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F d P t ti Feeder Protection

Akhil K G t Akhil Kumar Gupta


Sr. Faculty Member (PMI)
CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS
Introduction
Relays
Fuse Coordination
Relay Coordination
Relays
Conclusion
Fuses&ItsCoordination Fuses&ItsCoordination
Fuse and protection relays are specialized devices for
Feeder Protection
Fuse and protection relays are specialized devices for
ensuring the safety of personnel working with electrical
t d f ti d d t i systems and for preventing damage due to various
types of faults such as overcurrents, short circuits and
l overvoltage etc.
A short circuit may melt a conductor, resulting in arcing
and the possibility of fire; the high electromechanical
forces associated with a short circuit also cause
mechanical stresses which can result in severe damage,
a heavy short circuit may also cause an explosion a heavy short circuit may also cause an explosion
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FUSES
Feeder Protection
FUSES
Used in Lower End Systems
Over Current Protection Over Current Protection
IDMT O/C, Definite Time O/C, High Set O/C Relays used
Extensively used at Medium Voltage level and also at HV/ y g /
EHV Systems as Backup Protection
Unit Protection (Pilot Wire Protection)
Used for critical Medium Voltage Circuits like Long cable
feeders, Tie feeders etc. Also some times used for HV /EHV
Level for very Short Lines where Distance protection can not Level for very Short Lines where Distance protection can not
applied
Primarily Longitudinal Differential Protection
Supplemented by Backup Protection, usually IDMT O/C type
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An important parameter in the design and selection of
Protection Co-ordination
An important parameter in the design and selection of
protective devices is the prospective current
Prospective current is the current which would flow at
a particular point in an electrical system if a short
circuit of negligible impedance were applied
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Co ordination is necessary when designing an electrical
Protection Co-ordination
Coordination is necessary when designing an electrical
protection system so that when fault occurs, minimum
ti f th t d th f lt i di t d section of the system around the fault is disconnected
Protective devices are described by a timecurrent
characteristic and in order to achieve coordination
between protective devices, their timecurrent
characteristics must be sufficiently separated so that a
fault downstream of both of protective devices p
operates only the device nearest to the fault
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Protection Co-ordination
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F i th t d id l d
Fuses
Fuse is the most common and widely used
protective device in electrical circuits
Because element of fuse is of much smaller
crosssectional area than cable it protects
(assuming of same material), element will
reach its melting point before the cable
Larger the current, quicker the element melts
If deterioration of element occur, it operates dete o at o o e e e t occu , t ope ates
even faster, hence fail safe
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Fuses
i l d i bl f semi-enclosed or rewireable fuse
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Cartridge type
Cut Section of Fuse
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Cartridge type fuses
Fuses
Cartridge type fuses
Silver element, specially shaped, enclosed in a barrel of
insulating material, filled with quartz
Advantages
Correctratingandcharacteristicfusealwaysfittedtoa
circuit not open to abuse as rewireable type circuitnotopentoabuseasrewireable type
Arcandfaultenergycontainedwithininsulatingtube
preventsdamage p g
Normallysealedthereforenotaffectedbyatmosphere
hencegivesmorestablecharacteristicreliablegrading
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Design of Fuse Elements
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The element shown is a notched type, and melting occurs first
Fuses
Theelementshownisanotched type,andmeltingoccursfirst
atthenotcheswhenanovercurrent flowsandthisresultsina
numberofcontrolledarcsinseries
Thevoltageacrosseacharccontributestothetotalvoltage
acrossthefuse,andthistotalvoltageresultsinthecurrent
fallingtozero,andbecausethenumberofarcsislimited,the g , ,
fuselink voltageshouldnotbehighenoughtocausedamage
elsewhereinthecircuit
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Currentlimiting ability to interrupt very large currents
Fuses
Currentlimiting ability to interrupt very large currents
in shorter times so short that current will be cutoff
before it reaches its peak value (operation < 5 ms) p ( p )
Hence serious overheating and electromagnetic forces
in the system can be avoided
Extremely high breaking
capacity of up to 100KA,
also known as HRC (high
rupturing capacity) fuses
Cut Off Characteristic
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CutOffCharacteristic
Advantages
Fuses
Advantages
Simple&Economical
Very Fast Operation
CurrentTimeCharacteristic
VeryFastOperation
Limitsfaultenergy
Disadvantages g
Requireclosecoordination
Poorsensitivityforearthfaults
Causesinglephasing
Inconvenient of replacement
Poor protection against small over currents (a circuit breaker Poor protection against small over currents (a circuit breaker
can be set to trip on as little as 5% over current while the
fuse has a fusing factor of about 1.75)
i f i i f i / i Fusing factor = minimum fusing current/current rating
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Selection of Fuses
