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REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES,

vs.
COURT OF APPEALS and RORIDEL OLAVIANO MOLINA, respondents.
G.R. No. 108763 February 13, 1997
PANGANIBAN, J.:
NATURE Petition for reie! on "ertiorari un#er Ru$e %& "'a$$en(in( t'e #e"i)ion of t'e *A affir+in( t'e
#e"i)ion of t'e R,* !'i"' #e"$are# t'e +arria(e of Rori#e$ -$aiano .o$ina to Reyna$#o .o$ina oi# ab
initio, on t'e (roun# of /0)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity/
DOCTRINE ,o nu$$ify a +arria(e ba)e# on 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity, #iffi"u$ty or ne($e"t in t'e
0erfor+an"e of +arita$ ob$i(ation) i) not )uffi"ient. It i) e))entia$ t'at bot' 0artie) are in"a0ab$e of
+eetin( t'eir re)0on)ibi$itie) an# #utie) a) +arrie# 0er)on) #ue to )o+e 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ 1not 0'y)i"ia$2
i$$ne)). P)y"'o$o(i"a$ In"a0a"ity +u)t e3i)t at t'e ti+e of "e$ebration +arria(e an# it )'ou$# be in"urab$e
an# 0er+anent. P)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity +u)t be "'ara"teri4e# by 1a2 (raity, 1b2 5uri#i"a$ ante"e#en"e,
an# 1"2 in"urabi$ity. 6 7ee (ui#e$ine) +a#e by t'e ben"' an# t'e bar
FACTS
1. Rori#e$ .o$ina fi$e# ver!"!ed pet!t!on "or de#$arat!on o" n%$$!t& of 'er +arria(e to Reyna$#o
.o$ina.
8. Rori#e$ a$$e(e# t'at after a year of +arria(e, Reyna$#o )'o!e# )i(n) of /i++aturity an#
irre)0on)ibi$ity/ a) a 'u)ban# an# a fat'er )in"e 'e 0referre# to )0en# +ore ti+e !it' 'i) frien#)
on !'o+ 'e )9uan#ere# 'i) +oney: t'at 'e #e0en#e# on 'i) 0arent) for a))i)tan"e, an# !a)
neer 'one)t !it' 'i) !ife in re(ar# to t'eir finan"e), re)u$tin( in fre9uent 9uarre$) bet!een t'e+:
t'at Reyna$#o !a) re$iee# of 'i) 5ob in .ani$a, an# )in"e t'en Rori#e$ 'a# been t'e )o$e
brea#!inner of t'e fa+i$y:
3. 7'e a$)o a$$e(e# t'at t'e "ou0$e 'a# a ery inten)e 9uarre$, a) a re)u$t of !'i"' t'eir re$ation)'i0
!a) e)tran(e#: t'at 1987, Rori#e$ re)i(ne# fro+ 'er 5ob in .ani$a an# !ent to $ie !it' 'er
0arent) in Ba(uio *ity: t'at a fe! !ee;) $ater, Reyna$#o $eft Rori#e$ an# t'eir )on, an# 'a# )in"e
t'en aban#one# t'e+: t'at Reyna$#o 'a# t'u) )'o!n t'at 'e !a) 0)y"'o$o(i"a$$y in"a0ab$e of
"o+0$yin( !it' e))entia$ +arita$ ob$i(ation) an# !a) a 'i('$y i++ature an# 'abitua$$y 9uarre$
)o+e in#ii#ua$ !'o t'ou('t of 'i+)e$f a) a ;in( to be )ere#: an# t'at it !ou$# be to t'e "ou0$e<)
be)t intere)t to 'ae t'eir +arria(e #e"$are# nu$$ an# oi# in or#er to free t'e+ fro+ !'at
a00eare# to be an in"o+0atib$e +arria(e fro+ t'e )tart.
%. Rori#e$ 0re)ente#, a+on( ot'er), =r. ,ere)ita >i#a$(o?7i)on, a 0)y"'iatri)t of t'e Ba(uio Genera$
>o)0ita$ an# .e#i"a$ *enter.
&. RTC oi#
6. CA affir+e# be"au)e:
a. Partie) 'ae o00o)in( an# "onf$i"tin( 0er)ona$itie)
7. SC Ru$e %&
a. Reyna$#o a$$e(e) @o00o)in( 0er)ona$itie)A i) not e9uia$ent to 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity
ISSUE BCN Reyna$#o i) 0)y"'o$o(i"a$$y in"a0ab$e of "o+0$yin( !it' 'i) e))entia$ +arita$ ob$i(ation)
+a;in( t'eir +arria(e oi# un#er Art. 36
HELD N-. *A erroneou)$y a00$ie# Art. 36.
