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A2-Level

Biology
Revision Pack
Unit 4: Populations & The Environent
!ae:""""""""""""""""""" Teacher:"""""""""""""""""""
Section 1.1 Populations and ecosystems
Ecology
The stu#y o$ inter-relationships %et&een organiss an# their environent
Abiotic ' non living coponents
Biotic ' living coponents
The supporting layers o$ lan#( air an# &ater that surroun#s the earth is calle# the
%iosphere)
Ecosystems
*a#e up o$ all the interacting a%iotic an# %iotic $eatures o$ a speci$ic area
+pecies are a#e up o$ any groups o$ in#ivi#uals calle# populations)
Populations
A population is a#e up o$ all the inter%ree#ing organiss o$ one species in a ha%itat
Boun#aries o$ populations can %e #i$$icult to #e$ine
Populations o$ #i$$erent species $or a counity
Community
A counity is a#e up o$ all the #i$$erent populations o$ #i$$erent species living
an# interacting in a given place at a given tie)
Habitat
A ha%itat is a place &here a counity o$ organiss live)
Ecological niche
,escri%es ho& an organis $its into its environent
Re$ers to &here an organiss lives an# &hat it #oes there
-nclu#es all %iotic an# a%iotic re.uireents $or an organis to live
!o t&o species &ill occupy the e/act sae niche
Section 1.2 Investigating Populations
,ue to tie constraints an# collateral #aage( only sall areas &ithin a ha%itat are
stu#ie# in #etail0 these saples represent the population as a &hole)
The larger the nu%er o$ saples( the ore representative o$ the counity the
results &ill %e)
Random sampling ' 1ua#rat
Systematic sampling ' Transect
Size of quadrate ' Larger .ua#rats are use#
to easure larger species) -$ the species
occurs in groups( a large nu%er o$ sall
.ua#rats shoul# %e use#)
Number of quadrats ' 2reater nu%er o$
species( greater nu%er o$ .ua#rats
Position of quadrats ' Ran#o
Systematic Sampling
ine transect ' use# to illustrate a transition along &hich counities o$
plants3anials change) E)g) 4onation
Provi#es a &ay o$ %eing a%le to clearly visualise the changes taking place
Any organis over &hich the line passes is recor#e#)
Belt transect ! provi#es in$oration o$ the #ensity o$ a species) -$ #etaile# #ensity is
re.uire# a %elt transect shoul# %e use#)
Abundance ' !u%er o$ species in a given space
"requency ! chance o$ a particular species occurring &ithin a .ua#rat
Percentage co#er ' Estiate o$ the area &ithin a .ua#rat that a species occupies
To easure the a%un#ance o$ a o%ile species:
Estimate of population $ no% indi#iduals caught in first sample & no% caught in second sample
No% recaptured
Assumptions'
Proportion o$ arke#3unarke# in#ivi#uals is the secon# saple is the sae
$or the &hole population
-n#ivi#uals in the $irst saple #istri%ute theselves evenly
The population has a #e$inite %oun#ary) 5no iigration3igration6
Birth3,eath is lo&
*arking etho# is not to/ic3 conspicuous
*arking is not lost
Section 1.3 Variation in population size
Population gro(th cur#es
2ro&th curves o$ populations usually have three ain phases:
7)6 A perio# o$ slo& gro&th #ue to the $act that there is only a liite# nu%er o$
inter%ree#ing species
2)6 A perio# o$ rapi# gro&th(
cause# %y the ever increase
in organiss that are a%le
to repro#uce) 8or each
interval o$ tie the
population si9e #ou%les
:)6 Population si9e %egins to
level o$$ as there are
liiting $actors on the
population gro&th such as
availa%ility o$ resources)
Population size
!o population gro&th &ill continue in#e$initely) This is %ecause in tie there &ill
eventually %e liiting $actors that &ill liit the population si9e)
The various $actors that liit population si9e can %e o$ t&o types( a%iotic an#
%iotic)
Abiotic
)emperature ' Each species has an optiu teperature at &hich they
survive %est at) The $urther a group o$ organiss are a&ay $ro this
teperature( the saller there gro&th rate &ill %e) -$ they are %elo& the
teperature( eta%olic rate ay%e lo&er i$ they are col# %loo#e#)
;o&ever i$ they are aals( they &ill pro#uce heat #uring respiration(
at lo& teperatures ore energy is use# to aintain a sta%le %o#y
teperature an# less is use# $or gro&th)
ight ' Light is the ultiate source o$ energy $or an ecosyste) -$ light
intensity is greater in plants( the ore energy they can use to create spores
an# see#s an# so they repro#uce .uicker)
pH ' A$$ects the $unction o$ en9yes) En9yes &ork %est at #i$$erent p;
levels an# so i$ an organis e/ists soe&here &here there are ore
appropriate p; levels then they &ill likely have a larger population)
*ater and hui#ity ' hui#ity a$$ects transpiration rates in plants an#
the rate o$ evaporation o$ &ater $ro anials)
Section 1.4 / 1.5 ompetition / Predation
<opetition %et&een e%ers o$ the sae species is intraspeci$ic
<opetition %et&een e%ers o$ #i$$erent species is calle# interspeci$ic
+ntraspecific competition
Populations that un#ergo intraspeci$ic copetition are o$ten liite# %y the nu%er
o$ resources availa%le)
An e/aple o$ intraspeci$ic copetition is &hen oak trees copete $or resources)
-n a large population o$ sall oak trees( the larger ones &ill gro& an# out-copete
the others $or &ater inerals an# light) The $inal population &ill eventually %e
$e&er large oak trees)
+nterspecific competition
The copetitive e/clusion principle states that &here t&o species are copeting
$or liite# resources the one that uses these resources ost e$$ectively &ill
ultiately eliinate the other one)
Predation ' occurs &hen one organiss is consue# %y another
Effect of predator ! prey relationship on population size
The a$$ect o$ population si9e $or the pre#ator prey relationship is suarise# as
$ollo&s:
Pre#ators eat there prey(
there%y re#ucing the
population o$ the prey
=ith $e&er prey
availa%le( the pre#ators
are in copetition &ith
one another $or the prey
that is still le$t
Pre#ator population
#ecreases #ue to soe
pre#ators not %eing a%le
to catch enough prey
=ith $e&er pre#ators
aroun#( $e&er prey are
consue#
Prey population increases
*ore prey availa%le( pre#ator population also increases
-n reality( there is norally ore than one $oo# source availa%le so population si9e
$luctuations are rarely so severe
Perio#ic population crashes create selection pressures that only allo& certain
in#ivi#uals &ith the alleles to survive a#verse con#itions)
Section 1.! "uman Populations
Human population size and gro(th rate
There are t&o a>or $actors that have cause# an increase in the si9e o$ the huan
population:
The #evelopent o$ agriculture
The #evelopent o$ anu$acturing that create# the in#ustrial revolution
"actors affecting gro(th and size of human populations
-t is the %alance %et&een
the %irth an# #eath rate that
ultiately #eterines
&hether or not the
population is increasing(
#ecreasing or reaining the
sae)
-n#ivi#ual populations are
a$$ecte# %y igration
+mmigration ! >oining a
population $ro outsi#e
Emigration ' leaving a
population
Population gro(th $ ,Births - immigration. ! ,deaths - emigration.
/ gro(th rate in a gi#en period $ population change during a period & 011
population at the start of a period
"actors affecting birth rates
Economic conditions ' less #evelope# countries ten# to have higher %irth rates
<ultural3religious %ackgroun#s ' soe countries3religions encourage larger
$ailies
Social pressures ' in soe countries( a larger $aily iproves social stan#ing
Birth control ' the e/tent at &hich contraception3a%ortion is availa%le a$$ects
%irth rate
Political factors ' governents can in$luence %irth rates through e#ucation an#
ta/ation
Birth rate $ number of births per year & 0111
)otal population in the same year
"actors affecting death rate
Age profile ! the greater the proportion o$ el#erly( the higher the #eath rate
ife e&pectancy at birth ! Resi#ents o$ ore #evelope# countries ten# to live
longer
"ood supply ! Poor nutrition &ill cause an increase in #eath rate
Safe drin2ing (ater ! poor .uality #rinking &ater &ill cause an increase in &ater
%orn #iseases thus increasing #eath rate
3edical care ! access to e#ical care &ill re#uce #eath rate
Natural disasters ! the ore prone a region is to #rought3$aine( the higher the
#eath rate
*ar ! =ar &ill cause an increase on #eath rate
4eath rate $ number of deaths per year & 0111
)otal population the same year
Population structure
The change in societies regar#ing the change $ro li$e e/pectancy %eing short at %irth
an# %irth rates %eing high to those &here li$e e/pectancy is long an# %irth rates are
lo&( is an e/aple o$ #eographic transition
A graphical representation o$ the ? o$ ales an# $eales o$ certain age groups in
populations is calle# an age population pyrai#
+ta%le population ' %irth an#
#eath rate is $airly the sae)
Population #oes not gro&
-ncreasing population ' ;as a
&i#e %ase to the pyrai#
in#icating that there is a high
%irth rate
,ecreasing population '
!arro& %ase to the pyrai# as
there is a lo& %irth rate)
Sur#i#al rates and life e&pectancy
+ho&s the ? o$ people still alive in a population a$ter a given aount o$ tie
The average li$e e/pectancy is the age at &hich @A? o$ the population is still alive

