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# EEM1016 Engineering Mathematics I: Vector Algebra

## EEM1016 Engineering Mathematics I

Solution - Vector Algebra
1) (a)
3 7 + = + + a b i j k
, 9 1 49 59 + = + + = a b .

## vector unit ara!!e! to the + a b is ( )

1
3 7
59
+ + i j k
.
(") # 0 1# 14 = + + = a b ,
k - j - i
k j i
b a
\$ \$
5
\$
4
4 0 1
3 1 #
\$ \$ \$
= =
.
(c) %"serve that
# 1 3
cos 1 0 4 15
3 1 #
= = =

a b c a b c

15 15
cos 0.3706
14 117
= = =
a b c

( )
1 0
cos 0.3701 6& 14

= =
.
(') (et = d b c
\$
ro) ro) * * cos

= =
b c d
a a a d (+here
\$
* *

= =

d b c
d
d b c
)

( )
\$
1
cos = a d d
d

( )
( )
#
#
15
4 10
117

=

= +
d
a d
d
b c
a b c
b c
i j k
.
(e) ,o!ume o- ara!!eie' having
a
, b an'
c
as e'ges
= a b c
unit
3
. 15 unit
3
.
(-) (et
# 4 = + u i j k
.
/hen
, u a
an'
c
!ie in a !ane

,o!ume . 0
( )
# 4
# 1 3 0
3 1 #

= =

u a c
6 = .
#) (a) 1 1 # = + = v ,
( )
#
#
# 1 # 9 3 = + + = = u
1
EEM1016 Engineering Mathematics I: Vector Algebra
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 # 1 1 0 # 3 = + + = v u
, 3 = u v
1 1 0 # #
# 1 #
= = +

i j k
v u i j k
,
# 1 # # #
1 1 0
= = +
i j k
u v i j k
( )
#
#
# # 1 3 = + + = v u ,
1 1
3
cos cos
3 #

= = =

u v
u v
45
0
3
com
#

= =
v
u v
u
v
,
)
\$ \$
(
#
3
j i v
v.v
u.v
u proj
v
+ =

=
(")
#
1 1 # 6 = + + = v ,
( ) ( )
# #
1 1 # = + = u
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1 0 # 1 3 = + + = v u
, 3 = u v
1 1 #
1 0 1
= =

i j k
v u i j k
,
1 0 1
1 1 #
= = +
i j k
u v i j k
( ) ( ) ( )
# # #
1 1 1 3 = + + = v u ,
1 1 0
3
cos cos 150
6 #

= = =

u v
u v
3
com
6

= =
v
u v
u
v
,
)
\$
#
\$ \$
(
6
3
k j i v
v.v
u.v
u proj
v
+ +

=
.
3) (a)(i)
1 1 1 # 3
# 1 1
i j k
u v i j k = =
,
/he area o- the ara!!e!ogram is
( ) ( )
# #
#
# 3 1 14 u v = + + =
(ii) ,o!ume is ( )
1 1 1
# 1 1 1
1 # 3
u v w

= =

unit
3
(")(i)
1 1 0
0 1 0
i j k
u v k = =
,
/he area o- the ara!!e!ogram is
#
1 1 u v = =
(ii) ,o!ume is ( )
1 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 1 1
u v w = =
unit
3
#
EEM1016 Engineering Mathematics I: Vector Algebra
4) (et
0
1, #, 3 , 3 7 = = + r v i k
. /he 'esire' !ine is
0
t = + r r v
0, 1, 2 . 1, #, 3 3 t 3, 0, 7
the arametric e4uations are
0 .133t, 1 . #, 2 . 337t
.
5) (a) (et
0
3, 3, 1 , # = = + + r v i j k
. /hus, the 'esire' !ine in the -orm o-
vector e4uation:
0, 1, 2 . 3, 53, 51 3 t 1,1, #
arametric e4uation:
0 . 33 t, 1 . 533 t, 2 . 513#t
.
(") (et
0
1, 3, 1 , 0 1, 1 3,1 1 1, 4, # = = + = r v
. /hus, the 'esire' !ine
in the -orm o-
vector e4uation:
0, 1, 2 . 1, 3, 51 3 t 51, 54, #
arametric e4uation:
1 , 3 4 , 1 # x t y t z t = = = +
.
/he arameter t in this case ta6es va!ues 0 1 t 7 +hen
0 t = ,
, , 1, 3, 1 x y z =
, an' +hen
1, , , 0, 1,1 t x y z = =
.
8n1 oint "et+een 8 an' 9 +i!! "e 'etermine' "1 a va!ue o- t that !ies
"et+een 0 an' 1.
Note:
I- +e use the secon' oint 9 as
0
0, 1,1 = r
, then the arametric e4uation
o- the !ine "ecomes
, , 0, 1,1 1, 4, # x y z t = +
, +ith 1 0 t 7
+hen
1, , , 1, 3, 1 t x y z = =
, an' +hen
0, , , 0, 1,1 t x y z = =
.
/hus +e see that "oth arametric e4uations 'escri"e the same !ine )oining
8 an' 9, "ut +ith 'i--erent va!ues -or the arameter t.
(c) (et
0
1,1,1 = r
. :ince the 'esire' !ine is eren'icu!ar to the !ane
30 371 5 52 .15
, it is ara!!e! to the vector
3, 7, 5 = v
. ;ence,
vector e4uation:
0, 1, 2 . 1,1,1 3 t 3, 7, 55
arametric e4uation:
1 3 , 1 7 , 1 5 x t y t z t = + = + =
(') :ince the 'esire' !ine is eren'icu!ar to
# 3 = + + u i j k
an'
5 4 3 = + + v i j k
, it is ara!!e! to
1 # 3 6 1# 6
5 4 3
= = +
i j k
u v i j k
.
(et
0
0, #, 3 = r
. /hen the 'esire' !ine is
vector e4uation:
0, 1, 2 . 0, #, 3 3 t 56,1#, 56
arametric e4uation:
0 . 56t, 1 . #31#t, 2 . 35 6t
.
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EEM1016 Engineering Mathematics I: Vector Algebra
6) /he given !ines have 'irection vector
1
1, 1, 1 = v
an'
#
3, #, 1 = v
,
resective!1. 8 vector eren'icu!ar<orthogona! to "oth
1 #
, v v an' hence to the
re4uire' !anes 'etermine' "1 the intersecting !ines is given "1
1 #
1 1 1 3 # 5
3 # 1
= = +

