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Unit 1 Test Psychology

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is called
a. basic science. c. clinical psychology.
b. applied science. d. educational psychology.
____ 2. A complex explanation based on findings from many studies is a(n)
a. hypothesis. c. applied science.
b. basic science. d. theory.
____ . A hypothesis
a. is an educated guess. c. is part of the scientific method.
b. has to be scientifically tested. d. includes all of the abo!e.
____ ". #sychologists who use psychological principles to sol!e immediate problems are practicing
a. basic science. c. psychiatry.
b. applied science. d. beha!iorism.
____ $. #articipants in an experiment who are exposed to the independent !ariable are called the ____ group.
a. control c. !ariable
b. experimental d. single%blind
____ &. The most commonly used measure of central tendency is the
a. mean. c. mode.
b. median. d. standard de!iation.
____ '. (hen neither the participants nor the experimenter knows which group of participants is the experimental
one) the study is known as a
a. placebo study. c. single%blind study.
b. longitudinal study. d. double%blind study.
____ *. +n ____ studies) psychologists study the same group of participants at regular inter!als o!er a period of years.
a. biased c. cross%sectional
b. sur!ey d. longitudinal
____ ,. The !ariable that experimenters manipulate is called the ____ !ariable.
a. independent c. hypothetical
b. inter!ening d. dependent
____ 1-. A measure of the degree of relatedness between two !ariables is
a. !ariability. c. standard de!iation.
b. correlation. d. prediction.
____ 11. (hen researchers unwittingly bring about the situation they expected to find) they ha!e created a
a. self%fulfilling prophecy. c. single%blind study.
b. placebo effect. d. statistically significant set of data.
Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
12. ____________________ is associated with psychoanalysis.
1. .nderstanding psychology can pro!ide useful ____________________ into beha!ior.
1". /ome thinkers populari0ed ____________________) the idea that the mind and body are separate and
distinct.
1$. ____________________ based his theory of inheritable traits on biographies.
1&. ____________________ psychologists deal with topics related to teaching children and young adults.
1'. ____________________ is the acknowledged founder of psychology as a separate field of study.
1*. ____________________ identified conditioned reflexes.
1,. A(n) ____________________ psychologist studies the effects of o!ercrowding on humans.
2-. A goal of psychologists is to ____________________ beha!ior using accumulated knowledge about the ways
humans act in !arious situations.
21. #sychologists who studied the function of consciousness became known as ____________________.
22. 1orensic psychology applies psychological principles to the ____________________ system.
2. ____________________ science is the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake.
2". ____________________ established the first psychology laboratory.
2$. The concept of unconscious moti!ation was at the heart of the studies by ____________________.
2&. A person may beha!e in certain ways because of his or her ____________________) or mental) state.
2'. ____________________ psychologists such as 2ollo 3ay describe human nature as acti!e or creati!e.
2*. ____________________ explored how humans and animals adapt to their en!ironment.
2,. #sychology pro!ides insights into both animal and human ____________________.
-. 4o matter what area of psychology is being studied or what approaches are taken) all psychologists agree that
their work must be ____________________.
1. A researcher5s opinion about the results of a study is stated as a(n) ____________________.
2. The scientific method consists of the steps shown in 1igure 1%1. The last step is ____________________.
Figure 1-1
. The procedure of ____________________ led the way to the de!elopment and use of the scientific method in
psychology.
". ____________________ is considered the 6father of psychology7 in the .nited /tates.
$. ____________________ was among the group of 8estalt psychologists that argued that perception is more
than the sum of its parts.
&. To learn more about primiti!e unconscious urges) /igmund 1reud used ____________________) which is an
extension of free association.
'. +n a ____________________ study) a psychologist organi0es indi!iduals into groups based on age.
*. 4umbers that describe something about the a!erage score are called measures of ____________________.
,. 9stablishing a correlation is useful because it enables scientists to make relati!ely accurate
____________________.
"-. An experiment enables the experimenter to ____________________ the situation and to eliminate the
possibility that unnoticed outside factors will influence the results.