Section 2.1 #nergy and $%P
Both plants an# anials %reak#o&n organic olecules to ake ATP
*hat is energy5
Energy is the a%ility to #o &ork
-t can take a variety o$ $ors( inclu#ing light( theral( electrical( kinetic( etc)
-t can change $ro one $or to another
-t cannot %e create# or #estroye#
-t is easure# in >oules 5>6
*hy do organisms need energy5
Living organiss are highly organise# systes that re.uire a constant input o$ energy
to prevent the $ro %ecoing #isor#ere#)
*eta%olis ' cheical processes
*oveent 5insi#e3outsi#e6
Active transport
Pro#uction o$ en9yes3horones
*aintaining %o#y teperature
The $lo& o$ energy through a syste occurs in three stages:
7) Plants pro#uce organic olecules
2) *olecules are use# in respiration to ake ATP
:) ATP is use# to #o &ork
Ho( does A)P store energy5
The pon#s %et&een phosphate groups are unsta%le an# have lo& activation energies)
=ater is use# to covert ATP into A,P 5ATP B ;2C A,P B Pi B E!ER2D6
This is a hy#rolysis reaction
The reaction is reversi%le &hen A,P reacts &ith Pi in a con#ensation reaction)
Roles of A)P
ATP is an intere#iate energy su%stance use# to trans$er energy)
<ells aintain >ust a $e& secon#s supply o$ ATP
-t is a %etter ie#iate energy source than glucose %ecause the energy is ore
anagea%le in sall .uantities)
The hy#rolysis o$ ATP is a single step reaction
Section 3.1 & 3.2 P'otosynt'esis and t'e lig't
dependent reaction
eaf adaptations
Leaves are a#apte# to %rig
together the : ra& aterials o$
photosynthesis)
Adaptations ' Air spaces( &a/y
cuticle( /yle( stoata( thin
upper epi#eris( palisa#e layer)
There are three ain stages o$
photosynthesis:
7) <apturing o$ light energy
2) L,R ' splitting o$ &ater( pro#ucts are re#uce# !A,P( ATP an# C2
:) L-R ' <C2 is re#uce# to pro#uce sugars B other organic olecules)
6&idation and reduction
Cil rig is o$ten use# to ree%er the #i$$erence %et&een o/i#ation an# re#uction
6/i#ation is loss o$ electrons ' as &ell as the loss o$ ;B ions an# the gaining o$
C/ygen
Re#uction is gaining electrons ' as &ell as gaining ;B ion an# losing o/ygen
-n o/i#ation( energy is release#( in re#uction( energy is re.uire#
)he ma2ing of A)P
<hlorophyll a%sor%s light energy
2 electrons ove to high energy levels an# leave the chlorophyll olecule)
Electrons are taken up %y electron carriers
Electrons are trans$erre# along an electron trans$er chain
Electrons loose energy at each stage( &hich is use# to ake ATP
Photolysis
The electrons that are lost $ro the chlorophyll are replace# %y electrons release#
#uring the photolysis o$ &ater &here o/ygen is release# as a %i-pro#uct)
7H76 8H- - 67 - 8e
9

