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Service Training

MALAGA
CAT Diesel Engines
Thorben
November 1997
CHAPTER : Introduction
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
2 Page:
Caterpillar produces engines for various applications:
EPG
MARINE
INDUSTRIAL
CAPTIVE
The engines are divided in three categories:
Small engines (3000 - 3300)
Medium engines (3400 - 3500)
Large engines (3600 - MAK)
CHAPTER : Introduction
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
3 Page:
Caterpillar engines can be divided in two types:
IN-LINE ENGINES
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Those two types of engines are running on two different
types of fuel:
GAS DIESEL
CHAPTER : Introduction
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
4 Page:
If you know one, you know them all !
The difference from one engine to another is the fuel
system.
All other systems (cooling , lubrication , air) are fitted to
the different fuel systems.
The fuel system is the heart of an engine. It gives the
engine its power.
CHAPTER : Engine systems
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
5 Page:
OIL
AIR INTAKE & EXHAUST
LUBRICATION
COOLING
FUEL
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
6 Page:
Air intake & exhaust
CHAPTER : Air intake systems
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
7 Page:
Natural Aspirated Turbocharged
Turbocharged Turbocharged Aftercooled
JWAC
CHAPTER : T & TA
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
8 Page:
CHAPTER : NA & ATAAC
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
9 Page:
CHAPTER : JWAC & SCAC
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
10 Page:
CHAPTER : Air intake & exhaus
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
11 Page:
The use of a turbocharger is to get more power out of an
engine.
More air in the cylinder...
More fuel can be burned...
More horsepower output !
Aftercooling is an addition to turbocharging - this
increases the horsepower again !!
CHAPTER : 4-stroke system
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
12 Page:
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
13 Page:
OIL
Lubrication system
CHAPTER : Lub. system functions
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
14 Page:
An engine oil serves 5 vital functions in a modern diesel
engine:
1. Lubricates friction surfaces by forming a fluid film
2. Cools internal engine parts by absorbing heat.
3. Cleans the engine by flushing away dirt and wear
particles
4. Supprts the crankshaft and bearing
5. Protects the engine from harmfull acids, rust and
deposits
CHAPTER : Lubrication
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
15 Page:
Viscosity
Internal resistance felt as one layer of liquid moves relative
to another layer - ie: internal liquid friction.
SAE 20 weight 20 at 100C (212F)
SAE 20W weight 20 at -18C (0F)
SAE 20W - 30 weight 20 at -18C (0F)
&
weight 30 at 100C (212F)
CHAPTER : External & internal comp.
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
16 Page:
CHAPTER : Cross drillings & camshaft lub.
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
17 Page:
CHAPTER : Oil flow 3406 engine
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
18 Page:
CHAPTER : Oil pressure relief valve
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
19 Page:
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
20 Page:
Cooling system
CHAPTER : Heat transfer
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
21 Page:
Fuel burning temperature can reach 1927C (3500F).
CHAPTER : Heat sources
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
22 Page:
Other heat gernerating sources:
- transmission oil coolers
- hydraulic oil coolers
- aftercoolers
- water-cooled exhaust manifolds
- water-cooled turbocharger shields and
housings
- marine gear oil coolers
- torque converter / retarder coolers
CHAPTER : Systems & components
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
23 Page:
Cooling systems:
- radiator
- keel cooler
- shunt cooling
- heat exchanger cooling
Basic components:
- radiator
- fan
- coolant
- water pump
- engine oil cooler
- water temperature regulator
- pressure cap
CHAPTER : Keel/shunt/heat ex. system
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
24 Page:
CHAPTER : Coolant flow
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
25 Page:
Coolant flow:
water pump
oil cooler
cylinder block
cylinder head
(radiator)
water pump
CHAPTER : Pressure cap
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
26 Page:
CHAPTER : Altitude compensation
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
27 Page:
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
28 Page:
Fuel system
CHAPTER : CAT fuel systems
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
Pump & lines - Mul ti pl e pl unger pump
- Hi gh pressure fuel l i nes
- I nj ect i on nozzl es
- Li mi t ed i nj ect i on pressure (18. 000 PSI )*
- Li mi t ed i nj ect i on t i mi ng
- Li mi t ed i nj ect i on rat e capabi l i t i es
MUI - Mai nl y used on l arge engi nes to el i mi nate the need
for l ong hi gh pressure l i nes and the rel ated probl ems
i nherent wi th control l i ng pressure i n these l i nes.
- Requi res an addi ti onal cam l obe, l i fter, push rod
and rocker arm for each cyl i nder.