"1. The participants who are treated in the same way as the experimental group) except that the experimental
treatment is not applied) are called the ____________________.
"2. To determine whether the data support a hypothesis or the results are due to chance) researchers use
_________________________.
". A(n) ____________________ is a relati!ely small group out of the total population under study.
"". The branch of mathematics that allows researchers to organi0e and e!aluate data is called
____________________.
"$. A coefficient with a plus sign indicates a(n) ____________________ correlation.
"&. +n ____________________ studies) the psychologist studies the same group of participants at regular
inter!als o!er a period of years.
"'. 2esearchers need to know if the results of their experiments are statistically significant or are due to
____________________.
"*. :bser!ing how humans and animals beha!e without interfering is known as _________________________.
Matching
Match each term with the correct item below.
a. correlation i. correlation coefficient
b. control group ;. descripti!e statistics
c. fre<uency distribution k. experimental group
d. inferential statistics l. median
e. population m. normal cur!e
f. random sample n. standard de!iation
g. scatterplot o. sur!ey
h. stratified sample
____ ",. the total group from which a sample is drawn
____ $-. arranging data so you know how often a score occurs
____ $1. graph that demonstrates the direction of the relationship between two !ariables
____ $2. e<ual chance of being represented
____ $. representati!e of !arious subgroups of the population
____ $". the relationship between two sets of data
____ $$. a statistic that describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of data
____ $&. a symmetrical bell%shaped cur!e
____ $'. the listing and summari0ing of data in a practical way
____ $*. sampling of data obtained through inter!iews and <uestionnaires
____ $,. a measure of !ariability that describes an a!erage distance of e!ery score from the mean of the scores
____ &-. a group of participants to whom an independent !ariable is applied
Unit 1 Test Psychology
Answer Section
MULTIPLE C!ICE
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2. A4/= > >+1= A
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*. A4/= > >+1= A
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1-. A4/= ? >+1= @
11. A4/= A >+1= A
C!MPLETI!"
12. A4/= /igmund 1reud
>+1= 9
1. A4/= insights
>+1= A
1". A4/= dualism
>+1= A
1$. A4/= /ir 1rancis 8alton
>+1= A
1&. A4/= 9ducational
>+1= 9
1'. A4/= (ilhelm (undt
>+1= @
1*. A4/= +!an #a!lo!
>+1= A
1,. A4/= en!ironmental
>+1= 9
2-. A4/= predict
>+1= A
21. A4/= functionalists
>+1= A
22. A4/= legal
>+1= A
2. A4/= ?asic
>+1= 9
2". A4/= (ilhelm (undt
>+1= A
2$. A4/= /igmund 1reud
>+1= A
2&. A4/= cogniti!e
>+1= A
2'. A4/= Aumanistic
>+1= @
2*. A4/= ?eha!iorists
>+1= A
2,. A4/= beha!ior
>+1= 9
-. A4/= systematic
>+1= @
1. A4/= hypothesis
>+1= A
2. A4/= theory
>+1= A
. A4/= introspection
>+1= @
". A4/= (illiam Bames
>+1= A
$. A4/= 3ax (ertheimer
>+1= @
&. A4/= dream analysis
>+1= A
'. A4/= cross%sectional
>+1= A
*. A4/= central tendency
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,. A4/= predictions
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"-. A4/= control
>+1= A
"1. A4/= control group
>+1= A
"2. A4/= inferential statistics
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". A4/= sample
>+1= A
"". A4/= statistics
>+1= 9
"$. A4/= positi!e
>+1= 9
"&. A4/= longitudinal
>+1= A
"'. A4/= chance
>+1= A
"*. A4/= naturalistic obser!ation
>+1= 9
MATCI"#
",. A4/= 9 >+1= A
$-. A4/= @ >+1= @
$1. A4/= 8 >+1= A
$2. A4/= 1 >+1= A
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$". A4/= A >+1= A
$$. A4/= + >+1= @
$&. A4/= 3 >+1= 9
$'. A4/= B >+1= A
$*. A4/= : >+1= 9
$,. A4/= 4 >+1= @
&-. A4/= A >+1= A