
Their personnel are normally highly professional in their field, well-motivated and
prepared to take physical risks in difficult conditions.

b. It is critical that CIMIC elements fully understand the mandate, role, structure, methods
and principles of these organisations in order to establish effective relations with them. It
is also the task of CIMIC elements in EU-led military operations to explain internally
such information in order to avoid misunderstandings that could undermine or strain
relations.
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c. Most civil organisations have a clear and defined role based on their charter, experience
and capability. An important CIMIC function is to identify the role of each of them in
order to avoid duplication or gaps. When close co-operation with civil organisations is
authorised, a unity of effort should be a key aim, provided that the military mission is
safeguarded at all times.

28. Types of Civil Organisations

a. International Organisations (IOs)

(1) IOs, such as the various UN agencies and the OSCE, are established by
intergovernmental agreements and operate at the international level.

(2) Among IOs, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) enjoys a
distinct status. The ICRC is an impartial, neutral and independent organisation
whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of
victims of war and armed conflict and to provide them with assistance. It
complements the international relief activities conducted by the International
Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in situations of conflict and
their aftermath.

b. Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs)

(1) Within a CIMIC context, NGOs are normally voluntary and non-profit
organisations. Functionally, they are independent of government and commercial
interests but may occasionally be provided with some financial support by them.

(2) The legal personality of an NGO is different from that of an IO, or UN agency, in
that its charter and mission are not the products of an intergovernmental process
but are created privately.

(3) A HN will usually register NGOs before authorising them to operate within the
country. Furthermore, depending on circumstances, some NGOs may be given a
particular mandate or accorded a special status by the HN or another relevant
authority.
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c. International and National Government Development Agencies/Organisations

These agencies have specific responsibilities for the funding, monitoring and evaluation of
development programmes and normally operate with long-term perspectives.

29. CIMIC Engagement with Civil Organisations

a. Given the vast range of civil organisations, it is practically impossible to co-operate
with each of them. Therefore, co-operation with a selection of the most relevant external
civil organisations is normally required.

b. As a general guide, the following factors may be considered to identify those
organisations with whom the EU military force should focus its co-operation:

(1) Administrative and financial management capacity.

(2) Technical and logistical capacity in relation to the operation.

(3) Experience in the theatre or type of crisis.

(4) Results of previous operations carried out by the organisation.

(5) Impartiality.

c. If appropriate and depending on circumstances, political guidance may direct specific
cooperation with external organisations (e.g. UN, AU, ICRC, ICC). However, at all
times, commanders retain the faculty to engage other civil organisations as necessary.