Section 3.3 %'e lig't independent reaction
The pro#ucts o$ the light #epen#ent reaction are ATP an# re#uce# !A,P) These
pro#ucts are use# to re#uce car%on in the L-, reaction)
This stage #oes not re.uire light( ho&ever it #oes re.uire the pro#ucts $or the light
#epen#ent reaction)
)he Cal#in cycle
The nu%ere# stages o$ the <alvin cycle are:
7) <ar%on #io/i#e $ro the atosphere #i$$uses into the lea$ through the lea$
stoata( in to the cell &all( then into the cytoplas( an# $inally into the
chloroplast stroa)
2) -n the stroa( the car%on #io/i#e co%ines &ith a @ car%on copoun# calle#
ribulose biphosphate ,RuBP. using an en9ye)
:) The co%ination o$ the car%on #io/i#e an# the RuBP pro#uces t&o ne&
olecules o$ a : car%on copoun# calle# glycerate :9phosphate ,;P.
4) ATP an# re#uce# !A,P $ro the light in#epen#ent reaction are use# to
activate the :-phosphate to triose phosphate ,)P.%
@) The !A,P is re$ore# an# returns to the light #epen#ent reaction cycle
E) +oe triose phosphate olecules are converte# to use$ul organic su%stances
such as glucose)
F) *ost triose phosphate olecules are use# to regenerate ri%ulose %iphosphate
using ATP $ro the light #epen#ent reaction)
Site of the light9independent reaction
The light in#epen#ent reaction takes place in the stroa o$ the chloroplasts)
The chloroplast is a#apte# to carrying
out the light in#epen#ent reaction in the
$ollo&ing &ays:
The $lui# $ro the stroa
contains all the necessary
en9yes to carry out the light
in#epen#ent reaction) 5Re#uction
o$ car%on #io/i#e6)
ight NA4P,H. <sed for
respiration
Returns to
chlorophyll
The stroa $lui# surroun#s the grana an# so the pro#ucts o$ the light
#epen#ent reaction - the grana can rea#ily #i$$use into the stroa)
-t contains %oth ,!A an# ri%osoes so it can .uickly an# easily anu$acture
soe o$ the proteins nee#e# $or the light- in#epen#ent reaction)
Section 3.4 (actors a))ecting p'otosynt'esis
imiting factors
The rate o$ photosynthesis is al&ays restricte# %y >ust one $actor) This is calle# a
liiting $actor) <hanging the levels o$ other $actors &ill not a$$ect the rate o$
photosynthesis)
-$ light is a liiting $actor( increasing the teperature $or e/aple &ill not a$$ect the
rate o$ photosynthesis)
-$ instea# &e increase the light intensity( the rate o$ photosynthesis &ill increase)
;o&ever this &ill not continue in#e$initely) Photosynthesis &ill eventually %e liite#
%y a #i$$erent $actor)
Photosynthesis is a#e up o$ a series o$ sall reactions) -t is the slo&est o$ these
reactions that #eterines the overall rate o$ photosynthesis)
)he la( of limiting factors ' At any given oent( the rate o$ photosynthesis is
liite# %y the $actor that is at its least $avoura%le value)
The effect of light intensity
The rate o$ photosynthesis can %e easure# %y the volue o$ C
2
given o$$ or <C
2

use# up in a given tie)
=hen light is a liiting $actor( the rate o$ photosynthesis is proportional to light
intensity)
The copensation point is the point at &hich C
2
use# up in respiration is e.ual to the
C
2
given o$$ in photosynthesis) There is there$ore no net gas e/change)
The effect of carbon dioxide on the rate of photosynthesis
The optiu <C
2
concentration $or photosynthesis is A)7? &hereas the <C
2
concentration in the atosphere is A)A4?)
;igh <C
2
concentrations can e$$ect the
en9ye catalyse# reactions that co%ine
ri%ulose %iphosphate &ith <C
2)
The effect of temperature on the rate of
photosynthesis
Bet&een A - 2@
o
c the rate o$
photosynthesis appro/iately #ou%les $or
each 7A
o
c rise in teperature)
;igher teperatures o$ten cause the rate o$ photosynthesis to #ecrease since en9yes
%ecoe #enature#)
Section 4.1 *lycolysis
Cellular respiration

<onversion o$ glucose to ATP

<an occur in t&o #i$$erent $ors &hen C


2
is present an# &hen C
2
is not
present)

Aerobic respiration ' re.uires C


2)

Products of aerobic respiration ' <C


2
( ;
2
C an# lots o$ ATP

Anaerobic respiration - C
2
A%sent

Products of Anaerobic respiration ' -n anials 5lactate B sall aounts o$


ATP6( -n plants 5ethanol B <C
2
B sall aounts o$ ATP6
;lycolysis
<oon to %oth aero%ic an# anaero%ic respiration
Cccurs in the cytoplas
2lucose 5E <ar%on6 is split into pyruvate 5: <ar%on6
8Stages of ;lycolysis
7)
;lucose is acti#ated by phosphorylation - )(o A)P olecules are use# so
that t&o inorganic phosphate olecule can %in# onto the glucose olecules
aking it ore reactive( since its activation energy is lo&ere# $or the en9ye
catalyse# stage)
2)
The phosphorylate# glucose olecules
split into t&o 5:<6 trios phosphate
olecules)
:)
)riosphosphate is o&idised -
;y#rogen is reove# $ro each
triosphosphate olecules to the
hy#rogen carrier !A, to ake
!A,; 5re#uce# !A,6
4)
Production of A)P ! Triosphosphate
is converte# into Pyruvate 5another :
car%on olecule6) As this occurs 2
olecules o$ ATP are regenerate#
$ro A,P an# P
i)
Energy yields from ;lycolysis%
The conversion o$ triose phosphate to pyruvate pro#uces 2 ATP olecules each) 58 in
total $or the t&o olecules generate# %y splitting phosphorylate# glucose) ;o&ever to
phosphorylate# glucose 5stage 76 t&o olecules o$ ATP are re.uire#( *aking the total
energy yiel# 4ATP molecules 2 ATP molecules = 2 ATP molecules
Section 4.2 +in, reaction & -re. cycle
)he lin2 reaction
Pyruvate $ro 2lycolysis is actively transporte# into the atri/ o$ the
itochon#ria
Pyruvate un#ergoes a series o$ reactions
Pyruvate is o/i#ise# %y reoving hy#rogen to $ro !A,;( <C
2
an# a t&o
car%on olecule calle# an acetyl group)
The acetyl group reacts &ith an en9ye calle# coen9ye A) 5<oA6
This $ors acetyl coen9ye A) 5acetyl <oA6
Pyru#ate - NA4 - CoA Acetyl CoA - NA4H - C6
7
)he 2rebs Cycle
A series o$ o/i#ation an#
re#uction reaction
Acetyl <oA 52<6 reactions &ith
a 54<6 olecule to $or a 5E<6
olecule
The 5E<6 olecule loses <C
2
an# ;y#rogen to pro#uce one
ATP olecule as a result o$
su%strate level phosphorylation)
Coenzymes ! Hydrogen carriers
<oen9yes are olecules that soe
en9yes re.uire in or#er to $unction)
5e)g) !A, B #ehy#rogenase en9yes
that catalyse the reoval o$ hy#rogen
ions $ro su%strate olecules)
The play a a>or role in photosynthesis
an# respiration
)he significance of the 2rebs cycle
-t pro#uces hy#rogen atos 5!A,;6 use# in the electron trans$er chain $or
o/i#ative phosphorylation
Regenerates the 54<6 olecule( preventing an accuulation o$ acetyl <oA
A source o$ intere#iate copoun#s use# %y cells to anu$acture iportant
su%stances such as $atty aci#s( aino aci#s an# chlorophyll
Section 4.3 #lectron transport c'ain
Takes place in the inner e%rane o$ the itochon#ria
!A,; B 8A,;
2
$ro the Gre%s cycle are nee#e# %y the electron transport chain $or
the pro#uction o$ ATP)
-t is the electron associate# &ith the proton that provi#es the energy to co%ine A,P
&ith an inorganic phosphate olecule to $or ATP)
Stages of the electron transport chain
7) !A,; an# 8A,;
2
are o/i#ise#( thus releasing a proton an# an electron)
2) The protons are actively transporte# into the intere%ranous space) 5%et&een
the inner an# outer e%rane6
:) The electron is taken up %y an electron carrier
4) The electron-carrier is there$ore re#uce#)
@) The electron $ro the re#uce# carrier is o/i#ise# again %y passing the electron
to a ne& carrier &hich in turn also %ecoes re#uce#)
E) By passing the electron #o&n a chain o$ electron carriers through
o/i#ation3re#uction reactions the electron loses energy in the process) -t is this
lost energy that is use# to co%ine A,P &ith Pi to $or ATP
F) Protons accuulate in the intere%ranous space an# so #i$$use %ack into the
cell through special protein channels
H) At the en# o$ the chain( electrons co%ine &ith the proton as &ell as o/ygen
to $or &ater)
I) C/ygen is there$ore the $inal accepte# o$ electrons in the electron transport
chain)
<yani#e is a non-copetitive inhi%itor o$ the en9yes involve# in the electron
transport chain)
The en9ye catalyses the a##ition o$ electrons to the C
2
<yani#e causes an accuulation o$ ;
B
an# e
-