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b d h f l d d h
Selection of Fuses
Fuses can be used as either for overload and short
circuit protection or for short circuit protection
l i id li f li i Fuseselectionguidelineformotorapplication
Fuseshouldnotblowduringrunning
Fuseshouldnotblowduringstarting
12xI
e
for10msec &
6xI
e
forMotorStartingTime
CoordinationwithStarter
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Selection of Fuses- Case Study
Motordata
M1 S.C.Inductionmotor
50HP,I
RM
=70A,I
LR
=6xI
RM
Startingmethod:D.O.L. g
Startingtime=15sec
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Selection of Fuses
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d
Coordination with Starter
Type 1 Coordination
Requires that, under shortcircuit conditions, the contactor
t t h ll d t i t ll ti d or starter shall cause no danger to persons or installation and
may not be suitable for further service without repair and
replacement of parts
Type 2 Coordination
Requires that, under shortcircuit conditions, the contactor Requires that, under short circuit conditions, the contactor
or starter shall cause no danger to persons or installation and
shall be suitable for further use. The risk of contact welding is
recogni ed in hich case the man fact rer shall indicate the recognized, in which case the manufacturer shall indicate the
measures to be taken as regards the maintenance of the
equipment
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Type 2 Coordination
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Type 2 Coordination
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Relays Relays yy
Definite Current Relay
Relay operates instantaneously when the current reaches a
predetermined value.
i time
current
Definite
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current
current
Definite Time Relay
Relay operates after a definite time delay when the current
reachesa pre-determined value.
time
Definite
time
current
Definite
time
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current
Over Current Relays
Definite Time
Normal Inverse
IDMT
TT
I
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STANDARD I.D.M.T. OVERCURRENT
IDMT O/C Relays
STANDARDI.D.M.T.OVERCURRENT
RELAYS
Current/timetrippingcharacteristic
equationofIDMT(InverseDefinite
MinimumTime)OverCurrentrelays
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Standard Inverse Characteristic covers majority of the
IDMT O/C Relays
Standard Inverse Characteristic covers majority of the
applications
Very Inverse Characteristic is particularly useful where Very Inverse Characteristic is particularly useful where
there is substantial reduction in the fault current as the
distance from the power source increases
Extremely Inverse Characteristic is particularly suitable
in grading with fuses
Long Inverse Characteristic is primarily used for
overload protection or earth fault protection in
resistance grounded system
IDMT relays provide both time and current grading to achieve
discrimination between successive stages in distribution system discrimination between successive stages in distribution system
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Time/current characteristic
IDMT O/C Relays
Time/currentcharacteristic
isusuallyrepresentedona
logarithmicscaleandgives g g
theoperatingtimeat
differentmultiplesof
settingcurrent,forthe
maximumTimeMultiplier
Setting (TMS) Setting(TMS)
TMSisadjustablegivinga
range of time/current rangeoftime/current
characteristics
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Example Determine the time of operation of a relay of rating
IDMT O/C Relays
Example Determinethetimeofoperationofarelayofrating
5A,2.2sec,IDMTandhavingarelaysettingof125%,TMS=0.6.
ItisconnectedtoasupplycircuitthroughaCT400/5ratio.The
f lt t i 4000A faultcurrentis4000A.
Solution Thepickupvalueoftherelayis5Abutsincethe
relaysettingis125%,thereforetheoperatingcurrentofthe y g , p g
relayis5X1.25=6.25A
ThePSM(PlugSettingMultiplier)oftherelay,
PSM=4000/(6.25x80)=8
(PSM=PrimCurrent/RelayCurrentSettingXCTRatio)
From the standard 2 2 sec c r e operating time for PSM 8 is Fromthestandard2.2seccurve,operatingtimeforPSM=8is
3.2sec
SinceTMSis0.6,actualoperatingtimeoftherelayis1.92s , p g y
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Relay Coordination Methods
Methods used to achieve correct relay co
ordination are
Timegrading
Currentgrading
CombinationofTimeandCurrentgrading
The common aim of these methods is to give correct
discrimination so that each method isolate only the
faulty section of the power system network, leaving
the rest of the system undisturbed
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Time Grading
O ti ti f th t ti i i d f th f d f Operatingtimeoftheprotectionisincreasedfromthefarendof
theprotectedfeedertowardsthegeneratingsource
Thetimedifferencebetweentwoadjacentrelayisusually
approximately0.5s,thisisprovidedtocoveroperatingtimeof
CBs&errors
Definite time overcurrent relays are used
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Definitetimeovercurrent relaysareused
Time Grading
WhenfaultoccurbeyondB,allrelayscomeintoactionasfault
currentflowsthroughallofthem,theleasttimesettingisfor
l B h l B f 0 25 CB B d relayB,hencerelayBoperatesafter0.25s;CBatBopensand
clearsthefault,withthis,allotherrelays(C,DandE)reset
IfrelayorCBatBfailstooperate,faultremainsuncleared,in
thiscase,relayCwilloperateafter0.65sandtripCBatC,ifthe
CBatCalsofailstooperate,thenrelayDwilloperateafter1.05s
If a fault occurs near the source fault current flow will be very Ifafaultoccursnearthesource,faultcurrentflowwillbevery
highanditshouldbeclearedveryquickly,buttimegrading
methodtakeslongesttimetoopentheCBnearthesource,i.e.