RULIN'
In Deoue$ 7anto) ). *ourt of A00ea$), 7* ru$e# t'at /ps&#(o$o)!#a$ !n#apa#!t& s(o%$d re"er to no $ess
t(an a *enta$ +nor p(&s!#a$, !n#apa#!t& an# t'at t'ere i) 'ar#$y any #oubt t'at t'e inten#+ent of t'e
$a! 'a) been to "onfine t'e +eanin( of <0)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity< to t'e +o)t )eriou) "a)e) of 0er)ona$ity
#i)or#er) "$ear$y #e+on)tratie of an utter in)en)itiity or inabi$ity to (ie +eanin( an# )i(nifi"an"e to t'e
+arria(e. T(!s ps&#(o$o)!# #ond!t!on *%st e-!st at t(e t!*e t(e *arr!a)e !s #e$e.rated./ *itin( =r.
Gerar#o Ee$o)o, a for+er 0re)i#in( 5u#(e of t'e .etro0o$itan .arria(e ,ribuna$ of t'e *at'o$i"
Ar"'#io"e)e of .ani$a, Ju)ti"e Eitu( !rote t'at /t'e ps&#(o$o)!#a$ !n#apa#!t& *%st .e #(ara#ter!/ed
.& +a, )rav!t&, +., 0%r!d!#a$ ante#eden#e, and +#, !n#%ra.!$!t&.1
-n t'e ot'er 'an#, in t'e 0re)ent "a)e, t'ere i) no "$ear )'o!in( to u) t'at t'e 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ #efe"t
)0o;en of i) an in"a0a"ity. It a00ear) to u) to be *ore o" a 1d!""!#%$t&,1 !" not o%tr!)(t 1re"%sa$1 or
1ne)$e#t1 !n t(e per"or*an#e o" so*e *ar!ta$ o.$!)at!ons. .ere )'o!in( of /irre"on"i$iab$e
#ifferen"e)/ an# /"onf$i"tin( 0er)ona$itie)/ in no !i)e "on)titute) 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity. It i) not enou('
to 0roe t'at t'e 0artie) fai$e# to +eet t'eir re)0on)ibi$itie) an# #utie) a) +arrie# 0er)on): !t !s essent!a$
t(at t(e& *%st .e s(o2n to .e !n#apa.$e o" do!n) so, d%e to so*e ps&#(o$o)!#a$ +nor p(&s!#a$,
!$$ness.
,'e ei#en"e a##u"e# by re)0on#ent +ere$y )'o!e# t'at )'e an# 'er 'u)ban# "ou$# nor (et a$on( !it'
ea"' ot'er. ,'ere 'a# been no )'o!in( of t'e (raity of t'e 0rob$e+: neit'er it) 5uri#i"a$ ante"e#en"e nor
it) in"urabi$ity. T(e e-pert test!*on& o" Dr. S!son s(o2ed no !n#%ra.$e ps&#(!atr!# d!sorder .%t on$&
!n#o*pat!.!$!t&, not ps&#(o$o)!#a$ !n#apa#!t&.
F I) it a$)o t'e )tan# of t'e 0)y"'iatri)t t'at t'e 0artie) are 0)y"'o$o(i"a$$y unfit for ea"' ot'er but t'ey are 0)y"'o$o(i"a$$y fit
!it' ot'er 0artie)G
A He), Hour >onor.
F Neit'er are t'ey 0)y"'o$o(i"a$$y unfit for t'eir 0rofe))ion)G
A He), Hour >onor.
'%!de$!nes !n t(e !nterpretat!on and app$!#at!on o" Art 34 o" t(e "a*!$& #ode
112 T(e .%rden o" proo" to s(o2 t(e n%$$!t& o" t(e *arr!a)e .e$on)s to t(e p$a!nt!"". Any #oubt
)'ou$# be re)o$e# in faor of t'e e3i)ten"e an# "ontinuation of t'e +arria(e an# a(ain)t it) #i))o$ution
an# nu$$ity.