( %ringing cellular respiration to a halt
Section 4.4 $naero.ic respiration
+ince o/ygen is the $inal acceptor o$ electrons in the electron transport chain( &hen it
is not present( ATP cannot %e pro#uce# in this &ay) -nstea#( ATP is pro#uce#
anaero%ically)
Cnes pro#uce# in 2lycolysis( pro#ucts such as pyruvate an# hy#rogen ust %e
constantly reove#)
8urtherore( the hy#rogen $ro !A, ust %e release# so that it can %e use# again)
-n or#er to #o this the pyruvate &ith react &ith re#uce# !A,
-n plants an# soe icroorganiss( pyruvate is converte# into ethanol an# &ater(
&hereas in aals an# other organiss it is converte# into lactate)
Production of ethanol in plants=some organisms
Cccurs in organiss such as yeast an# root hair cells $or e/aple that are in
&aterlogge# soil
The reaction $or the pro#uction o$ ethanol an# <C
2
is as $ollo&s:
Pyru#ate ,:C. - reduced NA4 ethanol ,7C. - carbon dio&ide ,0C. - NA4
Production of lactate in animals
Cccurs ost coonly &hen an anial is su%>ect to physically #ean#ing e/ercises
that re.uire large aounts o$ C
2
to release energy $ro respiration)
;o&ever( i$ o/ygen cannot %e supplie# .uickly enough( the cells pro#ucing ATP &ill
teporarily respire anaero%ically &hilst pro#ucing lactate as a %y-pro#uct)
As &ith any other $or o$ anaero%ic respiration( the re#uce# !A, ust %e converte#
%ack to !A, $or the process to continue( an# so it reacts &ith pyruvate)
The reaction is as $ollo&s
Pyru#ate ,:C. - reduced NA4 lactate ,:C. - NA4
Lactate %eing aci#ic &ill cause pain an# craps to %e e/perience# in uscle tissue)
-t ust there$ore %e reove# .uickly %y o/i#ising it &ith C
2
to release ore energy or
taken to the liver %y the %loo# to %e store# as glycogen)
Section 5.1 (ood c'ains and )ood /e.s
The ultiate source o$ energy in an ecosyste coes $ro sunlight
This energy is converte# to an organic $or using photosynthesis &hich is then passe#
%et&een organiss
Producers ! photosynthetic organiss that o%tain their energy through the
photosynthesis o$ sunlight
Consumers ! Crganiss that $ee# o$$ o$ other organiss) They #o not pro#uce their
o&n $oo# %y photosynthesis) <onsuers can %e priary( secon#ary( etc #epen#ing on
&hich stage o$ the $oo# chain they are at) 8or e/aple a secon#ary consuer
consues priary consuers( %ut is consue# %y tertiary consuers)
4ecomposers ! =hen pro#ucers3consuers #ie( the energy that they contain can %e
accesse# %y #ecoposers that &ill %reak #o&n the larger ore cople/ olecules
that they are a#e o$ into saller siple coponents again) The siple coponents
are recycle# as they are taken up again %y plants) <onsuers inclu#e( $ungi an#
%acteria an# to a lesser e/tent anials such as #etritivores)
"ood chains
,escri%es the $ee#ing relationships %et&een organiss
Each stage o$ the chain is re$erre# to as %eing a Jtrophic levelK
"ood (ebs
-n reality ost anials #o not rely upon a single $oo# source)
=ithin a single ha%itat there ay %e any $oo# chains linke# together to $or a $oo#
&e%)
Section 5.2 #nergy trans)er .et/een trop'ic levels
Energy losses in food chains
Cnly 7 - :? o$ the energy availa%le to plants is converte# into organic atter
This is %ecause:
Cver IA? o$ the suns energy is re$lecte# %ack into space %y the atosphere
!ot all &avelengths o$ light can %e a%sor%e# %y plants in photosynthesis
Light ay not actually $all o$ the chlorophyll olecule
Liiting $actors ay slo& #o&n photosynthesis
The rate at &hich energy is store# is calle# Jnet pro#uctionK
!et pro#uction L gross pro#uction ' respiratory losses
Cnly appro/iately 7A? o$ the energy store# in plants is passe# on to priary
consuers)
+econ#ary an# tertiary consuers ho&ever are ore e$$icient( trans$erring
appro/iately 2A? o$ the energy availa%le to the)
The lo& aount o$ energy a%sor%e# at each stage is #ue to:
+oe o$ the organis not %eing eaten
+oe parts can %e eaten %ut not #igeste#
+oe o$ the energy is lost in e/cretion
+oe o$ the energy is lost via respiration that is use# to aintain a high %o#y
teperature) This is especially the case in aals
Because the energy trans$er in $oo# chains is ine$$icient:
*ost $oo# chains have only 43@ trophic levels since there is not enough energy to
support a large %ree#ing population at trophic levels higher than these
The total %ioass is less at higher trophic levels
The total aount o$ energy store# is less at each stage o$ the $oo# chain
Calculating the efficiency of energy transfers
The energy availa%le is usually easure# as k>
-2
year
-7
The $orula use# to calculate the energy trans$er is:
Energy transfer $ Energy a#ailable after the transfer & 011
Energy a#ailable before the transfer
Section 5.3 #cological pyramids
8oo# chains3&e%s are use$ul in sho&ing the #irection o$ $lo& o$ energy in a ha%itat0
ho&ever they #o not provi#e any .uantitative in$oration)
Pyramids of number
Usually the higher up in trophic levels you go the $e&er organiss there are) 8or
e/aple( grass rabbit fo&es
There are ho&ever signi$icant #ra&%acks to this etho#) These inclu#e:
!o account is taken $or si9e) 8or e/aple 7 tree &ill count the sae as one piece o$
grass) ;o&ever it is .uite o%vious that a tree can sustain ore li$e that a %la#e o$ grass
can)
The nu%er o$ in#ivi#uals can %e so great it can %e alost ipossi%le to count the
$or e/aple all o$ the grass in a $iel#)
Pyramids of biomass
This etho# is ore relia%le than the last as it #oes take si9e into account)
Biomass is the total ass o$ plants3anials o$ species in a given place)
Bioass can %e unrelia%le ho&ever as there are various #i$$erent aount o$ &ater
than can %e store# in an organis)
,ry ass is there$ore easure# instea#) ;o&ever( to #o this( organiss ust %e kille#