th f lt i th t d l d themoreseverefaultisthemostdelayed
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Discrimination by Time Grading
Feeder Protection
DiscriminationbyTimeGrading
RelayR1
CurrentSetting=100%(100APrim)
TMS selected = 0.10, PSM = 3000/100 = 30 TMSselected 0.10,PSM 3000/100 30
OperatingTime@PSM20&TMS0.10=0.22S(i.e.2.2x0.1)
RelayR2
CurrentSetting=100%(150APrim)
TMSselected=0.25,PSM=3000/150=20
Operatingtime@PSM30&TMS0.25=0.55S(i.e.2.2x0.25)
GradingMarginbetweenRelayR1/R2=0.55 0.22=0.33S
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Current Grading
Itreliesonthefactthatthefaultcurrentvarieswiththeposition
ofthefaultbecauseofthedifferenceinimpedancevalues
b h d h f l betweenthesourceandthefault
Relaysaresettopickupatprogressivelyhighervaluesof
current towards the source, and relays employed are high set currenttowardsthesource,andrelaysemployedarehighset
(highspeed)instantaneousovercurrentrelays
Theoperatingtimeiskeptsameforalltherelaysprotectingthe
diff i differentsections
Advantagecomparedtotimegradedsystemisthatthe
operating time is less if fault near the source operatingtimeislessiffaultnearthesource
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It is not practical to distinguish between a fault at F1 and a fault
Current Grading
ItisnotpracticaltodistinguishbetweenafaultatF1andafault
atF2,sincethedistancebetweenthesepointsmaybeonlya
fewmeters,correspondingtoachangeinfaultcurrentof
i t l 0 1% approximately0.1%
Themagnitudeoffaultcurrentcannotbeaccuratelydetermined
asallthecircuitparametersmaynotbeknownsometimes p y
Duringafault,thereisatransientconditionandthe
performanceoftherelayisnotaccurate
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Discrimination by Current Grading
Feeder Protection
DiscriminationbyCurrentGrading
RelayR1
CurrentSetting=100%(100APrim)
TMS selected = 0.10, PSM = 3000/100 = 30 TMSselected 0.10,PSM 3000/100 30
Operatingtime@PSM30&TMS0.10=0.22S(i.e.2.2x0.1)
RELAYR2
CurrentSetting=100%(750APrim)
TMSselected=0.10,PSM=3000/750=4
Operatingtime@PSM4&TMS0.10=0.50S(i.e.5x0.10)
GradingmarginbetweenRelayR1/R2=0.50 0.22=0.28S
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In case of discrimination by time alone the disadvantage is due
Discrimination by Time and Current
Incaseofdiscriminationbytimealone,thedisadvantageisdue
tothefactthatthemoreseverefaultsareclearedinthelongest
operatingtime.Ontheotherhand,discriminationbycurrent
canbeappliedonlywherethereisappreciableimpedance
betweenthetwocircuitbreakersconcerned
With IDMT characteristic the time of operation is inversely WithIDMTcharacteristic,thetimeofoperationisinversely
proportionaltothefaultcurrentlevelandtheactual
characteristicisafunctionofbothtimeand'current'settings
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Factors influencing grading margin
Grading Margin in IDMT O/C Relays
Factorsinfluencinggradingmargin
GradingMargin(t)
RelaytimingError(+/ 7.5%forEM,5%forNumerical y g ( / ,
Version)
RelayOvershoot (4060msforEM,N.A.forNumerical
Version) Version)
C.B.Triptime(40 60ms)
SafetyMargin
RecommendedGradingMargin:0.3 0.4sforEM&0.20.3s
forNumericalVersion
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NON-DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
(INDUCTION DISC TYPE) (INDUCTION DISC TYPE)
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DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
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DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
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DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
(INDUCTION DISC TYPE) (INDUCTION DISC TYPE)
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DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