182 T(e root #a%se o" t(e ps&#(o$o)!#a$ !n#apa#!t& *%st .e +a, *ed!#a$$& or #$!n!#a$$&
!dent!"!ed, +., a$$e)ed !n t(e #o*p$a!nt, +#, s%""!#!ent$& proven .& e-perts and +d, #$ear$& e-p$a!ned
!n t(e de#!s!on. Arti"$e 36 of t'e Fa+i$y *o#e re9uire) t'at t'e in"a0a"ity +u)t be 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ I not
0'y)i"a$. a$t'ou(' it) +anife)tation) an#Cor )y+0to+) +ay be 0'y)i"a$. ,'e ei#en"e +u)t "onin"e t'e
"ourt t'at t'e 0artie), or one of t'e+, !a) +enta$$y or 0'y)i"a$$y i$$ to )u"' an e3tent t'at t'e 0er)on "ou$#
not 'ae ;no!n t'e ob$i(ation) 'e !a) a))u+in(, or ;no!in( t'e+, "ou$# not 'ae (ien a$i#
a))u+0tion t'ereof. J30ert ei#en"e +ay be (ien 9ua$ifie# 0)y"'iatri)t an# "$ini"a$ 0)y"'o$o(i)t).
132 ,'e in"a0a"ity +u)t be 0roen to be e-!st!n) at 1t(e t!*e o" t(e #e$e.rat!on1 o" t(e *arr!a)e.
,'e ei#en"e +u)t )'o! t'at t'e i$$ne)) !a) e3i)tin( !'en t'e 0artie) e3"'an(e# t'eir /I #o<)./ ,'e
+anife)tation of t'e i$$ne)) nee# not be 0er"eiab$e at )u"' ti+e, but t'e i$$ne)) it)e$f +u)t 'ae atta"'e#
at )u"' +o+ent, or 0rior t'ereto.
1%2 7u"' in"a0a"ity +u)t a$)o be )'o!n to be +e#i"a$$y or "$ini"a$$y per*anent or !n#%ra.$e. 7u"'
in"urabi$ity +ay be ab)o$ute or een re$atie on$y in re(ar# to t'e ot'er )0ou)e, not ne"e))ari$y ab)o$ute$y
a(ain)t eeryone of t'e )a+e )e3. Furt'er+ore, )u"' in"a0a"ity +u)t be re$eant to t'e a))u+0tion of
+arria(e ob$i(ation), not ne"e))ari$y to t'o)e not re$ate# to +arria(e, $i;e t'e e3er"i)e of a 0rofe))ion or
e+0$oy+ent in a 5ob.
1&2 S%#( !$$ness *%st .e )rave eno%)( to .r!n) a.o%t t(e d!sa.!$!t& o" t(e part& to ass%*e t(e
essent!a$ o.$!)at!ons o" *arr!a)e. ,'u), /+i$# "'ara"terio$o(i"a$ 0e"u$iaritie), +oo# "'an(e),
o""a)iona$ e+otiona$ outbur)t)/ "annot be a""e0te# a) root "au)e). ,'e i$$ne)) +u)t be )'o!n a)
#o!nri('t in"a0a"ity or inabi$ity, nor a refu)a$, ne($e"t or #iffi"u$ty, +u"' $e)) i$$ !i$$. In ot'er !or#), t'ere
i) a nata$ or )u0erenin( #i)ab$in( fa"tor in t'e 0er)on, an a#er)e inte(ra$ e$e+ent in t'e 0er)ona$ity
)tru"ture t'at effe"tie$y in"a0a"itate) t'e 0er)on fro+ rea$$y a""e0tin( an# t'ereby "o+0$yin( !it' t'e
ob$i(ation) e))entia$ to +arria(e.
162 ,'e e))entia$ +arita$ ob$i(ation) +u)t be t'o)e e+bra"e# by Arti"$e) 68 u0 to 71 of t'e Fa+i$y
*o#e a) re(ar#) t'e 'u)ban# an# !ife a) !e$$ a) Arti"$e) 880, 881 an# 88& of t'e )a+e *o#e in re(ar#
to 0arent) an# t'eir "'i$#ren. 7u"' non?"o+0$ie# +arita$ ob$i(ation) +u)t a$)o be )tate# in t'e 0etition,
0roen by ei#en"e an# in"$u#e# in t'e te3t of t'e #e"i)ion.
172 Interpretat!ons )!ven .& t(e Nat!ona$ Appe$$ate Matr!*on!a$ Tr!.%na$ o" t(e Cat(o$!# C(%r#(
in t'e P'i$i00ine), !'i$e not "ontro$$in( or #e"i)ie, s(o%$d .e )!ven )reat respe#t by our "ourt).