*Current engi ne emi ssi ons and perf ormance requi rement s demand i nj ect i on
pressure i n excess of 20.000 PSI and greater ti mi ng fl exi bi l i ty.
PEEC (Programmabl e El ectroni c Engi ne Control )
- ECM takes over of the functi ons of the mechani cal
governor.
- Fuel pump i s sti l l used.
- Throt t l e l i nkage repl aced by el ect roni c t hrot t l e.
- Ai r f uel rat i o cont rol el ect roni cal l y cont rol l ed.
- Engi ne i s equi pped wi t h vari ous sensors f or moni t ori ng.
EUI / MEUI (Mechani cal El ectroni c Uni t Inj ectors)
- Fuel i s metered el ectroni cal l y by means of a sol enoi d
operated poppet val ve.
- System sti l l requi res a mechani cal val ve trai n to
actuate the pl unger.
(Mechani cal l y act uat ed , el ect roni cal l y cont rol l ed)
- Fuel transfer pump repl aces the "pump & l i nes".
HEUI (Hydraul i c El ect roni c Uni t Inj ectors)
- Pl unger movement i s not l i mi ted to speed or durati on
of a cam l obe.
- Pl unger speed i s a functi on of actuati on pressure
versus fuel pumpi ng resi stance.
(Hydraul i cal l y act uat ed , el ect roni cal l y cont rol l ed)
- Inj ecti on pressure i s +20.000 PSI
CHAPTER : Fuel pumps (pump & lines)
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
30 Page:
CHAPTER : System components
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
31 Page:
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TRANSFER PUMP
FUEL FILTER
WATER
SEPARATOR
LIFT PUMP
PRESSURE
REGULATOR
INJECTOR
ROTOR
DELIVERY
VALVE
PLUNGERS
METERING
VALVE
AUTOMATIC
ADVANCE
GOVERNOR
GOVERNOR
SPRING
RETURN
CHECK
VALVE
HOUSING LUBE
FUEL TANK
ORIFICE
CHECK VALVE
VENT
WIRE
HEAD
PASSAGE
CHAPTER : Lift pump
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
33 Page:
CHAPTER : Lift pump operation
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
34 Page:
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CAM
FUEL RETURN
CHECK VALVE
METERING VALVE
FUEL OUTLET
PRESSURE
REGULATOR
TRANSFER
PUMP
DELIVERY
VALVE
ROTOR
ORIFICE CHECK
VALVE
SHOE
AUTOMATIC ADVANCE
MECHANISM
GOVERNOR
WEIGHTS
PISTON
ROLLER
GOVERNOR
SPRING
CHAPTER : Internal tranfer pump
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
36 Page:
CHAPTER : Metering valve
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
37 Page:
CHAPTER : Charging passages
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
38 Page:
CHAPTER : Pumping chambers
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
39 Page:
CHAPTER : Pumping chambers
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
40 Page:
CHAPTER : Fuel delivery to injectors
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
41 Page:
CHAPTER : Delivery valve
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
42 Page:
CHAPTER : Injection cycle review
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
43 Page:
CHAPTER : Timing advance
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
44 Page:
CHAPTER : Governor principle
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
45 Page:
CHAPTER : Plunger operation
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
46 Page:
CHAPTER : Standadyne governor
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
47 Page:
CHAPTER : Throttle lever operation
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
48 Page:
CHAPTER : Fuel Ratio Control (FRC)
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
49 Page:
CHAPTER : Shut off solenoid
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
50 Page:
Shut off solenoidCHAPTER :
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
51 Page:
CHAPTER : MUI fuel system
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
52 Page:
Filter
change
valve
Relief valve
Hand
priming
pump
Check
valve
Unit
injector
Pressure
relief
valve
Secondary
fuel filter
elements
Secondary
fuel filter
elements
Main
fuel
pump
Main
fuel tank
Primary
Fuel filters
Check
valve
Check
valve
Check
valve
Check
valve
CHAPTER : Mechanical Unit Injector
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
53 Page:
CHAPTER : MUI cylinder head
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
54 Page:
CHAPTER : Electronic engines
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
55 Page:
Input
Circuit
Power
Circuit
Output
Circuit
- From Battery
( 8vdc Minimum )