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DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
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DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
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DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
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DIRECTIONAL IDMT O/C RELAY
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Fuse to Fuse
Fuse Coordination
FusetoFuse
Theoperatingtimeofafuseisafunctionofboththe
pre arcing and arcing time of the fusing element prearcingandarcingtimeofthefusingelement,
whichfollowsanI
2
tlaw,so,toachieveproperco
ordinationbetweentwofusesinseries,itisnecessary , y
toensurethatthetotalI
2
ttakenbythesmallerfuseis
lessthantheprearcingI
2
tvalueofthelargerfuse
Ithasbeenestablishedbyteststhatsatisfactory
gradingbetweenthetwofuseswillgenerallybe
achievedifthecurrentratingratiobetweenthemis
greaterthantwo
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Fuse Coordination
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Fuse to Relay
Fuse Coordination
FusetoRelay
Forgradinginversetimerelayswithfuses,thebasic
approach is to ensure whenever possible that the relay approachistoensurewheneverpossiblethattherelay
backsupthefuseandnotviceversa
Ifthefuseisupstreamoftherelay,itisverydifficultto
maintaincorrectdiscriminationathighvaluesoffault
currentbecauseofthefastoperationofthefuse
Th l h i i b i d f di i Therelaycharacteristicbestsuitedforcoordination
withfusesisnormallytheextremelyinverse(EI)
characteristic as it follows a similar I
2
t characteristic characteristicasitfollowsasimilarI tcharacteristic
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IDMT Relay Coordination
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d C 8 A (66KV) / 2 A (11KV)
IDMT Relay Coordination
RatedCurrent=87.5A(66KV)/525A(11KV)
S.C.CurrentforFaultonLVside(assuminginfinitesource)
= Rated Current x 100 / % Z =RatedCurrentx100/%Z
t
=525x100/10=5250A(11KVside)
= 87.5 x 100 / 10 = 875A (66 KV side) 87.5x100/10 875A(66KVside)
IDMTRelaywithNormalInverseCharacteristic(IEC)
Operatingtime(t)=(0.14/(I
0.02
1))xTMS
whereI=PlugSettingMultiplier(PSM)
t@PSM10/TMS1.0=3.0s
t@PSM20/TMS1.0=2.2s
t@PSM8.75/TMS1.0=3.16s
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11KV O/G FDR (R1)
IDMT Relay Coordination
11KVO/GFDR(R1)
O/CSetting=1A(200A),TMS=0.10,PSM=10500/200>20
Operating time (t) @ PSM>20 / TMS0.10 = 0.22S Operatingtime(t)@PSM>20/TMS0.10 0.22S
11KVB/C(R2)
O/CSetting=1A(600A),PSM=5250/600=8.75
DesiredOperatingTime(DOT)=0.22+0.30=0.52s
Operatingtime@PSM8.75/TMS1.0=3.16s
TMStoachieveDOTof0.52S=0.52/3.16=0.16
11KVI/C(R3)
O/C S tti 1A (600A) PSM 5250 /600 8 75 O/CSetting=1A(600A),PSM=5250/600=8.75
DOT=0.52+0.30=0.82s
Operating time @ PSM8 75 / TMS 1 0 = 3 16s Operatingtime@PSM8.75/TMS1.0=3.16s
TMStoachieveDOTof0.82S=0.82/3.16=0.26
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66 KV SIDE OF TFR (R4)
IDMT Relay Coordination
66KVSIDEOFTFR(R4)
O/CSetting=1A(100A),PSM=875/100=8.75
DOT = 0.82 + 0.30 = 1.12s DOT 0.82+0.30 1.12s
Operatingtime@PSM8.75/TMS1.0=3.16s
TMStoachieveDOTof1.12S=1.12/3.16=0.35
Note:
GradingbetweenRelayR3&R4isoptionalsinceitdoesnot
ff d di i if f id i l S affectdownstreamcoordination,ifforegone,identicalTMS
canbeadoptedforRelayR4(TMS0.26)withsimilarresponse
timeof0.82sasrelayR3,thiswouldreducetheupstreamfault
clearancetime
Gradingmarginof0.3sisusedconsideringEMIDMTrelays,
with Numerical relays grading margin can be reduced to 0 2s withNumericalrelays,gradingmargincanbereducedto0.2s,
inviewofreducedtimingerrorsandnoovershoot
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