182 ,(e tr!a$ #o%rt *%st order t(e prose#%t!n) attorne& or "!s#a$ and t(e So$!#!tor 'enera$ to
appear as #o%nse$ "or t(e state. No #e"i)ion )'a$$ 'e 'an#e# #o!n un$e)) t'e 7o$i"itor Genera$ i))ue)
a "ertifi"ation, !'i"' !i$$ be 9uote# in t'e #e"i)ion, brief$y )tarin( t'erein 'i) rea)on) for 'i) a(ree+ent or
o00o)ition, a) t'e "a)e +ay be, to t'e 0etition. ,'e 7o$i"itor Genera$, a$on( !it' t'e 0ro)e"utin( attorney,
)'a$$ )ub+it to t'e "ourt )u"' "ertifi"ation !it'in fifteen 11&2 #ay) fro+ t'e #ate t'e "a)e i) #ee+e#
)ub+itte# for re)o$ution of t'e "ourt.
PADILLA, 5., #on#%r!n) op!n!on
I "on"ur in t'e re)u$t of t'e #e"i)ion 0enne# by .r. Ju)ti"e Pan(aniban but on$y be"au)e of t'e 0e"u$iar
fa"t) of t'e "a)e. Ja"' "a)e +u)t be 5u#(e#, not on t'e ba)i) of a 0riori a))u+0tion), 0re#i$e"tion) or
(enera$i4ation) .%t a##ord!n) to !ts o2n "a#ts. ,'e tria$ 5u#(e +u)t ta;e 0ain) in e3a+inin( t'e a"tua$
+i$$ieu an# t'e a00e$$ate "ourt +u)t, a) +u"' a) 0o))ib$e, aoi# )ub)titutin( it) o!n 5u#(+ent for t'at of
t'e tria$ "ourt.
ROMERO, 5., separate op!n!on
I "on"ur t'at t'ere !a) no P)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity. I !ou$# a## t'at neit'er )'ou$# t'e in"a0a"ity be t'e
re)u$t of +enta$ i$$ne)). For if it !ere #ue to in)anity or #efe"t) in t'e +enta$ fa"u$tie) )'ort of in)anity,
t'ere i) a re)u$tant #efe"t of i"e of "on)ent, t'u) ren#erin( t'e +arria(e annu$$ab$e un#er Art. %& of t'e
Fa+i$y *o#e.
,'e ori(ina$ #raft "ontainin( /!antin( in t'e )uffi"ient u)e of rea)on or 5u#(+ent to un#er)tan# t'e
e))entia$ nature or +arria(e/ !a) "'an(e# to /+enta$$y in"a0a"itate#./ ,'e /#efe"t) in t'e +enta$
fa"u$tie) itiatin( "on)entA i) not t'e !dea .%t $a#6 o" appre#!at!on o" one7s *ar!ta$ o.$!)at!on./
Ps&#(o$o)!#a$ !n#apa#!t& does not re"er to *enta$ "a#%$t!es and (as not(!n) to do 2!t( #onsent8 !t
re"ers to o.$!)at!ons attendant to *arr!a)e. .y o!n 0o)ition a) a +e+ber of t'e *o++ittee t'en !a)
t'at 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity i), in a )en)e, in)anity of a $e))er #e(ree.
VITU', 5., #on#%rr!n)
I fu$$y "on"ur !it' +y e)tee+e# <"o$$ea(ue .r. Ju)ti"e Arte+io E. Pan(aniban in 'i) 0onen"ia, an# I fin#
to be +o)t 'e$0fu$ t'e (ui#e$ine) t'at 'e 0re0are# for t'e ben"' an# t'e bar in t'e 0ro0er a00re"iation of
Arti"$e 36 of t'e F*.
In fine, t'e ter+ /0)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity,/ to be a (roun# for t'en nu$$ity of +arria(e un#er Arti"$e 36 of
t'e Fa+i$y *o#e, +u)t be ab$e to 0a)) t'e fo$$o!in( te)t).
Fir)t, t'e in"a0a"ity +u)t be 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ or +enta$, not 0'y)i"a$, in nature:
7e"on#, t'e 0)y"'o$o(i"a$ in"a0a"ity *%st re$ate to t(e !na.!$!t&, not *ere re"%sa$, to un#er)tan#,
a))u+e en# #i)"'ar(e t'e ba)i" +arita$ ob$i(ation) of $iin( to(et'er, ob)erin( $oe, re)0e"t an# fi#e$ity
an# ren#erin( +utua$ 'e$0 an# )u00ort:
,'ir#, t'e 0)y"'o$o(i" "on#ition *%st e-!st at t(e t!*e t(e *arr!a)e i) "ontra"te# a$t'ou(' it) oert
+anife)tation) an# t'e +arria(e +ay o""ur on$y t'ereafter: an#
Fourt', t'e +enta$ #i)or#er +u)t be )rave or ser!o%s an# in"urab$e

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