Bioass is easure# in g
-2
Both pyrai#s o$ %ioass an# nu%ers can %e unrelia%le as they #o not account $or
seasonal #i$$erences in the aount o$ organiss present)
Pyramids of energy
The ost accurate representation o$ energy $lo& in a $oo# chain
<ollecting #ata can %e #i$$icult3cople/
,ata is usually collecte#
in a given area $or a given
perio# o$ tie 5e)g) a
year6
This is ore accurate
than using %ioass since
#i$$erent organiss ay
have the sae ass %ut
one ay have ore $at
$or e/aple than the
other an# so &ill have
ore energy
The energy $lo& in this
type o$ pyrai# is usually
easure# in k>
-2
year
-7
Section 5.4 $gricultural ecosystems
*hat is an agricultural ecosystem5
Largely a#e up o$ anials3plants use# to a#e $oo# $or huans
Agriculture tries to ensure that as uch o$ the energy availa%le $ro the sun is
trans$erre# to huans as possi%le
-ncreases the pro#uctivity o$ the huan $oo# chain
*hat is producti#ity5
The rate at &hich soething is pro#uce#
The rate at &hich plants $or e/aple assiilate# energy $ro the sun into cheical
energy is calle# the gross producti#ity an# is easure# in G>
-2
year
-7
+oe o$ the cheical energy that is assiilate# %y plants is use# $or respiration( the
reain#er is calle# the net pro#uctivity)
!et pro#uctivity is e/presse# as:
Net producti#ity $ gross producti#ity ! respiratory losses
!et pro#uctivity is a$$ecte# %y t&o ain things:
7)6 The e$$iciency o$ the crop carrying out photosynthesis) This can %e iprove#
i$ the liiting $actors are re#uce#)
2)6 The area o$ the groun# covere# %y the leaves o$ the crop
Comparisons of natural and agricultural ecosystems
Energy input
To aintain an agricultural ecosyste it is iportant to prevent the clia/
counity $ro $oring %y e/clu#ing the other species in that counity
-t takes an e/tra input to #o this seeing as it re.uires reoving pests( #iseases( $ee#ing
anials an# reoving &ee#s)
The energy to #o this coes $ro t&o sources:
7)6 "ood ' $arers use energy to #o &ork on the $ar) The energy $or this coes
$ro the $oo# that they eat)
2)6 "ossil fuels ' 8ars have %ecoe echanise# an# so any #i$$erent
achines are use# to plough the crops( transport aterials an# #istri%ute
pestici#es) The energy that po&ers these achines coes $ro $ossil $uels)
Productivity
Pro#uctivity in natural ecosystes is relatively lo&
Energy input in agricultural ecosystes reoves liiting $actors to iprove
pro#uctivity
Cther species are reove# to re#uce copetition $or light an# other nutrients
8ertiliser is a##e# to the soil to re#uce the liiting $actor o$ nitrate concentration on
gro&th)
Section 5.5 'emical and .iological control o)
agricultural pests
*hat are pests and pesticides5
A pest is an organis that copetes &ith huans $or $oo#3space
Pesticides are poisonous cheicals that kill pests
;er%ici#es kill plants( insectici#es kill insects( $ungici#es kill $ungi( etc
An e$$ective pestici#e shoul#:
Be specific ' only kills the organis it is #irecte# at) +houl# not kill huans(
natural pre#ators o$ the pest( earth&ors( an# to pollinators such as %ees
Biodegrade ' once applie# shoul# %reak #o&n into harless olecules)
Be cost effecti#e ' pestici#es can only %e use# $or a liite# aount o$ tie
until the pest #evelops resistance
Not accumulate ' #oes not %uil# up in parts o$ an organis or $oo# chain
Biological control
Uses other organiss an# #oes not era#icate the pest %ut siply controls it)
-$ the pest &as re#uce# to such an e/tent the pre#ator &oul# starve an# there$ore #ie
The surviving pest &oul# %e a%le to then ultiply rapi#ly
,isa#vantages o$ %iological control inclu#e:
Acts ore slo&ly( interval o$ tie %et&een intro#ucing the %iological control
an# actually seeing its e$$ect
The control organis its sel$ ay %ecoe a pest
A#vantages inclu#e:
Pests #o not %ecoe resistant
Mery speci$ic( an# cost e$$ective seeing as the organis can repro#uce itsel$
+ntegrated pest ! control systems
This uses all $ors o$ pest control &ith the ai is to #eterine an accepte# level o$
the pest rather than trying to era#icate it &hich is costly an# counterpro#uctive)
<hoosing anial3plant varieties that are as pest resilient as possi%le
*anaging the environent an# ensuring there are near%y ha%itats $or
pre#ators
Regulating the crops so early action can %e taken
Reoving the pest echanically 5%y han#6
Using %iological agents i$ necessary
Using pestici#es as a last resort
Ho( controlling pests effecti#ely increases producti#ity
Pests copete &ith the crop $or things such as light( an# nutrients an# so is a liiting
$actor) -n a##ition to this( soe pests ay copete &ith huans %y eating the crop)
There is a con$lict o$ interest since $arers have to provi#e cheap $oo# to earn a living
&hilst
Section 5.! Intensive rearing o) domestic livestoc,
+ntensi#e rearing and energy con#ersion
As you ove #o&n a $oo# chain( energy is gra#ually lost to respiratory losses
This is %ecause in aals( the rate o$ respiration high since the organis nee#s to
aintain a high %o#y teperature as &ell as ove aroun# to avoi# pre#ators an#
catch prey) This leaves little energy to %e converte# into %ioass) To ensure that
$aring o$ anials is e$$icient( respiratory losses ust %e #ecrease#) This can %e #one
as $ollo&s:
*oveent is restricte# so little energy is lost in uscle contraction
The environent can %e kept &ar so less energy is re.uire# to aintain a
high %o#y teperature
!utrition is care$ully controlle# to ensure organiss receive the optiu
aount an# type o$ $oo# so that there is a/iu gro&th an# little &astage
Pre#ators are e/clu#e# an# so there is no loss to other organiss
Cther eans ay also inclu#e:
selectively %ree#ing anials that are ore e$$icient in converting the $oo# they
eat into %ioass
Using horones to increase gro&th rate
Section !.1 %'e car.on cycle
!utrients ust %e recycle# or theyN# run out
There is usually a $airly siple se.uence to a nutrient cycle:
The nutrient is taken up %y the pro#ucers as siple inorganic olecules
The olecule is incorporate# into ore cople/ olecules &ithin the
pro#ucer
=hen the pro#ucer is eaten( the nutrient passes into consuers
-t then passes through the $oo# chain
=hen the organis #ies( its ore cople/ olecules are %roken #o&n %ack
into siple olecules %y sapro%iotic organiss)
Mariations in the rates o$ respiration an# teperature give rise to %rie$ $luctuations o$
o/ygen an# car%on #io/i#e in the air)
<C
2