- To Rack And Lamps
- To Sensors
- Signals From Sensor
- Filter Electrical Noise
- Protect Voltage Levels
CHAPTER : System components (PEEC)
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
56 Page:
Eng Speed Sensor
Shutoff Solenoid
Rack Position Sensor
Rack BTM
Atmospheric Pressure
Sensor
Boost Pressure
Sensor
Oil Pressure
Sensor
Coolant Temp
Sensor
Coolant
Level
Sensor
Customer
Connector
Eng Data Link
Connector
E C M
P7 J7
P15 J15
P8 J8
P9 J9
P12 J12
P17
P14 J14
J13
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BTM
FSOS
RPS
PRIMING
PUMP
ECM
TRANSFER PUMP
INJECTOR
TANK
PRIMARY
FILTER
CHECK
VALVE
SECONDARY
FILTER
CHAPTER : PEEC fuel rack
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
58 Page:
SHUTOFF SOLEINOID
B T M
FUEL RACK
SERVO
FUEL ON
PWM
RACK POSITION SENSOR
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ELECTRONIC
GOVERNOR
RACK POSITION SENSOR
RACK
CONTROL
TORQUE
MAPS
FRC
MAPS
RACK
BTM
SPEED SENSOR
BOOST PRESS. SENSOR
DESIRED SPEED
ACTUAL SPEED
RATED
RACK
LIMIT
FRC
RACK
LIMIT
ACTUAL RACK POSITION
RACK POSITION SENSOR
THROTTLE
POSITION
SENSOR
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ELECTRONIC UNIT
INJECTOR
12V
TIMING CALIBRATION SENSOR
ELECTRONIC
CONTROL MODULE
(ECM)
ENGINE
HARNESS
SPEED/TIMING SENSOR
COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
TURBO OUTLET PRESSURE SENSOR
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SENSOR
FUEL TEMPERATURE SENSOR
MACHINE
HARNESS
GROUND
STUD
MAIN
POWER RELAY
KEY
SWITCH
15 AMP
BREAKER
DATA LINK
CONNECTOR
ET/ECAP
DATA LINK
THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR
CHECK ENGINE LAMP
LAMP FLASH SWITCH
TRANSMISSION PRESSURE SWITCHES
ADEM II
CONTROL
3176B EUI COMPONENT DIAGRAM
CHALLENGER 75C/85C
J1 P1
CONNECTOR
J2 P2
CHAPTER : Fuel system (EUI)
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
61 Page:
MECHANICALY ACTUATED ELECTRONICAL CONTROLED
Electronic
Unit
Injector
FILTER
E C M
PUMP
FUEL
TANK
RELIEF
VALVE
CHAPTER : Fuel injection
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
62 Page:
1
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4
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11
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11
12
1. Solenoid Connection
2. Solenoid Valve Assem
3. Spring
4. Valve
5. Plunger
6. Barrel
7. Seal
8. Seal
9. Spring
10. Spacer
11. Body
12. Check
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High Pressure
Oil Pump
HIGH PRESSURE OIL MANIFOLD
Fuel Return Line
ECM
Fuel
Filter
Fuel
Trans
Pump
Fuel Tank
Oil
Pump
Oi
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Oil
Cooler
Oil
Filter
Vehicle
System
Engine System
Regulator
Pressure
Control
Valve
40 to 210 BAR
LOW PRESSURE 3 BAR
CHAPTER : HEUI fuel system
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
64 Page:
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CHAPTER : HEUI injector
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
65 Page:
BARREL
PISTON
VALVE
FUEL INLET
CHECK VALVE
PIN
SPACER
SLEEVE
VALVE BODY
CHECK
SHIM
ADAPTER
SPACER
ARMATURE
SOLENOID
WASHER
PLUNGER
SLEEVE
LOWER FUEL SEAL
UPPER FUEL SEAL
NOZZLE
CHAPTER : Injection
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
66 Page:
CHAPTER : Poppet valve open
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
67 Page:
ARMATURE
SCREW
POPPET
SPRING
CHAPTER : Drain
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
68 Page:
CHAPTER : Poppet valve closed
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
69 Page:
INLET
VALVE SEAT
SOLENOID
POPPET VALVE
ARMATURE
EXHAUST
VALVE SEAT
CHAPTER : Nozzle group
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
70 Page:
FUEL
ATOMIZATION
NOZZLE GROUP
CHECK VALVE
REVERSE FLOW
CHECK VALVE
CHAPTER : Injection cycle
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
71 Page:
CROSS SECTION
OF PLUNGER
START OF INJECTION PRESSURE DROP
INJECTION
RATE
START OF
INJECTION
DURATION
FINAL
PRESSURE INCREASE
TIME (MILLISECONDS)
END OF
INJECTION
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PRIMING PORT
ORIFICE
RESERVOIR
SWASHPLATE
TRANSFER PUMP
COMPENSATOR
VALVE
VALVE BASE
DRAIN PASSAGE
CHAPTER : Injection pressure
CAT DIESEL ENGINES
73 Page:
IDLE
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MECHANICALLY ACTUATED
FUEL SYSTEM
H E U I
ENGINE SPEED