i j k
v v i j k
/he oints ( ) #, #,1
an' ( ) 1, 1, #
are "oth in the re4uire' !ane. =e use
( ) #, #,1
to o"tain
( ) ( ) ( ) 3 0 3# 5 # 15 # 35 2 51 . 0
30 5 #1 352 35 . 0
as the e4uation -or the !ane.
>ote: 1ou shou!' get the same ans+er i- 1ou use the secon' oint (1,51,5#).
7) /he shortest 'istance "et+een oint ( ) #,1,1
an' the !ane
0 3#1 3#2 511. 0
is
( ) ( ) ( )
# #
1 # # 1 # 1 11
5
?
3
1 # #
+ +
= =
+ +
.
&) 9ecause a norma!
n
to the re4uire' !ane is orthogona! to the vectors @A an'
@B, +e -in'
n
"1 comuting
@AC@B = n
.
@A # 1, 3 #, 0 1 1, 5,1 = + =
@B 1 1,1 #, 4 1 0, 1, 3 = + =
@AC@B . 1 5 1 16 3
0 1 3
= = +

i j k
n i j k
Dsing an1 oint in the !ane, sa1 ( ) 1, #, 1
, the e4uation o- the !ane is
( ) ( ) ( ) 16 0 1 3 1 # 2 1 0 + + =
160 31 2 #3 0 + =
9) (et
3 7 5 = + n i j k
is a norma! vector. /hus the re4uire' !ine is ara!!e! to
n

an' contains the oint ( ) #, 3,1 A
, so its arametric -orm is
0 # 3t, 1 3 7t, 2 1 5t = + = = +
>o+, su"stitute into the e4uation o- the !ane,
( ) ( ) ( ) 3 # 3t 7 3 7t 5 1 5t 134 0 + + + + =
t # =
/hen, the oint o- intersection is -oun' "1 su"stituting t # = -or 0, 1 an' 2.
( ) 0 # 3 # 4 = + =
( ) 1 3 7 # 11 = + =
4
EEM1016 Engineering Mathematics I: Vector Algebra
( ) 2 1 5 # 9 = + =
/hus, the oint o- intersection is ( ) 4,11, 9
.
Applications
1). Besu!tant -orce:
0 0 0 0
1 # 1 #
5
( cos30 cos15 ) ( sin30 sin15 )
(3.13 0.99 ) 10 N
= + +
= +
F F F i F F j
i j
\$ \$
\$ \$
0
1&
316# . 0
13 . 3
99 . 0
tan
=
= = =

x
y
!
!

=or6 'one :
5 7
(3.13 0.99 ) (100 ) 10 3.13 10 Nm "oule = + = F d i j i
\$ \$ \$
#).
/he 'is!acement vector r . 100
i
\$
350 j
\$
. /o -in' the +or6 # 'one "1 a -orce F
'uring the 'is!acement, +e nee' to mu!ti!1 the 'is!acement +ith the x5comonent
o- the -orce. /hat is the +or6 is given "1 the sca!ar ro'uct,
# . F.r . (1#.0
i
\$
370.0 j
\$
396.9
k
\$
).(100
i
\$
350 j
\$
).4.76>.m . 4.7 6Eou!e

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