concentration has #raatically increase# in recent years) This is possi%le #ue to:
The co%ustion o$ $ossil $uels( such as coal( oil an# gas &hich releases previously
locke# up car%on
,e$orestation ' release# large aount o$ photosynthesising %ioass that can reove
<C
2
the air)
The sea allo&s $or large aounts o$ <C
2
$ro the air to #issolve thus lo&ering the
concentration)
=hen the reverse is true( the sea &ill release <C
2
Section !.2 0 %'e green'ouse e))ect and glo.al
/arming
=hen solar ra#iation reaches the earth(
soe is re$lecte# %ack into space(
soe is a%sor%e# %y the atosphere
an# soe reaches the earth)
The ra#iation that reaches the earth is
a%sor%e#( an# reeitte# %ack into
space) ;o&ever( soe o$ this
ra#iation is a%sor%e# %y clou#s an#
greenhouse gases that &ill re$lect the ra#iation %ack to earth) This causes a heating
e$$ect kno&n as the greenhouse e$$ect
;reenhouse gases
C6
7
- Responsi%le $or appro/) @A ' FA? o$ glo%al &aring
Reains in the atosphere $or O7AA years
-ts increase is ainly #ue to huan activity 5%urning $ossil $uels6
3ethane - Reains in the atosphere $or P 7A years
Pro#uce# &hen icroorganiss %reak#o&n the organic olecules o$ &hich other
organiss are a#e 5#ecoposers3intestinal #&ellers6
;lobal (arming
The ean average teperature increase# %y A)E? since 7IAA
The earth has al&ays sho&n perio#ic $luctuation in teperature so &e cannot say $or
certain that huan activity is to %lae
=hat &e can say ho&ever is that the atospheric levels o$ car%on #io/i#e have
increase# since the start o$ the in#ustrial revolution an# that these see to %e linke#
&ith increasing teperature
Consequences of global (arming
A$$ects the niches availa%le in a counity( lea#ing to an alteration in the #istri%ution
o$ species
*elting o$ polar ice caps an# there$ore increasing sea levels
;igh teperature ay lea# to crop $ail
Benefits ' increase# rate o$ photosynthesis( greater rain $all( possi%le t&ice a year
harvest
Section !.3 %'e nitrogen cycle
Plants take up nitrates
5!C
:
-
6 via active transport
since they are oving
against a concentration
gra#ient) There are $our
ain stages o$ the nitrogen
cycle:
7)6 Aoni$ication
2)6 !itri$ication
:)6 !itrogen $i/ation
:)6 ,enitri$ication
Ammonification
Pro#uction o$ aonia $ro organic aoniu containing copoun#s
+apro%iotic %acteria $ee# on the aterials releasing aonia &hich converts to
aoniu in the soil
Nitrification
!itri$ication is carrie# out %y saprophytic %acteria in the soil) They convert
aoniu ions into nitrite ions 5!C
2
-
6( an# then into nitrate ions 5!C
:
-
6)
C/ygen is re.uire# $or nitri$ication an# so oil is kept aerate# %y $arers to increase
pro#uctivity
Nitrogen fi&ation
The process %y &hich nitrogen gas is converte# into nitrogen containing copoun#s
The ost coon $ors o$ nitrogen $i/ation is carrie# out %y either $ree-living
%acteria $oun# in the soil( or utualistic %acteria( $oun# on the no#ules o$ plant roots
"ree li#ing bacteria ! Re#uces gaseous nitrogen into aonia( &hich they then use
to anu$acture aino aci#s) !itrogen rich copoun#s are release# &hen they #ie
3utualistic nitrogen9fi&ing bacteria ' The %acteria on the no#ules re.uire
car%ohy#rates $ro the plant an# in turn they provi#e the plant &ith aino aci#s
4enitrification
=hen there is little o/ygen present in soil( there are $e&er aero%ically respiring
nitrogen $i/ing3nitri$ying %acteria an# ore #enitri$ying anaero%ically respiring
%acteria) There #enitri$ying %acteria convert soil nitrates into gaseous nitrogen)
Section !.4 1se o) natural and arti)icial )ertilisers
)he need for fertilisers
All plants nee# ineral ions( especially nitrogen( $ro the soil)
+peci$ic areas o$ lan# are o$ten use# to gro& crops
=hen crops are gro&n( the
plants use up the nitrogen
containing copoun#s in
the soil to create aino
aci#s an# proteins)
!orally nitrogen
containing copoun#s are
recycle# as the plant &ill
#ie an# %e %roken #o&n %y
saprophytic %acteria
;o&ever( in $aring the
plants are harveste# an# are
there$ore not replace#
The aount o$ nitrates in
the soil there$ore #ecreases(
an# acts as a liiting $actor on the crop gro&th
To o$$set the loss o$ inerals( $ertilisers are use# to replace &hat is lost
Natural ! consists o$ #ecaying3#ea# organiss as &ell as anial &aste) 5yuckQ6
Artificial ' inerals o%taine# $ro rocks an# stu$$) <opoun#s containing the three
eleents( nitrogen( phosphorous an# potassiu are alost al&ays present in arti$icial
$ertilisers)
-t is iportant that not too uch $ertiliser is use# as this &ill no longer increases
pro#uctivity) This is %ecause the rate o$ gro&th ay %e liite# %y other $actors such
as &ater an# light
Ho( fertilisers increase producti#ity
!itrogen is nee# to ake proteins an# ,!A
=here there are ore nitrates availa%le( plants are likely to #evelop earlier( gro&
.uicker an# taller an# cover a greater area &ith their leaves) This there$ore increases
the rate o$ photosynthesis an# also increases pro#uctivity)
Arti$icial $ertilisers have %een very %ene$icial in provi#ing cheaper $oo#)
Section !.5 #nvironmental conse2uences o) using
)ertilisers
)he effects of nitrogen fertilisers
!itrogen containing $ertilisers can have #etriental a$$ects such as:
Reduced species di#ersity ! nitrogen $avours the gro&th o$ rapi#ly gro&ing species
such as grasses( nettles an# &ee#s) +oe species gro& .uickly an# out copete the
others)
eaching ! lea#s to pollution o$ &atercourses
Eutrophication ! cause# %y leaching o$ $ertilisers into &atercourses
eaching
Rain &ater can #issolve solu%le nitrates an# carry the #eeper into the soil
%eyon# the reach o$ plant roots)
The nitrates ay then %e a%le to $in# there &ay to &ater courses an# into &ater
that is use# $or huan consuption)
;igh levels o$ nitrates in &ater can cause ine$$icient transport o$ o/ygen to the
%rain)
Eutrophication
Eutrophication consists o$ the $ollo&ing se.uence o$ events:
-n ost lakes( there are very $e& nitrates an# so this is liiting $actor on plant3algae
gro&th
!itrate levels increase #ue to leaching( there is no longer a liiting $actor( an# so
plants3algae %oth gro& e/ponentially
Algae gro& an# cover the upper layers o$ the &ater) This is calle# Jalgae %looK)
The algae on the top o$ the &ater( a%sor%s sunlight( preventing it $ro reaching the
%otto o$ the lake)
Light %ecoes a liiting $actor $or plants3algae at the %otto o$ the lake an# so they
