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Prepared by Ms.

Nighat Noureen

Evolution of International Relations

Ancient Period (focused on Philosophical, Ethical & Historical Values,
legality and Public administration)

Contribution of Greek Philosophers

1. Socrates(469-399BC) (Greek)(ethical values);
2. Plato(427-347BC)(Greek)(idealism);
3. Aristotle (384-322BC) (Greek) (pragmatism).

Contribution of Romans
1. legality
2. Public administration

Medieval Period (focused on Religious Values)

The adjective medieval comes from the Latin words medium (middle) and
aevum (age).
1. Saint Augustine, (354-430 AD)(Italian) Christian philosophy;
2. Abu Nase Muhammad Ibn al Farakhan Farabi, (950-951) (Farab now known as
Otrar, Kazakhstan) (Practical/Pragmatic philosophy, Ethic & politics);
3. Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi (972 AD-1058) (Basrah, Iraq) (Islamic jurisprudence;
4. Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, (Iran) (1058-1111) (Islamic jurist,
5. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) (Italian) Christian philosophy;
6. Ibn Khaldum, (1332-1406) (North African) (rise and fall of dynasties).

Modern Period (focused on National Values)

1. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527); Realist [Italian](separation of church & state)
2. Jean Bodin (1530-1596); (theory of sovereignty)French Renaissance philosopher
3. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679); [British] Contractualist (individualism) one of the
first modern Western thinkers to provide a secular justification for the political
4. John Locke (1632-1704); [British] (theory of consent) Contractualist
5. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778); (French) Founder of Modern Democracy,
slogan of liberty, equality, fraternity;
6. Francis Montesquieu ( 1689-1755); [French] Theory of Separation of Powers
7. Jeremy Bentham, (1748-1832); (British) utilitarianism
8. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873); (British) liberty
9. Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831); (German)dialectical philosophy
10. Karl Marx (1818-1883); (German) economic interpretation of historical
11. Vladimir Ilich Lenin ((1870-1924) (Russian)( communism in a state system);
12. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) (Russian) (authoritarianism in communist system);
13. Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976),[China]( arms liberation movement, cultural
14. Allam Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938),[Pakistan];(moral conscience is a nation)

Contemporary Period (focused on International Values)

1. World War I & II
2. League of Nations (LONs)
3. United Nations Organization (UNO)
4. Cold War Period (bi-polar world)
5. Post Cold War Period ( uni-polar world)
6. Globalization, New World Order etc
7. 9/11 incident, Pre-emption doctrine, unilateralism etc