#ie
+aprophytic algae can no& gro& e/ponentially $ee#ing on the #ecaying plant atter
*ore anaero%ic saprophytic %acteria( ore o/ygen use# up an# ore nitrates
pro#uce# $ro #ecaying organiss)
C/ygen is a liiting $actor $or aero%ic organiss such as $ish an# so they eventually
#ie)
=ithout any aero%ically respiring organiss( anaero%ically respiring organiss no
long have to copete an# so they %egin to repro#uce e/ponentially)
Anaero%ic organiss $urther %reak#o&n other #ea# aterial thus pro#ucing ore
nitrates as &ell as soe to/ic &astes such as( hy#rogen sulphi#e &hich akes the
&ater putri#)
Section 3.1 Populations and #cosystems
+uccession is the ter given to #escri%e the changes that take place &ithin an
ecosyste
Barren lan# such as %are rock can %e $ore# %y the eruption o$ a volcano or a glacier
retreating)
The $irst stage o$ succession is the colonisation o$ a pioneer species)
Pioneer species ten# to have a#aptations such as:
a tolerance to e/tree con#itions
The a%ility to $i/ nitrogen $ro the air
A%ility to photosynthesis light)
<an easily #isperse see#s across vast #istances
Rapi# gerination o$ see#s
At each stage o$ succession a certain type o$ species can %e i#enti$ie# &hich &ill
change the environent aking it less hostile)
A clia/ counity consists o$ anials an# plants &hich have esta%lishe#
e.uili%riu) There are $e& i$ any ne& species replacing those &hich have alrea#y
%een esta%lishe#)
Pioneer species change the abiotic environent %y #ying an# releasing nutrients such
as nitrates $or pro#uction o$ aino aci#s an# proteins $or the organiss that $ollo&)
*osses are typically the ne/t stage o$ succession( $ollo&e# %y $erns)
The gro&th o$ osses an# grass provi#es ha%itats $or insects an# anials
=ithin a clia/ counity there is o$ten a #oinant anial an# plants species)
,uring succession there are a nu%er o$ coon $eatures such as:
En#ironment becomes less hostile ' soil $ors( nutrients are ore plenti$ul(
plants provi#e shelter $ro &in#
2reater nu%er o$ ha%itats
Biodi#ersity increases ' ;a%itats %ecoe occupie# %y species) This is sho&n
in the early stages o$ succession) At i# succession %io#iversity is at its peak)
- a clia/ counity ho&ever( the #oinant species can outcopete any
other species an# so %io#iversity #ecreases)
*ore cople/ $oo# &e%s #ue to high species #iversity an# there$ore increase#
%ioass - this also takes place at i# succession)
Section 3.2 onservation o) 'a.itats
*hat is conser#ation5
Priary
colonisers
e)g) lichen
+econ#ary
colonisers
e)g) osses
Tertiary
colonisers
e)g) grasses
+cru%lan#
e)g scru%s
sall trees
<lia/
e)g)
&oo#lan#
Barren lan#
Lan# altere# e)g) #ue to $ire
<onservation is the act o$ anaging the earths resources in such a &ay to ake
a/iu use o$ the in the $uture)
The ain reasons $or conservation are:
Ethical ' Cther species shoul# %e allo&e# to coe/ist) Respect $or living things is
pre$era%le to #isregar# $or the)
Economic ' Living organiss posses a giant gene pool &ith a capacity to pro#uce
illions o$ su%stances
Cultural and aesthetic ' They a## variety to every #ay li$e
Conser#ing habitats by managing succession
<lia/ counities reach their current state %y un#ergoing a series o$ successive
changes)
+oe o$ the organiss at previous stages are no longer present in the clia/
counity
They ay have %een out copete# %y other species( or their ha%itat is no longer
availa%le)
2ra9ing %y sheep can prevent a clia/ counity $oring since the see#lings o$
trees can not gerinate
-$ the $actor that is preventing succession taking place is reove#( then succession
&ill continue until it reaches its clia/ counity
Section 4.1 Studying in'eritance
;enotype and phenotype
2enotype is the genetic constitution o$ an organis that #escri%es all the alleles that
an organis contains
The genotype sets the liits to &hich characteristics can vary
Any change to the genotype is calle# a utation) This &ill %e passe# on to the ne/t
generation i$ it is present in the gaetes
A phenotype is an on o%serva%le characteristic o$ an organis)
A phenotype &ill vary #epen#ing on the genotype an# the environental con#itions)
A change to the phenotype is calle# a o#i$ication
;enes and alleles
A gene is a portion o$ ,!A a#e up o$ a particular se.uence o$ nucleoti#e %ases that
&ill relate to a certain characteristic
The gene &ill #eterine the proteins an# copoun#s pro#uce#
The position o$ a gene on a chroosoe is calle# its locus
An allele is one o$ the #i$$erent $ors o$ a gene
Cnly one allele o$ a gene can occur at the locus o$ any one chroosoe
-n se/ually repro#ucing organiss( hoologous chroosoe pairs are $oun#
-$ %oth the alleles o$ a gene are the sae( the organiss is sai# to %e hoo9ygous
-$ %oth alleles are #i$$erent( the
organiss is hetero9ygous
The allele o$ the hetero9ygote that
e/presses its sel$ is sai# to %e
#oinant( &hile the other that is not
e/presse# &hen hetero9ygous is
recessive
=hen there are t&o alleles that are
%oth either #oinant or recessive( the
organiss is sai# to %e hoo9ygous
#oinant or hoo9ygous recessive
=hen %oth alleles contri%ute to the
phenotype( they are sai# to %e co-
#oinant
=hen there are t&o or ore allelic $ors( an organis is sai# to have ultiple alleles
$or a character
Section 4.2 5ono'y.rid in'eritance
Representing genetic crosses
Punnet s.uares such as this one are use# to
#eterine &hat the genotypes o$ o$$spring
&ill like as &ell as the pro%a%ility o$
pro#ucing o$$spring &ith certain
genotypes)
+nheritance of pod colour in peas
*onohy%ri# inheritance( is the inheritance o$ a single gene
<onsi#er pea po#s &hich coe in t&o #i$$erent colours: green an# yello&
=hen pea po#s are %re# only &ith one another until they consistently pro#uce green
coloure# o$$spring( they are sai# to %e pure %re#)
The organiss in pure %ree#ing are sai# to %e hoo9ygous
-$ pure %ree#ing green po#s are crosse# &ith pure %ree#ing yello& po#s( then all o$
the o$$spring are re$erre# to as the J$irst $ilialK or J87K generation)
87 generations are al&ays hetero9ygous
=hen you %ree# pure %re# organiss &ith one another you can then #e#uce &hich
alleles are #oinant an# &hich are recessive
8or e/aple pure %re# yello& pea po#s %re# &ith green pea po#s &ill only pro#uce
green pea po#s) This is eans that all o$ the $7 generation have a yello& allele an# a
green allele) 8ro this it is clear that the green ust %e #oinant an# the yello&
recessive
Bree#ing t&o 87 generations &ill pro#uce an 82 generation) -n the 82 generation
there &ill ost likely %e a ratio o$ 7:2:7 &here the $irst one ay %e hoo9ygous
#oinant( the 2 hetero9ygous an# the other 7( hoo9ygous recessive)
2 g
2 22 2g
2 22 2g
Section 4.3 se6 in'eritance and se6 lin,age
8eales have RR chroosoes &hereas ales have RD
Se& inheritance in humans
*ales pro#uce %oth R an# D chroosoes
-t is &hich chroosoe that co%ines &ith the $eale gaete that #eterines the se/
o$ the o$$spring
Se& lin2age ! haemophilia
Any gene carrie# on the R or D chroosoe is sai# to %e se/ linke#
The R chroosoe is uch longer than the D( this eans that ost o$ the R
chroosoe #oesnNt have an e.uivalent portion on the D chroosoe
This eans that recessive alleles $oun# on this portion o$ the R chroosoe &ill %e
ore likely to %e e/presse#0 %ecause o$ this recessive phenotypes are ore likely to
%e present in en)
;aeophilia is $or this reason alost entirely only present in en an# not &oen
*ales can only o%tain the #isease $ro their other as they #o not receive a D
chroosoe $ro the $ather
*ales cannot pass the #isease on to their sons %ut they can to their #aughters
Pedigree charts
A use$ul &ay to trace the inheritance o$ se/ ' linke# characters is &ith a pe#igree
chart) -n these:
A $eale is represente# %y a s.uare
A ale is represente# a circle
+ha#ing &ithin the shape represents the presence o$ a certain character
A #ot &ithin a circle in#icate# a noral phenotype
Section 4.4 & 4.5 o dominance and multiple
alleles & 'ardy 7ein.erg
Co ! dominance ' %oth alleles are e.ually #oinant
3ultiple alleles 9 &hen there are ore than 2 alleles( o$ &hich only t&o ay %e
present in the loci o$ an in#ivi#ualNs hoologous chroosoes
Co ! dominance
Both alleles are e/presse# in the phenotype
The snap #ragon plant is a coon e/aple o$ co ' #oinance) This is sho&n &hen
you o%serve ho& the plant can %e o$ three #i$$erent colours( re# pink an# &hite) -$ the
alleles &ere not co ' #oinant only re# a &hite plants &oul# %e a%le to %e pro#uce#
-$ a snap#ragon &ith re# $lo&ers is cross &ith a snap #ragon &ith &hite $lo&ers the
o$$spring &ill have pink $lo&ers
<rossing t&o pink $lo&ere# snap #ragon plants &ill pro#uce @A? pink $lo&ere# snap
#ragons( 2@? &hite $lo&ere# snap #ragons an# 2@? re# $lo&ere# snap #ragons
3ultiple alleles
+oeties a gene can have any #i$$erent alleles) An e/aple o$ this is the huan
ABC %loo# groups
Although there are three #i$$erent alleles $or the %loo# groups( only t&o can %e
present in an organis at any one tie
3ultiple alleles and dominance hierarchy
=hen there are ultiple alleles( soe are ore likely to %e ore #oinant than
others) They are they then arrange# in a hierarchy accor#ing to &hich alleles they are
#oinant over)
All the genes o$ all the people in a population is calle# the gene pool
The nu%er o$ ties an allele occurs in a population is calle# the allelic $re.uency
Hardy *einberg principle
*atheatical o#el that is use# to calculate allelic $re.uency
Let A L p an# a L .) -n a population that has >ust t&o alleles( p B . L 7)AA 57AA?6
As there are only 4 possi%le co%inations o$ A an# a 5AA( Aa( aA an# aa6 then(
p
2
B2p.B.
2
L 7)AA) This can %e use# to calculate allelic $re.uencies provi#e# that:
!o utations arise
The population is isolate 5no iigration eigration6
There is no selective %ree#ing
The population is large
*ating &ithin the population is ran#o
Section 4.! Selection
!ot all alleles are e.ually likely to %e passe# on since soe organiss ay have
characteristics that iprove their chances o$ survival
Reproducti#e success and allelic frequency
The #i$$erence %et&een the repro#uctive success o$ in#ivi#uals a$$ects the allelic
$re.uency
All organiss pro#uce ore o$$spring than can %e supporte# %y the supply o$ $oo#(
light( inerals etc
,espite too any o$$spring( populations stay the sae
This eans there is copetition %et&een e%ers o$ the sae species to survive
There &ill %e a gene pool &ithin any population
+oe in#ivi#uals &ill contain certain alleles that allo& the to %e %etter a%le to survive
They are there$ore ore likely to pro#uce o$$spring
The alleles that give the %est copetitive a#vantage are ost likely to %e passe# on
Cver years the nu%er o$ in#ivi#uals &ith the a#vantageous alleles &ill increase
=hat is a#vantageous #epen#s upon the environental con#itions
)ypes of selection
,epen#ing on &hich characteristics are $avoura%le( selection &ill pro#uce a nu%er
o$ #i$$erent results)
+election ay $avour certain in#ivi#uals that vary in one #irection $ro the ean
+election ay $avour average in#ivi#uals that have characteristics closer to the ean
,irectional selection
ost o$ten occurs &hen
there has %een a change
in the environental
con#itions
+ta%ilising selection
o$ten takes place &here
the environental
con#itions have
reaine# the sae) An
e/aple &oul# %e
&here teperature
$luctuates throughout
the year &here
organiss at each
e/tree &ill ost
likely survive)
Section 4.3 Speciation
+peciation is the evolution o$ a ne& species $ro an e/isting species
Crganiss &ithin the sae population inter%ree# &ith one another an# so share the
sae gene pool
-$ the population is split( the $lo& o$ alleles &ill not reain the sae)
Each population ay $ace #i$$erent environental con#itions an# so #i$$erent alleles
&ill %e $avoure#( in tie the $re.uency o$ the alleles in each species ay %e coe so
#i$$erent that they can no longer inter%ree# an# are e$$ectively t&o #i$$erent species
;eographical isolation
Cccurs &hen physical %arriers
prevent t&o populations $ro
%ree#ing &ith one another
-agine species R living in a
rain$orest:
The in#ivi#uals o$ species R
$or a single gene pool an# can
$reely inter%ree#
<liate changes over any
years ay lea# to #rier
con#itions that separate the
species in to t&o #i$$erent
populations
8urther cliate changes ay
cause one region to %e col#er
an# &etter &hilst the other
%ecoes &arer an# #rier
-n the $irst region( phenotypes
that allo& in#ivi#uals to %e
%etter suite# $or col#er an#
&etter con#itions are $avoure#
=hereas the opposite is true $or
the secon# region
The type an# $re.uency o$ the
alleles in the gene pools ay
#i$$er over tie until they
%ecoe so #i$$erent that they are
no& in e$$ect #i$$erent species)
-$ the species &ere reunite#( they &oul# no longer %e a%le to inter%ree#